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4DOS Introduction and Installation Guide

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                                     Version 5.51

                          Introduction and Installation Guide

                                      Developed By
                                Rex Conn and Tom Rawson

                                    Documentation By
                       Hardin Brothers, Tom Rawson, and Rex Conn

                                      Published By

                                    JP Software Inc.
                                     P.O. Box 1470
                                East Arlington, MA 02174

                                     (617) 646-3975
                                   fax (617) 646-0904�


             We couldn't produce a product like 4DOS without the dedication
             and quality work of many people.  Our thanks to:

                  JP Software Staff:  Christine Alves, Mike Bessy, Michael
                  Hart, Ellen Stone, Misty White.

                  Online Support:  Brian Miller and Tess Heder of Channel 1
                  BBS; Don Watkins of CompuServe's IBMNET.

                  Beta Test Support:  The sysops of CompuServe's CONSULT

                  Beta Testers:  We can't list all of our beta testers
                  here!  A special thanks to all of you who helped make
                  4DOS elegant, reliable, and friendly.

             The following tools are used in creating and maintaining 4DOS:

                  Compilers:       Microsoft C, Microsoft Macro Assembler,
                                   Borland Turbo Pascal
                  Libraries:       Spontaneous Assembly (Base Two
                                   Development), Turbo Professional (Turbo
                                   Power Software)
                  Editors:         Edix (Emerging Technology), Brief
                                   (Solution Systems)
                  Debuggers:       Periscope (The Periscope Company), Soft-
                                   ICE (Nu-Mega Technologies)
                  Version Control: PVCS (Sage Software)
                  Documentation:   Microsoft Word for Windows with Adobe
                                   Type Manager

             Cover Design:  Gordon Design, Medford, MA.
             Printing:  Goodway Graphics, Burlington, MA.

             Copyright 1993 - 1995, JP Software Inc., All Rights Reserved.
             4DOS is a registered trademark and 4OS2, JP Software, and the
             JP Software logo and product logos are trademarks of JP
             Software Inc.  Other product and company names are trademarks
             of their respective owners.



            How to Use This Manual.................................2
            Customer Service and Technical Support.................3

        Chapter 1 / Installation...................................4
            Preparing for Installation Under DOS...................4
            Preparing for Installation Under OS/2..................5
            Automated Installation.................................6
            Manual Installation....................................7
            Uninstalling 4DOS......................................8

        Chapter 2 / Configuration.................................10
            Configuration Files...................................10
            Setting Up CONFIG.SYS.................................11
                4DOS and Multiple-Configuration Utilities.........14
                4DOS and DOS 2....................................14
            Startup Options for Secondary Shells..................15
            Using AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4START, and 4EXIT.................16
            COMSPEC and the COMSPEC Path..........................17
            4DOS Swapping Methods.................................17
            4DOS Help.............................................19
                Configuring the Help System.......................21

        Chapter 3 / 4DOS and Your Hardware and Software...........23
            The CPU...............................................23
                Upper Memory Blocks (UMBs)........................27
            Hard Drives and Floppy Disks..........................30
            4DOS and DOS..........................................32
                Menus and SET Commands in CONFIG.SYS..............32
                Novell DOS / DR DOS...............................32
            Using 4DOS with Task Switchers and Multitaskers.......34
                Creating a 4DOS Window............................35
                Parameters for 4DOS Windows.......................35
                Multitasking and KEYSTACK.........................36
                Multitasking and Disk Swapping....................37
            4DOS and Microsoft Windows 3.x........................37
            4DOS and Microsoft Windows 95.........................39
                Windows 95 Boot Sequence..........................39
                Installing 4DOS as the Primary Shell Under Win95..40
                Starting 4DOS From The Windows 95 GUI.............41
                Using Long File Names with 4DOS...................42
                Installing the KSTACK Program.....................43
            Using 4DOS on a Network...............................44
                4DOS and Novell Netware...........................45

        Copr. 1995 JP Software Inc.    4DOS Intro. & Installation Guide / i�

        Chapter 4 / Using 4DOS Under OS/2.........................47
            OS/2 Version 1.x......................................48
            OS/2 Version 2.x and OS/2 Warp........................48
                Settings for DOS Sessions.........................49
                Configuring DOS Sessions for 4DOS.................50
                AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4START, and 4EXIT...................53
            Configuring 4DOS for Dual Boot and Boot Manager.......54
                4DOS.INI, 4START, and 4EXIT.......................56

        Appendix A / Solving Software Compatibility Problems......58
            Path Length...........................................59
            Environment Size......................................59
            Testing for Interactions..............................60
            Memory Allocation Conflicts...........................62
                Memory Allocation and Microsoft Windows...........63
            Advanced Configuration Options........................64

        Appendix B / Technical Information........................65
            Detecting 4DOS........................................65
            Placing Keystrokes Into the Keystack..................66
            Writing Installable Commands..........................67
            Using DESCRIPT.ION....................................68
            Interrupt 2E..........................................69


        Copr. 1995 JP Software Inc.   4DOS Intro. & Installation Guide / ii�


        Welcome, and thanks for purchasing 4DOS!

        We started developing 4DOS when we realized that our computers
        could be a lot more powerful and a lot more helpful than they were.
        Whether you are a computer novice or an experienced power user, we
        think that 4DOS will help you get the most out of your IBM PC or
        compatible computer.

        Technically, 4DOS is a command interpreter or "DOS Shell."  That
        means that it reacts to the commands you type at the C:\> prompt.
        We've designed 4DOS so that you don't have to change your computing
        habits or unlearn anything to use it.  If you know how to display a
        directory, copy a file, or start an application program, you
        already know how to use 4DOS.  4DOS understands all of the commands
        you know and adds to them.  Its purpose is to make DOS friendlier,
        easier to use, and much more powerful and versatile, without
        requiring you to use or learn a new program, a new set of commands,
        or a new style of work.

        You can use 4DOS with all versions of MS-DOS and PC-DOS from 2.0
        through 6.2 and above.  You can also use it with all versions of
        Novell DOS and DR DOS (an older name for the same product) from 3.4
        through 7.0 and above, and in DOS sessions started under OS/2 1.x,
        2.x, OS/2 Warp, and Windows 3.0 or 3.1.

        Once you have 4DOS installed, you can learn its new features at
        your own pace.  It has more than 50 new commands and hundreds of
        enhanced features, but you don't have to learn them all at once.
        Relax, enjoy 4DOS's power, and browse through the manual
        occasionally.  Press the F1 key whenever you need help.  4DOS will
        soon become an essential part of your computer, and you'll wonder
        how you ever got along without it.

        If you want to take 4DOS for a spin without performing a complete
        installation, see the separate Guided Tour documentation.

        We are constantly working to improve 4DOS.  If you have suggestions
        for features or commands that you think we should include in the
        next version, or any other way we could improve our product, please
        let us know.  Many of the improvements in this version of 4DOS were
        suggested by our users, and while we can't promise to include every
        suggested feature, we really do appreciate and consider your

        If you use OS/2 or Windows NT, JP Software offers 4OS2, a
        replacement for the OS/2 command processor, and 4DOS for Windows
        NT, which is a replacement for the Windows NT command processor.

        Copr. 1995 JP Software Inc.    4DOS Intro. & Installation Guide / 1�

        These products provide most of the same commands and features
        available in 4DOS, plus several additional commands and new
        features for OS/2 and Windows NT.  You can use these products to
        maintain a common working environment and run the same batch files
        under DOS, OS/2, and Windows NT.  4OS2 and 4DOS for Windows NT are
        available at a discounted price for 4DOS users.  Contact JP
        Software or your dealer for more information.

        How to Use This Manual

             This manual is only one part of the documentation that you
             will need for 4DOS.  It introduces the product and will help
             you install 4DOS correctly on your computer.  It will also
             help you understand some of the terms and concepts that you
             will need to know to get the most from 4DOS, and give you
             specific information on using 4DOS in your particular
             environment (for example under DOS, Windows, or OS/2).

             The second part of our documentation is the separate Reference
             Manual.  It contains complete information about the commands
             and features of 4DOS, plus its sister programs, 4OS2 and 4DOS
             for Windows NT.

             You should start with this introductory manual whether you are
             new to 4DOS or you are upgrading from a previous version.
             Once you have successfully installed 4DOS, you can move back
             and forth between this manual and the Reference Manual.

             For the sake of clarity, we have chosen not to indicate each
             of the hundreds of places in this manual where you can refer
             to the Reference Manual for additional information.  If you
             see a reference here to a 4DOS command, the initialization
             file 4DOS.INI, or any 4DOS feature, you can be sure that
             detailed information on that topic is available in the
             Reference Manual.  In particular, this manual often refers to
             directives in 4DOS.INI, which are covered in detail in Chapter
             5 of the Reference Manual.

             4DOS also includes complete online help for all 4DOS and
             standard DOS commands.  The online help provides much of the
             same information that is available in the Reference Manual,
             but in an electronic form which you can access quickly.  See
             page 19 for more details on using the online help.

             Files distributed with 4DOS cover important additional
             information beyond what's included in the manuals.  README.DOC
             contains general notes, highlights of the latest release, and
             brief installation instructions for those upgrading from a
             downloaded copy.  MANMOD.DOC covers changes or corrections in
             the manuals, if any, and UPDATxxx.DOC contains detailed

        Copr. 1995 JP Software Inc.    4DOS Intro. & Installation Guide / 2�

             information for users with older versions on what has changed
             in the latest release ("xxx" is the version number).
             APPNOTES.DOC contains application notes for a variety of other
             software packages to help you use those packages with 4DOS.

             You will likely find some parts of the documentation too
             simple or too technical for your tastes.  If so, feel free to
             skip to the next part of the manual that is more to your
             liking.  You can use almost every feature of 4DOS without
             having to worry about other features or commands.

             As you read the documentation, you will occasionally see an
             exclamation point [!] next to a paragraph.  The exclamation
             point means that that paragraph contains a caution or warning
             you should observe when using the feature it discusses.

             You will also see the symbol ## next to certain paragraphs.
             This indicates an in-depth discussion or a more advanced topic
             which you can skip if you wish to stick with the basics.  Come
             back to this topic later for more details, or if you're having
             trouble with the particular issue it discusses.  If you see
             the ## next to a section heading, it means the entire section
             contains such information.

             You may find the information in such marked sections useful
             even if you're relatively new to computers or to our products.
             However, you can also skip the marked section and still
             understand and use the basic topic of the larger section
             you're reading.

        Customer Service and Technical Support

             Technical support for 4DOS is available via public electronic
             support conferences, private electronic mail, telephone, fax,
             and mail.  For complete details, including a listing of
             electronic support conferences, see your Reference Manual.

             Customer service is always available through the telephone and
             fax numbers listed on the title page of this manual.  See your
             Reference manual for electronic mail addresses for our Sales
             and Customer Service departments.

        Copr. 1995 JP Software Inc.    4DOS Intro. & Installation Guide / 3�
                                                   CHAPTER 1 / INSTALLATION


        You can install your copy of 4DOS automatically or manually.

        If you prefer an automated installation, our installation software
        will set up 4DOS for you quickly and with very little intervention
        on your part, other than answering the questions on your screen.

        If you prefer to install 4DOS yourself, you'll need to use the
        installation software to copy the 4DOS files to your disk.  You can
        then modify your system manually as explained below.

        If you're installing a downloaded update to 4DOS, see the
        instructions under Manual Installation on page 7 .

        (If you're using DOS 2.x, you must use manual installation.  The
        automated installation software cannot modify CONFIG.SYS for you
        under DOS 2.  See page 14 for additional details.)

        No matter which method you choose, you'll find that 4DOS's
        installation software is very well-behaved.  It won't modify or
        erase any existing files, including CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT,
        without asking you, and it takes a very straightforward, step by
        step approach.

        The installation software always prompts you for the directory to
        use for your 4DOS files, and will create a new directory if
        necessary.  If you are upgrading from a previous version of 4DOS,
        use a new directory for the new version, rather than overwriting
        your existing files.  Transfer any necessary configuration files
        from the old directory (e.g. 4DOS.INI, 4START, etc.), then remove
        the old directory once the new version is up and running.

        Preparing for Installation Under DOS

             If you're running DOS (or DOS plus Windows), you should make a
             bootable system diskette before you install 4DOS (or any other
             software, for that matter).  This allows you to recover in
             case of a power failure or other interruption during the
             installation process.

             To make the bootable floppy disk, put a fresh diskette in
             drive A and then type:

                  format a: /s

        Copr. 1995 JP Software Inc.    4DOS Intro. & Installation Guide / 4�
                                                   CHAPTER 1 / INSTALLATION

             The FORMAT command will take a few minutes to prepare the
             floppy diskette, and will then copy your system files to drive

             Once the process is complete, you should test your bootable
             floppy by leaving it in drive A and simultaneously pressing
             the Ctrl, Alt, and Del keys to make sure your system will boot
             up properly.  Once you can boot from a floppy disk and access
             the configuration files on your hard disk, put the floppy away
             in a safe place and reboot your computer normally.

             If you use compression software on your hard disk, you may not
             be able to access the hard disk from a bootable floppy unless
             you copy the appropriate device drivers and other software,
             plus a version of your CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files, to
             the floppy disk.  See your compression software documentation
             for details about creating a bootable floppy disk.

        Preparing for Installation Under OS/2

             If you are running OS/2, a bootable floppy disk is not
             required.  To begin the installation simply start a DOS
             command line session and follow the automated or manual
             installation instructions below.

             If you also have our OS/2 command processor, 4OS2, do not
             install 4DOS in the same directory as 4OS2.  Some file names
             (for example README.DOC) are the same in both products, and
             the files should be kept separate to avoid confusion later.

             If you use OS/2's Dual Boot or Boot Manager facilities to
             switch between DOS and OS/2, your system has two sets of
             CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files:  one for DOS and one for
             OS/2.  In most cases, you'll want to modify both sets, so that
             4DOS is available in both environments.  If you use automated
             installation, the installation software modifies only one set:
             the one for the operating system you are running at the time
             of installation.

             After installation, you can modify either set of configuration
             files manually using the instructions under Manual
             Installation on page 7.  If you use Boot Manager, you can
             instead restart the installation software and select the
             "Modify Startup Files" option on the main menu to modify the
             second set of startup files.  If you use this approach, be
             sure to tell the installation software the proper boot drive
             for the set of configuration files you wish to modify.

             See Chapter 4 on page 47 for more details on using 4DOS with

        Copr. 1995 JP Software Inc.    4DOS Intro. & Installation Guide / 5�
                                                   CHAPTER 1 / INSTALLATION

        Automated Installation

             To begin the automated installation process, put the
             distribution diskette into drive A.  You can use drive B if
             you prefer, in which case you should substitute "b" for "a" in
             the instructions below.

             One of the files on the distribution diskette, README.1ST,
             contains information that you should read before you install
             4DOS on your computer.  Type:

                  type a:readme.1st | more

             to view the file.  If you want to print a copy of the file,

                  copy a:readme.1st prn

             After checking README.1ST, you can start the installation
             process.  Type:


             and press the Enter key.

             Once the installation program has started, just follow the
             instructions on the screen and 4DOS will install itself on
             your system.

             The installation program will ask whether you want to perform
             a complete installation, perform a partial installation in
             order to run the Guided Tour, or retrieve individual files
             from the 4DOS library.  Choose a full installation to install
             4DOS on your system, and modify CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT
             (you will be prompted for permission before these files are
             modified).  Choose the Tour option if you want to see what
             4DOS can do before you install it permanently.

             If you elect to perform a full installation, reboot your
             computer when the installation program is done.  You will then
             have all the power of 4DOS available to you.

         ##  If you use a utility which allows multiple configurations in
             your DOS CONFIG.SYS file, the automatic installation software
             may not be able to modify CONFIG.SYS for you, even if you give
             it permission to do so.  In this case you will see a message
             explaining the problem during installation, and you will need
             to follow the Manual Installation instructions below to modify
             CONFIG.SYS yourself.  See page 14 for additional notes about
             using 4DOS with these utilities.

        Copr. 1995 JP Software Inc.    4DOS Intro. & Installation Guide / 6�
                                                   CHAPTER 1 / INSTALLATION

             You can halt the installation process at any time by pressing
             Ctrl-X (hold down the Ctrl key and then press "X").

        ##  Manual Installation

             The 4DOS files are contained in a special library file on the
             distribution diskette.  You cannot simply copy files from the
             diskette onto your system.  You must use the installation
             program to extract the 4DOS files if you want to perform a
             manual installation, or if you need to replace a damaged 4DOS
             file on your hard disk.

             If you want to install 4DOS manually, first start the
             automatic installation program using the instructions above.
             Select the Extract all files option and extract the 4DOS files
             onto your hard disk (be sure to place the files in their own

             If you are installing 4DOS on floppy disks, you may not be
             able to use the Extract all files option because the files may
             not fit on a single diskette.  Select Copy individual files
             instead, and repeat the process two or more times to copy the
             files to separate diskettes.  If possible, you should copy
             4DOS.COM, KSTACK.COM, 4HELP.EXE, and 4DOS.HLP to a single
             diskette, because these are the files required to operate 4DOS
             with all of its features.  If these files do not fit on one
             diskette, copy 4DOS.COM and KSTACK.COM to one disk and
             4HELP.EXE and 4DOS.HLP to another.

             If you're installing a downloaded update to 4DOS, you will not
             have an INSTALL program.  Instead, use the appropriate
             decompression program (for example, PKUNZIP) to extract the
             files from your download into a new directory.  Then follow
             the instructions below to complete your installation.  Be sure
             to check the README.DOC file for any additional update

             Once you've extracted the files, you can go through the Guided
             Tour if you want to try 4DOS before completing the
             installation (see the separate Guided Tour documentation).

             When you're ready to finish the installation process, all you
             need to do is add one line to your DOS or OS/2 CONFIG.SYS file
             (before modifying the DOS CONFIG.SYS file, be sure you have a
             bootable floppy disk as discussed on page 4):

                  SHELL=d:\path\4DOS.COM d:\path /P

             "d:\path" means the drive and directory where your 4DOS files
             are stored.  The second "d:\path" on the SHELL= line sets the

        Copr. 1995 JP Software Inc.    4DOS Intro. & Installation Guide / 7�
                                                   CHAPTER 1 / INSTALLATION

             COMSPEC path (see page 17) and can be left out if 4DOS.COM is
             in the root directory of your boot drive.  Be sure to delete
             or REMark out any old SHELL= line for COMMAND.COM after you
             add the new SHELL= line for 4DOS.  Once you have 4DOS up and
             running, see page 11 for additional options you can use on the
             SHELL= line.

             If you are running 4DOS under OS/2, change CONFIG.SYS as
             described above.  Once you reboot, 4DOS will be used
             automatically for all newly-created DOS objects on your
             desktop, and for all DOS objects which use the default
             DOS_SHELL settings.  See page 47 for more details on
             configuring OS/2 DOS sessions to use 4DOS.

             Next, add the following line to your AUTOEXEC.BAT file:


             where "d:\path" is the drive and directory where your 4DOS
             files are stored.  The same line can be used for DOS and for
             OS/2 DOS sessions.

             When you've finished modifying CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT,
             reboot your system to start 4DOS.  For additional details on
             setting up the SHELL= line and AUTOEXEC.BAT, see Chapter 2 /
             Configuration (page 10).  See your Reference Manual for
             information on the 4DOS.INI file, which controls 4DOS

         ##  If you use a utility which allows multiple configurations in
             your DOS CONFIG.SYS file, see page 14 for additional notes on
             configuring 4DOS properly on your system.

        ##  Uninstalling 4DOS            

             We don't expect you to have any trouble using 4DOS, but we
             know some people feel more comfortable knowing how to
             uninstall a product as well as install it.  Or, you may need
             to remove 4DOS from one system if you are moving it to another

             To temporarily remove 4DOS from your system, first find the
             location of COMMAND.COM on your disk (for example, in the root
             directory, or the DOS directory).  Use your editor to edit
             CONFIG.SYS (before modifying the DOS CONFIG.SYS file be sure
             you have a bootable floppy disk as discussed on page 4).

             Look for the line which begins with SHELL=, and insert the
             characters "REM " at the beginning of the line.  This converts
             the line into a "remark" or comment.  (If you are using DOS 3

        Copr. 1995 JP Software Inc.    4DOS Intro. & Installation Guide / 8�
                                                   CHAPTER 1 / INSTALLATION

             or below, REMarks are not recognized in CONFIG.SYS, so the
             changed lines will produce a harmless "Unrecognized command"
             error when the system boots.)  Next, add a new line like this:

                  SHELL=d:\path\COMMAND.COM /P

             where "d:\path" is the drive and directory for COMMAND.COM.
             If you were previously running COMMAND.COM with a /E:nnnn
             switch to set the size of your environment, you should add it
             to this line as well.

             After CONFIG.SYS has been modified, edit your AUTOEXEC.BAT
             file to remove any changes made to accommodate 4DOS.  Look for
             a command beginning SET COMSPEC= and another which loads the
             4DOS file KSTACK.COM.  The SET COMSPEC command will not be
             present on most systems.  If it's there, change it to read:

                  SET COMSPEC=d:\path\COMMAND.COM

             where "d:\path" is replaced by the correct drive and directory
             for COMMAND.COM.  Then add "REM " in front of  the KSTACK.COM
             command to convert it to a comment.

             If you wish, you can also look for the PATH command, and
             remove the 4DOS directory from the directories listed there.
             However, there's probably no reason to do so unless you're
             permanently removing 4DOS from your system.

             Now reboot your system, and you should be back up and running
             under COMMAND.COM.  To switch back to 4DOS, edit your
             CONFIG.SYS file again to remove the REMs on your 4DOS lines
             and put one on your COMMAND.COM line instead, remove any SET
             COMSPEC command in AUTOEXEC.BAT, and you can boot with 4DOS

        Copr. 1995 JP Software Inc.    4DOS Intro. & Installation Guide / 9�
                                                  CHAPTER 2 / CONFIGURATION


        This chapter explains how you can tune 4DOS to make it as efficient
        and as useful as possible in your computing environment.  Nearly
        everything in this chapter is for advanced users and those with
        unusual needs.  If 4DOS works the way you want it to after the
        automatic installation, you can skip this chapter.  You may,
        however, want to skim this material to see what options are

        Configuration Files

             4DOS uses or is affected by five configuration files.  Two are
             for general DOS configuration; the other three are unique to
             4DOS.  The general DOS files are CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT.
             The specialized 4DOS files are called 4START, 4EXIT, and

             CONFIG.SYS is discussed below.  AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4START and 4EXIT
             are discussed briefly below, and in Chapter 4 / Aliases and
             Batch Files in the Reference Manual.  4DOS.INI is discussed in
             Chapter 5 / Configuration in the Reference Manual.

         !   Anytime you change a configuration file, a typographical
             mistake or other error could make your system lock up or run
             erratically.  Before you make any changes to any of these
             files, we strongly urge you to take some precautions.  (These
             precautions are for DOS users.  Under OS/2 they can be
             helpful, but are not required, because problems with the
             startup files are not as likely to keep the system from
             booting and prevent you from editing the incorrect file.)

             First, create a bootable floppy disk (see page 4).  Second,
             make a backup copy of all five configuration files, giving the
             backup copies a different extension than the originals (for
             example .SAV).  Copy these backup files to your boot-up floppy
             for safekeeping.

             With these precautions, if something goes wrong, you will be
             able to boot with your floppy disk and copy the files back to
             their original names.  You'll only have to spend a few minutes
             recovering your system.  You should follow the same
             precautions each time you install a new application program
             that changes your DOS or 4DOS configuration files.

        Copr. 1995 JP Software Inc.   4DOS Intro. & Installation Guide / 10�
                                                  CHAPTER 2 / CONFIGURATION

        Setting Up CONFIG.SYS

             The DOS CONFIG.SYS file contains instructions for DOS to
             execute before it loads a command processor.  The OS/2
             CONFIG.SYS file contains similar startup instructions for
             OS/2.  Only one line in the CONFIG.SYS file affects 4DOS.  It
             tells the operating system to use 4DOS as the DOS command
             processor instead of COMMAND.COM.  The format of this line is:

                  SHELL=d:\path\4DOS.COM [d:\path] [@d:\path\inifile]
                       [//iniline]... [/D] [/E:nnnn] [/F] [/L] [/LA] [/LH]
                       [/Y] [/P[:filename]] [[/K]command]

             SHELL= identifies this line as defining the command processor
             that DOS will load after it finishes executing CONFIG.SYS, or
             that OS/2 will load when a DOS session is started.

             Replace the first "d:\path\" (immediately after SHELL=) with
             the 4DOS drive and directory.  If you're using DOS, the drive
             and path must be correct or your system won't boot (and you'll
             be very happy that you made the boot-up floppy we suggested).

             The remainder of the items on this line are optional.  If they
             are used, you should not include the square brackets.  In the
             descriptions below, "d:" means a drive letter and "\path"
             means a subdirectory name.

                  d:\path:  This is the second d:\path above (not the one
                  immediately after SHELL=).  It sets the drive and
                  directory where 4DOS is stored, called the COMSPEC path.
                  4DOS uses this path to find its files and to set the
                  COMSPEC environment variable (see page 17).

                  If you use MS-DOS or PC-DOS 3.0 or above, 4DOS will
                  normally find its directory automatically and this option
                  will not be needed.  If you run 4DOS under OS/2, or use
                  Novell DOS or DR DOS, this option is required unless
                  4DOS.COM is in the root directory of the boot drive.

                  @d:\path\inifile:  This option sets the path and name of
                  the 4DOS.INI file.  You don't need this option if you
                  aren't using an .INI file at all, or if the file is
                  called 4DOS.INI and it is in the same directory as
                  4DOS.COM, or in the root directory of the boot drive.

                  //iniline:  This option tells 4DOS to treat the text
                  appearing between the // and the next space or tab as a
                  4DOS.INI directive.  The directive should be in the same
                  format as a line in 4DOS.INI, but may not contain spaces,
                  tabs, or comments.  Directives on the SHELL= line

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                  override any corresponding directive in 4DOS.INI.  This
                  is a convenient way to place one or two simple directives
                  on the SHELL= line without having to modify or create a
                  4DOS.INI file.

                  /D:  This option disables execution of AUTOEXEC.BAT (or
                  the file named in the AutoExecPath directive in 4DOS.INI
                  or on the SHELL= line).  It is intended for internal use
                  by MS-DOS / PC-DOS 6.x.  When you press the F8 key during
                  the boot process, MS-DOS prompts for whether to run
                  AUTOEXEC.BAT.  If you answer "No", the /D switch is used
                  to relay your choice to 4DOS.

                  /E:nnnn:  This option sets the size of the environment,
                  in bytes.  If you don't use this option, 4DOS will
                  allocate 512 bytes for the environment.  You can use any
                  value from 256 to 32000 as the environment size.  For
                  example, to set an environment of 1,000 bytes, you would
                  enter the option as /E:1000.

                  You can also set the environment size with the
                  Environment directive in the 4DOS.INI file (see your
                  Reference Manual).

                  /F:  This option tells 4DOS to automatically provide a
                  Fail response to all critical errors, without prompting
                  or waiting for a user response.  It is rarely used except
                  on systems that must run unattended, like bulletin
                  boards.  We do not recommend use of this option on a
                  normal system, because you will not have a chance to
                  react to a critical error and correct the problem that
                  caused it.  For more information on critical errors see
                  Chapter 3 of your Reference Manual.  /F only affects
                  critical errors detected by 4DOS, and will not affect
                  critical error handling for many application programs
                  which perform this function themselves.  It is equivalent
                  to the directive CritFail=Yes in 4DOS.INI.

                  /L, /LA, /LD, and /LH:  These options force 4DOS to use a
                  local alias, directory history, and / or command history
                  list.  They can be used to override any LocalAlias=No,
                  LocalHistory=No, or LocalDirHistory=No settings in
                  4DOS.INI.  This allows you to use global lists as the
                  default, but start a specific shell or OS/2 DOS session
                  with local aliases or history.  See your Reference Manual
                  for details on local and global aliases and history.  /LA
                  forces local aliases, /LD forces local directory history,
                  /LH forces local command history, and /L forces all 3:
                  local aliases, command history, and directory history.

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                  /Y:  This option forces 4DOS to "single-step" through
                  4START and AUTOEXEC.BAT (or the file named in the
                  AutoExecPath directive).  It is intended for internal use
                  by MS-DOS 6.x.  When you press the F8 key to enable
                  single-stepping during the boot process, the /Y switch is
                  used to relay your choice to 4DOS.

                  /P[:filename]:  This option tells 4DOS to load
                  permanently and to run AUTOEXEC.BAT.  If you specify a
                  filename after the /P, that file will be run instead of
                  AUTOEXEC.BAT.  You should specify the full name of the
                  file, including drive and directory.  A filename after /P
                  will override the AutoExecPath option in 4DOS.INI.

                  When 4DOS is loaded from the SHELL= command in
                  CONFIG.SYS, or as the shell for an OS/2 DOS session, it
                  will normally detect that it is the primary shell and set
                  the /P option automatically.  Under very rare
                  circumstances, you may want to load 4DOS permanently and
                  have it run AUTOEXEC even though you are not loading it
                  from CONFIG.SYS; in such cases you must set /P yourself.
                  4DOS will not run AUTOEXEC.BAT without either an
                  automatic or an explicit /P.  Do not use this option in
                  secondary shells, or you will be unable to return to the
                  primary shell.

                  [/K] command:  This option tells 4DOS to run the command
                  after 4START and AUTOEXEC.BAT but before displaying the
                  prompt.  The command can be any valid alias, internal or
                  external command, or batch file.  All other startup
                  options (such as //iniline or /P) must be placed before
                  the command, because 4DOS will treat characters after the
                  command as part of the command and not as additional
                  startup options.

                  If you use MS-DOS / PC-DOS 6.x and use /K, the command
                  will be executed instead of AUTOEXEC.BAT (for
                  compatibility with MS-DOS / PC-DOS 6.x COMMAND.COM).  In
                  all other cases, the command will be executed in addition
                  to AUTOEXEC.BAT.

         ##  If you specify a path and name for the 4DOS.INI file on the
             SHELL= line, or if you use options that will override
             directives in your .INI file, you must place the command line
             options on the SHELL= line in the order in which they are
             listed above.  If you do not, you may find that the command
             line options do not properly override directives in the .INI

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         !   There is a bug in all versions of MS-DOS and PC-DOS from 2.0
             through 4.01:  the SHELL= line in the CONFIG.SYS file may not
             contain more than 31 characters following the name of the
             shell program (i.e., beginning with the space after
             "4DOS.COM").  If the line is too long, the options will not be
             passed properly to 4DOS and a variety of errors can occur.
             You can set all necessary 4DOS options without exceeding this
             limit, especially if you put 4DOS.COM and 4DOS.INI in the root
             directory of your boot drive.  This limit is not present in
             MS-DOS / PC-DOS 5.0 and above, in Novell DOS, or in OS/2.

          ## 4DOS and Multiple-Configuration Utilities

             4DOS is fully compatible with most products which allow
             multiple configurations in your DOS CONFIG.SYS file, including
             BOOT.SYS (a powerful multiple-configuration utility sold by JP
             Software), and the MS-DOS / PC-DOS 6.0 and above "multi-
             config" feature.

             If you plan to use the same 4DOS setup for all configurations,
             create one SHELL= line and place it in the common area of
             CONFIG.SYS that is used for all configurations.

             If you want to use a separate 4DOS setup for each
             configuration, create individual SHELL= lines in the area of
             CONFIG.SYS specific to each configuration.  Start out using
             the same line for each configuration, then make any necessary
             changes to your standard setup.  For example, you could use
             options on the SHELL= line to select a different .INI file or
             AUTOEXEC file for certain configurations (see above for more
             details on these options).

             Be sure to check APPNOTES.DOC for notes on the specific
             configuration utility you use.

             4DOS and DOS 2

             We recommend using DOS 3.1 or above, but 4DOS can be used with
             DOS 2.  The only special consideration is that 4DOS must be
             loaded differently under DOS 2.x, because certain DOS 2
             functions require that COMMAND.COM be loaded as the primary
             command processor.  Therefore, you must load COMMAND.COM first
             and then 4DOS.  Assuming that all files are in the root
             directory of your boot drive, the SHELL= line in DOS 2.x
             should look like this:

         /c 4DOS /p [options]

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             Note that due to the "/c 4DOS" on the SHELL line, fewer
             options can be used before running into the 31-character limit
             discussed above.  You must, however, use the /P option, or
             AUTOEXEC.BAT will not run.  4DOS will not automatically detect
             that it is the primary shell and set /P for you when run under
             DOS 2.

        Startup Options for Secondary Shells

             You may want to set explicit options for a 4DOS secondary
             shell when you define a 4DOS window in a task switching or
             multitasking system such as Windows, DESQview, Back & Forth,
             or the MS-DOS shell (DOSSHELL); when you "shell out" of a
             program which allows you to specify command-line options for
             the shell; or in rare cases when you run a secondary copy of
             4DOS directly from the command line.  In most other cases,
             secondary shells do not use or require any startup options.

             If you do need to set options for secondary shells, you can
             use any of the following (for more details on items which are
             the same as those used in CONFIG.SYS, see the section
             beginning on page 11):

                  @d:\path\inifile:  Set the .INI file name, as in
                  CONFIG.SYS.  This option is not necessary if you want
                  4DOS to use the same .INI file that you used for the
                  primary shell, because values from that file - including
                  those in its [Secondary] section - will be passed
                  automatically to secondary shells.

                  //iniline:  This option tells 4DOS to treat the text
                  appearing between the // and the next space or tab as a
                  4DOS.INI directive.  The directive should be in the same
                  format as a line in 4DOS.INI, but may not contain spaces,
                  tabs, or comments.  Directives on the secondary shell
                  command line override any corresponding directive in
                  4DOS.INI.  This allows you to use 4DOS.INI directives
                  directly on the command line when starting 4DOS in a
                  window of a multitasking system, rather than having to
                  create separate copies of 4DOS.INI to accommodate small
                  configuration changes in different windows.

                  /E:nnnn:  Set the environment size, as in CONFIG.SYS.

                  /F:  Force an automatic "Fail" on critical error, as in

                  /L, /LA, /LD, and /LH:  Force 4DOS to use a local alias,
                  directory history and / or command history list, as in

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                  [/C | /K] command:  This option tells 4DOS to run the
                  command after 4START but before any command prompt is
                  displayed.  The command can be any valid alias, internal
                  or external command, or batch file, and can include
                  multiple commands.  Use this option if you want 4DOS to
                  run a batch file or execute a command when it starts, for
                  example to run a specific batch file when 4DOS is started
                  in a window of a multitasking system.

                  When the command is preceded by a /C, 4DOS will execute
                  it and then exit and return to the parent program.  /C is
                  used by some applications to start the command processor,
                  run one command, and then return to the application.

                  The /K switch is included only for compatibility with
                  COMMAND.COM.  It has no effect on 4DOS; using it is the
                  same as placing the command (without a /C or /K) at the
                  end of the startup command line.

        Using AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4START, and 4EXIT

             You generally won't need to make any changes to AUTOEXEC.BAT
             to make it run properly under 4DOS, although once you get used
             to 4DOS's batch file enhancements, you may want to use them to
             streamline AUTOEXEC.

             If you want to use the 4DOS KEYSTACK command, you will
             normally load the program KSTACK.COM from your AUTOEXEC.BAT
             file.  To do so, include the following line in your file (be
             sure to place it before any KEYSTACK commands):


             Replace d:\path with the path to the KSTACK.COM program, which
             will normally be stored in your 4DOS directory.

             You may want to use AUTOEXEC.BAT to configure 4DOS by setting
             the environment variables that 4DOS uses:  CDPATH, COLORDIR,
             COMSPEC, PATH, PROMPT, TEMP, and TEMP4DOS.  You may also want
             to include a SETDOS command to set configuration variables.
             All of these settings are optional.

             4DOS runs two special batch files automatically, 4START and
             4EXIT.  4START is executed whenever 4DOS is started.  In the
             primary shell, it is executed before AUTOEXEC.BAT.  If 4DOS is
             started as a secondary shell with the [/C] command option,
             4START is executed before the command.

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             See your Reference Manual for more information on environment
             variables, the SETDOS command, and AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4START, and

        COMSPEC and the COMSPEC Path

             The COMSPEC environment variable contains the full path and
             name of the command processor.  For example, if 4DOS is stored
             in the directory C:\4DOS, the COMSPEC variable should be set
             to C:\4DOS\4DOS.COM.  COMSPEC is used by applications which
             need to find the command processor to implement a "shell to
             DOS" feature.

             You can set the COMSPEC variable by specifying the COMSPEC
             path when your system starts, or by using a SET command as you
             would for any environment variable.

             If you include a COMSPEC path on the SHELL= line in CONFIG.SYS
             (see page 11), or in the DOS_SHELL setting for an OS/2 2.x or
             above DOS session (see page 52), 4DOS will set the COMSPEC
             variable automatically to the path you specify, and append the
             filename 4DOS.COM.  This method also allows 4DOS to use the
             COMSPEC path to find other files during the startup process,
             such as 4DOS.INI and 4START.

             If you don't include the COMSPEC path on the primary shell's
             startup command line, 4DOS will set the COMSPEC variable to
             the root directory of the boot drive (x:\4DOS.COM where "x" is
             the boot drive), and will also look in the root directory of
             the boot drive for 4DOS.INI and 4START.

             You can also set the COMSPEC variable manually with a SET
             command in AUTOEXEC.BAT.  This method will override any
             setting made with a COMSPEC path on the primary shell's
             startup command line as described above.  We do not recommend
             this approach, because it will allow applications to shell to
             DOS, but will not provide the information the primary 4DOS
             shell needs to find its files during the startup process.

             When 4DOS is running as the primary command processor, you can
             determine whether COMSPEC has been set correctly by typing the
             following line at the 4DOS prompt:

                  echo %comspec

        4DOS Swapping Methods

             4DOS runs in two parts, a resident portion that is always in
             memory and a transient portion that can be stored in EMS

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             memory, in XMS memory, on a RAM disk, or on your hard disk
             while application programs are running.  The resident portion
             uses about 3K bytes of memory in the primary shell and about
             1.5K bytes in secondary shells.  The transient portion uses
             about 128K bytes of memory.  4DOS will perform most quickly if
             the transient portion is swapped to the fastest memory or
             device available.

             See page 24 for explanations of XMS and EMS memory.

             Swapping for the primary shell normally requires about 128K
             bytes of EMS memory, XMS memory, or disk space.  Secondary
             shells normally require 32K bytes of EMS, or 28K bytes of XMS
             or disk space.  If you have a large environment, alias list,
             or history list, more memory will be required in both primary
             and secondary shells.  The EMS requirements are larger because
             EMS memory is allocated in 16K increments;  4DOS does not
             actually use more memory when swapping to EMS.

             You can control 4DOS swapping with the Swapping directive in
             4DOS.INI.  The Swapping directive lists a series of swap
             types, which may be:

                  EMS:  4DOS will swap to EMS expanded memory if it is
                  available.  You must have expanded memory and an EMS
                  memory manager (version 3.2 or later) for this option.

                  XMS:  4DOS will swap to XMS extended memory if it is
                  available.  You must have an an XMS memory manager and a
                  80286, 386, 486, or Pentium computer for this option.

                  d:\path:  4DOS will create a swap file in the drive and
                  directory specified.  The file will be called
                  4DOSSWAP.NNN where "NNN" is the shell number (unless you
                  use the UniqueSwapName directive in 4DOS.INI to generate
                  a unique swap file name).  This swap file is created as a
                  hidden system file to avoid accidental deletion and will
                  not be visible with a normal DIR command.  Swapping to a
                  RAM disk will generally be faster than swapping to a hard
                  disk.  Do not use a floppy disk for swapping because its
                  performance is likely to be unacceptably slow.

                  None:  No swapping.  The transient portion of 4DOS will
                  remain in memory at all times.  This option will reduce
                  memory available for application programs by about 128K
                  compared to the other swap types, and should be used only
                  when no other swapping options are available.

             You can specify multiple swap types and 4DOS will try them in
             the order listed.  Swap type "None" is always appended to your
             list of possible swap types as a "last resort," even if you

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             don't include it explicitly.  This allows 4DOS to start even
             if the other swap types you specify don't work.

             For example, if your system has EMS memory and a RAM disk set
             up as drive D, the directive:

                  Swapping = EMS, D:\, C:\SWAP

             in 4DOS.INI will tell 4DOS to try EMS memory first, then the
             RAM disk, and finally the \SWAP directory on drive C.  If all
             of these options fail (because there isn't enough free space
             available), the transient portion of 4DOS will remain in
             memory (swap type "None").

             The default Swapping specification is:

                  Swapping = EMS, XMS, x:\, None

             where "x" is the boot drive (for the primary shell) or the
             COMSPEC drive (for secondary shells).  (Disk swapping will not
             be included as part of the default if the boot drive is A: or
             B:, because floppy disk swapping is too slow to be useful on
             most systems.)

             After 4DOS starts, you can use the SWAPPING command to view
             the type of swapping in use.

        4DOS Help

             4DOS includes a complete help program called 4HELP.EXE.  The
             help system includes complete help for all 4DOS internal
             commands, all standard DOS external commands, and most 4DOS
             features.  The information in the help system is fully cross-
             referenced, so you can move easily among related commands.

             You can start the help system by typing HELP (or HELP plus a
             command name) at the prompt, or by pressing the F1 key at any
             time at the command line.

             If you type part or all of a command on the line and then
             press F1, the help system will provide "context-sensitive"
             help by using the first word on the line as a help topic.  If
             it's a valid topic, you will see help for that topic
             automatically; if not, you will see the list of all help
             topics and you can pick the one you want.  For example, if you
             press F1 after entering each of the command lines shown below
             you will get the display indicated:

                  c:\>                Topic list
                  c:\> copy *.* a:    Help on COPY

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                  c:\> c:\util\map    Topic list

             If you type the name of any internal command at the prompt,
             followed by a slash and a question mark [/?] like this:

                  copy /?

             then you will see help for the command in a "quick-reference"
             style.  Output from a /? display may be redirected with > or

         ##  The /? option may not work correctly if you have used an alias
             to redefine how an internal command operates.  To view the /?
             help for such a command you must add an asterisk to the
             beginning of the command to disable alias processing.  For
             example, if you have defined this alias:

                  alias copy *copy /r

             then the command COPY /? will be translated to COPY /R /?,
             which will not work properly.  However, if you use *COPY /?,
             the alias will be ignored and the /? will work as you

             Once you've started the 4DOS help system with HELP or F1, you
             can use a standard set of keystrokes to navigate.  The table
             below gives a summary of keys you can use in the help topic
             list, and in a help text screen.  For more details on using
             the help system, see the Help topic (at the beginning of the
             topic list) in the help system itself.  For details on mouse
             usage, see the Mouse topic in the help system.

             Help topic list keys:

                  Arrow Keys          Move the highlight to a different
                  Enter               Display help on the highlighted
                  Esc                 Return to 4DOS.
                  Any other key       Attempt to match the characters typed
                                      with one of the names in the topic

             Help text screen keys:

                  Up Arrow            Scroll up one line in the display.
                  Down Arrow          Scroll down one line in the display.
                  PgUp                Scroll up one page in the display.
                  PgDn                Scroll down one page in the display.
                  Left Arrow          Move the cross-reference highlight to
                                      the previous item.

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                  Right Arrow         Move the cross-reference highlight to
                                      the next item.
                  Enter               Switch to the topic shown by the
                                      highlighted cross-reference item.
                  Esc                 Return to the topic list, or back to
                                      4DOS if this topic was displayed
                                      directly without using the topic
                  F1                  Go to the topic list in order to
                                      select a new topic.
                  Alt-N or Ctrl-Right View the next topic in the topic
                  Alt-P or Ctrl-Left  View the previous topic in the topic
                  Alt-F1              View the previously displayed topic.
                  Alt-X               Return directly to 4DOS without
                                      restoring the original screen
                  F                   Find a string within the current
                  G                   Find a string in any topic (a
                                      "global" search).
                  N                   Find the next occurrence of the
                                      search string.
                  P                   Print the text for the current topic
                                      on LPT1.

             The help system normally restores the screen when exiting.
             Use Alt-X to leave a page of help text on the screen so you
             can refer to it.  You can use F, G, and N to search for a
             string in the help text, and P to print the topic you are
             viewing.  Your printer must be turned on and ready before
             pressing P.

             Configuring the Help System

             The 4DOS help system can be configured in several different

             First, the HELPCFG.EXE program included with 4DOS allows you
             to customize the HELP colors.  To use it, just change to your
             4DOS directory, enter the command HELPCFG, and follow the
             instructions it displays.  To force HELPCFG to adjust the
             monochrome HELP colors, even if you are using a color system,
             use the command HELPCFG /M to start the program.

             You can use the HelpPath directive in your 4DOS.INI file to
             inform 4DOS of the location of the HELP files (4HELP.EXE and
             4DOS.HLP).  If you don't use the HelpPath directive, the HELP
             program must be in the current directory or in one of the

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             directories specified in your PATH setting.  If you use the
             HelpPath directive, the HELP command will generally respond
             more quickly because 4DOS won't have to search the directories
             in your PATH setting to find the help files.

             The HELP command has three options which you can set with the
             HelpOptions directive in 4DOS.INI.  The options are:

                  /M(onochrome):  Forces HELP to use monochrome display
                  mode.  This is useful on a system which has a color video
                  board and a monochrome display (for example, portable
                  computers with LCD screens).

                  /Sn (Speed):  Sets the HELP mouse movement speed.  /S0
                  sets the speed to one half the default mouse speed.  /S2
                  sets it to twice the default, and /S4 sets it to four
                  times the default.  The higher values may be useful if
                  you use a screen larger than the standard size of 80 x

                  /X:  Disable the mouse while HELP is running.  If you
                  have a Microsoft serial or PS/2 mouse and are
                  experiencing long delays when HELP starts, you can use
                  this option to disable the mouse.  (The delay is caused
                  by the extended time required by some versions of the
                  Microsoft mouse driver to initialize these mice.)

             For example, if you want HELP to use a monochrome display and
             disable the mouse by default, you could include the following
             line in your 4DOS.INI file:

                  HelpOptions = /M /X

             You can include the same options on the HELP command line if
             you wish.  Options used on the HELP command line will override
             any that are set in the 4DOS.INI file.  For example, to obtain
             help on the COPY command, and disable the mouse, you could use
             this command:

                  c:\> help /x copy

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                            CHAPTER 3 / 4DOS AND YOUR HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE


        This chapter explains how to get the most from 4DOS with the
        particular hardware and software in use on your system.

        You should find that 4DOS is compatible with all your PC hardware
        and software.  We have designed it carefully so that it uses
        standard, documented methods to do its job.  It works properly with
        all kinds of CPUs, keyboards, video displays, and disks; with
        application software, utilities, networks, multitaskers and task
        switchers, and memory-resident (TSR) programs; and with system
        software like disk caches, memory managers, and device drivers.  We
        test 4DOS regularly with dozens of hardware setups and hundreds of
        popular software products in order to catch and correct any
        possible compatibility problems before you encounter them.

        The following sections discuss using 4DOS:

             * With the physical hardware that makes up
               system (the CPU, Memory, Video, and Disks).

             * With DOS, including a specific discussion of Novell DOS.

             * With multitasking and task switching programs, including a
               specific discussion of Microsoft Windows.

             * With networks, including Novell Netware.

        For specific information about any individual software package or
        hardware product, including the latest information about products
        mentioned in this chapter, see the APPNOTES.DOC file distributed
        with 4DOS.  It contains the latest information available when your
        copy of 4DOS was shipped.

        If you need to diagnose a problem that isn't covered below or in
        APPNOTES.DOC, see Appendix A on page 58.

        If you have questions about some of the terms and concepts here,
        see Chapter 1 or the Glossary in your Reference Manual, or the
        Index on page 72 of this manual.

        The CPU

             The CPU or "Central Processing Unit" is the chip which
             performs or directs all of the work done by your computer.
             All PC CPU chips are part of or compatible with Intel's
             "80x86" family.  These include the 8088, 8086, 80188, 80186,
             80286, 386, 486, Pentium, NEC V20, and NEC V30, plus "SX"

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             versions and other variations of some of those chips.  4DOS is
             compatible with all of these chips.

             Some systems have a numeric coprocessor as a companion to the
             CPU.  The numeric coprocessor performs many arithmetic
             calculations faster than the CPU.  4DOS does not use the
             numeric coprocessor.

             You can determine which CPU chip your system has by using
             4DOS's _CPU internal variable:

                  c:\> echo %_cpu

             Similarly, you can find out if you have a numeric coprocessor
             with _NDP:

                  c:\> echo %_ndp

             See your Reference Manual for details about _CPU and _NDP.


             The memory in your computer is organized in bytes.  Normally,
             the amount of memory in a computer is discussed in terms of
             kilobytes (KBytes or 1,024 bytes) and megabytes (MBytes or
             1,048,576 bytes or 1,024 KBytes).  The amount of memory
             available in your computer is determined by the number of
             memory chips or memory modules you have installed.

             In an ideal world, there would be little more to say about
             memory.  But because of the history of PCs, the needs of large
             application programs, and the capabilities of advanced CPUs,
             there are many different kinds of memory.  The original 8088
             CPUs of the PC and PC/XT can address 1 MByte of memory.  Of
             that, a maximum of 640KBytes is allocated as base,
             conventional, DOS, or low DOS memory (all these terms mean the
             same thing).  The other 384 KBytes, known as upper memory, are
             set aside for the computer's built-in ROM BIOS, video adapter
             cards, hard disk controllers, and other expansion hardware.

             When base memory became too limiting, expanded memory (or EMS
             memory) was developed to give programs more data space.
             Expanded memory adds a maximum of 16 MBytes which programs can
             access, 64KBytes at a time, through a window in upper memory.
             In 8088 / 8086 (PC and XT), and 80286 (AT) based computers,
             expanded memory typically requires an add-on board and support
             software.  In 386, 486, and Pentium computers, expanded memory
             is typically provided without additional hardware, using the
             capabilities of the 386 / 486 / Pentium chips.

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             The 80286 CPU used in the AT, and modern 386, 486, and Pentium
             CPUs, can use much more than the 8088's original 1 MByte of
             memory.  An 80286 can use a total of 16 MBytes, and the 386,
             486, and Pentium can use up to 4,096 MBytes (4 gigabytes) of
             physical memory.  This extended memory is not normally
             available to DOS-based programs, however, without special
             programming techniques and the help of DOS extenders or memory

             The memory terms used in your 4DOS manuals include:

                  Base memory:  The 640 Kbytes or less that has
                  traditionally been available for DOS and DOS-based

                  EMS or LIM EMS Memory:  Memory which conforms to the
                  Expanded Memory Specification, developed by Lotus, Intel,
                  and Microsoft, that lets programs and utilities share
                  expanded memory.

                  Extended Memory:  Memory beyond 1 MB in 80286, 386, 486
                  and Pentium computers.  This memory may be accessed
                  directly, in which case it is referred to as Extended
                  Memory, or through XMS software, in which case it is
                  referred to as XMS Memory.

                  XMS Memory:  Extended memory managed by software which
                  conforms to the Extended Memory Specification (XMS).  XMS
                  lets programs share extended memory without conflict.
                  This specification divides extended memory into extended
                  memory blocks (EMBs).  XMS software also usually manages
                  the HMA and the UMBs.

                  HMA:  The first 64K bytes of extended memory, located
                  just above 1 MB.  Certain specialized programs such as
                  DESQview, some network drivers, and portions of MS-DOS
                  (version 5.0 or later) and Novell DOS (version 5.0 or
                  later) can be loaded into the HMA instead of taking up
                  valuable space in base memory.

                  UMBs:  386, 486, and Pentium computers can electronically
                  "move" pieces of extended memory into unused space in the
                  upper memory area between 640KB and 1 MB.  Each block of
                  this memory is called an Upper Memory Block (UMB).  With
                  MS-DOS / PC-DOS 5.0 or later, Novell DOS 5.0 or later, or
                  third-party memory managers like 386MAX and QEMM, memory-
                  resident programs can be loaded into these UMBs instead
                  of taking up valuable space in base memory.  Some 8086,
                  8088, and 80286 systems can also use UMBs with
                  appropriate additional hardware and software.

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             4DOS does its best to detect and properly access all types of
             memory that your computer can have.  4DOS always uses
             standard, documented methods to use the memory that you have

             4DOS uses memory in three ways (see page 17 for more
             information about swapping and the resident and transient
             portions of 4DOS):

                  * By default, 4DOS uses base memory for its resident
                    portion, the master environment, and the alias and
                    history lists.  Base memory is also used to hold the
                    transient portion of 4DOS while your system is at the
                    command prompt or executing a 4DOS command or batch
                    file, and to create any necessary temporary data areas
                    (for example, to hold the filenames to be listed in a
                    directory display, or data being copied from one file
                    to another).

                  * 4DOS can use EMS memory or an XMS Extended Memory
                    Block (EMB) to swap its transient portion, according
                    to the Swapping directive in your 4DOS.INI file.

                  * 4DOS can use Upper Memory Blocks (UMBs) for its
                    resident portion, master environment, and global alias
                    and history lists.

             4DOS never accesses extended memory directly.  It always uses
             an XMS driver like HIMEM.SYS, 386MAX, QEXT, or QEMM.  4DOS can
             also access any RAM disk you create in extended memory by
             using a program like VDISK.SYS or RAMDRIVE.SYS.  4DOS does not
             use the HMA at all.

             If you want to know whether 4DOS sees your system's memory
             accurately, check the output of the MEMORY command.  It should
             correspond to your computer's memory configuration.

             The MEMORY command's output depends to some extent on your
             memory manager.  Some memory managers turn your extended
             memory into either XMS or EMS memory as required, so that the
             same memory is shown both ways in the MEMORY report.  If 1 MB
             of extended memory managed by such a memory manager is
             available, MEMORY will report 1 MB of free XMS memory and 1 MB
             of free EMS memory, even though it is all the same memory.

             Memory-related problems with 4DOS are usually due to programs
             which overwrite the extended memory block (EMB) that 4DOS uses
             for swapping its transient portion.  When you exit from such a
             program, your system will hang, because 4DOS tried to swap
             itself back into base memory but its code and data in XMS have
             been destroyed by the program.  The same problem can occur

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             with EMS swapping but is less common because EMS memory is
             generally better defended against wayward programs.  You can
             diagnose this kind of problem easily by changing to disk
             swapping with the 4DOS.INI Swapping directive (see page 17)
             and rebooting.  If the problem goes away with disk swapping,
             then the program in question is probably destroying 4DOS's
             swap area in XMS or EMS memory.

             4DOS EMS swapping sometimes has difficulty with EMS drivers
             which do not fully meet the EMS 3.2 specification (4DOS
             supports, but does not require, EMS 4.0 drivers).  If you have
             trouble accessing EMS for swapping, check APPNOTES.DOC to see
             if there are any known problems with your EMS board or the
             associated driver software.

             Upper Memory Blocks (UMBs)

             4DOS uses UMBs for several purposes:

                  * to move the 4DOS resident portion out of base memory,
                    if you specify UMBLoad = Yes in your 4DOS.INI file.

                  * to move the master environment out of base memory, if
                    you specify UMBEnvironment = Yes in your 4DOS.INI

                  * to move the global alias and history lists out of base
                    memory, if you specify UMBAlias = Yes or UMBHistory =
                    Yes in your 4DOS.INI file.

                  * to load memory-resident programs (TSRs) "high" using
                    the LOADHIGH or LH command under MS-DOS / PC-DOS 5.0
                    or above or Novell DOS 5.0 or above, or in an OS/2 DOS

             To load 4DOS, the master environment, or global alias and
             history lists into a UMB, you must be using a memory manager
             or XMS driver which provides both the ability to remap memory
             into the area between 640K and 1MB (to create the UMBs) and
             XMS or DOS 5.0 UMB support (to manage the UMBs).  These are
             generally the same requirements which must be met to load TSRs

             To give 4DOS access to UMBs, you need hardware and software
             combinations like the following:

             386, 486, and Pentium systems (including 386SX computers):

                  Hardware:  Sufficient installed RAM.

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                  Software:  Qualitas' 386MAX or Blue Max, Quarterdeck's
                  QEMM 5.0 or later, DOS's EMM386.SYS, or a similar 386
                  memory manager.  HIMEM.SYS alone is not sufficient.

             80286 systems:

                  Hardware:  Chips and Technologies NEAT or LEAP chip set,
                  or an EMS 4.0 or EEMS memory board, plus sufficient
                  installed RAM.

                  Software:  Qualitas' MOVE-EM 1.02 or later with
                  Microsoft's HIMEM.SYS, Quarterdeck's QRAM and QEXT, or a
                  similar 286 memory manager.

             Upper Memory Regions

             Upper memory blocks are divided into one or more contiguous
             regions by your memory manager (see your memory manager
             documentation for additional details).  All the 4DOS options
             and commands which allow access to UMBs also allow you to
             specify a particular UMB region.  For example, you can load
             the resident portion of 4DOS into upper memory region 1 with a
             UMBLoad = 1 directive in 4DOS.INI.  If you do not specify a
             particular region (for example, if you use UMBLoad = Yes
             rather than UMBLoad = 1), 4DOS will use the first available

             In order to use specific region numbers, you must enable DOS
             UMB management with the DOS=UMB or DOS=HIGH,UMB directive in
             CONFIG.SYS, or with the DOS_UMB setting for OS/2 2.x and above
             DOS sessions.  If you do not, 4DOS will display an error
             message and ignore the region number.

             You can make region support available by using DOS=UMB or
             DOS=HIGH,UMB even if you are using a 3rd-party memory manager
             like 386MAX or QEMM.  However, enabling DOS UMB management
             will disable the "load high" programs that come with some
             memory managers, requiring you to use the DOS DEVICEHIGH and
             4DOS LOADHIGH commands instead.  For additional details on how
             your memory manager responds to DOS UMB management, see the
             memory manager documentation.

             Region number support is not available under Novell DOS.


             Although 4DOS can normally detect your video parameters
             automatically, you may have to configure it to use the system
             most efficiently.

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             4DOS uses two methods of displaying text on the screen:

                  * 4DOS calls DOS to write the text of prompts and normal
                    messages.  If you use an ANSI driver, DOS will
                    transmit the calls to it.  Otherwise, DOS will use
                    your BIOS to display text on the screen.  DOS text
                    display calls will work on all DOS systems, regardless
                    of video type.

                    SCRPUT, and VSCRPUT commands bypass DOS, the BIOS, and
                    any ANSI driver.  They write directly to video memory.
                    These commands will only work on systems with 100%
                    IBM-compatible video systems.  On other computers,
                    results will be unpredictable at best.  If you
                    experience a problem, try adding the line OutputBIOS =
                    Yes to your 4DOS.INI file.

             EGA and VGA systems can display text in standard 25-line mode,
             plus modes with 43, 50, or more lines.  4DOS normally detects
             the number of lines automatically.  If it doesn't, you can use
             the 4DOS.INI ScreenRows directive or the SETDOS /R command to
             set the 4DOS screen length.  Similarly, 4DOS normally detects
             the width of your screen, but in rare cases with some unusual
             video boards you may need to use the ScreenColumns directive
             to set the number of columns explicitly.

             4DOS never attempts to manipulate your video hardware in order
             to set the number of rows or columns actually displayed on the
             screen (the "video mode"); to do so, you must use the software
             that came with your video board or other software tailored to
             your system.

             If you put the screen in 43-line or 50-line mode and find that
             it still scrolls at the 25th line, you probably have installed
             an ANSI driver which does not support your extended screen
             length.  In this case you may need to use a different ANSI

             The video cursor shape that 4DOS uses is defined as a
             percentage of a character cell height.  You can set the height
             independently for insert and overstrike mode with the
             CursorIns and CursorOver directives in 4DOS.INI or with the
             SETDOS /S command.  If you don't use either, 4DOS sets the
             height to 10% of the character cell height for overstrike mode
             and 100% (a block cursor) for insert mode.

             If the cursor does not appear the way you want it to, use
             SETDOS /S to find the values that work for your system.  Some
             video boards may not give a "smooth" response to varying
             SETDOS /S values.  For example, a value of 20% may generate a

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             very small cursor while a value of 30% may generate a half-
             height cursor.  4DOS can't do anything about this behavior, so
             you will have to experiment to find the cursor values that you
             want to use.

             If you are using an EGA or VGA adapter, we encourage you to
             try UltraVision from Personics Corp.  It gives you excellent
             control over your video system, includes a wide variety of
             text-mode screen fonts, has its own ANSI driver, and works
             superbly with 4DOS.  A special version for laptop and notebook
             computers dramatically improves the readability of their
             smaller displays.

             Most versions of DOS include a copy of ANSI.SYS, a device
             driver that is normally installed with a DEVICE= line in your
             CONFIG.SYS file.  There are a number of more powerful and
             faster versions available as public-domain, shareware, and
             retail products.  PC Magazine's free utility ANSI.COM can be
             enabled, disabled, loaded, and unloaded without rebooting, and
             works well inside windows of multitasking systems.  It is
             available on most bulletin boards and online systems.  Another
             excellent choice is ANSI-UV.SYS which is included with

             4DOS normally detects automatically whether an ANSI driver is
             installed.  If you have an ANSI driver installed and 4DOS
             doesn't recognize it, try the command SETDOS /A1 which forces
             4DOS to use ANSI commands.  Use SETDOS /A2 to tell 4DOS you do
             not have an ANSI driver installed.  These options can also be
             set with the ANSI directive in 4DOS.INI.

             If you have a laptop or notebook computer with a color video
             board and a monochrome screen, you may need to add a
             HelpOptions=/M directive to 4DOS.INI, or run HELPCFG to adjust
             the HELP colors.  (See page 21 for additional information on
             help colors.)

        Hard Drives and Floppy Disks

             4DOS uses your disks for a wide variety of purposes, and many
             4DOS commands are designed to help you create, move, delete,
             view, and otherwise manage disk files.  4DOS never tries to
             manipulate the structure of your hard disk directly.  It never
             modifies the FAT, root directory, or other system areas of the
             disk directly, and it doesn't read or write data on your disk
             itself.  It always calls on DOS to perform these actions, just
             like most application programs do.  As a result, 4DOS is
             compatible with all disk sizes, formats, and structures that
             your DOS version supports.

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             4DOS is also fully compatible with hard disk compression
             software like DBLSPACE, Stacker, and SuperStor.  Under some
             compression systems you can display file compression ratios
             and sort directory displays in compression ratio order using
             the /C and /O:c switches of the DIR and SELECT commands.  See
             APPNOTES.DOC for details on using your particular compression
             software with 4DOS.

             4DOS will generally access your disk very quickly, but the
             speed depends on what you are trying to do.  If you find that
             4DOS is slower at performing a particular function than you
             are used to, you may have asked it to do more than you ask of
             traditional DOS commands.  In particular, if you use file
             descriptions, remember that 4DOS has to access the description
             file as well as the actual files that you are manipulating.

             Some users notice that the common commands DEL and DIR appear
             slower with 4DOS under certain circumstances.  With DEL, this
             slowdown may be because 4DOS uses a newer method of file
             deletion instead of a method that is no longer recommended
             (but is still used by COMMAND.COM).  The new method is
             necessary to enable 4DOS's display of the names of the files
             you are deleting, and to support 4DOS's "extended wildcards."
             You can force 4DOS to use the older method with DEL's /Q
             option, as long as you don't use extended wildcards.

             For DIR, any speed decrease is because of 4DOS's directory
             sorting and description processing.  4DOS must read all
             filenames and descriptions before it can display any of them.
             The sort itself is quite fast, but DOS is relatively slow at
             retrieving the entire list of file names and passing them on
             to 4DOS.  Once the 4DOS DIR display starts, it should go as
             fast as or faster than the traditional DIR display.

             Whenever 4DOS is interrupted by a Ctrl-C or Ctrl-Break, it
             performs a "disk reset" to clear out DOS's disk buffers and
             reset internal DOS disk parameters.  This helps ensure that
             modified data has been written to disk even though the
             operation was interrupted.  A disk reset is also performed
             before a REBOOT command.  If you have trouble with recognition
             of floppy disk changes, with CD-ROM drivers, or with network
             disk access, you can try forcing 4DOS to perform a disk reset
             after file processing commands, and before a DIR.  To do so
             use a DiskReset = Yes directive in 4DOS.INI.  Such problems
             are very rare and normally DiskReset = Yes is not necessary.

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        4DOS and DOS

             4DOS is compatible with all versions of MS-DOS and PC-DOS from
             2.0 through 6.2 and above.  We recommend the use of DOS 3.1 or

             If you use the MS-DOS utility APPEND, you may need to set up
             some aliases to invoke it; see APPNOTES.DOC for details.

             If you use the FORMAT /S command from MS-DOS or PC-DOS,
             version 4.0 or above, FORMAT will copy the file pointed to by
             the COMSPEC environment variable (see page 17) and name it
             COMMAND.COM.  In most cases this means that 4DOS.COM will be
             copied to the floppy disk, but with the name COMMAND.COM.
             Such a disk should boot properly and start 4DOS, but its
             contents are sure to be confusing to others.  If you use
             FORMAT /S with MS-DOS or PC-DOS 4.0 or above, we recommend
             that you copy COMMAND.COM manually to the floppy disk (you can
             use an alias or batch file if you format bootable disks
             frequently), or rename the file that FORMAT copies back to
             4DOS.COM and place a proper CONFIG.SYS file for 4DOS on the
             floppy disk.

             Menus and SET Commands in CONFIG.SYS

             MS-DOS and PC-DOS 6.0 and above support configuration menus in
             CONFIG.SYS.  If you use these menus, the menu choice you make
             is typically stored in an environment variable.  In addition,
             under MS-DOS and PC-DOS 6.0 and above, and under Novell DOS,
             you can put SET commands in CONFIG.SYS to set environment
             variables explicitly.

             4DOS will automatically retrieve environment variables created
             in CONFIG.SYS and store them in the environment for use in
             AUTOEXEC.BAT and other batch files, just as COMMAND.COM does.

             Novell DOS / DR DOS

             (This section covers Novell DOS, as well as the older version
             of the same product, called DR DOS.  Throughout this section,
             and the rest of the manual, we refer to the product by its
             newer name, Novell DOS.  Unless otherwise noted, all
             information below applies to both the older DR DOS and the
             newer Novell DOS.)

             4DOS will work properly as the command processor for Novell
             DOS 3.4 through 7.0 and above.  However, there are certain
             differences between Novell DOS and MS-DOS which may affect
             4DOS.  This section covers some of those differences; see

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             APPNOTES.DOC for additional information, including details on
             using the Novell DOS task switcher, TaskMax, with 4DOS.


             4DOS supports the HILOAD feature using the MS-DOS / PC-DOS
             command names of LOADHIGH or LH.  To load a TSR high simply
             use the command:

                  LH program [options]

             If you want the command to be called HILOAD for complete
             Novell DOS compatibility, set up an alias before using it:

                  alias hiload lh

             Just as under MS-DOS, LOADHIGH and LH will not work properly
             unless you have memory management software loaded to provide
             upper memory block support.  Because Novell DOS does not
             return any error to 4DOS if a LOADHIGH operation fails, 4DOS
             cannot report this condition to you.  This means you must use
             the Novell DOS MEM program or another similar memory mapping
             utility to determine if your TSR was actually loaded high.

             The LOADHIGH command's /L and /S switches are included for
             compatibility with MS-DOS / PC-DOS 6.0 and above, and will not
             work with Novell DOS.

             File Passwords

             4DOS includes support for Novell DOS file passwords.  However,
             the command syntax used to access files with passwords is
             slightly different under 4DOS than under Novell DOS

             The character used to separate passwords from filenames under
             Novell DOS is a semicolon [;], which 4DOS uses to separate
             parts of an "include list".  Therefore, to avoid confusion
             with include lists, 4DOS requires the use of two semicolons to
             separate the password and filename in any command which
             supports wildcards.  For example, to delete the file MYDATA
             which has the password "fred", you would use these commands:

                  del mydata;fred          for COMMAND.COM
                  del mydate;;fred         for 4DOS

             4DOS directory-related commands like MD and CD (or MKDIR and
             CHDIR) do not use wildcards.  Those commands, and Novell DOS

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             external commands which accept the "filename;password" syntax,
             use only a single semicolon.

             Novell DOS hides files which are password-protected.  This
             means that you must use 4DOS command switches which allow
             processing of hidden files (COPY /H, DEL /Z, DIR /A, FOR /A,
             MOVE /H, and SELECT /A) to access a password-protected file
             under Novell DOS.

             Passwords are not automatically preserved when copying or
             moving a file with 4DOS.  However, the hidden attribute will
             be preserved.  This means that if you move or copy a password-
             protected file and want it to be visible in its new location
             or under its new name, you will have to manually remove the
             hidden attribute with ATTRIB.

             For example, to password-protect the file MYDATA, copy it to
             drive A:, and then delete it:

                  c:\> password mydata /r:fred
                  c:\> copy /h mydata;;fred a:
                  c:\> del /z mydata;;fred

             To unprotect the password-protected file MYDATA:

                  c:\> password mydata;fred /n

        Using 4DOS with Task Switchers and Multitaskers

             Task switchers are programs that allow you to switch quickly
             among multiple applications, with one application running at a
             time.  Multitaskers are more complex programs which appear to
             run multiple applications at the same time, with one or more
             programs executing "in the background" while you work with
             another program on the screen.

             This section gives you some important general tips on using
             4DOS with task switchers and multitaskers, and includes a
             specific discussion of Microsoft Windows.  If you are using
             DESQview, see APPNOTES.DOC for additional information.  See
             page 47 for a complete discussion on using 4DOS under OS/2.

             For convenience, in the text below we will refer to both
             multitaskers and task switchers as "multitaskers," and to each
             window or partition they use as a "window," even though some
             do not have windowed displays.

             4DOS works well as both the primary shell (loaded when your
             system boots) and the secondary shell (loaded in a window)
             with most multitaskers.  (See Chapter 1 of your Reference

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             Manual for more information about primary and secondary

             Creating a 4DOS Window

             Most multitaskers have a pre-configured "DOS" window.  In some
             cases, this window always runs COMMAND.COM.  In others, it
             runs the default command processor defined when your system
             boots.  We recommend that you always set up a 4DOS window
             explicitly, with the configuration you want, rather that
             relying on the multitasker's generic "DOS" window.

             Many multitaskers also run the command processor when you
             start certain kinds of windows, such as windows that run a
             .BAT file.  In general, this use of the command processor is
             transparent.  The multitasker will run 4DOS for you
             automatically when it needs to, and you won't need to do
             anything about it.

             If you find that your multitasker is running COMMAND.COM when
             you meant to run 4DOS, check the COMSPEC setting that is in
             effect when you start the multitasker (see page 17 for details
             on COMSPEC).  You may also need to check the way a particular
             window is configured.

             When you set up a 4DOS window, be sure to specify the full
             path to 4DOS.COM and any startup options you want (see page 15
             for information on startup options for secondary shells).

             Parameters for 4DOS Windows

             To set parameters (swapping, alias space, etc.) to be used by
             all 4DOS secondary shells run by your multitasker, use the
             [Secondary] section in 4DOS.INI.  To set these parameters
             separately for a specific window, create a copy of 4DOS.INI
             just for that window and use the @d:\path\inifile option on
             your command line for the window (see page 11).  To change the
             configuration of a specific window without creating a separate
             copy of 4DOS.INI, use the //iniline option on your command
             line for the window (see the example below).

             4DOS allows you to place a command to be executed as the last
             parameter on your 4DOS command line.  This command is executed
             before 4DOS displays its first prompt.  You can use this
             feature to run a batch file (or any other command) each time a
             4DOS window is started by your multitasker.  For example, if
             you are setting up 4DOS to run as a DOS application under
             Windows 3.1, your setup for a 4DOS program item (or in a .PIF
             file for 4DOS) might look like this:

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                  Program Name:  c:\4dos\
                  Parameters:    //swapping=f:\ c:\winstart.btm

             This tells Windows to load 4DOS, includes a 4DOS.INI directive
             to tell 4DOS to swap to drive F, and passes 4DOS the command
             C:\WINSTART.BTM.  You can place commands in WINSTART.BTM to be
             executed whenever such a window is started (for example, to
             change your PROMPT to show that you're in a window, or to load
             a TSR for just that window).  The command to be executed
             (C:\WINSTART.BTM in this example), must be the last thing on
             the 4DOS command line; no 4DOS switches or options can be
             placed after it because anything after the command will be
             interpreted as parameters for the command.

             This feature is similar to what's provided by the 4START batch
             file, but 4START is executed every time 4DOS loads, whereas a
             file like WINSTART will be executed only when a 4DOS window is
             started from your multitasker.  A batch file started this way
             will be run after 4START.

         ##  If you wish, you can use 4START to accomplish the same goal.
             However, in order to do so you must have a way to detect
             whether the multitasker is running, so that you can select the
             appropriate commands to execute in 4START.  If you are running
             DESQview or Windows, you can use the 4DOS internal variables
             _DV and _WIN respectively to test this condition.  For
             example, the following lines could be used in 4START to change
             the prompt for DESQview command-line sessions:

                  iff "%_DV" != "0"
                     prompt [DV] $p$g
                     prompt $p$g

             Multitasking and KEYSTACK          ##

             If you use KEYSTACK inside a window of a multitasker, and the
             KSTACK.COM program has been loaded before the multitasker, you
             may find that stacked keystrokes "bleed through" from one
             window to another.  You can solve this problem by loading
             KSTACK.COM in a startup batch file for each window where it is
             needed.  If KSTACK is loaded before the multitasker as well,
             include a /I on the command line when loading KSTACK inside
             the window.  If you don't, KSTACK will detect that it is
             already installed and will not install again.

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       ! ##  Multitasking and Disk Swapping

             When 4DOS is loaded as the primary shell, it acts as a
             "traffic cop" for copies of the transient portion of 4DOS
             swapped to disk.  Each secondary shell is assigned a unique
             shell number, which is normally used as the extension for its
             disk swap file name (4DOSSWAP.001, 4DOSSWAP.002, etc.).  These
             shell numbers avoid file name conflicts between multiple
             copies of 4DOS running in different windows but creating swap
             files in the same disk directory.

             However, if 4DOS is not loaded before the multitasker, this
             capability will not be available.  In this case, the copy of
             4DOS in each window will use a swap file called 4DOSSWAP.000.
             To avoid this conflict, you must either use the UniqueSwapName
             directive in 4DOS.INI, or force every copy of 4DOS to place
             its swap file in its own unique directory by using the
             "Swapping=d:\path" directive in 4DOS.INI.  If you don't follow
             this rule, your system will hang when you switch windows or
             when you exit from an application.

             This problem will occur only in those rare situations where
             4DOS is loaded within a window but is not loaded as your
             primary shell, and if 4DOS disk swapping is used in more than
             one window at a time.  Note that since the default swapping
             option uses disk swapping if insufficient EMS or XMS memory is
             available, you can be invoking disk swapping in your
             multitasker's windows without specifically requesting it.

        4DOS and Microsoft Windows 3.x

             4DOS works well as both the primary shell, loaded before
             Windows, and as a secondary shell loaded inside any window.
             It works in any Windows mode (Real, Standard, or Enhanced).
             The general information about multitaskers beginning on page
             34 applies to Windows as well.  You should read it before
             continuing with this section.

             This section gives you the basic information you need to use
             4DOS with Windows.  For additional details and updated
             information be sure to check APPNOTES.DOC.  All of the
             information in this section applies to both the standard
             single-user version of Windows and the peer-to-peer network
             version, Windows for Workgroups.

             To run 4DOS as a secondary shell from within Windows, you will
             need to create a desktop object for it.  The generic "MS-DOS
             Prompt" object supplied by Microsoft will normally run

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             You can set up a 4DOS object from the Program Manager's File /
             New menu selection.  To do so, simply create a new program
             item and set the command line to d:\path\4DOS.COM (use the
             appropriate drive and path for your system).  You can put the
             name of a batch file at the end of the command line if you
             want to run some specific commands when 4DOS starts under
             Windows (see page 35 for details).

             When you create a new item in this way, it will be initialized
             with a standard DOS icon (the word "DOS" inside a rectangle).
             To install a specific icon for 4DOS, use the Program Manager's
             File / Properties menu selection.  Click on the Change Icon
             button and type in the full path name of your new 4DOS icon
             file.  We supply two Windows icons with 4DOS:  4DOS.ICO for
             color displays, and 4DOSM.ICO for monochrome displays.  You
             can create your own icon with any icon editor.

             For more flexibility, you can use the Windows PIF editor to
             create a 4DOS.PIF file.  We have included a sample .PIF file
             on the distribution diskette.  You must edit this file and
             make it correspond to your system before you use it to run

             4DOS will work properly in either a full-screen or a windowed
             session.  The .PIF file determines the mode that 4DOS will
             start in.  If you don't use a .PIF file, 4DOS will start in
             the mode set in the _DEFAULT.PIF file provided with Windows.
             You can set up multiple .PIF files if you need different
             session types (for example, one for windowed and one for full-
             screen sessions).

             Your batch files can determine whether they are running in a
             secondary shell under Windows, and the current Windows mode,
             with the 4DOS _WIN internal variable.

             You can easily set up the Windows File Manager to make .BTM
             files "executable."  Open your WIN.INI file with any editor
             and find the section labeled [extensions].  Add the following
             line to the end of the section:

                  btm=c:\4dos\ /c ^.btm

             (adjust this to show the proper path for 4DOS.COM on your
             system).  It is not possible to execute .BTM files from the
             Program Manager by modifying the Programs= setting in WIN.INI;
             if you try to do so, the system will hang when you attempt to
             actually invoke a .BTM file.

             For information on resolving memory allocation problems with
             Windows, see page 63.

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        4DOS and Microsoft Windows 95

             4DOS works well as both the primary shell, loaded before
             Windows 95, and as a secondary shell loaded from the Windows
             95 GUI.  The general information about multitaskers beginning
             on page 34 applies to Windows 95 as well.  You should read it
             before continuing with this section.

             The Windows 95 Boot Sequence

             In order to understand the different methods for installing
             4DOS you may find it helpful to learn a little about the
             Windows 95 boot sequence (if you are not interested in these
             details, skip to the next section).

             Modified versions of the standard MS-DOS startup programs are
             used to boot Windows 95.  These programs look for CONFIG.SYS
             and AUTOEXEC.BAT just as under previous versions of MS-DOS.
             If CONFIG.SYS is NOT present, Windows 95 will load the
             appropriate real-mode DOS device drivers automatically, then
             start WIN.COM, which loads the Windows 32-bit drivers and GUI.
             If CONFIG.SYS IS present, the MS-DOS startup portion of
             Windows 95 will process it (while displaying a graphical
             Windows 95 startup screen).  Certain drivers required by
             Windows 95 (e.g. HIMEM.SYS) will be loaded automatically even
             if they are not listed in CONFIG.SYS, but otherwise CONFIG.SYS
             works just as it does under previous versions of MS-DOS.

             If you use the default command processor, COMMAND.COM, it will
             be loaded automatically at the end of CONFIG.SYS if needed to
             process AUTOEXEC.BAT, then the GUI is loaded as described
             above.  If you use a SHELL command in CONFIG.SYS to load a
             different command processor (like 4DOS), it will be loaded
             just as under previous versions of MS-DOS, and can then invoke
             the Windows GUI if desired (see below for details).  However
             the SHELL command is ignored if AUTOEXEC.BAT is not present.

             Some aspects of the boot process are controlled by the file
             MSDOS.SYS, which is now an ASCII file which functions as a
             .INI file for DOS itself.  For example you can control whether
             the GUI is automatically loaded with the BootGUI setting in
             the [Options] section of MSDOS.SYS, and you can automatically
             display a standard startup options menu by setting BootMenu=1
             in the [Options] section (you can also display this menu by
             pressing F8 when you see the "Starting Windows 95 ..."
             prompt).  MSDOS.SYS is a hidden, system, read-only file; to
             edit it from 4DOS use a sequence like this:

                  c:\> attrib -rhs msdos.sys
                  c:\> edit msdos.sys

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                  c:\> attrib +rhs msdos.sys

             Installing 4DOS as the Primary Shell Under Windows 95

             The best way to configure 4DOS for Windows 95 is to add a
             standard SHELL command as shown in the 4DOS manual to the end
             of the Windows 95 CONFIG.SYS file.  For example:

                  SHELL=C:\4DOS55\4DOS.COM C:\4DOS55 /P

             The second directory name and the /P should always be used.

             [If you reinstall Windows 95 or install a later build over an
             earlier one, your SHELL line will be removed from CONFIG.SYS
             by the Windows 95 installation process.  To correct this
             simply boot the new version, go to a 4DOS prompt (your desktop
             with its 4DOS icon is typically preserved when you upgrade),
             and use EDIT or another ASCII editor to put the SHELL line
             back in CONFIG.SYS, then restart Windows 95.  You can also
             boot with F8 and select the "Command Prompt Only" boot option,
             which will give you a COMMAND.COM prompt.  At this point use
             an ASCII editor to modify CONFIG.SYS and add the SHELL= line
             for 4DOS, then reboot.]

             When 4DOS is loaded as the primary shell in CONFIG.SYS it will
             start the Windows 95 GUI automatically (except when you select
             the "Command prompt only" option from the Windows 95 boot
             menu).  If you want 4DOS to display a prompt without starting
             the GUI, edit MSDOS.SYS as described above and change the line
             reading BootGUI=1 to read BootGUI=0.  You can then use the WIN
             command to start the GUI when you wish.

             Some users find it convenient to set BootGUI=0, then add
             commands similar to the following at the end of AUTOEXEC.BAT:

                  inkey /w5 Press X for prompt, or wait) for Windows ...
                  if "%key" != "X" win
                  unset /q key

             These commands start Windows automatically unless you press
             the X key within 5 seconds after the message is displayed.
             You can interrupt the 5-second delay by pressing any other
             key.  This gives you a convenient way to go directly to a
             prompt if you wish, but otherwise starts Windows

             Please note that the Windows 95 directory (usually C:\WINDOWS)
             must be in your PATH for the above examples to work.  If it is
             not, the WIN command may not be recognized.  Generally under

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             Windows 95 it is best to include the Windows 95 directory in
             your PATH.

             If you load Windows 95 in "safe mode" your startup files
             (CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT) are ignored, and 4DOS will not
             be loaded as the primary shell (safe mode is for
             troubleshooting and is selected by pressing F5 during the boot
             process, or by pressing F8 and selecting a safe mode boot from
             the menu).  If you start Windows 95 in "safe mode" in most
             cases you should NOT load 4DOS after the GUI starts.  DOS
             applications often do not work properly in "safe mode".

             If you select other boot modes from the F8 menu (e.g. "step by
             step" or "command prompt only") the 4DOS primary shell will
             load, and will handle the option you have selected.  The only
             exception is that if you select step by step mode and then
             answer "N" (or Esc) when prompted whether to process
             AUTOEXEC.BAT, the SHELL line will also be ignored and
             COMMAND.COM will be loaded rather than 4DOS (this is a Windows
             95 behavior unrelated to 4DOS).

             Starting 4DOS From The Windows 95 GUI

             The simplest method for running 4DOS from the Windows 95 GUI
             is to create a new shortcut on the desktop.  To do so click
             with mouse button 2 in any open area of the desktop.  On the
             popup menu click New, then Shortcut.  Fill in the drive and
             path for 4DOS.COM, and any other items you wish to set (no
             specific settings are required for 4DOS).  Use the Change Icon
             button to assign the standard 4DOS icon, in the file 4DOS.ICO,
             to the shortcut.

             Once the shortcut is created 4DOS will start when you double-
             click the corresponding icon on the desktop.  You can place
             any necessary commands or other directives (e.g. @ininame to
             name a specific INI file) on the startup command line just as
             you would under DOS or Windows 3.1; see your 4DOS Introduction
             and Installation Guide or the file 4DOS.DOC for details.

             If 4DOS is started in this way, and is not installed as the
             primary shell (whether because you have no CONFIG.SYS and
             AUTOEXEC.BAT and therefore do not load a primary shell, or
             because you use COMMAND.COM as your primary shell), then it
             will not inherit aliases or other startup settings.  In this
             case you must use the 4START file (see your 4DOS manual) to
             load aliases and perform other startup tasks.  To avoid this
             problem we recommend that you install 4DOS as the primary
             shell (see above) and load your aliases etc. at system
             startup, just as you would under DOS.

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             We do not recommend the use of disk swapping under Windows 95.
             If you do use disk swapping aliases and other settings may not
             be inherited properly in some cases, especially when 4DOS is
             the primary shell.  The best setup is to install 4DOS as the
             primary shell, and to use XMS swapping for all shells.  You
             can set this swapping type with the following line in

                  Swapping = XMS

             If you start Windows 95 in "safe mode" in most cases you
             should NOT load 4DOS after the GUI starts.  DOS applications
             often do not work properly in "safe mode".

             Using Long File Names with 4DOS

             Windows 95 supports filenames up to 255 characters long and
             which include spaces and other characters previously not
             allowed in filenames.  Names which meet these restrictions but
             do not fit in the original DOS "8.3" naming convention (8
             character name plus 3 character extension) are often called
             "long filenames".

             Long filenames are stored and displayed exactly as you entered
             them, and are not automatically shifted to upper or lower
             case.  For example, you could create a file called MYFILE,
             myfile, or MyFile, and each name would be stored in the
             directory just as you entered it.  However, case is ignored
             when looking for filenames, so you cannot have two files whose
             names differ only in case (i.e., the three names given above
             would all refer to the same file).  This behavior is sometimes
             described as "case-retentive but not case-sensitive" because
             the case information is retained, but does not affect access
             to the files.

             4DOS fully supports long filenames under Windows 95.  For
             example, COPY will retain long filenames if possible when
             copying files to another drive, and DIR will use the long
             filename display format on all drives by default.

             Each file on a drive which supports long filenames will have a
             "short name" which follows the standard 8.3 naming convention.
             Some files may have only a short name (if no long name has
             been assigned).  Others may have a long name assigned when the
             file was created, and a corresponding short name created
             automatically by Windows 95 (these names typically look
             something like "xxxxxx~n" where "xxxxxx" is the first few
             characters of the file name and "n" is a number to distinguish
             files where the initial characters match).  Some files may

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             also have separate long and short names which were assigned
             when the files were created.

             On drives which support long filenames, DIR and SELECT use a
             display format which allows room for the longer name on the
             screen.  In this format file descriptions are not displayed.
             You can use the /Z switch on either command to switch back to
             the more traditional 8.3 format, and display the file
             descriptions.  You also can view short and long names at the
             same time with the DIR /X command.  See the on-line help for
             additional details on these options.

             Long names can be used for both files and directories.  When
             entering a long file name on the command line you must enclose
             the name in quotes if it contains any characters which are not
             valid in a standard 8.3 filename.  For example, this command
             would work without quotes:

                  copy c:\DataFiles\LetterToSara a:

             However this command requires quotes:

                  copy "c:\Data Files\Letter To Sara" a:

             For information on how long filenames affect specific 4DOS
             features, see the COPY, DESCRIBE, DIR, MOVE, SELECT, and
             SETDOS /U command, Ranges, and the UpperCase directive in

             Windows 95 only provides long filename features when the
             proper drivers are loaded.  These drivers are loaded with the
             GUI portion of Windows 95, so normally you cannot use long
             file names when the GUI is not loaded (for example, from a
             "Command prompt only" boot).  In this case you must refer to
             each file by its short name.

             If you boot an operating system which does not support long
             filenames, then access a drive which uses them, only short
             names will be visible.  (Note that manipulating files with
             long filenames under such an operating system may break the
             links between long filenames and the corresponding short
             names, or cause other damage.)

             Installing the KSTACK Program

             If you want to load KSTACK.COM (required for the KEYSTACK
             command) it should be loaded separately for each 4DOS window.
             To do so, include the KSTACK command on the startup command
             line when you set up the corresponding shortcut(s).  For
             example, the command line for your shortcut might read:

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                  c:\4dos55\ c:\4dos55\

             This will load KSTACK when the 4DOS window is opened, then
             display a prompt.

             If you install KSTACK in AUTOEXEC.BAT it will not work
             properly when multiple 4DOS windows are open -- stacked
             keystrokes will "bleed through" from one window to another.

        Using 4DOS on a Network

             4DOS works well with DOS-compatible networks.  This section
             will give you some tips on using 4DOS on a network, and on the
             proper locations for 4DOS files on a network.

             In general, you'll find that you can load and run your network
             software normally under 4DOS.  Network drives will be
             accessible as normal drives once the network is loaded, and
             files on the network will be accessible just as if they were
             on a local hard disk.

             Some networks support file and directory names beginning with
             a double backslash, or with a server name followed by a colon,
             to identify files by their location on the network.  4DOS
             detects such names and passes them through to the network
             unaltered, allowing the network software to process them

             In rare situations, you may have trouble loading network
             software under 4DOS.  To the best of our knowledge, all DOS-
             compatible networks work with 4DOS.  If yours doesn't, our
             experience suggests that the most common cause is a network
             bug, an old version of your network software, or a conflict in
             the way 4DOS and your network are configured.  Most bugs have
             now been corrected by network vendors, and should not appear
             on your system.  If you have any questions about compatibility
             with your particular network, check for a listing in
             APPNOTES.DOC, and feel free to contact our technical support
             department for additional assistance.

             If you need to boot a diskless workstation from a network
             drive, you must have the network drive accessible at boot
             time.  If this condition is satisfied (so 4DOS can find its
             files on the network drives), the normal approach can be used
             to start 4DOS from the network.  You can also configure 4DOS
             so that it boots from the floppy disk image used to start your
             diskless workstation, then retrieves its files from the
             network.  For complete details on starting 4DOS on a diskless
             workstation under Novell Netware see APPNOTES.DOC.  The

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                            CHAPTER 3 / 4DOS AND YOUR HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE

             approach described there can generally be used for other
             networks as well.

             Some networks with large server disk drives (256 MB or more)
             may report total and free disk space values that are too small
             if the DIR command, the FREE command, or the @DISKFREE,
             @DISKTOTAL, or @DISKUSED variable functions are used on the
             server drive.  If this occurs, it is because DOS does not
             provide a way for the network software to return larger values
             to 4DOS.

         !## When you use 4DOS with your network software loaded you need
             to ensure that two users do not use the same directory
             simultaneously for secondary shell disk swap files.  If they
             do, the filenames (4DOSSWAP.001, etc.) will conflict and each
             user will write over the other's files, possibly causing one
             or both systems to hang.  In most cases you will find this is
             not a problem, because most network users swap 4DOS to XMS or
             EMS memory or a local hard disk.  However if you do swap to a
             network drive, you can prevent a conflict with the
             UniqueSwapName directive in 4DOS.INI, or by using the Swapping
             directive to assign each user's swap files to a different
             directory.  For this reason, 4DOS will automatically enable
             UniqueSwapName if it detects that you are swapping to a
             network drive.

             4DOS and Novell Netware

             This section gives you basic information for using 4DOS with
             Netware.  For additional details and updated information be
             sure to check APPNOTES.DOC.  The information below applies to
             Netware, but not to Novell's peer-to-peer networking software,
             Netware Lite.

             4DOS works well with Netware, and compatibility problems
             should be very rare.  Novell's newer NETX shells are more
             reliable than the older NET3 / NET4 / NET5.  We recommend that
             you use NETX with 4DOS whenever possible.

             4DOS includes a 4DOS.INI directive for Netware, NetwareNames.
             You must set NetwareNames = Yes on systems which load Netware
             to avoid problems with destroyed environment variables during
             LOGIN.  Setting NetwareNames = Yes will increase the resident
             size of 4DOS by 112 bytes.

             Under Netware version 3 and above, 4DOS commands which scan a
             directory tree (e.g. COPY /S, DIR /S, GLOBAL, etc.) may stop
             without scanning the entire tree, and without displaying an
             error message.  This happens when such commands exceed the
             size of the directory search table on your server; this is a

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             Netware design issue and not a 4DOS bug.  You can fix this
             problem by having your system administrator increase the
             Maximum Oustanding NCP Searches parameter for the server in

             4DOS can be set up to run on Novell Netware diskless
             workstations which boot from the server.  To do so, you must
             make several changes to 4DOS.INI and your other startup files.
             See APPNOTES.DOC for complete details.

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                                          CHAPTER 4 / USING 4DOS UNDER OS/2


        4DOS offers almost unlimited flexibility for your OS/2 DOS
        sessions, and has been specifically designed to take advantage of
        OS/2 features wherever possible.  However, to use DOS, 4DOS, and
        OS/2 successfully requires some planning if you want to get all the
        power possible out of each operating environment.

        This chapter explains some of the planning you should do and some
        of the techniques you can use to get everything working together
        correctly.  It covers:

             * Configuring OS/2 version 1.x for 4DOS (see page 48).

             * Configuring OS/2 version 2.x and above DOS sessions
               (Virtual DOS Machines) for 4DOS (see page 48).

             * Arranging your 4DOS.INI, 4START, 4EXIT, and AUTOEXEC.BAT
               files for use in the multiple DOS sessions available under
               OS/2 2.x and above (see page 52).

             * Setting up temporary DOS sessions in OS/2 2.x and above to
               run a single DOS command or application (see page 53).

             * Adjusting 4DOS.INI, 4START, 4EXIT, and AUTOEXEC.BAT when
               you can boot under either DOS or OS/2 using OS/2's Dual
               Boot or Boot Manager features (see page 54).

        Throughout this section, we assume that you want to use 4DOS as
        your command processor in all of these situations.  Also, we assume
        that you have installed 4DOS in the C:\4DOS directory (alter the
        SHELL= and DOS_SHELL settings below appropriately if 4DOS is
        installed in a different directory).

        If you are using OS/2's Dual Boot or Boot Manager, you will have
        (at least) two copies of CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT on your
        computer, one for booting OS/2 and OS/2 DOS sessions, and the other
        for booting DOS without OS/2.  See the section on Dual Boot and
        Boot Manager on page 54 for details on where these two sets of
        files are stored.  Unless otherwise specified, references in this
        section to CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT refer to the OS/2 versions
        of these files.

        Before you read this section, read through Chapter 1 / Installation
        (see page 4) for details on installing 4DOS and modifying the
        SHELL= statement in your OS/2 CONFIG.SYS file.

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        OS/2 Version 1.x

             Under OS/2 version 1.x, you can install 4DOS simply by setting
             the SHELL= line in CONFIG.SYS.  This command determines how
             4DOS starts when you invoke the DOS Compatibility Box from the
             OS/2 desktop.

             You can use the [options] portion of the SHELL command to
             select a special 4DOS.INI file and to set any other 4DOS
             command line options you choose.  In essence, you can set up
             4DOS just as you would if you installed it on a DOS system
             without OS/2.

             You can skip the sections below which explain how to configure
             DOS sessions under OS/2 version 2.x and above.  If you are
             using the OS/2 version 1.x Dual Boot capability, you should
             read the section on Dual Boot and Boot Manager (page 54).

        OS/2 Version 2.x and OS/2 Warp

             Under OS/2 version 2.x and OS/2 Warp, you can have multiple
             objects which start DOS sessions, also called Virtual DOS
             Machines (VDMs).  These may include objects in the Command
             Prompts window, objects for "migrated applications," objects
             for DOS and Windows applications, and objects for batch files.

             Assuming you set up your VDM objects as described here, 4DOS
             is loaded as a primary shell each time a DOS session starts.
             4DOS will process 4DOS.INI, execute your 4START file if you
             have one, and execute AUTOEXEC.BAT.  When the session is
             closed with the EXIT command, 4DOS will run your 4EXIT file if
             you have one.  You can start any number of DOS sessions and
             (within the limits of system resources) have as many running
             simultaneously as you like.

             This is fundamentally different from what happens when you
             boot your computer under DOS or OS/2 1.x.  In these
             environments there is only one 4DOS primary shell,
             AUTOEXEC.BAT is only executed once each time you boot, and so
             on.  OS/2 version 2.x and above give you much more
             flexibility, but that flexibility requires planning to get the
             most out of 4DOS.

             For example, you can have all your DOS sessions use the same
             AUTOEXEC.BAT file, or you can have different versions of
             AUTOEXEC.BAT for different sessions.  The same is true of the
             other startup and exit files (4DOS.INI, 4START, and 4EXIT).
             This section and the sections below discuss how to set up

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             objects for your DOS sessions, and how to arrange your startup
             and exit files so that 4DOS will do just what you want it to
             in each DOS session.

             Settings for DOS Sessions

             Each VDM object contains its own information about how to
             start DOS for that session.  In essence, each object has its
             own CONFIG.SYS file built into it.  The information attached
             to an object which indicates how to start DOS is called its
             DOS Settings.

             You can modify these settings using OS/2's Settings notebook.
             To do so, click the right mouse button in the object.  When
             the popup menu appears, click the left mouse button on the
             small arrow to the right of the Open selection, then again on
             the Settings selection on the submenu.

             Once the Settings notebook is open, use the Program page to
             modify the object's program name, startup directory, and
             command line parameters.  The Session page lets you set the
             session type.  Other pages let you adjust other configuration
             data for the object.

             To modify the DOS settings, use the button with that legend on
             the Session page of the notebook.  Clicking on this button
             opens the DOS settings dialog box.  To modify an individual
             setting, click on the setting name in the list box at the
             left, then click on the value window to the right and enter
             the new value.  Settings with choice values (such as "On" and
             "Off") will show buttons for the value, rather than a text

             In a new object, each DOS setting starts out with a default
             value taken from your CONFIG.SYS file.  For settings which
             have no corresponding command in CONFIG.SYS, OS/2 uses a
             built-in default value.

             For example, the DOS_SHELL setting, which specifies the
             command processor to use for a DOS session, defaults to the
             value on the SHELL= line in CONFIG.SYS.  Changing the SHELL=
             line changes the default DOS_SHELL value for all new DOS
             sessions (as usual, changes to CONFIG.SYS are only effective
             after you reboot the system).

             However, the HW_TIMER setting (which tells OS/2 whether to
             allow the session to manipulate the hardware timer), always
             defaults to OFF.  The default cannot be changed in CONFIG.SYS.

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             Modifying a setting whose default is specified in CONFIG.SYS,
             such as DOS_SHELL, breaks the "link" between that setting and
             the default in CONFIG.SYS.  After the modification, changes
             made to the default in CONFIG.SYS will not affect the object
             at all.

             For example, to set up 4DOS as your default DOS command
             processor for OS/2 DOS sessions you might include this line in
             the OS/2 CONFIG.SYS file:

                  SHELL= C:\4DOS\4DOS\COM C:\4DOS /P

             If you then create a new DOS session object, its DOS_SHELL
             setting will reflect the value from the SHELL= line.  Now
             suppose you modify the DOS_SHELL setting for that object so
             that it reads:

                  C:\4DOS\4DOS.COM C:\4DOS /L /P

             At this point the "link" between your object and CONFIG.SYS is
             broken.  If you move 4DOS to a different directory and modify
             the SHELL= line in CONFIG.SYS, the object's DOS_SHELL setting
             will not be changed, and the object will no longer work
             properly.  In order to correct this you will have to manually
             modify the DOS_SHELL setting for that object.

             You can return any DOS setting to the current default value at
             any time.  To do so, open the DOS Settings dialog box,
             highlight the setting name, and click on the Default button.
             This replaces the value of the setting with the value OS/2
             read from CONFIG.SYS when you last booted, or with the value
             from OS/2's standard defaults.  For settings which have a
             default in CONFIG.SYS, this re-establishes the link between
             the object and CONFIG.SYS, and subsequent changes you make in
             CONFIG.SYS will again be reflected in the setting for that
             object each time you reboot.

             Configuring DOS Sessions for 4DOS

             To create a VDM object that gives you a standard 4DOS prompt,
             first place an asterisk [*] in the Program Name field (on the
             Program page in the Settings notebook).  This tells OS/2 to
             load the DOS command processor and go to a prompt instead of
             running a specific DOS application.  Then go to the Session
             page and set the session type to DOS Full Screen or DOS

             Next, click on the DOS Settings button and set up the DOS
             settings for the object.  4DOS will run properly with default
             DOS settings, but you may want to check that the DOS_SHELL

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             setting is correct, because this setting determines which
             command processor OS/2 will load when the object is used to
             start a session.

             DOS_SHELL is formatted just like the SHELL= line in CONFIG.SYS
             (see page 11), but without the characters "SHELL=".  The
             DOS_SHELL setting should always include the COMSPEC path (see
             page 17 for an explanation of the COMSPEC path).  For example,
             you might set DOS_SHELL to:

                  C:\4DOS\4DOS.COM C:\4DOS /P

             If you've set up CONFIG.SYS for 4DOS as described in Chapter
             1, any new VDM objects you create will automatically use the
             correct DOS_SHELL setting for 4DOS.  However, VDM objects
             which existed before you modified CONFIG.SYS may list
             COMMAND.COM in the DOS_SHELL setting.  To correct the setting
             so that 4DOS is used for these objects, modify DOS_SHELL in
             each object to point to 4DOS, as shown in the example above,
             or change DOS_SHELL back to the default value with the Default

             You can customize any object with optional 4DOS command line
             switches, such as @ininame, or //iniline (see page 11 for more
             details).  These switches can be placed at the end of the
             DOS_SHELL setting, or in the Parameters field in the Program

             For example, your Program page might have the following
             settings for a standard 4DOS prompt, using a special .INI file
             for this session:

                  Program Name:       *
                  Parameters:         @C:\4DOS\OS2VDM.INI
                  Working Directory:  C:\

             You can run any alias, internal command, DOS application, or
             batch file directly from a 4DOS VDM object.  To do so, place
             the command to be executed as the last item in the Parameters
             field for the object.  4DOS will execute the command and then
             display a prompt.  4DOS will execute the command after it
             processes your 4START file (if any) and AUTOEXEC.BAT.

             If you precede the command name with /C, 4DOS will exit and
             return to the OS/2 desktop when the command is finished.  This
             is a "temporary" VDM, described in more detail on page 53.
             You can also make 4DOS exit when the command is complete by
             invoking a batch file or alias which ends with the EXIT

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             You can create an object which runs a DOS program by placing
             the program name (including drive and path) in the object's
             Program Name field.  When you select the object, OS/2 will
             automatically start a temporary VDM to run the program.  See
             page 53 for additional details.

         ##  Once you have created a 4DOS object on your desktop, you may
             wish to create a menu item on the desktop menu to run it.  You
             can do so using OS/2's menu editing facilities.  If you do,
             when you start 4DOS from the menu OS/2 will pass the name of
             the desktop directory as a command line argument to 4DOS.
             This directory name will appear to 4DOS as a COMSPEC path or a
             command to be executed, and may result in an error message
             when the session is started from the desktop menu.  To avoid
             this, add a single % sign in the Parameters field for the
             object.  The % sign will prevent OS/2 from passing the
             directory name, but will be treated as a null parameter by


             Each time you start a DOS session, 4DOS will search for
             4DOS.INI in the directory where 4DOS.COM is stored, then in
             the root directory of the boot drive.

             In most cases, the best strategy is to put 4DOS.INI in the
             same directory as 4DOS.COM and make sure your COMSPEC setting
             is correct as described above.  4DOS will use this 4DOS.INI
             file by default for all DOS sessions.

             To use a different .INI file for sessions started from a
             particular object, include an @ininame parameter on the
             DOS_SHELL setting for that object as described in the previous
             section.  Be sure to include the full path and name of the
             file.  To modify specific 4DOS.INI settings for sessions
             started from an object, use one or more //iniline parameters
             on the DOS_SHELL setting for the object.  For objects with a
             [*] in the program name field, the @ininame or //iniline
             parameters may be placed at the beginning of the Parameters
             field if you wish, rather than in the DOS_SHELL setting.

             You can also use the @ininame parameter on your SHELL= line in
             the OS/2 CONFIG.SYS file to change the default location of
             4DOS.INI for all DOS sessions run under OS/2.  If you do so,
             remember that changes made in CONFIG.SYS will only take effect
             after your next reboot, and will not affect existing objects
             whose DOS_SHELL setting has been changed from its default

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                                          CHAPTER 4 / USING 4DOS UNDER OS/2

             AUTOEXEC.BAT, 4START, and 4EXIT

             Each time you start a DOS session, 4DOS will search for 4START
             and 4EXIT in the directory where 4DOS.COM is stored, then in
             the root directory of the OS/2 boot drive.  It will search for
             AUTOEXEC.BAT in the root directory of the OS/2 boot drive.
             Therefore, the same 4START, 4EXIT, and AUTOEXEC.BAT files will
             normally be used for all DOS sessions.  You can override these
             defaults with the 4StartPath and AutoExecPath directives in

             To select different 4START, 4EXIT, and AUTOEXEC.BAT files for
             a particular object, place the files for that object in a
             directory that is not one of the default directories described
             above.  Then create a new 4DOS.INI file for that object, using
             the 4StartPath and / or AutoExecPath directives to point to
             the new directory, or use a //4StartPath or //AutoExecPath
             directive in the DOS_SHELL setting or parameters field for the

             To disable the default 4START, 4EXIT, or AUTOEXEC.BAT files
             for a particular object without selecting alternate files, use
             the techniques described above to tell 4DOS to load these
             files from a directory where they do not exist.  All three
             files are optional, so if they do not exist in the directory
             specified by 4StartPath or AutoExecPath, they will not be

             Remember that if your 4START and 4EXIT files have the
             extension .BTM, they may be executed by both 4DOS and 4OS2.
             If so, you may need to customize them for DOS mode and OS/2
             mode.  You can use the internal variable %_DOS to separate
             commands for each operating system.  For example:

                  iff "%_DOS" == "DOS"
                     rem Commands for DOS only go here
                     rem Commands for OS/2 only go here

        "Temporary" VDMs

             So far, we have discussed starting a VDM to run 4DOS and get
             to the DOS prompt.  OS/2 version 2.x and above also lets you
             start a temporary VDM, for example to run a DOS application or
             batch file from a desktop object.

             In a temporary VDM, 4DOS is still loaded as the primary shell
             even though it is being invoked to run just a single command
             or application.  This primary 4DOS shell is also a "transient"

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                                          CHAPTER 4 / USING 4DOS UNDER OS/2

             shell that exits (back to OS/2) when its job is done.
             Temporary VDMs are created automatically by OS/2 if you set up
             an object with the Program Name set to the name of a DOS
             application.  You can also start them yourself by using a /C
             (see page 16) in the Parameters field for a standard 4DOS

             For example, to create a temporary VDM to run your word
             processor you might set up an object like this:

                  Program Name:       E:\WORDPROC\WP.EXE
                  Parameters:         [blank]
                  Working Directory:  D:\LETTERS

             You usually won't want a temporary VDM to load all the memory-
             resident utilities and execute all the commands that you want
             when you are setting up a DOS prompt.  Most often, you will
             want to set up a simple VDM, run the command, and exit as
             quickly as possible.  The 4DOS internal variable %_TRANSIENT
             makes it easy to do just that.  The beginning of your
             AUTOEXEC.BAT file could look like this:

                  iff %_transient == 1 then
                       call setpath
                       call aliases

             This fragment calls other batch files to set up the path and
             aliases, but it does not load TSRs.

        Configuring 4DOS for Dual Boot and Boot Manager

             When you install OS/2, you are given a choice of making it the
             only operating system on your computer, or retaining a DOS
             boot capability as well.

             If you retain a DOS boot capability, OS/2 offers two different
             methods for switching between DOS and OS/2:  Dual Boot (OS/2
             versions 1.x, 2.x, and Warp) and Boot Manager (OS/2 version
             2.x and OS/2 Warp only).  The way you configure 4DOS to work
             with OS/2 depends partly on whether you retain a DOS boot
             capability on your computer, and, if so, which method you

             Dual Boot is invoked with the BOOT command (the program
             BOOT.COM distributed with OS/2).  If you use Dual Boot, you
             will have one copy of CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT available on
             your boot drive when you boot in DOS mode and another version
             available when you boot in OS/2 mode.  BOOT.COM works by

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             swapping the DOS and OS/2 versions of CONFIG.SYS and
             AUTOEXEC.BAT, as well as other system data, then rebooting the

             Boot Manager (included with OS/2 version 2.x and above only)
             uses a different approach.  It lets you install DOS on one
             hard drive partition and OS/2 on another partition.  When you
             boot the computer, Boot Manager displays a menu and lets you
             pick which operating system to boot.  Each partition will have
             its own versions of CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT.

             The difference between these approaches is the location and
             availability of files.

             If you use Dual Boot, the system always boots from the same
             drive, whether you are booting DOS or OS/2.  The CONFIG.SYS
             and AUTOEXEC.BAT files are switched back and forth as you
             switch from one operating system to the other.  The set of
             files that is in use at any given time is stored in the root
             directory of the boot drive, and the set not in use is stored
             in the \OS2\SYSTEM directory.

             If you use the Boot Manager, the files for DOS reside on one
             drive (for example, C) and those for OS/2 are on another drive
             (for example, D).  The files are not moved when you switch
             operating systems.  In both cases, you can keep the startup
             files synchronized or independent to meet your own needs.


             Setting up CONFIG.SYS is very simple, whether you are using
             Dual Boot or Boot Manager.  Modify both the DOS and OS/2
             CONFIG.SYS files for 4DOS as described on page 7.  The two
             files remain separate, and any changes to common items (for
             example the name of the directory where 4DOS is stored, used
             in the SHELL= command) must be made in both files.


             With AUTOEXEC.BAT, you have more flexibility.  Whether you use
             Dual Boot or Boot Manager, you will have two standard
             AUTOEXEC.BAT files:  one for starting 4DOS under a DOS boot
             and one for OS/2 DOS sessions.

             If you want different commands in AUTOEXEC.BAT for a DOS boot
             and OS/2 DOS sessions, you can keep the two files separate and
             distinct.  Just be sure to update both files whenever you make
             changes to the commands they have in common.  You can also

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                                          CHAPTER 4 / USING 4DOS UNDER OS/2

             CALL other batch files from each copy of AUTOEXEC.BAT to
             handle common commands.

             You may find that many of the commands in the two AUTOEXEC.BAT
             files are the same and that it is more convenient to maintain
             a single file.  The following paragraphs explain how to do so.

             If you use the Boot Manager, you can put all of your
             instructions in one file and start it from the other.  For
             example, if DOS boots from drive C: and OS/2 boots from drive
             D:, your AUTOEXEC.BAT on drive D: could simply be:

                  cdd c:\

             On a Dual Boot system the startup files are moved each time
             you boot, so you cannot start one file from the other as you
             can with Boot Manager.  If are using Dual Boot and you want to
             use the same commands in AUTOEXEC for both DOS and OS/2, you
             must put all of your commands into a third file (for example,
             C:\SYSTART.BAT), and CALL that file from both the DOS and OS/2
             AUTOEXEC.BAT files.

             You can also use the AutoExecPath directive in 4DOS.INI to
             force 4DOS to look in a particular directory for AUTOEXEC.BAT
             regardless of whether it is started from an OS/2 DOS session
             or from a DOS boot, and regardless of the boot drive.

             If you keep commands for both boot modes in a single
             AUTOEXEC.BAT file, you can use the internal variable %_DOSVER
             to separate commands to be executed during a DOS boot from
             those for an OS/2 DOS session.  %_DOSVER will be 10 or above
             for OS/2 DOS sessions.  For example:

                  iff %_DOSVER ge 10.0
                     rem Commands for OS/2 DOS go here
                     rem Commands for native DOS go here

             4DOS.INI, 4START, and 4EXIT

             Handling 4DOS's startup and exit files is a little different.
             Unlike CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT, the other startup files
             won't be swapped for you when you switch operating systems
             with Dual Boot, and they won't be automatically stored on
             separate partitions if you use the Boot Manager.  4DOS
             normally looks for these files in the directory where 4DOS.COM
             is stored, so the same files will be used for both a DOS boot
             and OS/2 DOS sessions.

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                                          CHAPTER 4 / USING 4DOS UNDER OS/2

             To set up one 4DOS.INI file for DOS and another for OS/2 DOS
             sessions, use the @ininame parameter on the SHELL= line in
             CONFIG.SYS (see page 11).  For example, you might configure
             the SHELL= line for DOS to load the default file (4DOS.INI in
             your 4DOS directory), and use the @ininame parameter on the
             SHELL= line in the OS/2 CONFIG.SYS file to select a different
             .INI file for OS/2 DOS sessions.  To do so, use a line like
             this for DOS:

                  SHELL=C:\4DOS\4DOS.COM C:\4DOS /P

             And one like this for OS/2 (enter this on one line):

                  SHELL=C:\4DOS\4DOS.COM C:\4DOS @C:\4DOS\4DOSOS2.INI /P

             To select different 4START and 4EXIT files for DOS and for
             OS/2 DOS sessions, place one set of files in a different
             directory (not the directory where 4DOS.COM is stored).  Then
             either set up a different 4DOS.INI file for that boot mode as
             described above, using 4StartPath to point to the new
             directory, or use a //4StartPath directive on the SHELL= line
             in CONFIG.SYS for that boot mode.  For example, this line in
             an OS/2 CONFIG.SYS file sets 4DOS as the command processor,
             and tells 4DOS to look for 4START and 4EXIT in the
             C:\4DOS\OS2START directory (enter this on one line):

                  SHELL=C:\4DOS\4DOS.COM C:\4DOS
                  //4STARTPATH=C:\4DOS\OS2START /P

             You can also keep commands for both boot modes in a single
             4START or 4EXIT file, and use %_DOSVER to separate the
             commands to be executed during a DOS boot from those for an
             OS/2 DOS session.  For a basic example, see page 56.

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                       Appendix A / Solving Software Compatibility Problems

        Appendix A / Solving Software Compatibility Problems

        Any DOS program running on your computer can potentially interact
        with any other program running at the same time.  Of course, most
        program interactions are ones you want:  your print spooler
        intercepts printer output and saves it to print later, or your disk
        cache intercepts disk requests and speeds them up by retrieving
        data from memory.

        If you've used the PC for any length of time, however, you'll know
        that you can also get interactions you don't want.  If you load
        just the wrong combination of TSRs and device drivers, your system
        may slow to a crawl.  Perhaps you can't load your favorite Personal
        Information Manager with Windows running.  And so on.

        As publishers of a product that replaces part of the operating
        system, we're very familiar with these issues - not because 4DOS is
        more likely to cause problems, but because it sometimes gets blamed
        first when a problem appears.  Our technical support department has
        developed a set of reliable techniques for finding out what's
        causing an apparent compatibility problem with 4DOS and other

        We are presenting these techniques here as a series of things to
        try when there seems to be a compatibility problem.  Some may not
        make sense for the particular problem you're investigating.  Others
        may not yield useful results.  But as a group, they'll help you
        resolve many of the common software interactions that do appear,
        whether with 4DOS or anything else.  Before you get started, be
        sure to check APPNOTES.DOC to see if we've already solved the
        problem you're facing.

        If you've tried the techniques in this section and haven't found
        the problem, contact our technical support department (see page 3).
        We have more tricks up our sleeve, and a very high success rate at
        resolving compatibility problems.

        Some of our suggestions help you figure out what's going on, but
        aren't intended to help you fix it.  For example, when we suggest
        that you remove all your TSRs to look for the problem, we aren't
        suggesting that as a permanent solution, but only as a diagnostic

        The first thing to consider is whether the particular combination
        of software that's not working used to work together.  If so, think
        carefully about what you have changed and see if reversing the
        change solves the problem.  If it does, then you can narrow your
        search, using the following techniques to find out what it is about
        that specific change that is causing the problem.

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                       Appendix A / Solving Software Compatibility Problems

        Second, make sure that your problem can be reproduced relatively
        easily, and make sure you know exactly what sequence of commands or
        other steps reproduces it.  Most interactions are very easy to
        reproduce, but if you think there's an interaction and it occurs
        once every 10 days, it's going to be difficult to know when you
        have fixed it.  Also, the process of carefully documenting how to
        reproduce a problem often helps you realize what the problem is
        without further effort.

        If you have a problem with a specific application hanging or
        working improperly, and the above techniques don't help, then try
        reducing your system configuration to the simplest possible level.
        This is the single most useful tool we know for finding
        compatibility problems.  To do so, use all of the approaches listed
        below, and any other similar things you may be able to think of
        about your particular system after reading our suggestions.

        When you're modifying 4DOS.INI in an attempt to resolve problems,
        you may find the INIQuery directive useful.  If you set INIQuery to
        Yes for a section of 4DOS.INI, then 4DOS will prompt you for each
        line in that section.  This allows you to test the effects of
        changing directives in the .INI file without actually modifying the
        file for each test.

        Path Length

             The first thing to do is to check the length of your PATH
             variable.  4DOS lets you make it longer than the traditional
             limit of 123 characters.  Some programs can't handle long
             PATHs and may behave strangely.  If your PATH is over the
             traditional limit, reduce its size using the PATH or ESET
             command and see if the application starts working.  If so, use
             a batch file or alias to set up an alternate path for running
             that one program, for example:

                  path d:\myprog

             The SETLOCAL / ENDLOCAL pair saves and restores the
             environment; when you're done, the old PATH will be restored

        Environment Size

             Next, check how much environment space is in use in your
             system.  The 4DOS MEMORY command reports the total environment
             space and the amount free; a simple subtraction tells you how

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                       Appendix A / Solving Software Compatibility Problems

             much is in use.  Some programs simply don't work right if
             there's a lot of information in the environment (these
             programs don't usually care how big the total environment
             space is, only how much of it is actually in use).  In most
             cases, these problems show up when the amount of space in use
             gets up to around 1K (1024) bytes or so, but they can occur at
             any point. To test for this, use the following simple batch

                  unset var1 var2 var3 ...
                  [command to run the program in question]

             where VAR1, VAR2, etc. are variables you can remove from the
             environment to decrease the space in use before running the
             program.  If reducing the environment space in use makes
             things work, contact the program's manufacturer and report the
             problem.  You have found a legitimate bug.  DOS allows an
             environment of up to 32K bytes, and your program should be
             able to work with an environment that large.  Until the
             manufacturer fixes the bug, use the batch file above as a

        Testing for Interactions

             Before testing for software interactions, try booting your
             system with COMMAND.COM, without changing anything else about
             your configuration (though you may have to modify AUTOEXEC.BAT
             if it contains 4DOS-specific commands).  If the problem
             remains, then it's not related to an interaction with 4DOS.
             Contact the manufacturer of the software that isn't working
             properly to determine the cause of the problem.

             To look for a multi-program interaction, you'll need to remove
             all the device drivers and TSRs you possibly can and still
             have enough software present to demonstrate the problem.  For
             example, you can't look for a network problem if you don't
             load the network, but you probably can check it without your
             disk cache running.  If you're running DOS, be sure you have a
             bootable floppy disk handy (see page 4) before modifying your
             CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files to remove drivers and TSRs.

             If you run a partitioning disk driver, you probably can't
             remove it for diagnostic purposes without temporarily losing
             access to some or all of your hard disk.  The same may be true
             of disk compression programs like Stacker, depending on the
             mode in which they are installed.  Most other device drivers
             and TSRs can be removed without causing trouble.  Check your

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                       Appendix A / Solving Software Compatibility Problems

             system and software manuals if you are unsure of which
             programs can safely be removed.

             Once you know what you can take out, don't skimp or guess
             where the interaction might be.  Take out everything you
             possibly can from CONFIG.SYS, 4START, and AUTOEXEC.BAT that
             loads or accesses another program .  In CONFIG.SYS, remove all
             possible DEVICE and INSTALL statements.  In AUTOEXEC.BAT,
             remove all the lines you can that load memory-resident
             programs (and remember that some DOS utilities, like MODE, can
             be memory-resident).

             Of course, you should save copies of your configuration files
             before you delete anything.  Better yet, use the REM command
             to remove lines temporarily without deleting them.  REM can be
             used on any line in AUTOEXEC.BAT, in 4START, and in CONFIG.SYS
             if you are running DOS 4.0 or above.  (In earlier DOS
             versions, REM will work in CONFIG.SYS but will also generate a
             harmless "unrecognized command" message during bootup.)  If
             you want to remove everything in AUTOEXEC.BAT you can rename
             it to another name (say AUOTEXEC.SAV), and rename it back when
             you are done testing.

             Clean out your configuration files all at once, not one line
             at a time.  If that solves the problem, you're on the right
             track, and you can put the lines back one at a time until you
             find the culprit.  If it doesn't solve the problem, you won't
             waste time removing lines one by one.

             If the problem isn't there under COMMAND.COM, try fiddling
             with the program's configuration. If you were loading it high,
             try loading it low.  If you can change the way it uses memory,
             try doing so.  If it's a driver that's used by other programs
             (like your mouse driver) and is quite old, consider obtaining
             an update from the manufacturer.  All of these techniques will
             help you narrow down what it is about the program that's
             causing a problem.  Once you have done that, you may have a
             simple workaround.  If not, contact our technical support
             department and we'll try to verify the problem, then resolve
             it with the manufacturer of the other software.

             Some problems can be resolved by modifying the order in which
             you load drivers and TSRs.  If you've found a problem with a
             particular driver or TSR, if possible try loading it earlier
             or later than you were and see if the problem goes away.

             If you're running OS/2, the process of removing device drivers
             and TSRs is usually simpler than under DOS.  You probably
             won't need to modify CONFIG.SYS, but you may need to adjust
             the DOS Settings for the session in which 4DOS is running (see
             page 49).  Try changing the amounts of XMS, EMS, and DPMI

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                       Appendix A / Solving Software Compatibility Problems

             memory available to the DOS session, removing drivers if any
             are listed under DOS_DEVICE in your DOS Settings, and removing
             memory-resident programs loaded in AUTOEXEC.BAT as described

        Memory Allocation Conflicts

             A memory allocation conflict is very simple.  It occurs when
             two (or more) programs try to use the same memory, or when a
             program behaves differently depending on where it is loaded in
             memory.  Inevitably, at least one of the programs will operate
             incorrectly, report an error, or hang.  These conflicts can be
             very hard to diagnose, because it's difficult to determine
             which programs are actually causing the conflict, and the
             symptoms may appear to be totally unrelated to the program
             responsible for the problem.

             4DOS uses memory in a more complex way than COMMAND.COM.  It
             can use base, XMS, or EMS memory, and store portions of itself
             and its data in UMBs (see page 24 for additional details on
             4DOS memory usage).  COMMAND.COM does not offer any of these
             capabilities.  This added complexity makes it more likely that
             you'll encounter memory allocation conflicts with 4DOS.  This
             isn't because 4DOS is less reliable than other programs, it's
             because the memory allocation conflict was there waiting to
             happen, and 4DOS triggered it through its access to additional

             It's easy to check whether 4DOS's use of memory is a problem.
             If you configure 4DOS so that it swaps to disk, and disable
             all use of UMBs, then 4DOS uses only base memory, and (in
             terms of memory allocation) operates very much like
             COMMAND.COM.  You can make this change in two simple steps.
             First, add one line to 4DOS.INI:

                  Swapping = c:\

             (change this if you prefer to swap to a different drive, but
             do not use a RAM disk when you are testing for compatibility
             problems - the RAM disk itself could be part of the problem).
             Second, remove any lines in 4DOS.INI which allocate UMBs
             (UMBLoad, UMBEnvironment, UMBAlias, and UMBHistory), or place
             a semicolon at the start of such lines to temporarily turn
             them into comments.

             If these steps solve the problem, you've found a memory
             allocation conflict.  The next thing to do is remove all the
             drivers and TSRs you can to see if you can determine where the
             conflict is.  For specific techniques, see page 60.  If you

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                       Appendix A / Solving Software Compatibility Problems

             can't come up with an acceptable solution using these
             techniques, contact JP Software for technical assistance.

             Memory Allocation and Microsoft Windows

             If you use Microsoft Windows, there are some specific memory
             allocation issues you need to consider.  When you run Windows
             in 386 Enhanced mode, the Windows memory manager "takes over"
             from the underlying DOS-based memory manager.  If the two
             programs don't see memory in quite the same way, the conflict
             can produce some very strange behavior.  For example, the same
             memory can be allocated twice, or Windows can put portions of
             itself in areas that were being used by 4DOS or your device
             drivers and TSRs.  These problems typically apply to upper
             memory, and not to EMS or XMS memory.  Any of them can cause
             substantial difficulties in Windows DOS sessions.

             To avoid such problems you need to systematically verify that
             Windows and your memory manager are using the same information
             about upper memory.  You can do so with this approach:

                  * First, gather a list of all the areas of upper memory
                    used by your hardware.  This may require consulting
                    your hardware manuals.  Look for an explanation of the
                    range of addresses used by each board, as a pair of 4-
                    digit hexadecimal numbers, for example D400-D7FF.
                    (Sometimes the addresses have a trailing zero, for
                    example D4000-D7FF0.  In this case use only the first
                    4 digits.)  Some boards use no upper memory space at
                    all.  Boards which may occupy space in upper memory
                    include network interface cards, SCSI boards, sound
                    cards, and scanner boards.  Some hard disk controllers
                    and video boards also use upper memory space,
                    including "Super VGA" and other high-resolution video
                    boards.  Video boards may use different areas of upper
                    memory depending on your display mode.  However, you
                    don't usually need to consider the standard areas used
                    by basic VGA boards.

                  * Next, make sure you have excluded all the areas of
                    upper memory from management by your memory manager.
                    The basic approach is to include a switch when you
                    start up the memory manager, for example /X=D400-D7FF
                    to exclude the range D400-D7FF.  See your memory
                    manager documentation for the exact method.

                  * Finally, locate the SYSTEM.INI file in your Windows
                    directory.  Find the section of this file beginning
                    [386Enh] and add an EMMExclude line to it for each
                    range to be excluded, for example:

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                       Appendix A / Solving Software Compatibility Problems


                    The list in SYSTEM.INI should exactly match the
                    exclude list given to your memory manager.

             If this technique solves the problem, you're finished.  If
             not, also check that any network you have installed is
             properly configured for Windows.  Errors in network
             configuration under Windows may generate memory allocation
             conflicts of their own, and can cause unusual behavior in
             Windows DOS sessions even though the DOS sessions are not
             specifically accessing the network.

        Advanced Configuration Options

             If none of the other techniques in this Appendix proves
             useful, some of the advanced directives in 4DOS.INI may help
             solve very rare configuration problems.  However, unless you
             are an experienced DOS user and understand the side effects of
             each directive, they should be used only as diagnostic tools
             and not as a workaround or fix.  Any of the following can be
             tried for the conditions indicated:

                  FineSwap = Yes:  If you are using disk swapping and your
                  system hangs when exiting an application.

                  Inherit = No:  If you have unexplained problems in
                  starting secondary shells.

                  LineInput = Yes (or SETDOS /L1):  If you have memory-
                  resident programs which do not recognize that you are at
                  the prompt.

                  Reduce = No:  If you have unexplained problems in
                  starting secondary shells.

                  ReserveTPA = No:  For unusual memory allocation problems.

                  SwapReopen = Yes:  If an application or network generates
                  reproducible errors related to the 4DOS swap file (for
                  example "Swap file seek failed" or similar errors)

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                                         APPENDIX B / TECHNICAL INFORMATION


        This appendix provides technical information for programmers who
        wish to build interfaces to 4DOS.  It covers detecting 4DOS,
        placing keystrokes in the Keystack, writing installable commands,
        using the DESCRIPT.ION file, and using the interrupt 2E "back door"
        entry into 4DOS to execute commands.

        Detecting 4DOS

             Detecting 4DOS From a Batch File

             From a batch file, you can determine if 4DOS is loaded by
             testing for the variable function @EVAL, with a test like

                  if "%@eval[2+2]" == "4" echo 4DOS is loaded!

             This test can not succeed in COMMAND.COM and is therefore a
             reliable way to detect 4DOS.  Other variable functions could
             be used for the same purpose.

             Detecting 4DOS From a Program

             Any program can test for the presence of 4DOS by making a
             simple INT 2Fh call.  Be sure to check the INT 2Fh vector
             first as it may be 0 under some versions of DOS if no program
             has hooked the interrupt.  To detect 4DOS, call INT 2Fh with:

                  AX     D44Dh
                  BX     0

             If 4DOS is not loaded, AX will be returned unchanged.  If 4DOS
             is loaded, it will return the following (no other registers
             are modified):

                  AX     44DDh
                  BX     Version number (BL = major version, BH = minor
                  CX     4DOS PSP segment address
                  DL     4DOS shell number

             The shell number is incremented each time a new copy of 4DOS
             is loaded, either in a different multitasker window (for
             example, under Windows), or via nested shells.  The primary

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                                         APPENDIX B / TECHNICAL INFORMATION

             shell is shell number 0.  In OS/2 DOS sessions, each session's
             primary shell is shell 0.

             The response to INT 2F function D44Dh will come from the most
             recently loaded 4DOS shell.  For example, if your program is
             run from a secondary shell the response will come from that
             secondary shell, and will reflect its shell number and PSP

             This function tells you if 4DOS is loaded in memory, but not
             whether it is the parent process of your program.  You can
             determine if 4DOS is the parent process by comparing the PSP
             value returned in CX to the PSP chain pointer at offset 16h in
             your program's PSP.

             Detecting the 4DOS Prompt

             4DOS generates INT 2Fh calls before and after the prompt is
             displayed to allow TSRs to detect that 4DOS is at the prompt.
             The calls are:

                  AX     D44Eh
                  BX     0 if 4DOS is about to display the prompt; 1 if
                         4DOS has displayed the prompt and is about to
                         accept keyboard input; or 2 if keyboard input is
                         complete and 4DOS is about to begin processing
                         the line.

             Any routine intercepting these calls should preserve the SI,
             DI, BP, SP, DS, ES, and SS registers.

        Placing Keystrokes Into the Keystack

             You can put keystrokes into the 4DOS Keystack with an INT 2Fh
             call.  First, you must make a call to check whether KSTACK.COM
             is loaded:

                  AX     D44Fh
                  BX     0

             If KSTACK.COM is not loaded, this call will return AX
             unchanged.  If it is loaded, AX will be returned as 44DDh;
             other registers will be unchanged.  Once you have determined
             that KSTACK.COM is loaded, you can send keystrokes with this

                  AX     D44Fh
                  BX     1
                  CX     number of words being passed (0 - 255)

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                                         APPENDIX B / TECHNICAL INFORMATION

                  DS:DX  address of the keystroke array

             On return, if the call succeeded then AX will be 0; if it
             failed, AX will be non-zero.  BX, CX, and DX are destroyed;
             other registers are preserved.  If the call succeeds,
             subsequent calls to INT 16h functions 0, 1, 10h, or 11h will
             receive the stacked keystrokes.

             The keystroke array passed to KSTACK must be an array of words
             containing the values to return from INT 16h.  The high byte
             of each word is a scan code and the low byte is an ASCII code.
             Many programs accept keystrokes properly with only the ASCII
             code, but some require the scan code as well.  See Appendix B
             of your Reference Manual for a list of ASCII and scan codes
             for most keyboards.  To insert a delay in the keystroke
             sequence, include a word set to FFFFh followed by a word
             containing the desired delay in clock ticks.

        Writing Installable Commands

             An "installable command" is created with a memory-resident
             program (TSR) which can receive signals from 4DOS and process
             commands.  4DOS makes every command available to such TSRs
             before it is executed; if any TSR chooses to execute the
             command, 4DOS will do no further processing.  Otherwise, 4DOS
             processes the command normally.

             The 4DOS "Installable Command" interface is compatible with an
             undocumented interface present in COMMAND.COM for MS-DOS and
             PC-DOS 3.3 and above.  This interface is documented more
             thoroughly in the excellent reference text Undocumented DOS by
             Schulman et. al., published by Addison Wesley.

             4DOS looks for an installable command after alias and variable
             expansion and redirection, and after checking to see if the
             command is a drive change, but before checking for an internal
             or external command.

             4DOS first makes an INT 2Fh call to determine whether any TSR
             loaded will respond to the command, with:

                  AX     AE00h
                  BX     offset of command line buffer:
                            first byte = maximum length of command line
                            second byte = actual length of command line,
                              not including trailing CR
                            remainder = command line, with a trailing CR
                  CH     FFh
                  CL     length of command line, not including the command

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                                         APPENDIX B / TECHNICAL INFORMATION

                  DX     FFFFh
                  SI     offset of command name buffer:
                            first byte = length of command name
                            remainder = command name, shifted to upper case
                              and padded with blanks to 11 characters
                  DS     segment for command line and command name buffers

             If the TSR does not recognize the command as its own, it must
             pass the INT 2Fh along with registers unchanged.  If it does
             recognize the command, it must return 0FFh in AL.  The command
             should not be executed at this point.  4DOS will then make
             another call (buffer formats are the same as above):

                  AX     AE01h
                  BX     offset of command line buffer
                  CH     0
                  CL     length of command name
                  DX     FFFFh
                  SI     offset of command name buffer
                  DS     segment for command line and command name buffers

             If the TSR executes the command line, it must set the command
             name length at DS:[SI] to 0.  If the command name length is
             not set to 0, 4DOS will attempt to execute the command as an
             internal or external command.  This allows the TSR to return a
             modified command line to 4DOS by modifying the command line
             buffer at DS:BX, and leaving the command name length byte at
             DS:[SI] set to a non-zero value.  If the command is executed,
             the TSR should return the result of the command (zero for
             normal return or non-zero for an error) in AL.

        Using DESCRIPT.ION

             4DOS uses the file DESCRIPT.ION to store file descriptions.
             This file is created as a hidden file in each subdirectory
             which has descriptions, and deleted when all descriptions are
             removed or when all files with descriptions are deleted.  If
             you remove the hidden attribute from the file, 4DOS will not
             hide it again.

             Your programs can access DESCRIPT.ION to create, retrieve, or
             modify file descriptions, and to store other information.
             DESCRIPT.ION has one line per file, and is unsorted.  Each
             line is in the following format:

                  filename.ext Description[*<ID>Other program info]...<CR>

             There is normally one space between the description and
             filename but additional spaces may be used in future versions
             of 4DOS.  The characters after the description allow extension

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                                         APPENDIX B / TECHNICAL INFORMATION

             of the description format for use by other programs.  They are
             as follows:

                  * is an ASCII Ctrl-D (04), and marks the end of the
                  description text and the beginning of information for a
                  program other than 4DOS.  This symbol can appear multiple
                  times on each line; each occurrence marks the beginning
                  of information for another program.

                  <ID> is an identification byte for the program which is
                  using this area of the particular line.  If you are
                  writing a program which will store information in
                  DESCRIPT.ION, test it using an ID byte of your own
                  choosing.  When you are ready to release the program,
                  contact JP Software and we will provide you with an ID
                  byte value that is not in use by others to the best of
                  our knowledge.

                  Other program info is any text the program wishes to
                  store in its area of the line.  The text should relate
                  specifically to the file named on the line.  It may not
                  contain the Ctrl-D character, carriage returns, line
                  feeds, or nulls (ASCII 0s).

             4DOS will copy, delete, or move all the information on a line
             in DESCRIPT.ION, including  information owned by other
             programs, when performing the same action on the corresponding
             file.  4DOS will also change the name if a file is renamed.
             To support DESCRIPT.ION properly, your program must do the
             same if it copies, deletes, moves, or renames files.  Take
             care not to remove information which does not belong to your
             program, or delete lines which contain information for other
             programs.  Your program should be able to handle a line
             terminated by a CR or LF alone, a CR/LF pair, an EOF (ASCII
             26), or the physical end of the file.  The lines it creates
             should be terminated with CR / LF.  The line length limit is
             4096 bytes; exceeding this limit will cause unpredictable

        Interrupt 2E

             4DOS provides full, documented support for the undocumented
             COMMAND.COM "back door" entry, INT 2E (hex).  INT 2E allows
             applications to call the primary copy of the command processor
             to execute commands, without loading a secondary shell.

             INT 2E support is enabled by default.  It can be disabled with
             the FullINT2E = No directive in 4DOS.INI, in which case 4DOS
             "hooks" INT 2E, but any calls to it are ignored.  INT 2E
             support adds about 100 bytes to the resident size of 4DOS, and

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                                         APPENDIX B / TECHNICAL INFORMATION

             applies only to the primary shell (it is ignored in secondary

             To use INT 2E, set DS:SI to the address of a buffer containing
             the command, then issue an INT 2E.  The buffer format is:

                  First byte  Length of the command, not including this
                              byte or the last byte
                  Text bytes  The command text
                  Last byte   CR (ASCII 13)

             You must release enough memory for 4DOS to reload its
             transient portion, and provide about 80 bytes of available
             stack space for the INT 2E handler to use.  INT 2E can not be
             called from a TSR while 4DOS is running (for example, a TSR
             popped up at the 4DOS prompt or from within LIST or SELECT),
             but can be called from within any application or from within a
             TSR while an application (including the 4DOS HELP system) is

             INT 2E can invoke any 4DOS command including an alias, an
             internal command, an external command, or a batch file.  All
             changes to 4DOS data (such as aliases, environment variables,
             and SETDOS settings) which are made by a command executed via
             INT 2E calls will affect the primary shell, and the
             environment passed to a program called via INT 2E will be a
             copy of the primary shell's environment.

             INT 2E uses the same internal stack as the primary shell.  If
             a complex command is used in the primary shell to start a
             program which eventually issues an INT 2E, the additional
             stack space required by commands executed through INT 2E may
             (in rare circumstances) cause a stack overflow.  If this
             occurs, use the StackSize directive in 4DOS.INI to increase
             4DOS's internal stack space.

             INT 2E also uses the same batch file "stack" as the primary
             shell.  This means that if INT 2E is used to execute a batch
             file, this batch file is considered "nested" within any batch
             file(s) used in the primary shell to start the program which
             issued the INT 2E.  This may cause batch nesting errors from
             within the INT 2E call which would not occur if the same
             command were executed at the prompt.

             On return from INT 2E, all registers will be destroyed except
             SS and SP.  AX will be set as follows:

                  FFFFh  An error occurred before processing the command:
                         not enough memory was available, INT 2E was
                         called from a TSR, or another error made it
                         impossible to handle the interrupt.

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                                         APPENDIX B / TECHNICAL INFORMATION

                  0      The command was processed without error.

                  > 0    There was an error in processing the command.  AX
                         is the error number, equivalent to the %_? value
                         from an internal command or the %? value from an
                         external command.  If a batch file is run, the
                         value will be the error level returned by the
                         batch file (via QUIT n or CANCEL n) or the last
                         command within it.  If an alias is run the value
                         will be the exit code returned by the last
                         command in the alias.

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        Index                               A

                                            Alias list, local and global,
        Conventions:  Most fully              12, 26, 27
        capitalized terms (e.g., ECHO,      ANSI driver, 28
        SELECT) are command names               in CONFIG.SYS, 30
        unless otherwise noted.             APPEND command, 32
                                            APPNOTES.DOC, 2
                                            AUTOEXEC.BAT, 10, 16
        Special Characters                      and 4START, 16
                                                and installation, 4, 6, 8
        ## advanced topic mark, 3               and OS/2, 47, 53, 55
        ! warning mark, 3                       and OS/2 Dual Boot and Boot
                                                  Manager, 55
        3                                       and startup command, 13
                                                disabling, 12
        386MAX, 28                              running, 13
                                                single-step option, 13
        4                                       starting KSTACK.COM, 8, 16

        4DOS for Windows NT, 1              B
        4DOS.INI, 10
            and OS/2 DOS sessions, 51,      Back & Forth, 15
              52                            Base memory, see Memory
            and OS/2 Dual Boot and Boot     Batch files, startup, 13, 16,
              Manager, 56                     35
            directives, on startup              and Microsoft Windows, 38
              command line, 11, 15          BIOS, 28
            location of, 11, 15, 52         Boot Manager, see OS/2
            prompts during execution,       BOOT.SYS, 14
              59                            Bootable disk, creating, 4
            reference information, 2
            secondary section, and          C
              multitasking, 35
        4DOS.PIF, 38                        CD-ROM drives, 31
        4EXIT, 10, 16                       Colors, in help system, 21, 30
            and 4OS2, 53                    Command history list, local and
            and OS/2, 53, 56                  global, 12
            location of, 53                 COMMAND.COM
        4HELP, see Help system                  in DOS version 2.x, 14
        4OS2, 1                                 in Microsoft Windows, 37
            and 4DOS installation, 5            in multitasker DOS windows,
        4START, 10, 16                            35
            and 4OS2, 53                    Commands
            and multitasking, 36                4DOS startup, 13, 16
            and OS/2, 53, 56                        and multitasking, 35
            and startup command, 13                 in OS/2 DOS sessions,
            location of, 53                           51
            single-step option, 13              help on, 19
                                                programming interface, 67
                                                reference information, 2

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        Compatibility, 23                   Configuration, 10
            and disks, 30                       troubleshooting, 64
            and memory, 24                  Coprocessor, see Numeric
            and the CPU, 23                   coprocessor
            and video hardware and          CPU, 23
              software, 28                  Critical errors, 12, 15
            solving problems, 58            Cursor shape, 29
            with DOS, 32
            with Microsoft Windows, 37      D
            with Microsoft Windows 95,
              39                            DBLSPACE, 31
            with multitasking software,     DEL, speed of, 31
              34                            Descriptions, see File
            with networks, 44                 descriptions
            with Novell Netware, 45         DESQview, 15, 34
        Compressed drives, 31               Detecting 4DOS, 65
            and installation, 5             DIR, speed of, 31
        COMSPEC                             Directory history list, local
            environment variable, 17          and global, 12
                and disk swapping, 19       Directory scans, and Novell
                and DOS FORMAT /S, 32         Netware, 45
                and multitaskers, 35        Disk drives, 30
                checking, 17                    free space on, on networks,
                setting automatically,            45
                  11, 17                        swapping to, 17
                setting manually, 9, 17     Disk reset, 31
            path, 7, 11, 17                 @DISKFREE variable function,
                and OS/2 DOS sessions,        on networks, 45
                  11, 51, 52                Diskless workstations, 44
        CONFIG.SYS, 10                      @DISKTOTAL variable function,
            4DOS commands in, 11              on networks, 45
            and ANSI driver, 30             @DISKUSED variable function,
            and DOS bug, 14                   on networks, 45
            and installation, 4, 6, 7       DOS, see also MS-DOS / PC-DOS;
            in OS/2, 47                       Novell DOS
                Dual Boot and Boot              memory, see Memory
                  Manager, 55                   shell, 1
                location of, 55                 version 2.x, 14
            multiple configuration              versions of, 1
              utilities, 6, 32              DOS sessions, see OS/2 DOS
            SET commands in, 32               sessions
            SHELL=, 11                      DOS version 2.x, 14
                and installation, 7         DOS=UMB, in CONFIG.SYS, 28
                and multiple                DOS_SHELL, see OS/2 DOS
                  configuration               sessions
                  utilities, 14             DR DOS, see Novell DOS
                in DOS version 2.x, 15      DRAWBOX, 29
                in OS/2, 49, 52, 57         DRAWHLINE, 29
                in OS/2 1.x, 48             DRAWVLINE, 29
                length of, 14               Drive, see Disk drives
                                            Dual Boot, see OS/2

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        E                                   Installable commands, 67
                                            Installation, 4
        EGA, 29, 30                             and DOS 2.x, 4
        EMS, see Memory                         and OS/2 Dual Boot and Boot
        Environment                               Manager, 5
            loading in UMBs, 27                 automated, 6
            memory space for, 12, 15            directory for, 4
            size of, and compatibility          manual, 7
              problems, 59                      of downloaded updates, 4, 7
        Expanded memory, see Memory             on diskettes, 7
        Extended memory, see Memory             preparations
                                                    under DOS, 4
        F                                           under OS/2, 5
                                                reversing, 8
        File descriptions                       stopping, 7
            and disk performance, 31        INT 2E, 69
            programming for, 68             INT 2F, 65
        File names, long, 42
        File names, on networks, 44         K
        File passwords, in Novell DOS,
          33                                KEYSTACK
        Floppy disks, 30, 31                    and multitasking, 36
        FORMAT /S command, 32                   programming interface, 66
        Free memory, see Memory             KSTACK.COM, 8, 16
        FREE, on networks, 45                   and multitasking, 36
                                                and Windows 95, 43
        Guided tour, 1, 6, 7
                                            LH, 27
        H                                   LIST, 29
                                            LOADHIGH, 27
        Hard drives, 30                     Local and global aliases and
        Hardware compatibility, see           histories, 12
          Compatibility                     Local and global aliases and
        Help system, 2, 19                    history, 26, 27
            /? option, 20                   Long file names, 42
            and monochrome monitor, 30
            colors, 21                      M
            configuring, 21
            keystrokes, 20                  Master environment, see
            location of files, 21             Environment
            options, 22, 30                 Memory, 24, 26
        HELPCFG, see Help system                allocation conflicts, 62
        History list, local and global,             and networks, 64
          26, 27                                    and Windows, 63
        HMA, see Memory                         base, 24
                                                checking status, 26
        I                                       expanded (EMS), 24, 25
                                                    hardware, 28
        .INI file, see 4DOS.INI                     swapping to, 17, 27

        Copr. 1995 JP Software Inc.   4DOS Intro. & Installation Guide / 74�

        Memory (continued)                  N
            extended, 25
                4DOS's use of, 26           Networks, 44
            extended (XMS), 25                  disk access problems on, 31
                4DOS's use of, 26               disk space calculations on,
                swapping to, 17                   45
            high memory area (HMA), 25          disk swapping on, 45
            problems with, 26                   diskless workstations on,
            upper, 24                             44
            upper memory blocks (UMBs),         file and directory names
              25                                  on, 44
                4DOS's use of, 27           Novell DOS, 11, 25, 32
                and Windows, 63                 and LOADHIGH, 33
                regions, 28                     memory management, 27
                system requirements             passwords, 33
                  for, 27                   Novell Netware, 45
            used by 4DOS, 17, 26                diskless workstations on,
        Memory resident programs, see             46
          TSRs                              Numeric coprocessor, 24
        Menus, in CONFIG.SYS, 32
        Microsoft Windows, 35, 37, 39       O
            and batch files, 38
            and compatibility, 63           Options, see Startup Options
            and secondary shells, 15        OS/2, 47
        Microsoft Windows 95                    4OS2 product, 1
            4DOS as primary shell, 40           and 4EXIT, 53
            and KSTACK.COM, 43                  and 4START, 53
            boot sequence, 39                   and AUTOEXEC.BAT, 47, 53
            long file names, 42                 and COMSPEC path, 11, 51,
            starting 4DOS from, 41                52
        Monochrome monitor, and help            CONFIG.SYS file, 11, 47
          system, 22, 30                        Desktop menu, 52
        Mouse, in help system, 22               DOS sessions, 48
        MS-DOS / PC-DOS, 32                         and .INI file, 52
            APPEND command, 32                      and 4DOS, 50
            bug in CONFIG.SYS                       DOS_SHELL setting, 49,
              processing, 14                          51, 52
            FORMAT /S command, 32                   settings for, 49
            memory management, 25, 27,              startup commands for,
              28                                      51
            version 2.x, 4                      Dual Boot and Boot Manager,
            version 6.x, 13, 14                   47, 54
        Multiple configuration                      and 4DOS installation,
          utilities, 6, 14, 32                        5
        Multitasking software, 34                   and 4DOS.INI, 56
            4DOS windows in, 35                     and 4EXIT, 56
            and COMSPEC, 35                         and 4START, 56
            and disk swapping, 37                   and AUTOEXEC.BAT, 55
            and KEYSTACK, 36                        and CONFIG.SYS, 55
            Microsoft Windows, 37                   file locations, 55
            Microsoft Windows 95, 39            installing 4DOS for, 5

        Copr. 1995 JP Software Inc.   4DOS Intro. & Installation Guide / 75�

        OS/2 (continued)                    Shell (continued)
            temporary VDMs, 51, 53              secondary
            version 1.x, 48                         and multitasking, 34,
            version 2.x, 48                           35
            Warp, 48                                startup options, 15
                                                    swap size, 17
        P                                           to run a single
                                                      command, 16
        Passwords, in Novell DOS, 33        Software compatibility, see
        PATH, length of, 59                   Compatibility
        Primary shell, see Shell            Software interactions, 60
        Programming, for 4DOS, see          Stacker, 31
          Technical Information             Startup options
                                                //iniline, 11, 15, 35, 52
        Q                                       /C, 16, 51
                                                /D, 12
        QEMM, 28                                /E, 12, 15
        Quick help, 20                          /F, 12, 15
                                                /K, 13, 16
        R                                       /L, /LA, /LD, and /LH, 12,
        RAM, see Memory                         /P, 13
        RAM disk, 26                            /Y, 13
            swapping to, 17                     @inifile, 11, 15, 35, 52
        README.1ST file, 6                      commands in, 13, 16
        Reference information, 2                primary shell, 11
        Reference manual, 2                     secondary shell, 15
        Resident portion (of 4DOS), 17,     SuperStor, 31
          26                                Support, 3
            loading in UMBs, 27             Swapping
                                                and compatibility, 26
        S                                       and multitasking software,
        Screen, 28                              file names used by, 18, 37
            size, 29                            on networks, 45
        SCRPUT, 29                              types of, 17
        Secondary shell, see Shell
        SELECT, 29                          T
        SET, in CONFIG.SYS, 32
        Shell                               Task switching software, see
            DOS shell, 1                      Multitasking software
            primary                         Technical information, 65
                and multitasking, 34,           DESCRIPT.ION, 68
                  37                            detecting 4DOS, 65
                in OS/2, 53                     installable commands, 67
                startup options, 11             INT 2E, 69
                swap size, 17                   KEYSTACK, 66
                                            Technical support, 3
                                            Transient portion (of 4DOS),
                                              17, 26

        Copr. 1995 JP Software Inc.   4DOS Intro. & Installation Guide / 76�

        TSRs, 23
            and compatibility, 60
            and multitasker startup
              files, 35
            and OS/2 DOS sessions, 54
            loading order, 61


        UltraVision, 30
        UMBs, see Memory
        Uninstalling 4DOS, 8


        VDM, see OS/2
        VGA, 29, 30
        Video hardware, 28
        VSCRPUT, 29


        Wildcards, and DEL speed, 31
        Windows, see Microsoft Windows;
          Microsoft Windows 95
        Windows NT, 4DOS/NT product, 1


        XMS, see Memory