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Amiga 4000 Hardware Guide

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@database A4000HardwareGuide

@Index IndexNode
@author "Warren Block"
@$VER: 4.0 (08/96)
@font courier.font 13

@node "Main"

                    Amiga 4000 Hardware Guide 4.0 (08/96)
                          compiled by Warren Block


                @{"  " link "Introduction"} Introduction                 @{"  " link "Drives"} Drives

                @{"  " link "Common Problems"} Common Problems              @{"  " link "Monitors"} Monitors

                @{"  " link "Common Questions"} Common Questions             @{"  " link "Sources"} Sources

                @{"  " link "Tips"} Tips                         @{"  " link "Editor"} Editor

                @{"  " link "Internals"} Internals                    @{"  " link "Credits"} Credits

                @{"  " link "Boards"} Boards                       @{"  " link "IndexNode"} Index


                         @{"What's New With This Version" link "What's New With This Version"}

@node "Introduction"




  This document is Copyright Š 1996 by Warren Block.


  The Amiga 4000 Hardware Guide is freeware. It has been copyrighted to
  assure its availability to all. Fred Fish and the Aminet are explicitly
  allowed to include this document in CD-ROM or floppy compilations. Others
  should contact the @{"Editor" link "Editor"}.


  Working on computer hardware can be dangerous, both to the computer and to
  yourself. If you are not a qualified technician, please do not attempt to
  perform any of these procedures yourself. Neither myself nor any of the
  people listed in the @{"Credits" link "Credits"} make any claim that any of these tips actually
  work. In fact, they will probably destroy your computer or your self-
  confidence. Neither is any claim made that any of the information presented
  here is error-free, so if you do attempt any of these modifications or
  fixes and damage yourself or the computer, neither myself nor any of the
  persons listed in the Credits section will be held responsible.

  Introduction From The @{"Editor" link "Editor"}

  The Amiga 4000 Hardware Guide was compiled from online messages posted by
  many different folks, various hints and tips I've collected elsewhere, and
  from my own experiences with the 4000, so it is by no means complete.
  Corrections or additions are welcomed.

  The purpose of the guide is to help make A4000 troubleshooting easier by
  gathering all kinds of Amiga 4000 hardware information into a single,
  easy-to-use guide file.

  This guide is specifically for the Amiga 4000; however, at the prompting of
  several other individuals, I've compiled a short A1200 hardware FAQ to
  address those same old questions I see popping up in c.s.a.hardware all the
  time. Both are available in the hard/misc directory of Aminet.

  All of the people who have contributed are listed under @{"Credits" link "Credits"}. I can't
  thank them enough! At this point in time, information of this type can be
  very valuable in keeping A4000 systems alive and running, and they have
  been gracious enough to freely share this information with everyone.

  Comments on this document should be addressed to the @{"Editor" link "Editor"}.

@node "Common Problems"

                               Common Problems


  @{"  " link "Fan Problems"} Fan Problems                        @{"  " link "Battery Problems"} Battery Problems

  @{"  " link "-5V Power Problems"} -5V Power Problems                  @{"  " link "Zorro-III Problems"} Zorro-III Problems

  @{"  " link "Video Banding Problems"} Video Banding Problems              @{"  " link "SCSI Reselect Problems"} SCSI Reselect Problems

  @{"  " link "Green Display Problems"} Green Display Problems              @{"  " link "Dead Machine Problems"} Dead Machine Problems

  @{"  " link "Other Video Problems"} Other Video Problems                @{"  " link "Slow A2091 Problems"} Slow A2091 Problems

  @{"  " link "Backplane Problems"} Backplane Problems                  @{"  " link "IDE Drive Problems"} IDE Drive Problems

  @{"  " link "Cable Routing Problems"} Cable Routing Problems              @{"  " link "SCSI Drive Problems"} SCSI Drive Problems

  @{"  " link "Floppy Drive Cable Problems"} Floppy Drive Cable Problems         @{"  " link "Expansion Cards Not Recognized"} Expansion Cards Not Recognized

  @{"  " link "Memory SIMM Problems"} Memory SIMM Problems                @{"  " link "MultiFace and FastLane Problems"} MultiFace and FastLane Problems

  @{"  " link "Card Guide Problems"} Card Guide Problems

@node "Fan Problems"

                                Fan Problems


  A4000 makes rattling noises, fan stalls on powerup, or fan does not turn.
  Solution: replace fan. Replacement fans: Radio Shack #273-243 or Panasonic
  FBK-08A12M, available from Digi-Key, Hosfelt, and others (see @{"Sources" link "Sources"}).

  Please be aware that I've seen two styles of power supplies in the 4000;
  the fans may differ slightly. Some older 4000s had a power supply with a
  large hole for the fan, and a bolt-on grill protecting it. This power
  supply used an actual Panasonic FBM-08A12M. A newer power supply design has
  a built-in grill formed by holes in the side of the power supply; in this
  case, the fan is held in place by four odd-looking screws that are tapped
  directly into the holes in the fan's plastic frame, and the fan itself is a
  "MAX FLOW" generic.

  Christopher Laprise has suggested that the A4000 power supply hot air vent
  is "horribly wrong," and I have to agree. Removing one or more of the
  horizontal strips of metal can make for a dramatic drop in temperature
  inside the A4000. I'd suggest using a nibbling tool for this, as it won't
  leave metal filings inside the power supply. As Chris notes, if you remove
  more than one section, make them alternate ones to leave something there to
  keep things from falling into the power supply.

@node "-5V Power Problems"

                             -5V Power Problems


  Problems with large hard disk transfers, discolored Toaster output (pink or
  magenta display of white areas), system crashes, or Emplant diagnostic
  failures. (See @{"Emplant Reference" link "Emplant Reference"}.) Solution: U198 7905 -5V regulator is
  probably bad. Replace with new 7905 1-amp -5V regulator (see @{"Sources" link "Sources"}).

  To locate U198, look near the bottom expansion slot at the back of the

  The easiest way to replace this component may be to clip off the leads
  close to the body of the defective part, then trim the leads on the
  replacement and solder it to the old pins.

                                            New 7905 regulator
                                 Solder        (side view)
                                  here              |
    Old leads on motherboard         \\              |
                            \\         \\
                             \\                  --------
                                        -------|        |---
                                 XXXXXXXXX      --------

@node "Video Banding Problems"

                           Video Banding Problems


  Display on monitor has faint, darker vertical bands or stripes. See the
  Tips section for the @{"Video Banding Modification" link "Video Banding Modification"}.

@node "Green Display Problems"

                           Green Display Problems


  Video output from the A4000 has a greenish tint. This may be caused by the
  Sync On Green jumper (J500) being in the wrong position. Unless the monitor
  is set up to receive sync signals piggybacked on the Green video input,
  pins 1-2 of J500 should be jumpered. See Internals/@{"Motherboard Jumpers" link "Motherboard Jumpers"}.

@node "Other Video Problems"

                            Other Video Problems


  Video problems can be caused by improperly-wired peripheral cables or
  malfunctioning peripherals, since some signals are shared between the video
  slot, video connector, and peripheral ports. Disconnect peripherals to
  isolate video problems to the motherboard.

@node "Backplane Problems"

                             Backplane Problems


  After adding or removing expansion cards, system no longer boots, displays
  yellow screen. Solution: too-long resistor and capacitor leads on solder
  side of backplane daughterboard are bent and shorting together. Remove the
  backplane and trim leads.

@node "Cable Routing Problems"

                           Cable Routing Problems


  Make sure that signal and power cables aren't blocking the power supply fan
  air intake. The floppy ribbon cable can be routed from the motherboard
  between the power supply connector and the power supply itself. If there is
  only one drive installed, excess ribbon can be pushed under it.

@node "Floppy Drive Cable Problems"

                         Floppy Drive Cable Problems


  Many (perhaps most) A4000s were shipped with improperly-wired floppy
  cables. These cables had wires 3-5 twisted, instead of wires 4-6. These
  cables will work fine for a single drive, but will not properly connect a
  second drive. To use two drives that are both jumpered as DS0, the floppy
  cable should have both wires 4-6 and 10-12 twisted. A cable with only wires
  4-6 twisted will require the drives to be jumpered as DS0 and DS1.

  An improperly-wired or failing floppy cable can cause a high-density drive
  to only work with double-density disks.

  Pin-outs for the internal floppy connector are shown in Internals/Connector 
  Pin-Outs/@{"Internal Floppy Connector Pin-Outs" link "Internal Floppy Connector Pin-Outs"}.

@node "Battery Problems"

                              Battery Problems


  Battery (BT176) is "furry." Batteries can actually leak and destroy part of
  the motherboard, so replacement of corroded batteries is advised. @{"Dalco" link "Dalco Electronics"}'s
  3.6V 3-pin battery, part #46875, is an almost-identical part: the pins and
  size are identical, but it is rated for 60 mAh rather than the A4000 stock
  battery's 40 mAh.

@node "Zorro-III Problems"

                             Zorro-III Problems


  Problems with transfers when using 4091 SCSI-2 controller or other
  Zorro-III boards. Check for revision of Super Buster; the revision 9 chip
  had problems with Zorro-III bus arbitration. Revision 11 of the Super
  Buster fixed this problem. Note that this problem is not due to DMA
  transfers, but Zorro-III bus arbitration, so it is possible to see it with
  any Zorro-III board.

  Problems may be encountered with the @{"A2091" link "A2091 Reference"} or GVP Series II SCSI controller
  boards. To isolate this problem, check disk transfers to Chip RAM with a
  program like Diskspeed 4.2. This problem can be fixed by replacing PAL U209
  on the @{"A3640" link "A3640 Reference"} daughterboard with a revision 3 version.

  There can be a software component to these problems, also. Check that
  libs:68040.library is at least version 37.30. Note that due to the way
  the library version numbers are handled, version 37.4 is an earlier
  version. The later 37.30 library correctly handles Zorro-III transfers and
  mapping of Zorro-III boards (for instance, Commodore's SCSI drivers require
  that copyback caching be disabled during DMA, and this version of the
  library does that).

@node "SCSI Reselect Problems"

                           SCSI Reselect Problems


  System reports "SCSI Bus Phase Error" or copying from one SCSI device to
  another doesn't seem to work, but copying from the same device to a floppy
  does work. Check that all SCSI devices support Reselect; if not, disable
  Reselect mode in the drive's RDB. Some SCSI controllers, notably GVP, let
  you disable Reselect mode on a per-address basis.

@node "Dead Machine Problems"

                            Dead Machine Problems


  A4000 does nothing on power-up; keyboard light, power light, and hard drive
  spin-up show that power supply is working, but screen is gray or black, and
  disk drive doesn't click.

  Possible cause: the processor board is not firmly connected to the mother
  board, or has worked its way loose (the power LED may flash quickly in this
  situation). Reseat the connector strip that is parallel to the floppy
  drive. Since this connector is quite long, it is possible for the ends to
  be firmly attached while the center is not making adequate contact. Be
  careful not to flex either board too much while reconnecting them; using a
  large rubber eraser or other flat object will protect your fingers while
  pressing the boards together gently. In extreme cases, it may be necessary
  to use a contact cleaner to clean accumulated gunk (like silicon heatsink
  compound) from the connectors.

  Possible cause: the motherboard is not supported very well near the
  internal IDE connector. Solution: gently lift the motherboard near this
  connector. Installing an insulating support underneath the motherboard near
  here will be a more permanent solution.

  Possible cause: badly-trimmed pins of the soldered power supply connector
  have poked through the insulating plastic under the motherboard and shorted
  to the case. Solution: trim the pins and install more insulating plastic.

  Possible cause: power supply failure. A company called Micro R&D repairs
  and upgrades power supplies. Contact them at:

    Micro R&D
    721 'O' Street
    Loup City  NE  68853
    (308) 745-1243

@node "Slow A2091 Problems"

                             Slow A2091 Problems


  A2091 SCSI controller in A4000 performs very slowly. Solution: the A2091
  controller has problems with the A4000 environment (see @{"A2091 Reference" link "A2091 Reference"} in
  the Boards section). Several utilities are available in the "hard"
  directory of Aminet that can help speed up the A2091's performance in an

@node "IDE Drive Problems"

                              IDE Drive Problems


  Files larger than about 128K are corrupted when copied to or from an IDE
  hard drive. Solution: set MaxTransfer for every partition on the hard drive
  to 0x0001FE00, or 128K. Older IDE drives may even require setting
  MaxTransfer to 0x0000FFFF, or 64K. It's even possible that some newer
  drives may need a setting of 0x0000FE00. This problem is due to the way
  some IDE hard drives respond to requests for large blocks of data. (Note
  that MaxTransfer is *NOT* "maximum transfer rate," but rather "Maximum
  Transfer Size.")

  Some IDE drives may not be consistently ready on powerup; this can cause
  the A4000 to fail to boot. The machine may just sit there with the drive
  light on or off, or it may come up with the purple "Insert Floppy" screen.
  The @{"Seagate ST3144A" link "Seagate ST3144A Reference"} drives do this once in a while; you may hear a clicking
  as the drive does its self-test then decides it's not up to booting today.
  It may work after a reset, or may require a power-down to revive it. This
  problem may occur more often with a master-slave drive setup.

@node "SCSI Drive Problems"

                              SCSI Drive Problems


  Errors occur on transfers to or from SCSI hard drives, CD-ROM drives, or
  other SCSI devices: Possible causes: improper termination or bad cables.
  See Drives/@{"SCSI Examples" link "SCSI Examples"} for example SCSI configurations.

@node "Expansion Cards Not Recognized"

                       Expansion Cards Not Recognized
                              by Rhett Rodewald


  Problems with cards not being recognized?  Your problem may be the auto-
  config chain. This works similarly on most Amigas, but this description is
  very precisely intended for the Amiga 4000. (Not the Tower, but I'm sure
  it's similar.) First some background.

  I originally intended only to add SCSI to my Amiga 4000. My friend Bill
  lent me an old GVP SCSI +8 card from his A2000. (He now uses an A3000, and
  so had little need for it.) I checked the manual carefully, set the
  jumpers, and plugged it into my 4000. It just hung up on boot. Remove the
  SCSI card, and all is well, but it will not boot with the card in. Looking
  at the manual, I noticed that one jumper on the card, next to the described
  jumpers for setting the amount of RAM was undocumented. After trying many
  things, I tried shorting that jumper. I plugged in the card, and booted.
  This time it booted, great! (or so I thought) But the card was unseen by
  the Amiga. Oh, well, I removed the card, and put my old cards back in. Boot
  functioned flawlessly, but it would not recognize a single card. Eventually
  I traced it to the autoconfig and realized that I had actually *burned a
  trace* on the daughtercard. Not one that can be seen, mind you, but one on
  an inside layer. After determining how auto-config *should* work, (and
  replacing the 7407 chip, which likely didn't need to be replaced) I
  soldered a jumper across where I inferred the blown trace should be and,
  lo and behold, it worked!

  While I hope that no-one else has this problem, there are a few things that
  may be learned from my experience.

     (Unless you know exactly what you're doing... or if you are trying to
     configure an unmarked PC card... or if you *really* want to... but
     don't blame me (especially don't sue me.) -- YOU HAVE BEEN WARNED!)

     Dave Haynie has stated (I'm paraphrasing)

       Don't play with jumpers unless you know exactly what they do,
       Even if they are marked as  "Free sex and beer"

  2) An understanding of how Autoconfig works, which is the main point of
     this article.

  Auto-config is a wonderful thing, it keeps us from pulling our hair out
  trying to get a new card to work without hardware conflicts. (We still have
  to deal with installing support software if the card needs it, but it is
  still a million times easier than configuring a PC.)

  If you have access to the Amiga Hardware reference manual, you will find an
  excellent explanation in the back in the appendicies. There are many issues
  involved when designing a card, and they are detailed here. However, since
  we aren't designing a card, only two paragraphs apply.

    Amiga autoconfiguration is surprisingly simple. When an Amiga powers up
    or resets, every card in the system goes to its unconfigured state. At
    this point, the most important signals in the system are /CFGIN and
    /CFGOUT. As long as a card's /CFGIN line is negated, that card sits
    quietly and does nothing on the bus. ... As part of the unconfigured
    state, /CFGOUT is negated by the PIC immediately on reset.

    The configuration process begins when a card's /CFGIN line is asserted,
    either by the backplane, if it's the first slot, or via the configuration
    chain, if it's a later card. The configuration chain simply ensures that
    only one unconfigured card will see an asserted /CFGIN at one time. ...
    (ed. note: after the system has read and configured this card) ... will
    cause the PIC to assert its /CFGOUT, enabling the next board in the
    configuration chain.

    (Quoted from the Amiga Hardware Reference Manual, 3rd edition, page 431)

  The magic is in how the configuration chain works, or if you have a
  situation like mine, in how it does not work. Here's what to check.

  NOTE:  The following applies to my A4000.  Errors may have occured in
         the entry, transmission, or otherwise, and I will not be held
         responsible.  In addition, do not attempt to actually repair or
         even trouble-shoot your Amiga unless you are confident of your
         electronics skills and willing to take full responsibility for
         your actions.  Your Amiga may differ from mine, and so the
         following may apply only in concept, not particulars.  Make
         sure that you understand not only what is connected to what, but
         why it works as it does.  This is only an overview of *one*
         system, and should not be construed as being a common problem
         or necessasarily related to your machine/problem.  Note that
         even trouble-shooting without getting out your soldering iron
         can still cause damage-- Especially when the machine is on!

  The Autoconfig chain is on the daughterboard (riser) card in the 4000. The
  daughter card plugs into the motherboard using two seperate connectors. The
  connector towards the rear of the 4000 carries the signals for the video
  slot, among others. The connector towards the front of the A4000 is
  basically a single Zorro III slot. (Note: Do NOT unplug the riser card, and
  plug a Zorro card directly into this slot. Although it *may* work, the
  proper bus termination is not present, and I have not personally verified
  that the signal connections are 100% compatible.)

  When you reset (or start) your Amiga, it starts by asserting the /CFGIN
  line on this connector. (Note: Signal preceded by an "*" or "/" are
  active-low. This means that 0V means active, and 5V means inactive.
  Therefore, on power up, all /CFGIN lines should be 5V except for the first
  slot, (the active one) that will be 0V.) This line should be connected to
  pin 12 on the first slot.

  Note: Pins are numbered starting at pin 1, towards the back of the Amiga.
        If you look at the silk-screen on the Motherboard, you should see a
        large "1" near the corner of the slot. Pin 2 is directly across
        from pin 1. Therefore, all the odd pins (1, 3, 5, ...) are on one
        side, and all the even pins are on the other side. Pin 1 usually
        has a square solder pad (if you look at the back of the board)
        instead of a round one. This is useful on the daughter card.

  Disassemble your 4000, and pull out the daugher card. (If you have trouble
  doing this, you probabally should *NOT* be doing any of this.) Check
  continuity between pin 12 of the plug in edge and pin 12 of the first slot
  connector. Pin 12 is the sixth pin on the back-side of the riser, counting
  from the middle gap towards the front of the Amiga. (The even pins are on
  the back side, so count 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 to find pin 12.)

  Note: The first slot is the bottom one, and the last slot is the top one.

  This is the trace that I burned when playing with the SCSI card. If you've
  managed to do the same thing, just solder a jumper between these two pins.
  (Don't get the wrong pins!!!)

  When the first card gets the config-in signal, it goes through the
  configuration process with the Amiga, and then, when done, it asserts
  /CFGOUT on pin 11. Pin 12 (enable) and Pin 11 (done) are fed to an "or"
  gate. Note that since these are active-low signals, both must be low before
  the output becomes low. (The "or" effectively works like an "and" gate
  because of the inverted signals.) This output is fed to the next slot's
  /CFGIN and the next or gate. This process is repeated for each card until
  the last one, and then the output from the final /CFGOUT is fed back to the
  motherboard's /CFGOUT, indicating that there are no more cards to be
  configured. Take note that this doesn't have any particular limitations on
  how many card slots there are. This is why you can buy super-risers that
  have more slots available. It's a chain that ends when it gets back to the

  If for some reason this chain is broken, your Amiga should continue to
  function, but it will not recognize all the cards in the slots.

  Here's a diagram.

                                                  (Slot 4, pin 11)
                               (Slot 3, pin 11)           \\       ____
           (Slot 2, pin 11)            \\       ____        \\---(4)\\   \\
                   \\        ____        \\---(1)\\   \\               )OR >(6)-+
         ____       \\---(12)\\   \\               )OR >(3)---+---(5)/___/     |
  A--(10)\\   \\               )OR >(11)--+---(2)/___/       |                |
          )OR >(8)---+--(13)/___/       |                  |                |
  B---(9)/___/       |                  |          (Slot 4, pin 12)         |
                     |          (Slot 3, pin 12)                            |
             (Slot 2, pin 12)                                               |
                                                     /|                     |
  (Pin 11 on the card edge.)---------(7407,pin 12)--< |--(7407,pin 13)------+
                                           (7407, Driver chip)

  Notes: A = /CFGIN = Pin 12 of the card edge, also connected to Slot 1, pin 12
         B = /CFGOUT(1) = Slot 1, pin 11
         All numbers in parenthesis indicate pin numbers on the 74HCT32N chip.

  In English: /CFGIN (pin 12 on the card edge *and* pin 12 on slot 1)
  connects to the input of the first "or" gate (pin 10 on the 7432 chip).
  /CFGOUT(1) (Slot 1, pin 11) connects to the other input of the same gate
  (pin 9 on the 7432 chip). The output from this gate (7432, pin 8) connects
  to both the /CFGIN(2) (Slot 2, pin 12) and the input to the next "or" gate
  (7432, pin 13)... and so on.

  If you suspect that your auto-config chain is screwed up, check all the
  direct connections in the diagram, and see if any are broken. Finally, if
  you still haven't found anything, install the riser and check the inputs
  and outputs at each card slot. Do this *very* carefully! Sticking a probe
  into a running computer can easily short together two wires that were never
  meant to touch, and *really* blow something up. While any voltages on the
  motherboard are at most +/- 12V (mostly +5V) and should not harm you, they
  will harm your computer if the wrong wires are shorted together.

  If you don't understand how to trouble-shoot the above circuit, please take
  your computer to someone who does.

  Here's how it works. At reset, all /CFGIN lines (pin 12 on each slot) are
  pulled high. (with a pullup resistor) All unused (no card in that slot)
  /CFGOUT lines (pin 11 on each slot) are pulled low. If there is no card, in
  the slot, the low signal coming in on (A in the diagram) /CFGIN is
  immediately "or"ed with the low /CFGOUT and propagates the signal to the
  next slot. If a card is present in a slot, it pulls the /CFGOUT line high
  (inactive) until after it gets a /CFGIN signal, and configures itself with
  the system. Then it releases /CFGOUT so the card in the next slot may
  configure itself. Finally, the /CFGOUT signal of the last card is fed back
  to the motherboad's /CFGOUT, and it knows that configuration is done.

  This hopefully provides some insight to the autoconfig circuitry, and may
  be of use when trouble-shooting board-recognition problems. Best of luck.

@node "Memory SIMM Problems"

                            Memory SIMM Problems


  SIMM sockets may develop solder fractures or internal breaks that will
  cause problems, either when the machine warms up or when it tries to boot.
  Resoldering may help, or it may require replacement of the socket.

  The plastic-tabbed SIMM sockets used in the A4000 are fragile, and if the
  tab breaks off, you'll need to either replace the socket or come up with
  some other mechanical method to hold the SIMM firmly into the socket.

@node "MultiFace and FastLane Problems"

                         MultiFace and FastLane Problems


  When using both the MultiFace III and FastLane boards in the A4000, the
  FastLane should be in a lower slot, closer to the motherboard. If the
  MultiFace board is lower than the FastLane, using the MultiFace software's
  PIT0: device will cause the machine to lock up.

  See also: @{"MultiFaceCard III Reference" link "MultiFaceCard III Reference"} and @{"FastLane Reference" link "FastLane Reference"}.

@node "Card Guide Problems"

                             Card Guide Problems


  Some of the newer A4000T models come with oddly shaped card guides that can
  damage components mounted on expansion boards. Phil Wright provides this

            |                                 | |
            |                                 | |
            |                                 | |
            |                                 | |
            |                                 |B|
            |                                 |A|
            |                                 |C|
            |                                 |K|
            |     Zorro Card                  |P|
            |  Seen From Above                |L|
            |    (NOT TO SCALE)               |A|
            |                                 |N|
            |    Pins of IC come       _____  |E|
            |    dangerously close     _|I|_  |_|
            |    to card guide------>  _|C|_   ||
            |        _____       _____ _|_|_   ||
            |  ______|   |_______|   |______   ||
            |_| Plastic Card Guide          |__||

@node "Common Questions"

                              Common Questions


                                CIA Questions

  Question: Which CIA is associated with the parallel port?
    Answer: U350 is the parallel port CIA; the other CIA is U300.

  Question: Can the surface-mount CIAs used in the A4000 (and A1200) be
            removed and replaced with sockets for easier replacement in the
    Answer: [Courtesy of Dale Currie of AmiTrix]
            "These sockets are sometimes called Ultra Low Profile SMT sockets
            for PLCC Packages. The ones we get are AUGAT PCS-SMU Series. I
            believe ASSMANN also make them now, called SMT-PLCC-sockets.
            There are probably others.

            They are only about half the height of a normal PLCC socket, and
            have flat pins turned underneath with slots in the bottom of the
            socket all around the inside edge, such that the pins sit on the
            SMT pads and you can solder them through the slots in the bottom
            of the socket. Needless to say, it's a very delicate operation,
            requiring a good iron with a very fine tip, a steady hand, and
            quite often the assistance of a magnifying glass/lamp.

            Getting the CIAs off intact in the first place is another story.
            That requires some rather expensive gear (we use a PACE station,
            $1500-2000 CAN with all the atachments), but does a nice job. The
            only other way destroys the existing chips by cutting their pins
            and removing them one by one after the chip body has been freed.
            I wouldn't recommend it, unless you're very experienced, it's
            quite easy to destroy a pad/trace by overheating."

            Mr. Currie may be contacted at

              AmiTrix Development
              5312 - 47 Street
              Beaumont, Alberta, T4X 1H9
              Phone or Fax: 1+ 403-929-8459
              Email: [email protected] or [email protected]


                              Memory Questions

  Question: What type of memory does the A4000 use?
    Answer: The A4000 comes with 2M of Chip RAM, either in a single SIMM or 
            surface-mounted on the Motherboard. There are four SIMM sockets
            for expansion memory (Fast RAM). These sockets hold 72-pin SIMMs,
            either 1M or 4M in capacity, 80 ns or faster. It is not possible
            to mix 1M and 4M sizes, although it has been reported that 8M
            SIMMs can be used in place of two or four 4M SIMMs. To fit
            properly, these SIMMs must be single-sided modules. The total
            motherboard Fast RAM limit is 16M, regardless of SIMM 
            combinations. (These specifications describe the motherboard
            memory; expansion boards may use other types of memory.)

  Question: Can the A4000 use 36-bit SIMMs, instead of 32-bit?
    Answer: Yes. The extra parity bits are ignored.


                           Floppy Drive Questions

  Question: Why does the floppy light flash every so often, even with no disk
            in the drive?
    Answer: This is a result of the system polling the drive to see if a
            floppy has been loaded.

  Question: Why doesn't my second floppy drive work in high-density mode?
    Answer: Check for the proper setting of jumper J351 (see Internals/
            @{"Motherboard Jumpers" link "Motherboard Jumpers"}). See also @{"Floppy Drive Cable Problems" link "Floppy Drive Cable Problems"}.

  Question: Will normal PC-type *double-density* (720K) 3.5-inch floppies
            work in the A4000?
    Answer: Yes, but you may encounter a couple of problems. First, many
            PC-type floppies are not jumpered to support a diskchange signal.
            Enabling this may be as easy as moving a jumper, or it may
            require unsoldering, moving, and resoldering a surface-mount
            part. Secondly, many of the PC-type floppy drives connect the
            diskchange signal to pin 34 of the connector; however, the Amiga
            expects this signal on pin 2. A re-routing of the conductors in
            the cable can solve this, or you can use the DiskChange command
            to manually notify the system of disk changes.

  Question: Will normal PC-type *high-density* 3.5-inch floppies work in the
    Answer: No. [The following text courtesy of Gene Heskett]
            A commodity PC drive runs at normal spindle speed for the drive,
            or 300 rpm. To move data in and out of it in high-density mode
            requires a 500 kilobaud data pump in the floppy path. The Amiga
            chips are only able to handle around 400 kilobauds. The Amiga
            actually runs its floppy data rate at the older double density
            standard of 250 kilobauds.

            To do high density on the older drives, special drives were
            ordered by Commodore that could run a fairly stable spindle speed
            of 150 rpm. If you watch it, you'd swear the drive was going to
            stop, it's that slow. These are the high-density drives for an
            Amiga, and until the chips get a refresh for a higher data rate,
            are the only type of drives that can be used in high density mode
            on an Amiga.

            [Editor's note: some people have managed to modify standard
            drives; however, all reports indicate that these perform
            unreliably at best.]

            I might add that since these custom Amiga drives run at half
            speed, the read signal from the head is only about one-fourth of
            what a standard drive has, and they do require an electrically
            quiet environment for a usable error rate. There are a couple of
            other problems with using the PC drives, too: lack of a ready
            signal for the automatic diskchange detection being one of them,
            and the lack of talkback identify to tell the Amiga what kind of
            a drive it is is another. Even if you could diddle the spindle
            speed down to 150 RPM (as its digital, that's doubtfull) to make
            a high-density drive out of it, you'd still have to have a custom
            driver that puts twice as many sectors on a track. The Amiga
            would otherwise only do the normal double density sectors/track,
            and simply fill the remaining space up with "trailer" bytes till
            the next index pulse came by, thereby wasting half the track. The
            Amiga defaults to double density if the drive doesn't talk back.


                          IDE Hard Drive Questions

  Question: Can the A4000 support two IDE hard drives?
    Answer: Yes, since IDE supports a master/slave drive setup. Make sure the
            @{"drive jumpers" link "Seagate ST3144A Reference"} are set properly for two drives. You might have
            problems with two different brands of drives working together;
            this depends on the age and type of the drives.

  Question: Can the A4000 use IDE hard drives larger than 512M?
    Answer: Yes. The supposed "limit" of 512M is a limitation of the BIOS in
            MS-DOS machines, and the A4000 is not subject to this limit. The
            maximum supported partition size is 2G, and the maximum drive
            size is 4G. If you want to fully use larger drives, you'll have
            to look into alternative filesystems like AFS.

  Question: Can "EIDE" or "Fast ATA" hard drives be used in the A4000?
    Answer: Yes. These are just different names for revised versions of IDE,
            and should work fine with the A4000's on-board IDE controller.


                          SCSI Hard Drive Questions

  Question: Does the A4000 come with a SCSI or SCSI-2 hard drive controller?
    Answer: No. The A4000T (tower) model did (and does) come with a built-in
            SCSI-2 controller, though. The A4091 and FastLane expansion
            boards are common Fast SCSI-2 controllers for the A4000, and the
            @{"A2091" link "A2091 Reference"} is a fairly common SCSI-1 controller.

  Question: Why doesn't SCSI work on the A4000?
    Answer: It does. But because of a bug in early versions of the Zorro-III
            DMA controller (the "Buster" chip), DMA SCSI controllers didn't
            work properly. This problem can be fixed (by replacing the early
            revision 9 Buster with a revision 11 version) or avoided
            altogether (by using a SCSI controller that doesn't use the
            Zorro-III bus, like the one built into the @{"Warp Engine" link "Warp Engine Reference"}

  Question: What are SCSI terminators?
    Answer: Terminators are resistor packs attached at both ends of the SCSI
            chain. The resistance reduces ringing and noise on the bus, and
            is necessary for reliable operation. See @{"SCSI Examples" link "SCSI Examples"}.

  Question: What is the proper setup for SCSI termination?
    Answer: Both ends of the SCSI chain need to have terminators, and there
            should be none in the middle. See @{"SCSI Examples" link "SCSI Examples"}.

            Now, the catch: some SCSI devices are not very compliant with the
            SCSI specification, and require oddball setups. Devices made
            within the last couple of years are usually pretty compliant.

  Question: Can a SCSI-1 drive be used with a Fast SCSI-2 controller?
    Answer: Yes, and the reverse will also work. SCSI-1 and SCSI-2 (and Fast
            SCSI-2) are compatible. Of course, a SCSI-1 drive won't go any
            faster when plugged into a Fast SCSI-2 controller; neither will a
            Fast SCSI-2 drive connected to a SCSI-1 controller go any faster
            than SCSI-1. See @{"SCSI Examples" link "SCSI Examples"}.

  Question: Why does my hard drive "stutter" every fifteen minutes or so,
            without the drive light coming on?
    Answer: The drive is performing thermal recalibrations ("t-cals") to make
            certain that the heads remain centered over the tracks as the
            platters heat up. The so-called "AV" drives spread out t-cals so
            this momentary interruption doesn't occur during "live" video or
            sound recording or playback.

  Question: What is the pin-out for a DB25 SCSI connector? What about the
            standard 50-pin SCSI header?
    Answer: See the Drives/@{"SCSI Pin-Outs" link "SCSI Pin-Outs"} section for both.

  Question: Will SCSI hard drives meant for the Mac work on an A4000?
    Answer: Yes. The cable included with most external Mac hard drives is a
            DB25-to-Centronics 50 adapter, and this will work on a SCSI
            controller with DB25 external SCSI port. Software is available
            for accessing an existing Mac filesystem, so file interchange
            with a portable SCSI device is possible.


                              CD-ROM Questions

  Question: Will an EIDE CD-ROM drive work with the A4000's IDE interface?
    Answer: Yes. See the disk/misc and disk/cdrom sections of Aminet for
            drivers to work with these CD-ROM drives. Beware of pseudo-IDE
            CD-ROM drives, like the older Mitsumi, Panasonic, and Sony
            drives, which will not work unless you have a special interface
            board for them.

@node "Tips"



                        @{"  " link "Connecting VGA Monitors"} Connecting VGA Monitors

                        @{"  " link "Video Banding Modification"} Video Banding Modification

                        @{"  " link "Processor Board Mounting"} Processor Board Mounting

                        @{"  " link "Processor Cooling"} Processor Cooling

                        @{"  " link "Speeding Up IDE Boot-Up"} Speeding Up IDE Boot-Up

@node "Connecting VGA Monitors"

                           Connecting VGA Monitors


  VGA monitors can be connected to the A4000; however, since the special
  circuitry in the Amiga video output can mistakenly identify a monitor as a
  genlock and thus cause problems, a special cable or adapter is the best way
  to hook them up. All this cable really does is buffer the horizontal and
  vertical sync signals by double-inverting them through a TTL gate.
  Commodore's DB23-to-HDD15 adapter (supplied with most A4000s) used a
  74HCT08 for this, but you can use a 74LS04 or other low-power TTL-level
  inverters (or other gates wired as inverters, of course).

  Remember that most VGA monitors won't sync at 15.75 kHz, so you'll have to
  set the A4000 to use the Double NTSC (or Double PAL) or Multiscan video
  modes. Even using these modes, the video output may not work with some VGA
  monitors, since some of the modes use horizontal sync frequencies as low as
  23 kHz, and normal VGA starts at 31.5 kHz. Using the VGAOnly monitor driver
  will bump these frequencies up a bit, perhaps enough to make them usable
  with picky monitors.

  A4000 VGA Video Cable

  A4000 DB23                                        VGA HDD15

  Red   (Pin 3) ----------------------------------- Red (Pin 1)

  Green (Pin 4) ----------------------------------- Green (Pin 2)

  Blue  (Pin 5) ----------------------------------- Blue (Pin 3)

  Grounds (Pin 16-20) ----------------------------- Grounds (Pin 5-8,10,11)
                                                    and ground for inverter.
                                                    Also use a .01 uF ceramic
                                                    decoupling cap between
                                                    +5V and ground at the
                                                    chip power supply pins.

                               |\\     |\\
  Horizontal Sync (Pin 11) ----| >o---| >o--------- Horizontal Sync (Pin 13)
                               |/     |/

                               |\\     |\\
  Vertical Sync (Pin 12) ------| >o---| >o--------- Vertical Sync (Pin 14)
                               |/     |/

  +5V (Pin 23) ------------------------------------ Power supply for
                                                    inverter chip.

@node "Video Banding Modification"

                         Video Banding Modification


  Video Banding Modification: Many (most?) A4000s show some faint vertical
  bands on the display. There is a modification to prevent this, but, like
  anything else, it has advantages and disadvantages.

    Removes vertical bands from display.
    Simple modification.
    Relatively easy to disable.

    Interferes with operation of attached genlocks and deinterlacer
    boards like the Amber A2320 board (see Boards/@{"A2320 'Amber' Reference" link "A2320 Reference"}).

  The modification involves connecting pin 15 of the video port connector
  through a 100 ohm, 1/4 watt resistor to ground. This can be done inside the
  A4000, but it's safer and more versatile if the modification is performed
  on the DB23-to-HDD15 adapter that was included with the A4000. That way the
  adapter can be unplugged from the machine if a genlock or Amber board is to
  be used.

  There are two grounds on the adapter PC board: shield ground and video
  ground (pins 16-20). Since all the other components on the board use the
  video ground, it seems reasonable to use it for this modification, rather
  than the more-easily-reached shield ground. The resistor fits nicely on the
  bottom of the adapter PC board, running from pin 15 to pin 18 of the
  connector's soldered pins.

@node "Processor Board Mounting"

                          Processor Board Mounting


  The nylon standoffs that hold the A3640 processor daughterboard in place
  grip the board very, very tightly, making removal difficult and prone to
  flexing this fragile board. Pushing the two halves of the standoff together
  with needle-nose pliers makes it somewhat easier to remove the processor
  board, but it may still be a fight, putting stress on the motherboard, the
  processor board, and the person removing it. After removing the board, you
  can clip off one "prong" of the side that plugs into the processor board.
  If you leave one of these prongs in place, the processor board will still
  be held firmly in place, but removal will be much easier, next time,
  anyway. If you are afraid that the processor board will not be held firmly
  enough, do this modification on only two of the standoffs.

              --  --
             / |  | \\
            /  |  |  \\              <-- Clip off one "prong" of this
            \\  |  |  /                  side to make processor board
             \\ |  | /                   removal easier.
         |              |
             |      |
             |      |
             |      |
             |      |
             |      |
             |      |
             |      |
             |      |
     |                       |       <-- Note that the larger disk is the
      -----------------------            bottom end (clips into motherboard).
             / |  | \\
            /  |  |  \\
            \\  |  |  /
             \\ |  | /
              --  --

@node "Processor Cooling"

                              Processor Cooling


  A company called PC Power & Cooling makes a stick-on cooling fan for the
  486 and Pentium processors that just happens to fit the 68040 perfectly.
  The fan uses a stick-on backing to attach to the chip, so you don't have to
  mess with little clips or spring wires. It spins on ball bearings instead
  of a bushing, so life expectancy is claimed to be 50,000 hours instead of
  the ordinary bushing fan's 5000 hours. A disk-drive power connector powers
  the fan. Finally, it's only .6 inches high, no more than the heat sink that
  comes with the A3640 processor board. PC Power & Cooling calls it by
  several names; the best one to use is the "PENTA-COOL 54" for the 90 MHz
  Pentium or the "CPU-COOL 1.9."

  Some earlier versions of the fan had "corners" cast into the aluminum heat
  sink to better fit the 486; these versions don't fit the 68040 without
  modification, so ask for either of the versions above, or make sure they
  know that the one you're purchasing must be of the flat variety.

  In the United States, you can usually save a few dollars by ordering these
  fans from large mail-order companies like PC Connection, but please make
  sure of the model and brand first.

  PC Power & Cooling
  5995 Avenida Encinas
  Carlsbad  CA  92008
  (800) 722-6555
  (619) 931-6988 Fax

@node "Speeding Up IDE Boot-Up"

                           Speeding Up IDE Boot-Up


  Even when an A4000 is configured without one, the system will still look
  for an IDE hard drive on power-up or reset. To allow IDE drives time to
  spin up, there is a long search built into the 3.0 ROMs, and an even longer
  one in the 3.1 ROMs (about 30 seconds). A BattMem bit to disable the extra
  delay with 3.1 ROMs has been reported and finally confirmed, but it only
  enables or disables eight seconds of the wait, and defaults to off. With
  software, it is possible to remove the delay between resets, but not on
  power-up (Matthew Frost's "NoIDE" program is available from the disk/misc
  directory of Aminet).

  The only currently-known way to completely disable this delay is by
  building a small piece of hardware (the circuit is courtesy of Sean Riddle;
  the instructions are mine, so errors are entirely my fault). With this "IDE
  ignorer," the search for IDE drives is skipped altogether.

  Parts Required

  2 4.7K resistors
  1 40-pin crimp-on IDC connector
  1 male-to-male 40-pin header (see below)

  Procedure: The two resistors are connected between pin 39 and pin 3, and
  pin 39 and pin 5 (the effect is to tie IDE data bits 7 and 6 high). Rather
  than using a piece of whole 40-conductor ribbon cable, I stripped short
  pieces of individual conductors from one and used fine needle-nose pliers
  to press these wires into the contacts for pins 3, 5, and 39. Then the
  crimp-on cover was clipped on top of these.

  Since the relevant pins are at either end of the connector, I ran the
  resistors flat along the side of the connector, using heat-shrink tubing
  and tape to insulate the leads. The only 40-pin male-to-male header I had
  didn't have pins long enough to make contact with both connectors, so I
  just cut three pins off a wire-wrap socket and stuck them in the connectors
  at pin locations 3, 5, and 39. Physically, this seems to be strong enough
  to hold the two connectors together.

  |-----------####----------------|  <--two 4.7K resistors on side
  |---------------####------------|     of 40-pin IDC connector

   ===============================   <--40-pin male-to-male header
  /                               \\
  |                               |  <--A4000 IDE cable connector

@node "Internals"

                               A4000 Internals


                           @{"  " link "Motherboard Jumpers"} Motherboard Jumpers

                           @{"  " link "Connector Pin-Outs"} Connector Pin-Outs

                           @{"  " link "Power-Up Self-Test"} Power-Up Self-Test

                           @{"  " link "Keyboard Self-Test"} Keyboard Self-Test

                           @{"  " link "Definitive Buster"} Definitive Buster

@node "Motherboard Jumpers"

                              Motherboard Jumpers


 A4000 Motherboard

  |   ooo            || oo           |             |
  |  Internal        || DF1:         |             |
  |  Audio           || Enable       |             |
  |  Connector       ||              |    Power    |
  |                  ||              |    Supply   |
  |  :: Mystery      ||              |             |
  |  :: Header       ||          ooo |             |
  |  :: (see below)  ||          ooo |     Fan     |
  |                  ||          ooo  -------------|
  |                  ||         Power Supply       |
  |                  ||         Connector          |
  |                  ||                            |
  |                  ||         -------------------|
  |                  ||        |                   |
  |                  ||        |                   |
  |                  ||        |                   |
  |                  ||        |       Drive       |
  |                  ||        |       Bays        |
  |                  || oo     |                   |
  |                  || SIMM   |                   |
  |                  || Size   |                   |
  |                  ||        |                   |


    J351: DF1 Enable
          Closed: Enable low-density (880K) floppy as DF1.
          Open:   No DF1 *OR* for high-density (1.76M) DF1.

    J852: Fast RAM SIMM Size (Chip RAM is always 2M.)
          256K: 1M SIMMs.
          1M  : 4M SIMMs.

    CN404: Internal Audio Connector
           Audio signals attached here will be mixed with the A4000 audio
           output. The A4000 audio is somewhat louder than the normal line
           level output from most CD-ROM drives, presumably to make sound
           effects audible over background music. Setting the software-
           controlled A4000 audio level lower (to 32 instead of 64) will help
           match the levels.

      Pin 1: Audio In (Left)
      Pin 2: Ground.
      Pin 3: Audio In (Right)

  "Mystery" Header (courtesy of Dave Haynie)

  "There is a 12 pin header (DIL, J975) near the mouse ports. This feeds the
  'extra' shift register in Lisa. Unlike OCS/ECS systems, which simply
  multiplex the four quadrature signals from each mouse port with one
  another, the AA systems serialize all eight bits of mouse data. While they
  were at it, the AA designers added a second 8-bits to the mouse port
  registers. These don't hook into mouse logic or anything, but they can be
  read by the CPU.

  So we used them for configuration. The first two bits (not on that header)
  tell the OS about the AA system -- is it 16 or 32 bit, is it single or
  double access per cycle. These are hard-wired on the motherboard. The
  remaining six bits read high when unjumpered, low when jumpered. I had
  recommended using one to say 'VGA only,' but there wasn't enough ROM

  Other Jumpers (Not Shown Above)

    J100: CLK90 Clock Source
          1-2 Closed: Internal (68020/68030)
          2-3 Closed: External (68040)

    J104: CPU Clock Source
          1-2 Closed: Internal
          2-3 Closed: External

    J151: ROM Speed: 160 or 200 ns ROMs.
          1-2 Closed: 200 ns ROMs (default).
          2-3 Closed: 160 ns ROMs.

    J213: Chip RAM: 2M or 8M
          1-2 Closed: 2M Chip RAM (default).
          2-3 Closed: 8M Chip RAM. This option was apparently for use
                      with the never-released AAA chip set, and won't
                      work in a normal A4000.

    J500: Sync On Green
          1-2 Closed: Sync on green disabled (default?).
          2-3 Closed: Sync on green enabled (see the Common Problems section
                      for the @{"Green Display Problems" link "Green Display Problems"} note on this jumper).

    J501: Lisa Sync (Wide input on the Lisa chip.)
          1-2 Closed: CSync from Agnus Pin 80.
          2-3 Closed: +5V (default).

    J502: Select DAC Sync
          1-2 Closed: DAC syncs on green.
          2-3 Closed: DAC uses standard signal (default).

    J850: Enable DSACK (Used with 68020)
          1-2 Closed: DSACK Enabled for 68020. U860 and U152 also required.
          2-3 Closed: No DSACK.

    "Haynie Kludge" Jumper (courtesy of Dave Haynie)

    "That jumper enables the "early sizing" mode on the Zorro III bus. One
    of the complaints about Zorro III is that the size of a transfer isn't
    known until the data phase of the cycle. So in the Zorro III addendum I
    added an optional mode that allows data size information to be latched in
    the address phase. Just in case any existing boards have a problem with
    this (if they go by the spec, they don't, but who really knows what
    they're doing), it's shipped disabled. The idea was to test this out in
    the A4000T, bless it as standard for future Zorro III controllers as long
    as it did what designers wanted."


@node "Connector Pin-Outs"

                             Connector Pin-Outs


 Note: Signals shown with a star (*) in front of them are active-low. Please
 check the pin-out information shown here with a meter before using it.

 See also: Drives/@{"SCSI Pin-Outs" link "SCSI Pin-Outs"}.


                     @{"  " link "Serial Port Pin-Outs"} Serial Port

                     @{"  " link "Parallel Port Pin-Outs"} Parallel Port

                     @{"  " link "Video Port Pin-Outs"} Video Port

                     @{"  " link "Keyboard Port Pin-Outs"} Keyboard Port

                     @{"  " link "Joystick Port Pin-Outs"} Mouse/Joystick Ports

                     @{"  " link "External Floppy Port Pin-Outs"} External Floppy Port

                     @{"  " link "Internal Floppy Connector Pin-Outs"} Internal Floppy Connector

                     @{"  " link "Internal IDE Hard Disk Connector Pin-Outs"} Internal IDE Hard Disk Connector

                     @{"  " link "VGA Monitor Pin-Outs"} VGA Monitor Pin-Outs

                     @{"  " link "Power Supply Pin-Outs"} Power Supply Pin-Outs

@node "Serial Port Pin-Outs"

                           Serial Port (DB25 Male)


   Pin 1: Shield Ground
   Pin 2: Transmit Data
   Pin 3: Receive Data
   Pin 4: RTS
   Pin 5: CTS
   Pin 6: DSR
   Pin 7: Data Ground (Do not connect to shield ground.)
   Pin 8: CD
   Pin 9: +12V (20 mA maximum.)
  Pin 10: -12V (20 mA maximum.)
  Pin 11: Amiga Audio Out (Left)
  Pin 12: Unused
  Pin 13: Unused
  Pin 14: Unused
  Pin 15: Unused
  Pin 16: Unused
  Pin 17: Unused
  Pin 18: Amiga Audio In (Right)
  Pin 19: Unused
  Pin 20: DTR
  Pin 21: Unused
  Pin 22: RI
  Pin 23: Unused
  Pin 24: Unused
  Pin 25: Unused

@node "Parallel Port Pin-Outs"

                         Parallel Port (DB25 Female)


   Pin 1: *Strobe
   Pin 2: Data 0
   Pin 3: Data 1
   Pin 4: Data 2
   Pin 5: Data 3
   Pin 6: Data 4
   Pin 7: Data 5
   Pin 8: Data 6
   Pin 9: Data 7
  Pin 10: *Acknowledge
  Pin 11: Busy
  Pin 12: Paper Out
  Pin 13: Select
  Pin 14: +5V Pull Up (10 mA maximum.)
  Pin 15: Unused
  Pin 16: *Reset
  Pin 17: Ground (Do not connect any of these grounds to a shield.)
  Pin 18: Ground
  Pin 19: Ground
  Pin 20: Ground
  Pin 21: Ground
  Pin 22: Ground
  Pin 23: Ground
  Pin 24: Ground
  Pin 25: Ground

@node "Video Port Pin-Outs"

                           Video Port (DB23 Male)


   Pin 1: *External Clock
   Pin 2: *External Clock Enable (47 ohm)
   Pin 3: Red Video   (75 ohm)
   Pin 4: Green Video (75 ohm)
   Pin 5: Blue Video  (75 ohm)
   Pin 6: Digital Intensity (47 ohm)
   Pin 7: Digital Blue  (47 ohm)
   Pin 8: Digital Green (47 ohm)
   Pin 9: Digital Red   (47 ohm)
  Pin 10: *Composite Sync  (47 ohm)
  Pin 11: *Horizontal Sync (47 ohm)
  Pin 12: *Vertical Sync (47 ohm)
  Pin 13: Ground Return (Digital ground return for pin 2.)
  Pin 14: *Pixel Switch (Genlock overlay, 47 ohm)
  Pin 15: *Clock Out (47 ohm)
  Pin 16: Video Ground (Do not connect any of these grounds to pin 13.)
  Pin 17: Video Ground
  Pin 18: Video Ground
  Pin 19: Video Ground
  Pin 20: Video Ground
  Pin 21: -5V  (10 mA maximum.)
  Pin 22: +12V (100 mA maximum.)
  Pin 23: +5V  (100 mA maximum.)

@node "Keyboard Port Pin-Outs"

              Keyboard Port (6-Pin Female Mini-DIN, PS/2 Type)


  Pin 1: Data                                             6  ---  5
  Pin 2: Unused                         Pin Layout:         |   |
  Pin 3: Ground                         (Index key          |   |
  Pin 4: +5V (100 mA maximum.)          at top.)        4    ---    3
  Pin 5: Clock
  Pin 6: Unused                                             2   1

  Note: A PS/2 keyboard will not work with the A4000.

@node "Joystick Port Pin-Outs"

                       Mouse/Joystick Ports (DB9 Male)


  Mouse:                                Light Pen:

  Pin 1: Mouse Vertical                 Pin 1: Unused
  Pin 2: Mouse Horizontal               Pin 2: Unused
  Pin 3: Mouse Vertical Quadrature      Pin 3: Unused
  Pin 4: Mouse Horizontal Quadrature    Pin 4: Unused
  Pin 5: Mouse Button 3 (Middle)        Pin 5: Light Pen Press
  Pin 6: Mouse Button 1 (Left)          Pin 6: *Light Pen (Capture Beam Pos)
  Pin 7: +5V (50 mA maximum.)           Pin 7: +5V (50 mA maximum.)
  Pin 8: Ground                         Pin 8: Ground
  Pin 9: Mouse Button 2 (Right)         Pin 9: Unused

  Digital Joystick:                     Analog (Proportional) Joystick:

  Pin 1: *Forward                       Pin 1: Button 3
  Pin 2: *Back                          Pin 2: Unused
  Pin 3: *Left                          Pin 3: Button 1
  Pin 4: *Right                         Pin 4: Button 2
  Pin 5: Unused                         Pin 5: Pot X (Horizontal Control)
  Pin 6: *Fire                          Pin 6: Unused
  Pin 7: +5V (50 mA maximum.)           Pin 7: +5V (50 mA maximum.)
  Pin 8: Ground                         Pin 8: Ground
  Pin 9: Fire Button 2                  Pin 9: Pot Y (Vertical Control)

@node "External Floppy Port Pin-Outs"

                     External Floppy Port (DB23 Female)


   Pin 1: *Disk Ready
   Pin 2: *Disk Read Data
   Pin 3: Ground
   Pin 4: Ground
   Pin 5: Ground
   Pin 6: Ground
   Pin 7: Ground
   Pin 8: *Disk Motor Control
   Pin 9: *Select Drive 3
  Pin 10: *Disk Reset
  Pin 11: *Disk Change (Latched Low)
  Pin 12: +5V (250 mA maximum.)
  Pin 13: *Select Disk Side (0=Upper, 1=Lower)
  Pin 14: *Write Protect
  Pin 15: *Track Zero
  Pin 16: *Disk Write Enable
  Pin 17: *Disk Write Data
  Pin 18: *Step (Pulse: Low, then high.)
  Pin 19: Direction (0=Inner, 1=Outer)
  Pin 20: Unused
  Pin 21: *Select Drive 2
  Pin 22: *Disk Index Pulse
  Pin 23: +12V (160 mA maximum, 540 mA surge.)

@node "Internal Floppy Connector Pin-Outs"

               Internal Floppy Connector (34-Pin Male Header)


   Pin 1: Ground                  Pin 18: Direction
   Pin 2: *Change                 Pin 19: Ground
   Pin 3: Unused                  Pin 20: *Step
   Pin 4: *In Use 1               Pin 21: Ground
   Pin 5: Ground                  Pin 22: *DKWD
   Pin 6: *In Use 0               Pin 23: Ground
   Pin 7: Ground                  Pin 24: DKWE (Write Enable?)
   Pin 8: *Index                  Pin 25: Ground
   Pin 9: Ground                  Pin 26: *TRKD
  Pin 10: *Select 0               Pin 27: Ground
  Pin 11: Ground                  Pin 28: *Write Protect
  Pin 12: *Select 1               Pin 29: Ground
  Pin 13: Ground                  Pin 30: *DKRD
  Pin 14: Unused                  Pin 31: Ground
  Pin 15: Ground                  Pin 32: *Side
  Pin 16: *MTRI                   Pin 33: Ground
  Pin 17: Ground                  Pin 34: *Ready

  Note: some 3.5-inch drives may use different pins for the *Change
  (diskchange) signal.

@node "Internal IDE Hard Disk Connector Pin-Outs"

            Internal IDE Hard Disk Connector (40-Pin Male Header)


   Pin 1: *Reset                  Pin 21: Unused
   Pin 2: Ground                  Pin 22: Ground
   Pin 3: Drive Data 7            Pin 23: *I/O Write
   Pin 4: Drive Data 8            Pin 24: Ground
   Pin 5: Drive Data 6            Pin 25: *I/O Read
   Pin 6: Drive Data 9            Pin 26: Ground
   Pin 7: Drive Data 5            Pin 27: I/O Channel Ready
   Pin 8: Drive Data 10           Pin 28: Unused
   Pin 9: Drive Data 4            Pin 29: Unused
  Pin 10: Drive Data 11           Pin 30: Ground
  Pin 11: Drive Data 3            Pin 31: Interrupt Request
  Pin 12: Drive Data 12           Pin 32: Unused
  Pin 13: Drive Data 2            Pin 33: Disk Address 1
  Pin 14: Drive Data 13           Pin 34: Unused
  Pin 15: Drive Data 1            Pin 35: Disk Address 0
  Pin 16: Drive Data 14           Pin 36: Disk Address 2
  Pin 17: Drive Data 0            Pin 37: *IDE_CS1
  Pin 18: Drive Data 15           Pin 38: *IDE_CS2
  Pin 19: Ground                  Pin 39: *Active (LED driver output.)
  Pin 20: Unused                  Pin 40: Ground

  For completeness, the extra four pins used on the mini 44-pin 2.5-inch IDE
  connector (as found on the A600 and A1200):

  Pin 41: +5 volts
  Pin 42: +5 volts
  Pin 43: Ground
  Pin 44: Unused

@node "VGA Monitor Pin-Outs"

                     VGA Monitor Connector (HDD15 Male)


  Modern VGA or multisync monitors use a high-density 15-pin D-connector.
  This HDD15 connector is the same overall size as a DB9, and in fact early
  VGA monitors used DB9 connectors. After a while, the connector standardized
  on the HDD15, probably because many people were damaging their new VGA
  monitors by connecting them to MDA (mono) video cards.

  On some cables, pin 9 is not only not connected, but not even present in
  the connector.

  Male HDD15 VGA Connector
                     |                             |
                     |    1    2    3    4    5    |
                      |                           |
                      |  6    7    8    9   10    |
                       |                         |
                       |  11   12   13   14   15 |

  Female HDD15 VGA Connector
                     |                             |
                     |    5    4    3    2    1    |
                      |                           |
                      |  10   9    8    7    6    |
                       |                         |
                       |  15   14   13   12   11 |

   Pin 1: Red Video
   Pin 2: Green Video
   Pin 3: Blue Video
   Pin 4: Ground
   Pin 5: Unused
   Pin 6: Red Ground
   Pin 7: Green Ground
   Pin 8: Blue Ground
   Pin 9: Unused
  Pin 10: Ground
  Pin 11: Ground
  Pin 12: Unused
  Pin 13: Vertical Sync
  Pin 14: Horizontal Sync
  Pin 15: Unused

  Older Female DB9 VGA Connector
                     |                             |
                     |                             |
                      |   5    4    3    2    1   |
                      |                           |
                       |     9     8    7    6   |
                       |                         |

  Pin 1: Red Video
  Pin 2: Green Video
  Pin 3: Blue Video
  Pin 4: Vertical Sync
  Pin 5: Horizontal Sync
  Pin 6: Red Ground
  Pin 7: Green Ground
  Pin 8: Blue Ground
  Pin 9: Unused

@node "Power Supply Pin-Outs"

                           Power Supply Connectors


  Motherboard Power Connector

  |Orange| Red  |Brown |   Information still needed: how does the Power Good
  | +12V | -12V |PwrGd |   signal work?
  |Yellow| Blue | Blue |
  | +5V  |Ground|Ground|

  Disk Drive Power Connectors

  Large Connector
   /          \\
  | O  O  O  O |   Connector viewed from front (open end).
  +---+--------+   The two center pins are grounds.

  +12V      +5V

  Small Connector

   |       |
   +-------+       Connector viewed from front (open end).
   |o o o o|       The two center pins are grounds.

  +12V   +5V

@node "Power-Up Self-Test"

                              Power-Up Self-Test


Test Status    Color Shown    Description Of Error

  Passed       Light Gray     Initial hardware configuration tests passed.
                              Initial software tests passed. Final
                              initialization test passed.

  Failed       Red            ROM Error: Make sure ROMs are seated properly.
               Green          Chip RAM Error: Make sure Agnus is seated, and
                              check Chip RAM SIMMs for proper seating.
               Blue           This is not an "official" error color. It may
                              have existed in very old (pre-1.0) versions of
                              the system software, but doesn't any longer.
                              Blue screens may be produced by a system
                              failure, but are not really error codes.
               Yellow         Processor detected error before software
                              trapped it.
               Purple         Not an "official" color, but may be caused by
                              bad ROMs.

@node "Keyboard Self-Test"

                             Keyboard Self-Test


Number Of Caps Lock Blinks    Description Of Error

        One                   Keyboard ROM failed.

        Two                   Keyboard RAM failed.

        Three                 Watchdog timer failed.

        Four                  Short detected in keyboard.

@node "Definitive Buster"

                              Definitive Buster
                               by Dave Haynie


 Editor's Note

  The following information is a text on interactions between the various
  versions of Buster chip, the Zorro III bus, and the A3640 processor board,
  kindly provided by the author himself.


  System          Buster    RAMSEY    DMAC          CPU
  A3000/16        -07        -04      -01/02        68030-16/68881-16
  A3000/25        -06/07     -04      -01/02        68030-25/68882-25
  A3000T/030      -07        -04      -02           68030-25/68882-25
  A3000T/040      -07        -04      -02           A3640 3.0/3.1
                                                    (some have '030 too)
  A3000+          -09        -07      -04           68030 (68040 planned)
  A4000/030       -09/11     -07      N/A           68EC030-25
  A4000/040       -09/11     -07      N/A           A3640 3.0/3.1
  A4000T          -11        -07      N/A           A3640 3.2
  Nyx (AAA proto) -11        -07      N/A           Any CPU module

  The A3640

  The A3640 had two problems in its Rev 3.0 form. The first was a marginality
  -- its sampling of the local bus STERM* signal was marginal. This is fixed
  on Rev 3.1 with a cut and jumper. But beware, some boards marked 3.1 didn't
  get this fix, though apparently they're a small number.

  The second problem on the A3640 Rev 3.0 is a real live bug. This was a flaw
  in the bus arbiter that could allow the '040 and any local bus master on
  the local bus at the same time. Rev 3.1 incorporates -02 of the U209 PAL to
  fix this problem. It's not a perfect solution, though, in that it creates a
  potential for the local bus master to be locked out of the local bus for
  10's of microseconds, even if the '040 isn't using the bus. This was
  corrected in -03 of the U209 PAL, which makes your Rev 3.1 A3640 into a Rev
  3.2 A3640. Clearly, if you're not using cards with a DMA problem, this is
  not an issue.

  The technical detail on this is that, originally, the A3640 didn't handle a
  state of the 68040 bus arbitration scheme called "implied mastership". Most
  of the time the '040 wants the bus, it will assert either BR* (bus request)
  and/or BB* (bus busy); the former requests the bus, the latter holds it on
  the bus until it's ready to get off. However, the '040 can still claim the
  cycle after it negates both BB* and BR*. This is called implied mastership.
  The idea is that the '040 arbiter figures the current cycle will probably
  hit in cache, and decides to let another '040-like device on the bus one
  clock sooner than it might have. Other '040s understand this, and (when
  their arbiters are properly designed, at least) they can start taking the
  bus, but stop if the relinquishing '040 really isn't giving the bus back.

  The Rev 3.0 A3640 didn't handle this condition at all. So the implied
  mastership condition, which is fairly rare, would cause the bus arbiter to
  give the cycle over to a pending local bus request. The Rev 3.1 version of
  the bus arbiter prevented this, by holding the bus in this case. The
  problem with that is that when it happened, the '040 would usually hit in
  cache, but the bus would be locked against any other DMA device until the
  '040 needed the bus. A big waste, though fortunately rare. This is why the
  GVP PhonePak fails with Rev 3.1; it requires a fairly fine grained
  determinism when recording from the phone, and the Rev 3.1 card, when it
  locked up, could be off long enough to overrun any buffering it had
  available on-card. I was called in to fix this, and the Rev 3.2 board is
  the result; it handles implied mastership properly.


  Next we consider the Buster chip. The Buster in the A3000, Rev 6 or Rev 7,
  is a well proven design. The difference between the two is only that there
  was a small bug in Rev 6 that caused it to fail at 16MHz, but it works fine
  at 25MHz. These are what we called Level I Busters; they don't support
  Zorro III DMA or Quick Interrupts, and they don't attempt to translate
  local bus burst cycles into Zorro III burst cycles.

  Starting with the unreleased Rev 8 Buster, we went to Level II, which is
  roughly twice the size of the Level I design. Level II Buster supports
  Zorro III bus arbitration, DMA, Quick Interrupts, and translation of local
  bus burst cycles into Zorro III "Multiple Transfer" cycles. There are two
  of these parts released: Rev 9 and Rev 11.

  The Rev 9 Buster has a few flaws. The primary flaw, and the main reason the
  part was revised, is that the Zorro III bus arbiter can jam under the right
  conditions. Some DMA cards, like FastLane Z3, use a workaround for this
  (they avoid the lockup condition), others don't, and will lock up when used
  with a Rev 9 Buster. There is also a potential problem with end-of-cycle
  synchronization in the Rev 9 part. Some Zorro III cards will demonstrate
  this problem, some won't. This is made worse by the STERM* sampling problem
  on the Rev 3.0 A3640. A final problem with Rev 9 Buster was introduced by
  the A4000 architecture. The integrated bus buffer, Bridgette, used in the
  A4000 can't quite guarantee the propagation times required by the Rev 9
  Buster design (done before Bridgette was proposed). In the typical case it
  works fine, in the worst case some Zorro III cards will have a problem with
  this condition.

  The Rev 9 part was the unfortunate victim of the wheels of "progress." The
  first problem was a changeover at CSG (Commodore Semiconductor Group) from
  channeled arrays to sea of gates. They had a number of screwups on these
  first parts (the Rev 5 or 6 RAMSEY was also affected), first some mask
  problems, then speed problems. About six months after I released the Buster
  design, I got back parts that ran at about 1/4 normal speed; during the
  A3000 project, we got back parts in more like one month. These problems
  were eventually fixed, just in time to suffer the change in engineering
  administration. I had a test bed project to prove all of the features of
  the Buster Level II chip, a multiprocessor board called Gemini, with two
  '030s, 4MB of RAM and an independent Zorro III hookup each. I had a
  prototype of this around the time of the slow Rev 9 Busters, but when the
  new administration took over, they wouldn't hear of any "Research
  Projects." Or projects, for that matter; they also tabled the AA project
  for 6 months, and killed the A3000+. But that's another story...

  Anyway, after the Rev 9 problems were discovered, I got to fix them, with
  the Rev 11 Buster. The Zorro III bus arbiter is fixed. All synchronization
  problems were fixed, and Rev 11 uses a double-strength driver on its STERM*
  line. Because of this, Rev 11 sometimes cures non-DMA Zorro III problems
  seen with the Rev 3.0 A3640 card -- that card's flawed STERM* sampling is
  right on the hairy edge, and the stronger driver makes Buster's STERM* fast
  enough, at least potentially, to avoid this problem. I still recommend
  upgrading to Rev 3.1, though, since it fixes the DMA problem, and the
  STERM* sampling may still be a problem in worst-case, or when RAMSEY or
  Gary drive STERM*. The bus buffer controls on Rev 11 Buster have been
  adjusted to support the A4000's buffering scheme perfectly; no properly
  designed Zorro III cards will have a data setup problem with Rev 11. This
  is especially critical for burst write cycles.

  Since it was the last chip of the A3000 architecture that we could revise,
  I figured a way to solve another A3000 problem in the Rev 11 Buster.
  There's a race condition between the end of a Zorro II DMA cycle, Gary, and
  the Amiga chips. When lost, you have problems with Zorro II devices reading
  Chip RAM during DMA. This was solved with external logic on the A4000
  series, and in Rev 11 I figured a way that Buster could play essentially
  the same trick on Gary. So Rev 11 Busters are a fix for Zorro II DMA
  problems on an A3000, but aren't needed for that alone on the A4000.

  Still Having Problems

  So maybe you're still having problems with Zorro III cards on the A4000,
  even with Rev 11 Buster and Rev 3.1 or 3.2 A3640, eh? I can think of a few
  things, though most would lie with the card design. The Rev 11 part runs a
  somewhat faster Zorro III cycle than Rev 7 did. This isn't a problem if the
  card was designed to the Zorro III spec; the A3000 architecture only
  allowed Zorro III to go at about 1/2 its potential rate. It might be a
  problem for any card designed more to "observed behavior," as defined by
  how an A3000 first behaved when released. Some cards may have a problem
  supporting burst cycles on Zorro III, since they couldn't be tested with
  the Rev 7 Buster. However, this is rare, since the only stock system from
  Commodore that could run burst on Zorro III is the A4000/030. That's
  because the A3000's Buster didn't translate burst cycles from the local
  bus, and the A3640 card doesn't translate burst cycles to the local bus.
  Also, most Zorro III cards identify themselves as "essentially I/O." These
  will get mapped as noncachable by the 68040.library, which means they don't
  get burst, even if you have an '040 card that bursts. On an '030, data
  burst is disabled by default (you can set it with a SetCPU-like tool), and
  no I/O card lives in instruction space, so still, no burst.

  A final Zorro III problem exists on some cards, including the A4091s from
  Commodore, though not necessarily DKB (eg, I don't know). Originally, there
  were a couple of ways for a Zorro III card to terminate a bus cycle. It
  could give the bus back during its last cycle or after its last cycle. This
  former mechanism can cause some problems, including bus lockups, when
  multiple masters are present. So I only recommend the latter mechanism --
  the card runs its last cycle, then unregisters the bus. This takes longer,
  but it's safe. This is only an issue when multiple bus mastering Zorro
  cards are working together.

@node "Boards"

                                 A4000 Boards


                          @{"  " link "68030 Processor Board Reference"} 68020/68030 Processor Board Reference

                          @{"  " link "A2060 Reference"} A2060 Reference

                          @{"  " link "A2065 Reference"} A2065 Reference

                          @{"  " link "A2091 Reference"} A2091 Reference

                          @{"  " link "A2320 Reference"} A2320 'Amber' Reference

                          @{"  " link "A3640 Reference"} A3640 Reference

                          @{"  " link "A4091 Reference"} A4091 Reference

                          @{"  " link "Ariadne Reference"} Ariadne Reference

                          @{"  " link "DKB 3128 Reference"} DKB 3128 Reference

                          @{"  " link "Emplant Reference"} Emplant Reference

                          @{"  " link "FastLane Reference"} FastLane Reference

                          @{"  " link "Hydra Reference"} Hydra Reference

                          @{"  " link "MultiFaceCard III Reference"} MultiFaceCard III Reference

                          @{"  " link "Oktagon Reference"} Oktagon Reference

                          @{"  " link "Retina Z2 Reference"} Retina Z2 Reference

                          @{"  " link "Warp Engine Reference"} Warp Engine Reference

@node "68030 Processor Board Reference"

                    68020/68030 Processor Board Reference


  This processor board is the board supplied with the A4000/030. It may
  contain a 68030, 68EC030 (functionally equivalent to the 68030 but without
  a memory management unit), or even a 68020 processor. The 68020 option was
  apparently for an extremely low-cost version of the A4000; it is unlikely
  that any boards using the 68020 were ever sold.

  A possible cost-reduced variation of this processor board has no jumpers.
  This type of board has a PLCC socket for the math coprocessor, which runs
  at the same speed as the processor.

  (See also Tips/@{"Processor Board Mounting" link "Processor Board Mounting"}.)


    J100: FPU Select
          1-2 Closed: Use FPU in the PLCC socket.
          2-3 Closed: Use FPU in the PGA socket.

    J101: FPU Clock
          1-2 Closed: Use optional on-board oscillator at U103 for FPU clock.
          2-3 Closed: Use CPU clock as FPU clock.

    J103: MAPROM Enable
          1-2 Closed: MAPROM disabled.
          2-3 Closed: MAPROM enabled (requires U100).

    J201: 68020 Select
          1-2 Closed: 68020 not selected.
          2-3 Closed: 68020 selected.

    J202: 68030 Select
          1-2 Closed: 68030 selected.
          2-3 Closed: 68030 not selected.

    J203: 68020/68030 Select
          1-2 Closed: 68030 selected.
          2-3 Closed: 68020 selected.

@node "A2060 Reference"

                               A2060 Reference


  The A2060 is a full-length Zorro-II network card that supports the Arcnet
  standard. While Ethernet is far more popular, Arcnet has recently become
  very cheap on the Amiga due to a surplus of these cards.

  While Arcnet does not transfer information as quickly as Ethernet, tests of
  actual transfers on the Amiga suggest that it can move information at rates
  up to 150K bytes per second, which is adequate for many purposes. Arcnet
  can be configured in a bus arrangement where each machine is linked to the
  next, or in a star, where all the machines are connected to an active hub.
  The A2060 will work with both setups.

  The A2060 has some bugs. First, the "hybrid" chip that forms the electronic
  interface to the Arcnet network comes in two different versions: HCY 9058
  (for bus networks) and HCY 9068 (for star networks). As the A2060 manual
  describes it, the board is for a bus network, but many A2060s come with the
  9068 (star) hybrid installed. A bus network needs 93-ohm terminators at
  each end, and this works fine with the 9058 (bus) version of the hybrid.
  With the 9068, however, the hybrid itself performs the termination. To
  connect two machines with 9068 hybrids, run coax from one machine to the
  other, without using terminators. Using T-connectors to attach more
  machines in the middle of the bus may or may not work, due to each one
  adding its termination to the bus. To connect a 9068-version A2060 to a bus
  network of 9058-version A2060s, place it at the end of the chain and
  connect the cable directly, without a terminator (this may limit the
  network to only being operational when the 9068-equipped machine is on).
  Both versions of the card should have no problems when attached directly to
  an active hub. It is also possible to replace the HCY 9068 hybrid with the
  9058 version, provided you can locate one.

  There are also several well-known problems with version 37.2 of the
  "a2060.device" driver software. Replacements for this driver are available
  in the comm/net directory of Aminet. Some commercial networking packages
  like Envoy 2.0 also include much better replacement drivers.

  Other Notes

  Arcnet requires RG62 coaxial cable, *not* the RG58 that Ethernet uses, and
  has a minimum cable length between stations of three feet (0.9 meter).
  Active hubs used for a star layout are self-terminating, so cables are
  connected directly between the hub and the Arcnet cards.

  If the A2060 does not perform reliably even with updated driver software,
  check the board for cold solder joints on hand-soldered components like the
  BNC coax connector and DIP switches. Some or all of these components may
  need to have overly-long leads trimmed to prevent interference with
  adjacent cards or connectors.

  Finally, the Arcnet address switches on the back of the board are labelled
  incorrectly in the manual (or on the board, depending on how you look at
  it). At least some A2060's have a sticker stuck onto the DIP switch, which
  may disagree with both other references. Ignore all of these: the correct
  layout is described in the Switches section below. (Assign Arcnet ID
  numbers starting with 254 and decreasing from there. This will provide a
  slight performance increase due to Arcnet's token-passing setup.)

  Despite all the problems, the A2060 works quite well once the bugs are

  Board Layout
 |        _________                 ...                            |___
 |       |   ROM   |                LED                            |
 |       |_________|                                 ______        |
 |                                                  |      |       |
 |                                                  |      |   Bit0#
 |                                                  |Hybrid|    .  # Arcnet
 |                                                  |      |    .  # Node ID
 |                       (Hybrid version number is  |      |    .  # Switches
 |                        labelled on the back side |      |   Bit7#
 |                        of the potted "chip.")    |______|       |_
 |                                                                 |_| BNC
 |                                                                 |
     |||||||||||||||||||||||||||                                   |


    LED: Access LED. Attach a hard disk access LED here to see activity on
         the Arcnet bus. The left pin of the connector is positive, and the
         board provides a current-limiting resistor.


    Arcnet Node ID: This switch is used to set the Arcnet address of the
      board (refer to the board diagram above). Bit 0 is the switch farthest
      from the BNC connector; bit 7 is the closest to the BNC connector.

    Switch settings:

      1: Down (toward the solder side of the board)
      0: Up   (toward the component side of the board)

    Note: Zero is reserved, and not a valid Arcnet address.

  Example Arcnet Node Address Settings

     ID     Binary   Bit7  Bit6  Bit5  Bit4  Bit3  Bit2  Bit1  Bit0
    -----  --------  ----  ----  ----  ----  ----  ----  ----  ----
     254   11111110  down  down  down  down  down  down  down   up

     253   11111101  down  down  down  down  down  down   up   down

     252   11111100  down  down  down  down  down  down   up    up

     128   10000000  down   up    up    up    up    up    up    up

       3   00000011   up    up    up    up    up    up   down  down

       2   00000010   up    up    up    up    up    up   down   up

       1   00000001   up    up    up    up    up    up    up   down

@node "A2065 Reference"

                               A2065 Reference


  The A2065 is a full-length Zorro-II network card that supports the Ethernet
  standard. Both BNC (coax) and DB15 (AUI) connectors are provided. While the
  A2065 hasn't been produced for some time, it's still the most common
  Ethernet board found in Zorro-bus Amigas.

  Ethernet Configurations

  10Base-2 (coax cable, or "thin net") and 10Base-T (twisted pair) are now
  the most common variations of Ethernet.

  Thin Net (10Base-2, or coax)

  The coaxial cable variant of Ethernet uses a bus arrangement, where a
  "t-connector" is attached to the BNC connector of the Ethernet board, and
  RG58 coaxial cable is connected to the two BNC connectors on it. (Note that
  "stub" extension cables between the t-connector and the card are *not*
  allowed.) At the ends of the bus, 50-ohm terminating resistors are
  installed on the unused BNC connectors of the t-connector.

  Twisted Pair (10Base-T)

  Twisted-pair Ethernet uses two pairs of Category 3 (or higher) twisted-
  pair wire, although the wire usually used actually contains four pairs.
  Eight-conductor RJ45 phone-type connectors are used (the actual pins
  connected are 1,2,3 and 6). Topologically, 10Base-T uses a star
  arrangement, where wire is run between each workstation and a
  "concentrator," or hub. Two cards can be directly connected with a "null-
  modem" version of the standard cable, in which the pairs are swapped (1-2
  connect to 3-6, and 3-6 connect to 1-2).

  While the A2065 does not directly support 10Base-T, inexpensive
  transceivers are available to plug into the AUI port.

  Board Address

  The firmware Ethernet address of the A2065 can be determined by taking the
  registered CBM block number (00-80-10) and appending the hex value shown on
  the sticker on chip U4.

  Board Layout
 |                                                                 |___
 |                                                                 |
 |                                                                 |
 |                                                                 |_
 |                                                                 |_| BNC
 |                                                                 |
 |                                             JP7       ABC       |_
 |                                             :         ABC       | |
 |                                                       ABC       | | AUI
 |           JP1-JP6                                               | |
 |           ::::::                                                |_|
 |                                                                 |
     |||||||||||||||||||||||||||                                   |


  JP1-JP6: Interrupt (default is JP2).

  JP7: Ethernet Type
    Off: Type 1.
     On: Type 2 (default).

  ABC Jumpers: Select Thick/Thin Ethernet.
    AB: Select BNC connector (thin Ethernet).
    BC: Select AUI connector (thick Ethernet).

@node "A2091 Reference"

                               A2091 Reference


  The A2091 is a full-length Zorro-II DMA SCSI hard drive controller that was
  originally introduced with the A2000HD. Because of the A2091's high
  availability, it is often found in A4000s, even though it performs very
  slowly in them.

  The A2091 can't use DMA to transfer data to 32-bit Fast RAM, and if
  Zorro-II DMA memory is not available, the driver falls back to programmed
  I/O transfers. In either case, this makes for extremely slow disk transfers
  (at worst, 50K/second; at best, no more than 1M/second). There are
  utilities in the "hard" directory of Aminet that may help alleviate this
  problem. (Side note: with some of these, adding some memory on the A2091
  may help by providing Zorro-II DMA-accessible memory for buffering.)

  ROM revisions are a common problem with the A2091; 6.6 or later ROMs are
  desirable, with 7.0 being the last version (strongly recommended, and
  necessary for 68040 machines). Most A2091s have revision 04 of the Western
  Digital 33C93 SCSI controller chip; replacing this with the 08 version may
  clear up SCSI bus problems. (Despite common belief, the "PROTO" marking is
  insignificant on either version of the WD chip; version 04 or version 08
  are the only significant values.)

  Sixteen sockets allow for the addition of up to 2M of 16-bit Fast RAM,
  using CMOS 256K x 4 DRAMs (44C256) rated at 120 ns or faster. (This is not
  normally very useful on the A4000, since a SIMM added to the motherboard
  RAM sockets is simpler to obtain and install, and will operate *much* more

  The hard drive power connector on the board is not a reliable way to power
  a card-mounted hard drive. Use the connectors attached directly to the
  power supply instead.

  Usually looked on as a cheap (sometimes very cheap) way to access SCSI
  peripherals from the A4000, the A2091 is certainly better than no SCSI
  controller at all.

  A little-known and mostly-unused function of the A2091 is a built-in XT-IDE
  controller. The IDE connector and LED are not installed, but visible on the
  board to the left and upper-right of the SCSI chip. Unfortunately, this
  port will only work with 8-bit (XT) IDE hard drives, not the common 16-bit
  AT-IDE hard drives. This option was apparently mostly used for the 20M 
  drives supplied with the A590, the A500 hard disk option which shared the
  2091 design.

  Board Layout
 | DRAM   _________  ::Memory       ...                            |___
 | ||||  | Odd ROM | ::Size         LED                            |
 | ||||  |_________|          ::                                   |
 |        _________        :: ::                                   |#
 | ||||  |Even ROM |       :: :: 50-Pin SCSI                       |# External
 | ||||  |_________|   Options:: Connector                         |# SCSI
 |                            ::                                   |# Port
 | ||||                       ::                                   |# (DB25)
 | ||||                       ::                                   |#
 |                            ::                                   |
 | ||||                        . Power                             |
 | ||||                        : Connector                         |
     |||||||||||||||||||||||||||                                   |


    JP1: Memory Size
           0K: Set for no memory.
         512K: Set for 512K of RAM.
           1M: Set for 1M of RAM.
           2M: Set for 2M of RAM.

    JP2: Autoboot Enable
         AUTO: Set to enable autobooting from the A2091.
          DIS: Set to disable autobooting from the A2091.

    JP3: Interrupt Select
         INT6: Select interrupt 6.
         INT2: Select interrupt 2.

    JP5: Options
         Option 1: LUN Enable. When jumpered, enables scanning for Logical
                   Unit Numbers numbers at each physical SCSI address.
                   Default value: Off.
         Option 2: Time-Out Length. When jumpered, enables longer time-out
                   for slow-starting drives. Default: Off. (Note: When on,
                   this jumper disables parity during the message in phase.)
         Option 3: Reserved. Factory default: Off.

    JP201: Factory use only.

  For pin-out information on the internal 50-pin header and external DB25
  SCSI connectors, see Drives/@{"SCSI Pin-Outs" link "SCSI Pin-Outs"}.

@node "A2320 Reference"

                           A2320 'Amber' Reference


  The A2320 is a video deinterlacer board originally built for the A2000. It
  is essentially the motherboard deinterlacer circuitry from the A3000 on a
  board. Based on the Amber chip used in the A3000, the board is often
  referred to as the Amber board. Physically, the board is designed to fit
  into the video slot of an A2000. Electronically, it works fine in an A4000.

  Why would you need a separate deinterlacer board when the A4000 already has
  AGA circuitry that can scan-double? If you have a VGA or multisync monitor,
  there are two main reasons:

  A. Not all programs can be mode-promoted to "double" screens through
     software (games, for instance). The Amber board will scan-double all
     15.75 kHz screens.

  B. The AGA "double" modes are not truly double in frequency. A 640x200
     "doubled" screen syncs at about 27.5 kHz, not the 31.5 kHz that you'd
     expect. Some multisync monitors can't sync this low. With an Amber
     board, the output is 31.5 kHz, the same as "stock" VGA.

  Physical Mounting

  A modified "slot cover" can be attached to the back panel of the Amber board
  to allow it to be attached securely to an A4000 slot. You'll also need to
  trim a bit off the "top" of the Amber's metal panel to allow clearance for
  the A4000 case (a nibbling tool is useful here). The board will only fill
  part of A4000 video slot; it looks funny this way, but it works.

  Don't remove the enable/disable switch! The Amber gets confused by some of
  the "doubled" screen modes, and rather than passing them through, tries to
  double them to 55 kHz or above! On these modes, you'll need the disable
  switch to force the board to pass the video through. (Productivity mode is
  passed through correctly, since it was part of the ECS chip set that was
  around when the Amber board first came out.)


  The Amber board was designed before AGA came out, and doesn't really under-
  stand AGA. As noted above, some modes are not passed through properly
  unless the board is disabled with the switch. According to Scott Hood, the
  designer of the A2320, it samples 12 bits for each color. On the A4000,
  this is the upper 12 bits of the 24-bit AGA information. So AGA screens
  with more than 32 colors or HAM-6 will have the colors quantized to a
  certain degree. This hasn't been a problem so far, although it can be seen
  on things like ImageFX preview screens. Games that use the AGA color
  abilities but don't allow for promoting their screens to doubled modes are
  the only likely sources for this trouble.

@node "A3640 Reference"

                               A3640 Reference


  The A3640 is the stock 68040 processor board that comes with most A4000s.
  It contains a 25 MHz 68040; some boards came with the 68LC040, which is a
  68040 with no built-in math coprocessor functions. The A4000 User's Guide
  has instructions on upgrading from a 68EC040, which has no math coprocessor
  or memory management unit (if any A4000s were ever shipped with 68EC040
  processors, there were very few of them). Revision 3.1 or 3.2 boards with
  U209 marked as "-02" or "-03" can be used in A3000 or A3000 tower
  computers. (For more information on A3640 board revisions and bugs, see
  Internals/@{"Definitive Buster" link "Definitive Buster"}.)

  The "cut and jumper" patch mentioned by Dave Haynie in the Definitive
  Buster section is: lift pin 6 of U200, and short pads 6 and 7 on U200.
  This, in combination with an upgrade to the U209 PAL, converts a 3.0 board
  to 3.1. The only difference between 3.1 and 3.2 boards is another upgrade
  to the same PAL.

  Information on PAL upgrades can be found at:

  (See also Tips/@{"Processor Board Mounting" link "Processor Board Mounting"}.)


    J100: Enable *CacheDisable *MMU Disable
          1-2 Closed and 3-4 Closed: Enable CDIS* MDIS* (caches and MMU
                                     disabled at powerup and reset: default).

    J400: Enable MAPROM: Enable remapping circuit for loading Kickstart
          into Fast RAM with a developer utility program.
          1-2 Closed: MAPROM enabled (default).
          3-4 Closed: MAPROM disabled.

@node "A4091 Reference"

                               A4091 Reference
                                by Bob Emery


  The A4091 is a full-length Zorro-III DMA Fast SCSI-2 hard drive controller
  designed for the A4000. It is based on the NCR 53C710 chip. (Editor's note:
  this is the same Fast SCSI controller chip used in the Warp Engine.)

  Unlike some similar products, it is only a Fast SCSI-2 controller; it has
  no sockets for additional RAM. The A4091 package includes an active
  terminator and a custom ribbon cable, which is nicely folded to accommodate
  up to five internal drives, one on-board and a pair in each of the front
  and rear bays.

  The A4091 requires a revision 11 Buster, which Commodore supplied loose
  with the card. It works with A3640 3.1 and 3.2 revisions, but not 3.0.

  The board is theoretically capable of 10 Megabytes per second transfer

  Board Layout
 | ... ... LED      :::::::::::::::                                |___
 |                    50-Pin SCSI                                  |
 | ||| ||| |||         Connector                                   |
 | ||| ||| ||| |||                                                 |#
 |             |||      ||||||                                     |# External
 | ||| ||| ||| |||      ||||||                                     |# HiDensity
 | ||| ||| ||| |||      ||||||                                     |# SCSI-2
 |                      ||||||                                     |# Connector
 | |||     |||                                                     |#
 | ||| ||| |||                                                     |=sw 8
 |     |||                      . Power                            |=   :
 |                              : Connector                        |=   :
 |_________________________________________________________________|=sw 1
     ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||                                |

  LED Connectors

          To DSPLY     To MB

          CN351        CN308
         | o o o       o o o
         | N R B       B R N
         | C e l       l e C
         |   d a       a d
         |     c       c
         |     k       k

  Unplug the Front Panel LED cable from the connector on the motherboard and
  plug it into the CN351. To make the LED operate for IDE drives as well, use
  the extra cable supplied with the A4091 to connect CN308 to the 

  Rear Connector View

 |                                                               |
 |             DIP Switch            External SCSI-2 Connector   |
 |         _________________                                     |
 |    ON  |                 |        1                       25  |
 |        | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 |      {}:::::::::::::::::::::::::{} |
 |    OFF |_________________|        26                      50  |
 |                                                               |

  DIP Switch Settings, defaults are all OFF

  SCSI Address of Card

            0     1     2     3     4     5     6     7

    SW1    ON    OFF   ON    OFF   ON    OFF   ON    OFF
    SW2    ON    ON    OFF   OFF   ON    ON    OFF   OFF
    SW3    ON    ON    ON    ON    OFF   OFF   OFF   OFF

  SCSI Fast Bus

    SW4    OFF indicates that the SCSI Fast Bus feature is enabled.
           Set this switch to ON if none of your SCSI devices
           support SCSI Fast Bus.

  Short/Long Spinup

    SW5    OFF indicates that your system uses the standard spinup
           (booting) time. Set this switch to ON to request a longer
           booting period. If one of your SCSI devices has a long
           power-on cycle, the Amiga may not recognise it during the
           standard booting period.

  Synchronous Mode

    SW6    OFF indicates that the synchronous mode feature is enabled.
           Set this switch to ON to disable synchronous mode. Synchronous
           mode does not require acknowledgement for every byte transmitted,
           which can mean improved response time with most SCSI devices.

  External SCSI Termination

    SW7    OFF indicates that you do not have any external devices.
           This activates the terminator on the board since this is
           one end of the SCSI bus. Set this switch to ON when you
           install an external device. This disables the termination
           on the board since it is now in the middle of the SCSI bus
           (not at the end).

  Logical Unit (LUN) Enable

    SW8    OFF indicates that unit 0 is the only unit recognized. Set
           this switch to on to enable the system to recognize 1-6 as

@node "Ariadne Reference"

                              Ariadne Reference


  The Ariadne is a combination Ethernet and parallel port board. Physically,
  it is a 3/4 length card, with BNC and RJ45 connectors for 10BASE-2 and
  10BASE-T Ethernet connections, and a female DB25 parallel port connector.

  An internal 26-pin header provides a connection for a second parallel port,
  and four LEDs display connection information.

  By default, the Ariadne auto-selects the type of Ethernet media based on
  what is attached. This can be overridden by setting an environment variable
  called Sana2/ariadne0.config to the preferred value (10BASET or 10BASE2).
  For example, to force the Ariadne to use the 10BASE-T connection:

    setenv Sana2/ariadne0.config 10BASET

  Remember that environment variables will only be saved if they are copied
  to the ENVARC: logical device.

  The Ariadne software claims to support up to ten Ariadne boards in one
  Amiga (although which Amiga has this many slots remains unclear). Software
  is also provided to redirect printing to the Ariadne parallel ports.

  Board Layout
  |                Parallel Port 2  1234   1      _____         |___
  |                 ############    OOOO   :::   |     |        |
  |     JP1 ..      1               LEDs   LED   |EPROM|        |#
  |     Boot                            Connector|     |        |# DB25
  |                                              |     |        |# Parallel
  |                                              |_____|        |# Port 1
  |                                                             |#
  |                                                             |
  |                                                            #| RJ45
  |                                                            #| 10BASE-T
  |                                                             |_
  |                                                             |_| BNC
  |_____________________________________________________________|   10BASE-2
  |||||||||||||||||||||||||||                                   |


    JP1: Enable Boot ROM?
      Off: Set to disable autobooting (default).
       On: Set to enable autobooting from an on-board EPROM.


    LED Connector (6-pin header)
      Pin 1: (LED 1) Twisted pair MAU link status
      Pin 2: (LED 2) Transmit status
      Pin 3: +5V
      Pin 4: (LED 3) Collision
      Pin 5: +5V
      Pin 6: (LED 4) Receive status

    Parallel Port 2 (26-pin header)
      Note that these connections are set up for use of a standard 26-pin
      header to a DB25 female mounted on a slot cover. This should be a
      standard part, but check connections before using it.
       Pin 1: *Strobe
       Pin 2: +5V Pull Up (Current limit unknown on Ariadne, normally 10 mA.)
       Pin 3: Data 0
       Pin 4: Unused
       Pin 5: Data 1
       Pin 6: *Reset
       Pin 7: Data 2
       Pin 8: Ground (Do not connect any of these grounds to a shield.)
       Pin 9: Data 3
      Pin 10: Ground
      Pin 11: Data 4
      Pin 12: Ground
      Pin 13: Data 5
      Pin 14: Ground
      Pin 15: Data 6
      Pin 16: Ground
      Pin 17: Data 7
      Pin 18: Ground
      Pin 19: *Acknowledge
      Pin 20: Ground
      Pin 21: Busy
      Pin 22: Ground
      Pin 23: Paper Out
      Pin 24: Ground
      Pin 25: Select
      Pin 26: Unused

    Parallel Port 1 (DB25 Female)
    Parallel Port 2 (DB25 Female when connected)
      Both Ariadne parallel ports have the same pin-out as the standard A4000
      parallel port. See Connector Pin-Outs/@{"Parallel Port Pin-Outs" link "Parallel Port Pin-Outs"}.

@node "DKB 3128 Reference"

                              DKB 3128 Reference
                               by Phil Wright


  The DKB 3128 is a full-length Zorro-III memory expansion board for the
  A3000(T) and A4000(T) Amiga computers.

  The DKB 3128 accepts up to 4 32-bit SIMMs of 4, 8, 16 or 32 megabytes in
  size for a total of 128MB of add-on memory. The SIMMs you choose should be
  80 ns or faster.

  The SIMM sockets hold the installed SIMMs parallel with the DKB 3128
  circuit board so the DKB 3128 remains low profile even with SIMMs

  If you install SIMMs larger than 4MB you will need to remove one or more
  jumpers from the SIMM size jumpers. If you install an 8 or 32 megabyte SIMM
  module, you must remove the shorting block on J1. If you install a 16 or 32
  megabyte SIMM module, you must remove the shorting block on J2. Jumper J3
  is not used and should not have a shorting block on it. Note: The DKB 3128
  circuit board is silk-screened with this information.

  You can mix SIMM sizes on the DKB 3128 but you must put the largest SIMM in
  the second SIMM socket labeled "BANK 1" below. Additionally, if you mix
  SIMM sizes, you must install the included 3128 program at the beginning of
  your startup-sequence. If you do not, the system will assume every module
  is the same size as the largest and add "phantom" memory which isn't
  actually there. Running your system in this state is not a good idea. The
  disk that comes with the DKB 3128 includes the 3128 and an installer script
  to install it.

  Memory on the DKB 3128 is not as fast as motherboard memory in the A4000,
  about 80% of normal A4000 memory speed according to AIBB.

  Board Layout
 |   123                         ____     ____     ____     ____   |___
 |   :::                          | |      | |      | |      | |   |
 |   SIMM                         | |      | |      | |      | |   |
 |   Size                        B| |     B| |     B| |     B| |   |
 |                               A| |     A| |     A| |     A| |   |
 |                               N| |     N| |     N| |     N| |   |
 |                               K| |     K| |     K| |     K| |   |
 |                                | |      | |      | |      | |   |
 |                               0| |     1| |     2| |     3| |   |
 |                                | |      | |      | |      | |   |
 |                                | |      | |      | |      | |   |
 |                               _|_|     _|_|     _|_|     _|_|   |
 |                                                                 |
     |||||||||||||||||||||||||||                                   |

  SIMM Size Jumper Settings

      4MB 8MB 16MB 32MB
  J1   L   R    L    R
  J2   L   L    R    R

  R = Remove
  L = Leave Installed

  J3 should never be installed.

@node "Emplant Reference"

                              Emplant Reference


  The Emplant is a Zorro-II board that, in combination with the appropriate
  software, makes it possible to emulate other computers on the Amiga system.

  The Emplant hardware performs several functions. Sockets are provided for
  both DIP- and SIMM-packaged ROMs (the ROMs of the "target" computer are
  installed on the board, then copied to image files, then removed). Also
  provided are two Macintosh-type serial ports and a basic, no-frills, non-
  autobooting SCSI-1 interface based on the 53C80 SCSI chip. (There are also
  empty sockets for audio digitizing chips on the Emplant board, but the
  software has never been implemented.)

  Dual serial ports and the SCSI controller are optional, and some models of
  the board come without one or both of these options.

  A "RsrvMem" command added to the the beginning of the startup-sequence sets
  up the MMU for use with the Emplant board. If you wish to remove the
  Emplant from the A4000, it's best to remove this command first, or getting
  the machine to start may be impossible.

  Early versions of the board came with "ST" brand serial chips, "LOGIC"
  brand SCSI chips, or custom GALs with date codes earlier than 4693. All of
  these chips caused problems; the serial and SCSI chips with their
  respective ports, the GAL chips with general operation. Utilities Unlimited
  has offered free replacements for these problem chips in the past. Contact
  them at:

      Utilities Unlimited International, Inc.
      790 N. Lake Havasu Avenue #16
      Lake Havasu City  AZ  86403
      (602) 680-9004 Sales
      (602) 453-6407 Fax
      (602) 680-9234 Tech Support

  A commonly-defective -5V regulator on the A4000 motherboard can cause the
  Emplant board to fail diagnostic tests and not perform properly in other
  ways, including unreliable operation of AppleTalk devices. See the Common
  Problems section on @{"-5V Power Problems" link "-5V Power Problems"} for more information.

  The included diagnostic program is often a source of concern; reports
  indicate that it doesn't work properly on PAL machines, and often it can't
  locate the Emplant board, even if there are no problems. This may be a
  problem specific to the A4000.

  Board Layout
 | JP1                                 __   _ JP6 _   RCA____      |___
 | xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx  JP2   |  | |  | |  |    |    |     |
 | ROM SIMM Socket    ------------    |  | |  | |  |    |    |   ##| Serial
 |                    | Autoboot |    |  | |  | |  |    |    |   ##| Port B
 |                    |  Socket  |    |  | |  | |  |    |    |     |
 | ------------   ----------------    |  | |  | |  |    |    |   ##| Serial
 | | ROM/RAM  |   | ROM/RAM  | JP3    |__| |__| |__|    |____|   ##| Port A
 | | Socket-1 |   | Socket-3 |    JP4         _________________    |
 | ------------   ------------               | 53C80 SCSI Chip |   |# External
 | | ROM/RAM  |   | ROM/RAM  | JP5           |_________________|   |# SCSI
 | | Socket-2 |   | Socket-4 |                                     |# Port
 | ------------   ------------           Internal SCSI Connector   |#
     |||||||||||||||||||||||||||                                   |


    JP1: ROM SIMM Address Line Selection
         Right: Default.
          Left: ???.

    JP2: ROM SIMM Write Enable
         Right: Default (gated write select).
          Left: Signal pulled up to +5V.

    JP3: Auto-Boot ROM/SRAM Socket Power/Address Select
         Upper: Supply power to 28-pin DIP.
         Lower: Supply address line for 32-pin DIP.

    JP4: ROM/RAM Socket 3/4 ROM/SRAM Socket Power/Address Select
         Upper: Supply power to 28-pin DIP.
         Lower: Supply address line for 32-pin DIP.

    JP5: ROM/RAM Socket 1/2 ROM/SRAM Socket Power/Address Select
         Upper: Supply power to 28-pin DIP.
         Lower: Supply address line for 32-pin DIP.

    JP6: Mac Emulation Audio Mode Select
         Upper: Mono.
         Lower: Stereo.

    JMP1: SCSI Terminator Power Enable
           On: Supply SCSI terminator power.
          Off: Do not supply SCSI terminator power.

    RCA: Input Connector For Audio Digitizing Circuitry

@node "FastLane Reference"

                       FastLane Z3 SCSI-II Controller
                               by Ian A. Clark


  The Z3 FastLane is a Zorro III Fast SCSI-II DMA controller for the A3000 or
  A4000 with transfer rates of approximately 7MB/sec Asynchronous and
  10MB/sec synchronous operation. It will support devices with SCSI, SCSI-II
  and Fast SCSI-II interfaces. It also has provision for up to 64MB memory
  (256MB as an option) in the form of standard 30-pin SIMM modules. RAM
  speeds supported are 60, 80 or 100ns. It is compatible with Buster
  revisions -09, -10 or -11.

  For fitting inside the A4000/040 with version 3.0 68040 processor boards, a
  74FCT240 clock driver chip is also provided. This replaces the original
  74FCT244 chip at position U103 on the motherboard, directly under the
  processor daughter-board.

  For fitting inside the A3000, the Buster revision level MUST be -09 or

  Software is also provided, on a single floppy, in the form of Workbench and
  CLI utilities for configuration and control of SCSI devices, a CDROM
  filesystem and a memory cache utility.

  (Editor's note: a Usenet post by David A. Newman states that board revision
  2.4 is the most current, with 2.3 and 2.2 also available.  Revision 2.2
  boards under serial number 31001650 may require a patch by Phase 5 Germany
  to work with a Broadcaster Elite or DBC32. Use with a 68060 may require a
  new ROM from Phase 5.)

  See also: @{"MultiFace and FastLane Problems" link "MultiFace and FastLane Problems"}

  Board Layout
 |     ------------------- -------------------                   |___
 |     ------------------- -------------------       CONFIG      |
 |     Memory bank 4       Memory bank 4              :::::      |
 |CPS  ------------------- -------------------        43210   |::|#
 |:    ------------------- -------------------                |::|#
 |::   Memory bank 3       Memory bank 3                      |::|# External
 |     ------------------- -------------------                |::|# SCSI
 |     ------------------- -------------------                |::|# port
 |     Memory bank 2       Memory bank 2                      |::|# (Centronics)
 |RSIZ ------------------- -------------------                |::|#
 |:::: ------------------- -------------------    RAMSPD      |::|#
 |::   Memory bank 1       Memory bank 1          ::::::      ^^ |#
      ||||||||||||||||||||||||||                              || |
                                                              |Internal SCSI
                                                         Terminator SIPs


 CONFIG: SCSI Device Configuration Jumpers

 0 - Debug mode          open     default

 1 - Reserved            open     default

 2 - Slow inquiry mode.  open     default
                         closed   Lengthens time to wait for device response.
                                  Used with older drives.

 3 - Slow cable mode     open     default
                         closed   Only if transmission problems occur with
                                  cables that are longer than 5M.

 4 - Syncron Auto-enable open     Z3 examines RDB information on SCSI disks to
                         closed   determine whether to operate in Synchronous
                                  mode. This jumper is closed by default.

  RAMSPD: RAM Speed And Bank Size Jumpers

  This jumper block allows speed settings to be set (40, 60, 80 & 100ns). The
  40ns setting is currently not supported.

  The two right-hand jumpers are used for memory configurations, which are
  detailed below.

          o o o o o o

          o o o o o o
          ^ ^ ^ ^
          | | | |
          | | | 100ns
          | | |
          | | 80ns (default)
          | |
          | 60ns

  It is possible to use 70 ns SIMMS by setting the jumper to 60 ns. It can be
  dropped back to 80 ns if problems arise due to the tolerance levels of the

  The 60 ns setting will provide memory speeds which are approx 95% of that
  on the motherboard.

  Memory Configurations

  Standard 30-pin SIMMs are used, either 36-bit (PC) or 32-bit, so SIMMS
  generally advertised as either 1Mx9 or 1Mx8 can be used. 4MB and 1MB SIMMS
  can be mixed (see below) but not in the same bank.

  Memory must be fitted in groups of four SIMMS to completely fill each bank,
  and must be the same size in each bank, therefore the minimum configuration
  for 1 bank would be 4MB (4x1MB SIMMS) and the maximum 16MB (4x4MB SIMMS)

  An upgrade kit can be provided which will allow the use of 16MB SIMM
  modules. However, once fitted, you can no longer use 1MB SIMMs, but you can
  mix 4MB & 16MB.

  Total   --------Memory installed on-------    Config
  Memory  Bank 1   Bank 2   Bank 3    Bank 4    Setting

     4      4MB                                    1
     8      4MB      4MB                           1
    12      4MB      4MB      4MB                  1
    16      4MB      4MB      4MB      4MB         1
    16     16MB                                    2
    20     16MB      4MB                           2
    24     16MB      4MB      4MB                  2
    28     16MB      4MB      4MB      4MB         2
    32     16MB     16MB                           3
    36     16MB     16MB      4MB                  3
    40     16MB     16MB      4MB      4MB         3
    48     16MB     16MB     16MB                  4
    64     16MB     16MB     16MB     16MB         5

 CPS: Config Page Select jumpers

 RSIZ: RAM size jumpers

 These two jumper blocks determine the memory configuration.  Each configuration
 setting has been allocated a number on the chart above and are detailed below.

 Setting 0: Memory off, or no memory fitted.

    o        o o o o o o
             | | | | | |
    o        o o o o o o

    o o      o o o o o o    o o o o o o
    | |                         |   |
    o o      o o            o o o o o o

    CPS      RAM size       RAM speed

 Setting 1: 4MB, 8MB, 12MB, 16MB exclusively with 1MB SIMMs

    o        o o o o o o
             | | | | | |
    o        o o o o o o

    o o      o o o o o o    o o o o o o
    |                           |   | |
    o o      o o            o o o o o o

    CPS      RAM size       RAM speed

 Setting 2: 16MB, 20MB, 24MB, 28MB with 1x4MB & 1MB combinations

    o        o o o o o o
             | | | | | |
    o        o o o o o o

    o o      o o o o o o    o o o o o o
    |                           |     |
    o o      o o            o o o o o o

    CPS      RAM size       RAM speed

 Setting 3: 32MB, 36MB, 40MB with 2x4MB & 1MB combinations

    o        o o o o o o
             | | | | | |
    o        o o o o o o

    o o      o o o o o o    o o o o o o
    |                           |   |
    o o      o o            o o o o o o

    CPS      RAM size       RAM speed

 Setting 4: 48MB with 3x4MB SIMMs

    o        o o o o o o
             | | | | | |
    o        o o o o o o

    o o      o o o o o o    o o o o o o
    |                           |
    o o      o o            o o o o o o

    CPS      RAM size       RAM speed

 Setting 5: 64MB exclusively with 4MB SIMMs

    o        o o o o o o
             | |
    o        o o o o o o
                     | |
    o o      o o o o o o    o o o o o o
    |        | |                |   | |
    o o      o o            o o o o o o

    CPS      RAM size       RAM speed

@node "Hydra Reference"

                  Hydra Systems AmigaNet 1.1 Ethernet Board
                               by Calum Tsang


  The Hydra board is a Zorro II compatible full length Ethernet network
  adapter for all Zorro bus compatible machines. It is widely acknowledged as
  a superior board to the A2065, having faster throughput. (Editor's note:
  I've heard this, but have yet to see a benchmark.)

  Physically, it has an AUI port for transceiver and a pair of BNCs for RG58
  ThinNet Coax. This strange configuration has a plus: it means you won't
  need an extra T connector for each board! Just daisychain the ThinNet
  cables in and out of each Hydra. This means you won't need an extra T
  connector for each board; just daisy-chain the ThinNet cables in and out
  of each Hydra. There is no difference between the two BNCs, just make sure
  that there is either another station attached to the other BNC, or a
  terminator if you're on the end of the chain.

  Onboard, there is only one set of jumpers, block F1, which has six pairs of
  pins. When all are in the down pair jumpered position, it is set to ThinNet
  10Base2 (CheaperNet). When all are jumpered on the up pair, the Hydra is
  set to use the AUI port for 10Base5. (Meaning you can attach a Thick
  transceiver, a FOIRL optic box, or a 10BaseT twisted pair adapter.) This
  shouldn't really be needed-it's already printed on the board and VERY
  clearly marked. It uses a NatSemi 32490CN Ethernet chip.

  Software-wise, a SANA2 driver, hydra.device, is provided with the board.

  Board Layout
 |                                                                 |___
 |                                                                 |
 |                                               :::::: F1         |
 |                                                                 |# 10Base5
 |                                                                 |# /AUI
 |                                                                 |# Port
 |                                                                 |# (DB15)
 |                                                                 |#
 |                                                                 |_
 |                                                                 |_| BNC
 |                                                                 |_
 |                                                                 |_| BNC
     |||||||||||||||||||||||||||                                   |


        Up: AUI
      Down: BNC

@node "MultiFaceCard III Reference"

                         Multifacecard III Reference
                               by Thomas Huber


  The MultiFaceCard III (MFC) is a Zorro-2 card providing 2 extra serial
  ports and 1 extra parallel port.

  The buffered serial ports of the MFC are superior to the A4000's stock
  serial port, as RTS/CTS-handshake is done by the hardware itself. This
  makes high-speed transfers more reliable and reduces the CPU load, making
  the Amiga more useable during the transfers. (Editor's note: the MFC card
  uses the 68681 serial UART, which has a three-byte FIFO buffer.)

  The parallel port is capable of higher speeds than the stock A4000 parallel
  port. As this port is bidirectional, it can be used with a special version
  of ParNet found on the install disk.

  There's no ROM or EPROM on the card, and thus no drivers that autoconfig.
  You have to run the MFC program which provides the "duart.device" for the
  serial ports and the "pit.device" for the parallel port.

  See also: @{"MultiFace and FastLane Problems" link "MultiFace and FastLane Problems"}

  Board Layout
                                 | Ser0 ::::::::                |
                                 |                              |
                                 |                              |
  _______________________________| Ser1 ::::::::                |# Serial
 |                                                              |# Port 0
 |                                                              |# (DB9)
 |                                                              |
 |               :JP                                            |#
 |                                                              |# Parallel
 |                                                              |# (DB25)
 |                                                              |#
 |                                                              |#
  |||||||||||||||||||||||||||                                   |


    JP: Board Disable
      On: Disable MFC
     Off: Enable MFC


    Ser0: Serial Port 0 (External DB9) (Standard PC 9-pin serial port.)
      Pin 1: DCD
      Pin 2: RXD
      Pin 3: TXD
      Pin 4: DTR
      Pin 5: Ground
      Pin 6: DSR
      Pin 7: RTS
      Pin 8: CTS
      Pin 9: RI

    Ser0, Ser1 (External DB25 connected to internal 26-pin header)
       Pin 1: Shield Ground
       Pin 2: TXD
       Pin 3: RXD
       Pin 4: RTS
       Pin 5: CTS
       Pin 6: DSR
       Pin 7: Data Ground
       Pin 8: DCD
       Pin 9: +12V  (Probably current-limited to about 20 mA.)
      Pin 10: -12V  (Probably current-limited to about 20 mA.)
      Pin 11: NC?   (Stock A4000 serial: Amiga Audio Out (Left))
      Pin 12: SI    (Stock A4000 serial: Unused)
      Pin 13: NC?
      Pin 14: NC?
      Pin 15: NC?
      Pin 16: NC?
      Pin 17: NC?
      Pin 18: NC?  (Stock A4000 serial: Amiga Audio In (Right))
      Pin 19: NC?
      Pin 20: DTR
      Pin 21: NC?
      Pin 22: RI
      Pin 23: NC?
      Pin 24: NC?
      Pin 25: NC?

      The internal Ser0 connector can be used instead of the external DB9
      if signals not present on the DB9 connector are needed.

  Parallel (DB25 compatible with standard A4000 parallel port.)
    @{"Parallel Port Pin-Outs" link "Parallel Port Pin-Outs"}

@node "Oktagon Reference"

                              Oktagon Reference


  The Oktagon 2008S is a combination SCSI-2 (but not Fast SCSI-2) and 16-bit
  RAM board, much like the @{"A2091" link "A2091 Reference"}. However, the Oktagon in combination with the
  A4000 does not have the extremely slow transfers of the A2091 (see @{"Slow A2091 Problems" link "Slow A2091 Problems"}
  because the Oktagon does not use DMA; it uses interrupt-driven PIO.

  The Oktagon uses 1Mx4 ZIP chips, either static column or page mode, to
  provide 16-bit RAM. An IDE version of the board is also available (2008AT).

  Oktagon ROM versions of less than 6.5 may have problems with removable
  media devices. The recommended (current) version is 6.8. To see the current
  ROM version number, press F1 during powerup, or use C:Version on

  Problems have been reported using the Oktagon with 68060 accelerator
  boards. The Oktagon ROM uses a MOVEP operation, which is an illegal
  instruction on the 68060. An A4000 with a 68060 board and the Oktagon will
  refuse to boot because of this problem.

  Board Layout
 |          Jumper                                                 |___
 | :        ::::::           :: SCSI                               |
 |LED       123456           :: Connector                          |
 |                           ::                                    |#
 | ::::::: 63,83             ::                                    |# External
 | ::::::: 23,43             ::                                    |# SCSI
 | ::::::: 62,82             ::                                    |# Port
 | ::::::: 22,42             ::                                    |# (DB25)
 | ::::::: 61,81             ::                                    |#
 | ::::::: 21,41             ::                                    |
 | ::::::: 60,80             .                                     |
 | ::::::: 20,40             : Power                               |
     |||||||||||||||||||||||||||                                   |


    1: SCSI Enable/Disable   (Open: SCSI enabled, Closed: SCSI disabled)
       (On the IDE version, this enables or disables the IDE port.)
    2: Memory Enable/Disable (Open: Memory enabled, Closed: Memory disabled)
    3: MS0 (see below)
    4: MS1 (see below)
    5: Test Mem              (Open: Autoconfig, Closed: Don't autoconfig)
    6: Terminator Power      (Open: None, Closed: Supply +5V SCSI term power)

  Memory Size Configuration

  Memory Size  MS0     MS1      Chips Added To Sockets
  -----------  -----   ------   ----------------------

      2M       Open    Open     20,21,22,23

      4M       Closed  Open     40,41,42,43

      6M       Open    Closed   60,61,62,63

      8M       Closed  Closed   80,81,82,83

@node "Retina Z2 Reference"

                          Retina Zorro II Reference
                               by Thomas Huber


  The Retina ZII is Zorro-II graphics card which enables the A2000, A3000,
  and A4000 to display screens in 8-, 16-, and 24-bit color modes.


  The board can have 1M, 2M or 4M of RAM. With 1MB no 24-bit modes are
  available; with 2MB onboard you still can't reach resolutions of 1990x1426
  or 1024x768-24Bit; these resolutions require an upgrade to 4MB.

  For 1MB or 2MB RAM configurations, 414256 chips are used (1Mbit-ZIP-RAM).
  For upgrading the card to its maximum size of 4MB, 4Mbit-ZIP-RAMs like
  414400's must be used in sockets 1,3,5, and 7.

  RAM speeds of 80 ns will work, although the manual recommends the use of 70
  ns, as not all 80 ns RAMs seem to be fast enough.

  The detection of the ramsize is done automatically by the software.


  If the RAM size is detected wrong, or an alert claims the Retina to be
  completely without memory, you can remove the jumper JP. This forces the
  Retina to produce waitstates which might be necessary for the use with some
  accelerator cards.

  Board Layout

 |                                                            |
 |                                                            |
 |                                                            |
 |              || || || || || || || ||                       |# Video
 |              || || || || || || || ||                       |# Port
 |              || || || || || || || ||                       |# (HDD15)
 |                                                            |
 |               8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1                       |
 |                                                            |
 |                                                JP          |
 |                                                  ..        |
  |||||||||||||||||||||||||||                                 |


  JP: Wait States
     On: No wait states (Default)
    Off: Enable wait states

  Video Port Pin-Outs (HDD-15)
      Pin 1: Red
      Pin 2: Green
      Pin 3: Blue
      Pin 4: NC
      Pin 5: Ground
      Pin 6: Ground
      Pin 7: Ground
      Pin 8: Ground
      Pin 9: NC
     Pin 10: Ground
     Pin 11: NC
     Pin 12: NC
     Pin 13: Horizontal Sync
     Pin 14: Vertical Sync
     Pin 15: NC

@node "Warp Engine Reference"

                            Warp Engine Reference


  The Warp Engine is a popular 68040 processor board that replaces the A3640.
  It includes four 72-pin SIMM sockets and a Fast SCSI-2 host adapter.

  Memory: Any combination of 4M, 8M, 16M, or 32M 72-pin SIMMs, either 32-bit
  or 36-bit wide. Add them starting with SIMM4 and working down to SIMM1. It
  is advised that you put your largest SIMM in the SIMM4 socket.

  SIMM Speed: For a 28 MHz Warp Engine, 80 ns SIMMs are adequate. A 33 MHz
  Warp Engine requires 70 ns SIMMs, while a 40 MHz board needs 60 ns. A wait
  state jumper enables the use of 70 ns SIMMs with 33 and 40 MHz boards
  (although there is a slight performance reduction).

  SIMM Types: Single or double-sided SIMMs will work, although the double-
  sided 16M SIMM is not recommended due to high power consumption. (This
  probably also applies to double-sided 32M SIMMs; the Warp Engine manual
  doesn't say so, perhaps because they are rare at present.)

  Upgrading: All that is required to convert a 28 MHz Warp Engine into a
  33 MHz or 40 MHz Warp Engine is to replace the oscillator and processor
  (although memory SIMMs slower than 60 ns may require jumpering jumper D to
  enable a wait state). On some variations of the Warp Engine, the 68040 may
  be soldered in place, making upgrades difficult at best.

  Memory Setup [courtesy of Steve Kelsey, Warp Engine hardware designer]

  "There are two jumpers (the second and third pair of pins on JP2) that
  select the SIMM slot addressing. One of the jumpers controls whether or not
  any of the installed SIMMs are dual bank (i.e. 8 or 32 MB). The other
  jumper controls whether or not any of the SIMMs are 16 MB per bank (i.e.
  16 or 32 MB). If the jumpers are set correctly and the SIMMs are installed
  in a reasonable order, most combinations of SIMMs will result in one
  contiguous block of memory. A few combinations will result in two or three
  noncontiguous blocks. The Warp Engine has no limitation on how you mix 4,
  8, 16 and 32 MB SIMMs. You can put them in any order and you can set the
  size and dual bank jumpers any way you want. The automatic DRAM sizing
  routines figure it all out. But some combinations, while completely legal
  and functional, are not optimal. So, if you configure your Warp Engine
  properly, you should be able to get the best performance possible.


  If you have one or more 16 MB SIMMs (and possibly 1 or more 4 MB's), you
  should set the size jumper to 16/32 (off) and the dual bank jumper to
  single sided (on). Then, install your 16 MB SIMMs first, followed by any 4
  MB SIMMs. This will make all the 16 MB SIMMs and the first 4 MB SIMM (if
  present) all one contiguous block.

  There are many other combinations that work in a similar way. There are
  also some combinations that will result in two or more chunks of memory.
  The thing to remember is that you should propperly set the jumpers
  according to the types of SIMMs you have, and then install them in a
  reasonable order."

  See also:  @{"Processor Board Mounting" link "Processor Board Mounting"}
             @{"Processor Cooling" link "Processor Cooling"}
             @{"External SCSI Connector" link "External SCSI Connector"}

  Board Layout
  | :::::::::::  JP2      |__Fast_SCSI-2__| JP1 |                    |
  | LKJHGFEDCBA           o---- o---- o----     |                    |
  |                       SCSI Terminators      |                    |
  |================================  _________  |                    |
  |                           SIMM1 |         | |       68040        |
  |================================ |   NCR   | |                    |
  |                           SIMM2 |  53C710 | |                    |
  |================================ |         | |                    |
  |                           SIMM3 |_________| |                    |
  |================================             |____________________|
  | +++    +++                SIMM4                                  |
  | +++    +++                                                       |
  |____________                                                      |
     ^         |   ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::    |
  28-40 MHz    |   ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::    |
  Oscillator   |_____________________________________________________|


    JP1: SCSI Termination Power  
           (Off: termination power not supplied to SCSI bus)
           (On: termination power supplied to SCSI bus)

      A: Mode Select    (Off: 68040 enabled, On: 68040 disabled)
      B: SIMM Type      (Off: double-sided, On: single-sided)
      C: SIMM Bank Size (Off: 16M, On: 4M)
      D: Wait State     (Off: no wait state, On: 1 wait state)
      E: reserved
      F: MMU Disable    (Off: MMU enabled, On: MMU disabled)
      G: Cache Disable  (Off: caches enabled, On: caches disabled)
      H: SCSI Config (see below)
      J: SCSI Config (see below)
      K: SCSI Config (see below)

    JP3: reserved

    JP4: used for A3000 version *only* (connects to pin 21 of U350)

  SCSI Configuration Jumpers (H, J, K on JP2)

    K  J  H    (0=Open, 1=Closed)
    -  -  -

    0  0  0    SCSI autoboot disabled

    0  0  1    10-second delay, LUN scan, not synchronous

    0  1  0    10-second delay, LUN scan, 200 ns synchronous

    0  1  1    10-second delay, LUN scan, 100 ns synchronous

    1  0  0    no delay, LUN scan, 200 ns synchronous

    1  0  1    no delay, LUN scan, 100 ns synchronous

    1  1  0    no delay, no LUN scan, 200 ns synchronous

    1  1  1    (default) no delay, no LUN scan, 100 ns synchronous

@node "Drives"



                     @{"  " link "Seagate ST3144A Reference"} Seagate ST3096A/ST3120A/ST3144A Reference

                     @{"  " link "External SCSI Connector"} External SCSI Connector

                     @{"  " link "SCSI Pin-Outs"} SCSI Pin-Outs

                     @{"  " link "SCSI Examples"} SCSI Examples

@node "Seagate ST3144A Reference"

        Seagate ST3096A/ST3120A/ST3144A 120M IDE Hard Drive Reference


  The Seagate ST3096A (80M), ST3120A (100M), and ST3144A (120M) are the stock
  drives included with most A4000s.


                 |       1  3  5  7  9
                 |      ---------------
                 |     | o  o  o  o  o |
                 |     |               |   Front Of Drive -->
                 |     | o  o  o  o  o |
                 |      ---------------
                 |       2  4  6  8  10

   Single drive:     Pins 3-4 jumpered.
   Two-drive master: Pins 3-4 jumpered and pins 5-6 jumpered.
   Two-drive slave:  Pins 3-4 open and pins 5-6 open.
   LED connected:    Pins 9-10 must be jumpered to connect to an activity LED
                     on the controller. Without this jumper, the drive will
                     work, but there will be no activity light (unless you
                     connect an LED to the connector on the front of the
                     drive itself).

@node "External SCSI Connector"

                     Building An External SCSI Connector


  Pin connections for external SCSI-2 half-pitch connector:

  NOTE: Connector is VIEWED     |\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/|
  FROM THE BACK, or inside      |  1                       49  |
  of the computer.  All odd-    |  --------------------------  |
  numbered wires go to the      |  \\                        /  |
  top of the connector, and     |   ------------------------   |
  all even-numbered wires go    |  2                       50  |
  to the bottom.                |/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\/\\|

  Procedure: obtain the connector from @{"Redmond Cable" link "Redmond Cable"}. Split the 50-pin SCSI
  ribbon cable connectors back a couple of inches. Start with pin 1, lay it
  in the crimp-on pins at the upper left of the connector (again, viewed from
  the back of the connector). By placing the two sides of a small pair of
  needle-nose pliers on the wire on either side of the crimp pins, you can
  gently force the wire down into the V-shaped gap between them. Locate wire
  #2, then use the same procedure to connect it to the other side of the
  connector. Repeat for all 50 wires, then clip the plastic retaining clips
  onto the connector and give it a final squeeze to make sure all wires are
  making contact.

  You can cut a hole in the A4000's "Expansion" port cover on the back of the
  machine to hold this new connector (a "nibbling" tool works well for this).

  Don't forget proper SCSI termination: the devices at both ends of the chain
  should be terminated. If the internal SCSI cable leads from the controller
  to an internal drive, and then to this connector, the internal drive must
  be unterminated for this port to be functional. When used in this
  configuration, the external device plugged into this port needs to be
  terminated. Half-pitch terminators are available from @{"Dalco" link "Dalco Electronics"}; using one of
  these would allow you to operate the A4000 with or without an external SCSI
  device without having to open up the computer to change termination.

@node "SCSI Pin-Outs"

                                SCSI Pin-Outs


  Internal SCSI Port (50-Pin Header)
  External SCSI Connector (High-density 50-pin) See @{"External SCSI Connector" link "External SCSI Connector"}.

  All odd pins are grounds, except for pin 25, which is unused.

   Pin 2: *Data 0
   Pin 4: *Data 1
   Pin 6: *Data 2
   Pin 8: *Data 3
  Pin 10: *Data 4
  Pin 12: *Data 5
  Pin 14: *Data 6
  Pin 16: *Data 7
  Pin 18: *Parity
  Pin 20: Ground
  Pin 22: Ground
  Pin 24: Ground
  Pin 26: Terminator Power
  Pin 28: Ground
  Pin 30: Ground
  Pin 32: *ATN
  Pin 34: Ground (Unused?)
  Pin 36: *BSY
  Pin 38: *ACK
  Pin 40: *RST
  Pin 42: *MSG
  Pin 44: *SEL
  Pin 46: *C/D
  Pin 48: *REQ
  Pin 50: *I/O

  External SCSI Connector (DB25 Macintosh-Type Female Pseudo-SCSI)
    (Note: This is by far the most common style of DB25 SCSI connector. Most
     [probably all] Amiga SCSI interfaces with DB25 connectors--like the
     A2091--use this pin-out.)

   Pin 1: *REQ
   Pin 2: *MSG
   Pin 3: *I/O
   Pin 4: *RST
   Pin 5: *ACK
   Pin 6: *BSY
   Pin 7: Ground
   Pin 8: *Data 0
   Pin 9: Ground
  Pin 10: *Data 3
  Pin 11: *Data 5
  Pin 12: *Data 6
  Pin 13: *Data 7
  Pin 14: Ground
  Pin 15: *C/D
  Pin 16: Ground
  Pin 17: *ATN
  Pin 18: Ground
  Pin 19: *SEL
  Pin 20: *Parity
  Pin 21: *Data 1
  Pin 22: *Data 2
  Pin 23: *Data 4
  Pin 24: Ground
  Pin 25: Terminator Power

  External SCSI Connector (DB25 Future Domain-Type Female Pseudo-SCSI)
    (Note: This is a rare alternate standard for the DB25 connector. It
     was only used on the Future Domain TMC-830/845 and TMC-850/860/885,
     and is included here in case you have a cable meant for these boards.)

   Pin 1: Ground
   Pin 2: *Data 1
   Pin 3: *Data 3
   Pin 4: *Data 5
   Pin 5: *Data 7
   Pin 6: Ground
   Pin 7: *SEL
   Pin 8: Ground
   Pin 9: Terminator Power
  Pin 10: *RST
  Pin 11: *C/D
  Pin 12: *I/O
  Pin 13: Ground
  Pin 14: *Data 0
  Pin 15: *Data 2
  Pin 16: *Data 4
  Pin 17: *Data 6
  Pin 18: *Parity
  Pin 19: Ground
  Pin 20: *ATN
  Pin 21: *MSG
  Pin 22: *ACK
  Pin 23: *BSY
  Pin 24: *REQ
  Pin 25: Ground

  External SCSI Connector (Centronics 50-Pin Female)

  Pins 1-12 and 14-25 are grounds.

  Pin 26: *Data 0
  Pin 27: *Data 1
  Pin 28: *Data 2
  Pin 29: *Data 3
  Pin 30: *Data 4
  Pin 31: *Data 5
  Pin 32: *Data 6
  Pin 33: *Data 7
  Pin 34: *Parity
  Pin 35: Ground
  Pin 36: Ground
  Pin 37: Ground
  Pin 38: Terminator Power
  Pin 39: Ground
  Pin 40: Ground
  Pin 41: *ATN
  Pin 42: Ground (Unused?)
  Pin 43: *BSY
  Pin 44: *ACK
  Pin 45: *RST
  Pin 46: *MSG
  Pin 47: *SEL
  Pin 48: *C/D
  Pin 49: *REQ
  Pin 50: *I/O

  2.5-Inch Drive SCSI Connector (40-Pin Header)

  Pins 1, 2, 39, and 40 are +5V. Pins 3, 4, 37, and 38 are ground returns for
  the +5V supply. Pins 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 19, 21, 23, 27, 31, and 35 are
  signal grounds. Pin 17 is used as a connector key and should not be

   Pin 6: *Data 0
   Pin 8: *Data 1
  Pin 10: *Data 2
  Pin 12: *Data 3
  Pin 14: *Data 4
  Pin 16: *Data 5
  Pin 18: *Data 6
  Pin 20: *Data 7
  Pin 22: *Parity
  Pin 24: Terminator Power
  Pin 25: *ATN
  Pin 26: *BSY
  Pin 28: *ACK
  Pin 29: *RST
  Pin 30: *MSG
  Pin 32: *SEL
  Pin 33: *I/O
  Pin 34: *C/D
  Pin 36: *REQ

@node "SCSI Examples"

                                SCSI Examples


  It seems that the SCSI bus is one of the most misunderstood aspects of
  connecting hard drives and other peripherals to the A4000 (or, for that
  matter, any other Amiga model). This section of the guide is an attempt to
  provide some simple examples of proper SCSI device connections. Please note
  that in the following section, and in the Guide as a whole, I have used the
  common term "controller" when referring to disk adapter boards, although
  the more accurate description for both SCSI and IDE would be "host


  Since understanding SCSI requires a background in the jargon, a few basic
  definitions might be helpful:


    This is the original standard, now also known as SCSI-1. The maximum
    theoretical transfer rate is 5 megabytes per second, although most
    combinations of drives and controllers do much less, usually less than
    two megabytes per second. Total length of the SCSI bus cannot exceed six


    An extension of the SCSI command set. Most CD-ROM drives that are double- 
    speed or faster are SCSI-2. Note that contrary to popular belief, this
    doesn't go any faster than good old SCSI-1.

    Fast SCSI-2

    Here's where the speed was increased. Fast SCSI-2 has a maximum transfer
    rate of 10 megabytes per second, synchronous. Again, this is theoretical,
    and anything more than a third of that should be considered excellent.

    Wide SCSI, Differential SCSI, and SCSI-3

    SCSI transfers data over an 8-bit wide data path. A variation called Wide
    SCSI uses a 16-bit wide data path via an additional cable, potentially
    doubling transfer rates. SCSI-3 is essentially Fast Wide SCSI-2 using
    only one cable. Another variation is differential SCSI, which uses
    differential signal cables to provide a total bus length of up to 25
    meters. None of these variations will be described in any detail here,
    since there don't seem to be any Amiga implementations of controllers for
    them. Adapters are available to connect these devices to normal SCSI
    controllers, though, so it is possible to connect them to the Amiga.


  SCSI devices are backwards-compatible. That is, you can connect a SCSI-1 or
  SCSI-2 hard drive to a Fast SCSI-2 controller, or you can connect a Fast
  SCSI-2 drive to a SCSI-1 or SCSI-2 controller. A Fast controller can't make
  a SCSI-2 drive go any faster than SCSI-2, but it will work.


  SCSI bus systems require an impedance-matching terminator circuit at each
  end of the bus for reliable operation. Many people find termination to be
  complex, but the subject can be simplified a great deal by remembering one
  simple rule: the SCSI bus needs to be terminated at both ends, and *only*
  at the ends.

  The most common mistake in SCSI termination is assuming that the SCSI
  controller itself doesn't count; in fact, it does count as a device, and
  the termination rules apply to it just like other devices. Many Amiga
  controllers have the termination resistors soldered into place, under the
  assumption that only internal or only external SCSI devices will be
  attached. If both internal and external devices are to be used, it is
  necessary to remove these resistors. SIP sockets may be soldered in their
  place to provide the greatest versatility, or you can just use external

  Terminating resistors are usually SIP resistor packs; most are yellow,
  blue, or black, and there may be one, two, or three of them. External
  terminators look like a connector with no cable attached, and can be found
  in Centronics 50-pin, DB25, and high-density 50 configurations. Some
  devices, like newer hard drives or external CD-ROM drives, have a
  single switch or jumper to enable termination.

  All of the termination schemes described so far are known as "passive"
  terminators. Electronically, they connect each signal pin to +5V through a
  220 ohm resistor, and to ground through a 330 ohm resistor. This voltage
  divider circuit provides impedance matching for the SCSI bus.

  The alternative to a passive terminator is an "active" terminator, which
  connects each of the SCSI signal pins through a 110 ohm resistor to a
  precision +2.85V regulator (an LT1086CT, for example) which is powered by
  +5V. Active terminators are superior to passive terminators simply because
  they are active; unlike the fixed resistors in a passive terminator, the
  active terminator's voltage regulator will track varying voltages and
  properly terminate the SCSI bus. Active terminators can cure many problems
  with unreliable SCSI devices; their only disadvantage is that they cost a
  bit more (@{"Dalco" link "Dalco Electronics"} sells them for between thirty and forty dollars). Active
  termination chips are made by Dallas Semiconductor and Texas Instruments.

  Any combination of passive and active terminators may be used, although two
  active terminators would be best. In practice, passive/passive or passive/
  active are usually adequate.

  Termination Power

  Terminator power (+5V) is supposed to be supplied on pin 26 of the 50-pin
  IDC header. But SCSI devices are not required to supply this power; many
  have jumpers to enable or disable it. So it is possible to have a proper
  termination setup, but no power provided to the terminators. As you might
  expect, this will cause problems. Make sure that at least one device is
  supplying termination power to the SCSI bus, preferably the controller,
  since external devices may be turned off, which would deprive the rest of
  the bus of termination power.

  Cable Configurations

  Internal SCSI devices are usually connected with 50-conductor ribbon cable.
  50-pin IDC (Insulation Displacement Connector) headers are crimped onto the
  cable for each device to be attached. "Stub" cables of no more than 3
  centimeters off the main cable are allowed by the SCSI standard, but it's
  better to avoid them altogether by running the cable direct from one device
  to the next, with no branches off the main bus at all.

  External SCSI device cables can use several connectors: Centronics 50-pin,
  DB25, or high-density 50-pin (commonly, but imprecisely, referred to as
  "SCSI-2", since many Fast SCSI-2 adapters use this type of connector).
  Adapter cables may have any combination of these three basic types.

  The SCSI standard states that the total length of the SCSI bus, including
  internal and external cable, must not exceed six meters. For Fast SCSI-2,
  the limit was reduced to three meters. In practice, some devices and cable
  combinations may limit this severely, particularly cables with DB25
  connectors (since Apple created the DB25 "pseudo-SCSI" cable by simply
  discarding all those "extra" grounds that helped make SCSI capable of
  running long distances in the first place). Conversely, some SCSI bus
  implementations can go farther than the standard suggests.

  SCSI Address Numbers

  Each SCSI device (including the controller) has an address between 0 and
  7 assigned to it by the user. These numbers are usually set as a binary
  number with three jumpers. Controllers often have no jumpers, either
  requiring software to change their address, or simply not being able to
  change it at all. Standard Amiga controllers of either type default to a
  SCSI address of 7.

  The rules regulating addresses are pretty simple: each device must have
  a unique address. (There is no physical "order" in which the addesses must
  occur; you can use any order or combination of numbers, as long as there is
  only one device with a given address.)

  Since the Amiga scans the SCSI bus for bootable devices starting with
  address 0 and proceeding to address 7, it is advised that you assign
  address 0 to the boot hard drive, and set "HiID" to "On" for this drive in
  the Rigid Disk Block (RDB). This will prevent the system for looking for
  other hard drives with a higher boot priority, making for the quickest
  booting possible, and preventing the system from trying to boot off of a
  higher-numbered CD-ROM drive. (Check the Aminet disk/misc directory for
  RDB utility programs.)


  Logical Unit Numbers provide a way to access more than one device at a
  given SCSI address. For example, some Adaptec SCSI-to-MFM adapter boards
  like the 4000A could control two MFM hard drives. However, the 4000A board
  used only a single SCSI address; to access each drive, a secondary number--
  the LUN--was used: 0 for the first drive and 1 for the second. With modern
  SCSI devices, LUNs are relatively rare, with the exception of CD-ROM
  changers. These devices often use an LUN to select which CD is loaded.

  Specific Troublesome Devices

  There are a couple of devices out there that are almost guaranteed to be
  troublemakers on a SCSI bus. Since this section of the Guide is also
  distributed as the SCSI Examples document, these are included here even
  though they don't necessarily apply to the A4000.

  1. The NEC CDR-36 CD-ROM drive. This is a single-speed (150K/second)
  external drive with a top-loading case. It may be helpful to disable
  termination on this drive and use an external terminator; it may not.
  If odd problems persist, check that pin 17 on the DB25 connector on the
  cable is not grounded. If it is, disconnect that pin.

  2. A3000 problems. The A3000's internal SCSI controller has a few minor
  flaws that can be problematic.

     A. The Western Digital 33C93 SCSI chip itself: revision 04 of this chip
     has some bugs that usually show up when a CD-ROM or tape drive is
     attached, and revision 08 fixes them.

     B. The DB25 used as an external SCSI connector on the A3000 can cause
     problems. Use only short, high-quality SCSI cables attached to this
     connector, or run 50-pin ribbon cable from the internal connector.

     C. Termination. Various A3000s seem to have come with no terminators,
     soldered-in SIPs, or even sockets. Check the motherboard controller
     termination, and follow the guidelines laid out in the Termination
     section above.

     D. Many A3000s had a manufacturing flaw which resulted in terminator
     power not being supplied at the external SCSI connector. The easiest way
     to test this is with an external terminator with an LED indicator.
     Otherwise, you'll need to check pin 25 of the A3000 DB25 SCSI connector
     for +5V (the shield around the connector provides an easy ground test
     point). If no voltage is supplied on pin 25, diode D800 (or D801, this
     may vary depending on motherboard revision) is reversed inside the
     A3000. Unsolder and replace it (this should be a 1N34 type, although a
     1N5817 should work and might be more suitable). The motherboard silk
     screen is likely to be wrong as well, so ignore it.

  3. Some GVP controllers. For a while, it seemed like all the email I
  received was from owners of GVP controllers. For many of these people,
  upgrading to the Guru ROM solved their problems. Disabling termination on
  some of these boards is also non-trivial; Guru ROM author Ralph Babel

  "Most GVP cards use only two 10-pin SIP terminators _plus_ two extra
  resistors (SMD, except for the very first revisions of the Series-II hard
  card) for the parity line for a total of 17 terminated lines (they leave
  out the RST line)."

  The use of SMD (Surface Mount Device) resistors complicates disabling
  termination on these boards. It will be simplest for many users to
  reorganize the SCSI bus so that the controller is on one end.

  GVP's current technical support number is 215-633-7711.

  Example SCSI Bus Setups

  These examples show connections to the A2091 controller (see Drives/
  @{"A2091 Reference" link "A2091 Reference"}), but the connections for other controllers will follow the
  same standard.

  In Example 1, the 200M hard drive is used as the boot drive, and the "HiID"
  flag is set to "On" in this drive's Rigid Disk Block. (The HiID flag may be
  called by another name, like LastDrive or HighDrive.) For examples 2 and 3,
  the 540M drive is used as the boot drive, and the HiID flag is set in that
  drive's RDB.

  Example 1: 2091 controller, internal 200M SCSI-1 hard drive. Cable
             connections are 50-conductor ribbon.
     ________________        ________________
    |      2091      |      |  200M SCSI-1   |
    |   Terminated   |------|  Terminated    |
    |   Address 7    |      |  Address 0     |
    |________________|      |________________|

  Example 2: 2091 controller, internal 200M SCSI-1 hard drive, internal 540M
             Fast SCSI-2 hard drive. Cable connections are 50-conductor
             ribbon. The SCSI-1 drive has been renumbered as address 1, and
             the new Fast SCSI-2 drive is now set at address 0 and used as a
             boot drive, to provide better performance on the system
             partitions. (Even though it will only be accessed at SCSI-1
             rates, it is a newer drive, and will probably have significantly
             better transfer rates than the older 200M drive.) Additionally,
             the newer drive will likely have the more desirable active
             termination on-board.
     ________________        ________________        ________________
    |      2091      |      |  200M SCSI-1   |      |540M Fast SCSI-2|
    |   Terminated   |------| Not Terminated |------|  Terminated    |
    |   Address 7    |      |   Address 1    |      |  Address 0     |
    |________________|      |________________|      |________________|

  Example 3: 2091 controller, internal 200M SCSI-1 hard drive, internal 540M
             Fast SCSI-2 hard drive, external SCSI-2 CD-ROM drive. The cable
             from the CD-ROM drive to the A2091 is a Centronics 50-pin to
             DB25 adapter cable, and the internal cables are 50-conductor
             ribbon. An active terminator is attached to the last available
             external SCSI connector on the CD-ROM drive. Note that the
             terminating resistors on the A2091 have been removed so that the
             SCSI bus is terminated only at the ends (the CD-ROM and the 540M
  | CD-ROM SCSI-2  |
  |   Terminated   |---. External cable connected to A2091
  |   Address 4    |   | external SCSI DB25 connector
  |________________|   |
       External        |
           ____________|___        ________________        _______________
          |      2091      |      |  200M SCSI-1   |      |540 Fast SCSI-2|
          | Not Terminated |------| Not Terminated |------|  Terminated   |
          |   Address 7    |      |   Address 1    |      |  Address 0    |
          |________________|      |________________|      |_______________|

@node "Monitors"



             @{"  " link "1081 Reference"} 1081 Reference

             @{"  " link "1084 Reference"} 1084 Reference

             @{"  " link "1085 Reference"} 1085 Reference

             @{"  " link "1940 Reference"} 1940/1942 Reference

             @{"  " link "1950 Reference"} 1950 Reference

             @{"  " link "1960 Reference"} 1960 Reference

             @{"  " link "Idek Iiyama Vision Master 17 (MF-8617) Reference"} Idek Iiyama Vision Master 17 (MF-8617) Reference

             @{"  " link "Mitsubishi DiamondScan AUM-1381A Reference"} Mitsubishi DiamondScan AUM-1381A Reference

             @{"  " link "NEC 3D Reference"} NEC 3D Reference

@node "1081 Reference"

                               1081 Reference


  The 1081 is a 14-inch monitor manufactured by Philips for the European
  market, and similar to the @{"1084" link "1084 Reference"}, with SCART and composite video connectors.
  The 1081 may have only been distributed in Europe.

  Common Problems

  A standard failure is for the monitor to "pop," then go dark. Hitting it
  may bring back the picture. This is often caused by cold or cracked solder
  joints on the flyback transformer, which resoldering should cure.


      Sync Frequency: 15.6 kHz Horizontal

           Dot Pitch: 0.39mm or 0.42 mm

        Sound Output: 1.0 W RMS/Channel at 5% maximum THD

    Input Connectors: One permanently attached HDD15 and Audio R/L

    Pin-Outs (SCART Euroconnector)

         Pin 1: Unused
         Pin 2: Audio Input (0.5 Vrms/ > 10Kohms)
         Pin 3: Unused
         Pin 4: Audio Ground
         Pin 5: Blue Ground
         Pin 6: Audio Input (0.5 Vrms/ > 10Kohms)
         Pin 7: Blue Video (0.7 Vpp/ 75 ohms)
         Pin 8: Unused
         Pin 9: Green Ground
        Pin 10: Unused
        Pin 11: Green Video (0.7 Vpp/ 75 ohms)
        Pin 12: Unused
        Pin 13: Red Ground
        Pin 14: Unused
        Pin 15: Red Video (0.7 Vpp/ 75 ohms)
        Pin 16: Fast Blanking
        Pin 17: CVBS Ground
        Pin 18: Fast Blanking Ground
        Pin 19: Unused
        Pin 20: CVBS Input (1 Vpp/ 75 ohms, sync for linear RGB input)
        Pin 21: Screening Plug

    Pin-Outs (Digital RGB 8-Pin DIN)

         Pin 1: Status Computer (?)
         Pin 2: Red
         Pin 3: Green
         Pin 4: Blue
         Pin 5: Intensity
         Pin 6: Ground
         Pin 7: Horizontal Sync or Composite Sync
         Pin 8: Vertical Sync

@node "1084 Reference"

                               1084 Reference


  The 1084 and its variants (1084S, 1084S-P, 1084-P, 1084S-P2, 1084-D,
  1084S-D, and 2080) are all 15.75 kHz monitors. They do not handle AGA
  "double" screenmodes, nor will they display the deinterlaced output from
  the A2320 Amber board or the motherboard deinterlaced output on an A3000.
  However, they will show all normal 15.75 kHz displays, and many (most?
  all?) of the 1084 versions have a separate input for composite video.

  The 1084 is a usually a variation of the Philips CM8833 monitor; the
  1084S-D was made by Daewoo (as was the 1084D, probably). The display tubes
  used in these monitors were made by Orion, Toshiba, Hitachi, and Samsung.

  At one time or another, every possible permutation of connectors and video
  capabilities on the 1084 seems to have been reached, so don't be surprised
  if your 1084 has some bizarre combination of connectors and specifications.

  Common Problems

    * The door covering the front-panel controls is typically broken off.
    * The attached cables or connectors on some models tended to fail,
      causing loss of color or other problems. Resolder the pins. You can
      glue connectors in place to provide support.
    * Failed or insufficient insulation may cause arcing.
    * The power switch may partially fail, causing separate parts of the
      monitor to power down.
    * A phone caller suggested that internal connectors could tarnish with
      age, and disconnecting and cleaning them may help clear up some
    * Repeatedly blown fuses can indicate a bad power supply.
    * A loud whistling noise indicates a bad flyback transformer (also
      known as an LOPT).

  Some 1084 monitors also have digital RGB (PC clone CGA) inputs, and there
  was such a profusion of minor or major variations that any 1084 might have
  any combination of analog RGB, digital RGB, and composite inputs.

  Other Notes

  * The 2080 is a long-persistance phosphor, .39 mm dot pitch.


      Sync Frequency 15.75 kHz (NTSC; 15.6 kHz PAL)

  Pin-Outs (Analog RGB, 6-Pin DIN)

       Pin 1: Green
       Pin 2: Horizontal Sync
       Pin 3: Ground
       Pin 4: Red
       Pin 5: Blue
       Pin 6: Vertical Sync

  Pin-Outs (Digital RGBI, 8-Pin DIN)
       Pin 1: Unused
       Pin 2: Red
       Pin 3: Green
       Pin 4: Blue
       Pin 5: Intensity
       Pin 6: Ground
       Pin 7: Horizontal Sync
       Pin 8: Vertical Sync

  Pin-Outs (1084S DB9)

       Pin 1: Ground
       Pin 2: Ground
       Pin 3: Red
       Pin 4: Green
       Pin 5: Blue
       Pin 6: Unused
       Pin 7: Composite Sync
       Pin 8: Horizontal Sync
       Pin 9: Vertical Sync

  2080 Pin-Outs (SCART Euroconnector)

       Pin 1: Unused
       Pin 2: Audio Input (0.5 Vrms/ > 10Kohms)
       Pin 3: Unused
       Pin 4: Audio Ground
       Pin 5: Blue Ground
       Pin 6: Audio Input (0.5 Vrms/ > 10Kohms)
       Pin 7: Blue Video (0.7 Vpp/ 75 ohms)
       Pin 8: Unused
       Pin 9: Green Ground
      Pin 10: Unused
      Pin 11: Green Video (0.7 Vpp/ 75 ohms)
      Pin 12: Unused
      Pin 13: Red Ground
      Pin 14: Unused
      Pin 15: Red Video (0.7 Vpp/ 75 ohms)
      Pin 16: Fast Blanking
      Pin 17: CVBS Ground
      Pin 18: Fast Blanking Ground
      Pin 19: Unused
      Pin 20: CVBS Input (1 Vpp/ 75 ohms, sync signal for linear RGB input)
      Pin 21: Screening Plug

  2080 Pin-Outs (Digital RGB 8-Pin DIN)

       Pin 1: Status Computer (?)
       Pin 2: Red
       Pin 3: Green
       Pin 4: Blue
       Pin 5: Intensity
       Pin 6: Ground
       Pin 7: Horizontal Sync or Composite Sync
       Pin 8: Vertical Sync

@node "1085 Reference"

                               1085 Reference


  The 1085(S) is a cost-reduced version of the 1084, with lower resolution
  (.52 mm dot pitch) and no non-glare screen treatment. Like the 1084, the
  1085 is a fixed-frequency 15.75 kHz monitor, and is not compatible with
  most AGA screen modes.

  Pin-Outs (DB9)

        Pin 1: Ground
        Pin 2: Ground
        Pin 3: Red
        Pin 4: Green
        Pin 5: Blue
        Pin 6: Unused
        Pin 7: Composite Sync
        Pin 8: Unused
        Pin 9: Unused

@node "1940 Reference"

                             1940/1942 Reference


  This monitor is a 13-inch bisync (not true multisync) monitor built by
  Samsung for Commodore. It has two ranges of sync frequencies to match both
  normal (15.75 kHz) and doubled screen modes. The 1942 differs from the 1940
  only in that it has a smaller dot pitch. MonEd may be useful in getting the
  picture to fill the entire screen (the 1942 came with a set of patched 
  monitor drivers). Both variations feature stereo speakers.


      Sync Frequency: 15.6-15.8 kHz and 27.3-31.5 kHz Horizontal
                      47 Hz to 75 Hz Vertical

           Dot Pitch: 0.39 mm (1940)
                      0.28 mm (1942)

        Sound Output: 1.0 W RMS/Channel at 5% maximum THD

    Input Connectors: One permanently attached HDD15 and Audio R/L

    Pin-Outs (HDD15)

         Pin 1: Red
         Pin 2: Green
         Pin 3: Blue
         Pin 4: Unused
         Pin 5: Unused
         Pin 6: Red Ground
         Pin 7: Green Ground
         Pin 8: Blue Ground
         Pin 9: Unused
        Pin 10: Digital Ground
        Pin 11: Digital Ground
        Pin 12: Unused
        Pin 13: Horizontal Sync
        Pin 14: Vertical Sync
        Pin 15: Unused

@node "1950 Reference"

                               1950 Reference


  The 1950 monitor was actually produced by a company called AOC. Parts may
  still be available direct (although there have been conflicting reports).
  The AOC model of the monitor was known as the AOC CM314. The tube is made
  by Hitachi.

  Common Problems

  A sync problem may be caused by the monitor detecting sync on the Green
  input and then disabling the horizontal and vertical sync inputs. Removing
  the 10K R854 resistor or the 10uf C812 capacitor on the small vertical
  board may fix this. It may also cause problems of its own, so be warned.

  The analog/TTL switch appears to be prone to failure. However, if switching
  the switch brings back the picture, it may actually be that the 74LS123
  (IC805) on the same board is failing. The suggested course of action is to
  replace (or at least resolder) this chip first, since it's a commonly
  available part.

  A defect in the way the 74LS123 is mounted may be present; there should be
  +5V on pin 3, but the way the chip is mounted or the board is manufactured,
  it may be intermittent. There should be a PCB trace between pin 3 and pin
  16, however, pin 3 is not soldered to this trace, but only friction-fit
  (non-plated-through holes?). When the analog switch is moved, it causes
  intermittent contact between pin 3 and the trace. A soldered jumper to pin
  16 is an easy way to fix this, or you may be able to solder to the trace
  already present.

  Another common problem is the failure of a multifunction sync chip.
  Replacements should be available from Sony. The Toronto ABUG user group
  confirms that this chip is available from Sony Canada, on Gordon Baker Road
  (presumably in Toronto, although they don't say).

  The high-voltage boards may crack; this can be one cause of the monitor
  that starts working when you hit it.

  A 1 megohm resistor in the second power supply's startup circuit goes bad,
  causing the monitor to remain dark. Replacing the resistor with a higher
  wattage one may help prevent the problem in the future.


  AOC International
  311 Sinclair Frontage Road
  Milpitas  CA  95035
  (408) 956-1070


      Sync Frequency: 15 kHz to 35 kHz Horizontal
                      50 Hz to 80 Hz Vertical

           Dot Pitch: 0.31 mm

    Input Connectors: One permanently attached HDD15 (AOC CM314 also has an
                      attached DB9 for digital RGB.)

    Pin-Outs (HDD15)
         Pin 1: Red
         Pin 2: Green
         Pin 3: Blue
         Pin 4: Unused
         Pin 5: Test
         Pin 6: Ground
         Pin 7: Ground
         Pin 8: Ground
         Pin 9: Unused
        Pin 10: Ground
        Pin 11: Ground
        Pin 12: Unused
        Pin 13: Horizontal Sync
        Pin 14: Vertical Sync
        Pin 15: Unused

@node "1960 Reference"

                               1960 Reference


  The 1960 may have been made by Daewoo (Korea) or a Taiwan company. The tube
  is made by Hitachi. There has been some debate over whether it is a true
  multisync or a trisync monitor. Reports have been provided that indicate it
  can handle Super72 screen modes at about 23 kHz, and the manual says it can
  sync up to 38 kHz. It may be a sort of hybrid, with a wide "window" in the
  15.75 kHz to 31.5 kHz range.

  Common Problems

  One common problem involves a component that is insulated with eletrical
  tape (inadequately) from the factory, resulting in arcing. Replacing this
  insulation can cure the problem.

  Typical failures also result from cold solder joints on the 1960 boards,
  which can be repaired by resoldering. Additionally, some solder joints
  (such as those on the flyback transformer) tend to go bad with age.
  Resoldering them may cure arcing problems.

  The screen size adjustment pots may be prone to failure, making adjustments


      Sync Frequency: 15 kHz to 38 kHz Horizontal
                      50 Hz to 87 Hz Vertical

           Dot Pitch: 0.29 mm or .31 mm

    Input Connectors: HDD15 (Analog RGB), DB9 (Digital RGB; some 1960s may
                      not have this connector.)

    Pin-Outs (HDD15 Analog RGB)
         Pin 1: Red
         Pin 2: Green
         Pin 3: Blue
         Pin 4: Monitor Sense, Ground to Pin 10
         Pin 5: Ground
         Pin 6: Red Ground
         Pin 7: Green Ground
         Pin 8: Blue Ground
         Pin 9: Unused
        Pin 10: Digital Ground
        Pin 11: Jumper to Pin 10
        Pin 12: Unused
        Pin 13: Horizontal Sync
        Pin 14: Vertical Sync
        Pin 15: Jumper to Pin 10

    Pin-Outs (DB9 Digital RGB) (EGA?)
         Pin 1: Ground
         Pin 2: Red Prime
         Pin 3: Red Video
         Pin 4: Green Video
         Pin 5: Blue Video
         Pin 6: Green Prime
         Pin 7: Blue Prime
         Pin 8: Horizontal Sync
         Pin 9: Vertical Sync

@node "Idek Iiyama Vision Master 17 (MF-8617) Reference"

              Idek Iiyama Vision Master 17 (MF-8617) Reference


  This is a fairly popular monitor for use with the Amiga, since it is a high
  quality, relatively inexpensive 17-inch monitor that can sync down to about
  23.5 kHz, and therefore works with most (all?) AGA "double" screenmodes. All
  presets and controls are digital, set through three front-panel buttons and
  an LCD display.  The image can easily be expanded to fill the screen in all
  modes. (See Boards/@{"A2320 'Amber' Reference" link "A2320 Reference"} for information on the A2320
  'Amber' board that may be used with this monitor.)


      Sync Frequency: 23.5 kHz to 86.0 kHz Horizontal
                      50 Hz to 120 Hz Vertical

          Resolution: Maximum 1280 x 1024 at 80 Hz

    Input Connectors: Five BNC connectors and one DB15 (not high density)
                      (A cable is included to connect a HDD15 VGA-type
                      connector to the DB15 connector on the monitor.)



         Pin 1: Red
         Pin 2: Red Ground
         Pin 3: Green
         Pin 4: Green Ground
         Pin 5: Blue
         Pin 6: Blue Ground
         Pin 7: Ground
         Pin 8: NC
         Pin 9: NC
        Pin 10: NC
        Pin 11: NC
        Pin 12: NC
        Pin 13: NC
        Pin 14: Horizontal or HV Sync
        Pin 15: Vertical Sync

@node "Mitsubishi DiamondScan AUM-1381A Reference"

                 Mitsubishi DiamondScan AUM-1381A Reference


  The DiamondScan is one of the few VGA-type multisync monitors that has a
  composite video input, and that made it relatively common for use on the
  Amiga (although I believe that Mitsubishi no longer makes this model). The
  official scan rates cover the range from 15.6 kHz to 36 kHz, so the
  DiamondScan should work with all normal Amiga video modes. User controls
  are standard knobs and buttons, and there are no digital memory features,
  so using it with the Amiga means that you have to juggle the monitor's
  picture location settings along with the Amiga overscan and screen position
  settings. The DiamondScan works fine with the Amber board (see Boards/
  @{"A2320 'Amber' Reference" link "A2320 Reference"}).

  One feature of the DiamondScan is particularly applicable to the video
  production uses of the Amiga: the "Composite/RGB Select" (pin 22) on the
  DB25 input. Connect this pin through a switch to ground, and then a flip of
  the switch will select composite video or analog RGB display without
  reaching for the switches on the back of the monitor.


      Sync Frequency: 15.6 kHz to 36 kHz Horizontal
                      45 Hz to 90 Hz Vertical

          Resolution: Maximum 800 x 560 (Rated...normally considered
                                         to be an 800x600 monitor.)

    Input Connectors: BNC (Composite Video)
                      DB9 (EGA/CGA/Mono TTL) (DB9-to-DB9 cable was included.)
                      DB25 (Analog RGB)


      DB9: (For TTL 16-Color CGA)

        Pin 1: Ground
        Pin 2: Unused
        Pin 3: Red Video
        Pin 4: Green Video
        Pin 5: Blue Video
        Pin 6: Intensity
        Pin 7: Unused
        Pin 8: Horizontal Sync
        Pin 9: Vertical Sync

      DB9: (For TTL 64-Color EGA)

        Pin 1: Ground
        Pin 2: Secondary Red Video
        Pin 3: Primary Red Video
        Pin 4: Primary Green Video
        Pin 5: Primary Blue Video
        Pin 6: Secondary Green Video/Intensity
        Pin 7: Secondary Blue Video
        Pin 8: Horizontal Sync
        Pin 9: Vertical Sync

      DB9: (For TTL Mono)

        Pin 1: Ground
        Pin 2: Unused
        Pin 3: Unused
        Pin 4: Unused
        Pin 5: Unused
        Pin 6: High Intensity
        Pin 7: Video
        Pin 8: Horizontal Sync
        Pin 9: Vertical Sync


         Pin 1: Sync Ground
         Pin 2: Red Video
         Pin 3: Red Video Ground
         Pin 4: Green Video
         Pin 5: Green Video Ground
         Pin 6: Superimpose Control (YS)
         Pin 7: Superimpose Ground
         Pin 8: Video Input Select (AV)
         Pin 9: Composite Video Input
        Pin 10: Composite Video Ground
        Pin 11: Composite Video Out
        Pin 12: Composite Video Ground
        Pin 13: PGA Mode Control
        Pin 14: Blue Video
        Pin 15: Blue Video Ground
        Pin 16: Horizontal/Composite Sync
        Pin 17: Vertical Sync
        Pin 18: Unused
        Pin 19: Unused
        Pin 20: Unused
        Pin 21: INT (+5V ???)
        Pin 22: Composite/RGB Select (TTL level: Low for RGB, high
                                      or open for composite.)
        Pin 23: Analog/TTL Select (TTL level: Low for TTL, high
                                   or open for analog.)
        Pin 24: Remote (TTL level: Low to disable Mode Switch.)
        Pin 25: Shield Ground

@node "NEC 3D Reference"

                              NEC 3D Reference


  The NEC 3D is a popular monitor for use with the Amiga. I've never had one,
  so the following information is somewhat sparse (submissions are welcome).

  A common complaint is that it is impossible to adjust the picture width to
  fully eliminate the large black borders on the left and right of the image.


      Sync Frequency: 15.5 kHz to 38 kHz Horizontal
                      50 Hz to 90 Hz Vertical

           Dot Pitch: 0.28mm Trio

          Resolution: 1024 Horizontal
                       768 Vertical (Interlaced)

    Input Connectors: DB9 or HDD15 (maybe earlier models had the DB9)

    Pin-Outs (HDD15 Analog RGB)
         Pin 1: Red Video
         Pin 2: Green Video
         Pin 3: Blue Video
         Pin 4: Ground
         Pin 5: Ground
         Pin 6: Red Ground
         Pin 7: Green Ground
         Pin 8: Blue Ground
         Pin 9: Unused
        Pin 10: Ground
        Pin 11: Ground
        Pin 12: Unused
        Pin 13: Horizontal Sync
        Pin 14: Vertical Sync
        Pin 15: Unused

@node "Sources"

                             Sources For Components


  Opinions in this section are strictly those of the @{"Editor" link "Editor"}.
  This list includes sources for suppliers of parts and accessories like
  cables and connectors. Suggestions:

  * For general or custom cables and connectors: Dalco or Redmond Cable.
  * For general board-level parts (not custom Amiga): Digi-Key and JDR.
  * For custom Amiga parts: Unknown at this point. Suggestions welcome!


                       @{"  " link "Altex Electronics"} Altex Electronics
                       @{"  " link "Benetech Electronic Supply"} Benetech Electronic Supply
                       @{"  " link "Chip Merchant"} Chip Merchant
                       @{"  " link "Dalco Electronics"} Dalco Electronics
                       @{"  " link "Digi-Key Corporation"} Digi-Key Corporation
                       @{"  " link "Hosfelt Electronics"} Hosfelt Electronics
                       @{"  " link "JameCo Electronic Components"} JameCo Electronic Components
                       @{"  " link "JDR Microdevices"} JDR Microdevices
                       @{"  " link "Marlin P. Jones & Associates"} Marlin P. Jones & Associates
                       @{"  " link "MCM Electronics"} MCM Electronics
                       @{"  " link "Memory World"} Memory World
                       @{"  " link "Parts Express"} Parts Express
                       @{"  " link "Redmond Cable"} Redmond Cable

@node "Altex Electronics"

  Altex Electronics
  11342 N IH 35
  San Antonio  TX  78233-9903
  (800) 531-5369
  (210) 637-3264 Fax

  I've not had a lot of experience with Altex, although they seem okay, and
  have a pretty good selection of connectors and components at good prices.

@node "Benetech Electronic Supply"

  Benetech Electronic Supply
  Route 1, Box 247
  Canton  TX 75103
  (800) 733-4705
  (903) 848-0435
  (800) 783-5312 Fax
  (903) 848-0632 Fax

  Just when you thought you'd never find a source for DB23 connectors...this
  place has them. And not just solder cup style, but even straight and right-
  angle board mount! They also carry many other connectors and parts.

@node "Chip Merchant"

  Chip Merchant
  4870 Viewridge Avenue
  San Diego  CA  92123
  (800) 426-6375
  (619) 268-4774
  (619) 268-0874 Fax

  So far, I've had limited experience the Chip Merchant, but it's all been
  good. They have very low prices on SIMMs and common chips like processors.

@node "Dalco Electronics"

  Dalco Electronics
  275 Pioneer Boulevard
  Springboro  OH  45066
  (800) 445-5342
  (513) 743-8042
  (513) 743-9251 Fax
  (513) 743-2244 BBS

  Extremely large selection of connectors, cables (including the relatively
  rare SCSI-2 and 2.5-inch IDE hard disk varieties), and pretty much everything
  in the way of computer assemblies. Oriented towards computer end-users.
  They will custom-build cables. Service is good, prices are excellent, and
  their catalog is filled with basically neat stuff.

@node "Digi-Key Corporation"

  Digi-Key Corporation
  701 Brooks Ave. South
  PO Box 677
  Thief River Falls  MN  56701-0677
  (800) 344-4539
  (218) 681-3380

  Huge assortment of electronic components, including chips, heat sinks,
  cables, connectors, fans, and every other electronic part you can think of
  except DB23s. Prices tend to be a little higher, which is offset somewhat
  by the fact that they have such a large selection. Their catalog can be
  considered a reference work. Oriented towards electronics designers and

@node "Hosfelt Electronics"

  Hosfelt Electronics
  2700 Sunset Boulevard
  Steubenville  OH  43952-1158
  (800) 524-6464
  (800) 524-5414 Fax

  Source for Panasonic replacement fans and other parts. I've been very happy
  with this company: they have things in stock, ship quickly, and have
  extremely low prices.

@node "JameCo Electronic Components"

  JameCo Electronic Components
  1355 Shoreway Road
  Belmont  CA  94002-4100
  (800) 831-4242
  (415) 592-2503 Fax

  Large selection of chips, power supplies, and other electronic components,
  including some that can be extremely difficult to find elsewhere.

@node "JDR Microdevices"

  JDR Microdevices
  1850 South 10th Street
  San Jose  CA  95112-4108
  (800) 538-5000 Orders (24-Hour)
  (800) 538-5005 Fax
  (800) 538-5002 Tech Support
  (408) 494-1430 BBS

  Chips, cables, hard drives, generic computer parts. Oriented towards the
  end-user, quick to deliver, inexpensive, and nice on the phone.

@node "Marlin P. Jones & Associates"

  Marlin P. Jones & Associates
  PO Box 12685
  Lake Park  FL  33403-0685
  (407) 848-8236
  (407) 844-8764 Fax

  Chips, connectors, electronics and computer parts, much of which is
  surplus. They sometimes have parts unavailable elsewhere, like blue LEDs.
  Oriented towards electronics experimenters and designers.

@node "MCM Electronics"

  MCM Electronics
  650 Congress Park Drive
  Centerville  OH  45459-4072
  (800) 543-4330
  (513) 434-6959 Fax

  Large assortment of parts. Oriented towards electronic repair shops.

@node "Memory World"

  Memory World
  3392 Progress Drive, Suite B
  Bensalem  PA  19020-5899
  (215) 244-7930
  (215) 244-7932 Fax

  Source for SIMMs, ZIPs, other memory, Motorola processors. And they even
  know what an Amiga is! Prices tend to be excellent.

@node "Parts Express"

  Parts Express
  340 E. First Street
  Dayton  OH  45402-1257
  (800) 338-0531
  (513) 222-4644 Fax

  Chips, cables, other parts. Oriented towards electronic repair shops.

@node "Redmond Cable"

  Redmond Cable
  (206) 882-2009
  (206) 883-1430 Fax
  (615) 478-5760 East Coast
  (615) 472-3647 East Coast Fax

  Excellent source of very unusual cables and connectors. They will custom-
  build cables or just sell the parts. They had SCSI-2 panel mount female
  connectors, which I was unable to locate anywhere else.

@node "Editor"

               Editor And Compiler Of The A4000 Hardware Guide


  Warren Block
  602 St. James
  Rapid City  SD  57701-3658
  (605) 342-1632 (voice)
  [email protected]

  Music that may have contributed to the mood of this guide, and that has
  definitely influenced me:

  Mark Knopfler: Golden Heart
     Pink Floyd: Meddle, Obscured By Clouds
   Dire Straits: Dire Straits, Communique, and pretty much all the others

@node "Credits"



  People who have contributed information to this document, either directly
  or by posting public Usenet or BBS messages that have revealed information
  that was incorporated into this document:

    Antony Alonso           Kerry Gray             Patrik Nordvall
    Bruce Abbott            Francois Groleau       Daniel Oberlin
    Ralph Babel             Dave Haynie            John Palmer
    Chuck Baker             Gregory Helleren       Michael Perbix
    Volker Barthelmann      Gene Heskett           Kenneth Perto
    Gary Bates              Scott Hood             Troy Pladson
    Bryan Beecher           David Houlden          Dave Platt
    Rainer Benda            Thomas Huber           Kent Polk
    Warren Block            Kjell Irgens           Thomas Radtke
    Martin Blom             Randell Jesup          Mike Redrobe
    Keith Burns             Brian Jones            Sean Riddle
    Tom Conlin              Dan Karlsson           Rhett Rodewald
    Randy Consemulder       Oliver Kastl           Greg Scott
    Steve Crippen           Larry Keller           0laf 'Rhialto' Seibert
    John Crookshank         John Kelly             C. Deforrest Smith
    Dale Currie             Steve Kelsey           Stephen Smith
    Richard Davey           Mario Kemper           Jeroen Steenblik
    Joachim Deussen         Dr. Peter Kittel       Ben Sutter
    Ethan Dicks             Paul Kolenbrander      Derek Taylor
    Joanne Dow              Jeff Koons             Barry Tigner
    Stephen Dowdy           Randy Kruszka          Mitch Thompson
    Jim Drew                Christopher Laprise    Calum Tsang
    Peter Ducker            Erik Lindberg          Sami Waulu
    Niklas Edmundsson       Don Maddox             Doug Warner
    Jacob Ellis             Scott Marlowe          Matt Weatherford
    Michael van Elst        David Martin           Thomas Weeks
    Bob Emery               Michael Martin         Ulrich Weise
    Bernd Ernesti           Peter McGavin          Lothar Werzinger
    Jeff Gill               Francesco Meani        Phil Wright
    Scott Goffman           Gerry Murphy           Heinz Wrobel
    Denny Goodrich          David A. Newman

  I'd like to thank everyone for their graciousness in sharing this very
  valuable information with the world, and in putting up with my seemingly
  endless questions on the Amiga 4000. Thank you all!

  Finally, a special note of thanks to Urban Müller and Fred Fish for the
  vital services they provide.

@node "What's New With This Version"

                        What's New With This Version


  Several kind people have submitted new reference sections for boards and
  other information previously not covered. You'll notice that these new
  sections have a byline for the author. As before, sections without a byline
  can only be blamed on your humble @{"Editor" link "Editor"}.

New Sections

  @{"A2065 Reference" link "A2065 Reference"}                    Reference for the A2065 Ethernet board.
  @{"A4091 Reference" link "A4091 Reference"}                    Reference for the A4091 SCSI controller.
  @{"Benetech Electronic Supply" link "Benetech Electronic Supply"}         A source for DB23 connectors and parts.
  @{"Card Guide Problems" link "Card Guide Problems"}                Possible problem with A4000T expansion.
  @{"DKB 3128 Reference" link "DKB 3128 Reference"}                 Reference for the DKB 3128 RAM board.
  @{"Expansion Cards Not Recognized" link "Expansion Cards Not Recognized"}     More common problems.
  @{"FastLane Reference" link "FastLane Reference"}                 Reference for the FastLane controller.
  @{"Floppy Drive Cable Problems" link "Floppy Drive Cable Problems"}        Problems with internal floppy cables.
  @{"Hydra Reference" link "Hydra Reference"}                    Reference for the Hydra Ethernet board.
  @{"Memory SIMM Problems" link "Memory SIMM Problems"}               More common problems.
  @{"MultiFace and FastLane Problems" link "MultiFace and FastLane Problems"}    Using the MultiFace III and FastLane together.
  @{"MultiFaceCard III Reference" link "MultiFaceCard III Reference"}        Reference for the MultiFaceCard III.
  @{"NEC 3D Reference" link "NEC 3D Reference"}                   Reference for the NEC 3D monitor.
  @{"Power Supply Pin-Outs" link "Power Supply Pin-Outs"}              More pin-out definitions.
  @{"Retina Z2 Reference" link "Retina Z2 Reference"}                Reference for the Retina Z2 graphics board.
  @{"Speeding Up IDE Boot-Up" link "Speeding Up IDE Boot-Up"}            IDE hardware patch.

Enhanced Or Revised Sections

  @{"1084 Reference" link "1084 Reference"}
  @{"1940/1942 Reference" link "1940 Reference"}
  @{"1950 Reference" link "1950 Reference"}
  @{"1960 Reference" link "1960 Reference"}
  @{"A2091 Reference" link "A2091 Reference"}
  @{"A2320 Reference" link "A2320 Reference"}
  @{"A3640 Reference" link "A3640 Reference"}
  @{"Common Questions" link "Common Questions"}
  @{"Credits" link "Credits"}
  @{"Dead Machine Problems" link "Dead Machine Problems"}
  @{"Editor" link "Editor"}
  @{"Emplant Reference" link "Emplant Reference"}
  @{"IDE Drive Problems" link "IDE Drive Problems"}
  @{"Internal IDE Hard Disk Connector Pin-Outs" link "Internal IDE Hard Disk Connector Pin-Outs"}
  @{"Motherboard Jumpers" link "Motherboard Jumpers"}
  @{"Oktagon Reference" link "Octagon Reference"}
  @{"Power-Up Self Test" link "Power-Up Self Test"}
  @{"Redmond Cable" link "Redmond Cable"}
  @{"SCSI Examples" link "SCSI Examples"}
  @{"SCSI Pin-Outs" link "SCSI Pin-Outs"}
  @{"SCSI Reselect Problems" link "SCSI Reselect Problems"}
  @{"VGA Monitor Pin-Outs" link "VGA Monitor Pin-Outs"}
  @{"Warp Engine Reference" link "Warp Engine Reference"}

@node IndexNode "Index"



  @{"-5V Power Problems" link "-5V Power Problems"}
  @{"1081 Reference" link "1081 Reference"}
  @{"1084 Reference" link "1084 Reference"}
  @{"1085 Reference" link "1085 Reference"}
  @{"1940 Reference" link "1940/1942 Reference"}
  @{"1950 Reference" link "1950 Reference"}
  @{"1960 Reference" link "1960 Reference"}
  @{"68030 Processor Board Reference" link "68030 Processor Board Reference"}
  @{"A2060 Reference" link "A2060 Reference"}
  @{"A2065 Reference" link "A2065 Reference"}
  @{"A2091 Reference" link "A2091 Reference"}
  @{"A2320 Reference" link "A2320 Reference"}
  @{"A3640 Reference" link "A3640 Reference"}
  @{"A4091 Reference" link "A4091 Reference"}
  @{"Altex Electronics" link "Altex Electronics"}
  @{"Ariadne Reference" link "Ariadne Reference"}
  @{"Backplane Problems" link "Backplane Problems"}
  @{"Battery Problems" link "Battery Problems"}
  @{"Benetech Electronic Supply" link "Benetech Electronic Supply"}
  @{"Boards" link "Boards"}
  @{"Cable Routing Problems" link "Cable Routing Problems"}
  @{"Card Guide Problems" link "Card Guide Problems"}
  @{"Chip Merchant" link "Chip Merchant"}
  @{"Common Problems" link "Common Problems"}
  @{"Common Questions" link "Common Questions"}
  @{"Connecting VGA Monitors" link "Connecting VGA Monitors"}
  @{"Connector Pin-Outs" link "Connector Pin-Outs"}
  @{"Credits" link "Credits"}
  @{"Dalco Electronics" link "Dalco Electronics"}
  @{"Dead Machine Problems" link "Dead Machine Problems"}
  @{"Definitive Buster" link "Definitive Buster"}
  @{"Digi-Key Corporation" link "Digi-Key Corporation"}
  @{"DKB 3128 Reference" link "DKB 3128 Reference"}
  @{"Drives" link "Drives"}
  @{"Editor" link "Editor"}
  @{"Emplant Reference" link "Emplant Reference"}
  @{"Expansion Cards Not Recognized" link "Expansion Cards Not Recognized"}
  @{"External Floppy Port Pin-Outs" link "External Floppy Port Pin-Outs"}
  @{"External SCSI Connector" link "External SCSI Connector"}
  @{"Fan Problems" link "Fan Problems"}
  @{"FastLane Reference" link "FastLane Reference"}
  @{"Floppy Drive Cable Problems" link "Floppy Drive Cable Problems"}
  @{"Green Display Problems" link "Green Display Problems"}
  @{"Hosfelt Electronics" link "Hosfelt Electronics"}
  @{"Hydra Reference" link "Hydra Reference"}
  @{"IDE Drive Problems" link "IDE Drive Problems"}
  @{"Idek Iiyama Vision Master 17 (MF-8617) Reference" link "Idek Iiyama Vision Master 17 (MF-8617) Reference"}
  @{"Internal Floppy Connector Pin-Outs" link "Internal Floppy Connector Pin-Outs"}
  @{"Internal IDE Hard Disk Connector Pin-Outs" link "Internal IDE Hard Disk Connector Pin-Outs"}
  @{"Internals" link "Internals"}
  @{"Introduction" link "Introduction"}
  @{"JameCo Electronic Components" link "JameCo Electronic Components"}
  @{"JDR Microdevices" link "JDR Microdevices"}
  @{"Joystick Port Pin-Outs" link "Joystick Port Pin-Outs"}
  @{"Keyboard Port Pin-Outs" link "Keyboard Port Pin-Outs"}
  @{"Keyboard Self-Test" link "Keyboard Self-Test"}
  @{"Main" link "Main"}
  @{"Marlin P. Jones & Associates" link "Marlin P. Jones & Associates"}
  @{"MCM Electronics" link "MCM Electronics"}
  @{"Memory SIMM Problems" link "Memory SIMM Problems"}
  @{"Memory World" link "Memory World"}
  @{"Mitsubishi DiamondScan AUM-1381A Reference" link "Mitsubishi DiamondScan AUM-1381A Reference"}
  @{"Monitors" link "Monitors"}
  @{"Motherboard Jumpers" link "Motherboard Jumpers"}
  @{"MultiFace and FastLane Problems" link "MultiFace and FastLane Problems"}
  @{"MultiFaceCard III Reference" link "MultiFaceCard III Reference"}
  @{"NEC 3D Reference" link "NEC 3D Reference"}
  @{"Oktagon Reference" link "Octagon Reference"}
  @{"Other Video Problems" link "Other Video Problems"}
  @{"Parallel Port Pin-Outs" link "Parallel Port Pin-Outs"}
  @{"Parts Express" link "Parts Express"}
  @{"Power Supply Pin-Outs" link "Power Supply Pin-Outs"}
  @{"Power-Up Self-Test" link "Power-Up Self-Test"}
  @{"Processor Board Mounting" link "Processor Board Mounting"}
  @{"Processor Cooling" link "Processor Cooling"}
  @{"Redmond Cable" link "Redmond Cable"}
  @{"Retina Z2 Reference" link "Retina Z2 Reference"}
  @{"SCSI Drive Problems" link "SCSI Drive Problems"}
  @{"SCSI Examples" link "SCSI Examples"}
  @{"SCSI Pin-Outs" link "SCSI Pin-Outs"}
  @{"SCSI Reselect Problems" link "SCSI Reselect Problems"}
  @{"Seagate ST3096A/ST3120A/ST3144A Reference" link "Seagate ST3144A Reference"}
  @{"Serial Port Pin-Outs" link "Serial Port Pin-Outs"}
  @{"Slow A2091 Problems" link "Slow A2091 Problems"}
  @{"Sources" link "Sources"}
  @{"Speeding Up IDE Boot-Up" link "Speeding Up IDE Boot-Up"}
  @{"Tips" link "Tips"}
  @{"VGA Monitor Pin-Outs" link "VGA Monitor Pin-Outs"}
  @{"Video Banding Modification" link "Video Banding Modification"}
  @{"Video Banding Problems" link "Video Banding Problems"}
  @{"Video Port Pin-Outs" link "Video Port Pin-Outs"}
  @{"Warp Engine Reference" link "Warp Engine Reference"}
  @{"What's New With This Version" link "What's New With This Version"}
  @{"Zorro-III Problems" link "Zorro-III Problems"}