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Comp-Sys-Mac-Comm FAQ

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From: [email protected] (David Lawrence Oppenheimer)
Date: Thu, 8 Sep 1994 10:08:53 EDT
Subject: Comp-Sys-Mac-Comm FAQ (/info-mac/comm/info/csm-communications-faq.txt)

Last-modified: Thu Sep  8 1994
This is the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) list for comp.sys.mac.comm
=======================================================================

This list of frequently asked questions and answers is intended to help
reduce the number of "often asked questions" that make the rounds here
in comp.sys.mac.comm. Since comp.sys.mac.comm is intended as a forum to
discuss telecommunication (and related issues) that are specific to the
Macintosh, most questions about modems, telecommunications in general,
and other non-Macintosh specific communication questions are not listed
here. The proper newsgroup for such questions is usually comp.dcom.modems.

This list is posted periodically (about once a month) to the Usenet 
groups comp.sys.mac.comm, news.answers, and comp.answers. Latest versions
of the FAQ can be retrieved via anonymous FTP from the following sites:

file://mac.archive.umich.edu/mac/misc/documentation/compsysmaccommfaq.txt

file://sumex-aim.stanford.edu/info-mac/comm/info/comp-sys-mac-comm-faq.txt

file://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/comp.sys.mac.comm/c.s.m.c_FAQ_[1_4]
                                                 c.s.m.c_FAQ_[2_4]
                                                 c.s.m.c_FAQ_[3_4]
                                                 c.s.m.c_FAQ_[4_4]

It also available in the Macintosh SIG on Delphi for Delphi members.

This FAQ is purely a volunteer effort. Although every effort has been
made to insure that answers are as complete and accurate as possible,
NO GUARANTEE IS IMPLIED OR INTENDED. The editor and contributors have
developed this FAQ as a service to Usenet. We hope you find it useful.
It has been formatted in setext format for your browsing convenience;
use a setext browser, such as EasyView, to take advantage of setext.

Please send your corrections and comments to the editor, David Oppenheimer, 
at [email protected]

             SHARE THIS INFORMATION FREELY AND IN GOOD FAITH.
             DO NOT DISTRIBUTE MODIFIED VERSIONS OF THIS FAQ.
               DO NOT REMOVE THIS NOTICE OR THE TEXT ABOVE.
              (INCLUDING THE 'LastModified' HEADER; THANKS.)

Exception to the above: Excerpts of this FAQ not exceeding 9000 characters
in length may be reprinted PROVIDED that "the comp.sys.mac.comm Usenet
newsgroup FAQ" is credited as the source of the information. Even in this
case, no editing of the quoted material is permitted. If you have any
questions about the reprint policy, send mail to [email protected]

�
================================================================================

                          **** TABLE OF CONTENTS: ****

[1] Modems and Cables

	[1.1] What kind of modem will work with my Macintosh?
	[1.2] What kind of cable do I need to use my external modem with my
	      Macintosh? (Includes cable pinouts)
	[1.3] What do V.32, V.42, bis, MNP, etc mean? 
	[1.4] How fast can the Macintosh serial ports really go?
	[1.5] How can I disable call-waiting when using my modem?

[2] File Formats and Conversion

	[2.1] What is a resource (or data) fork?
	[2.2] What is MacBinary?
	[2.3] What is BinHex? What is uuencode? What are atob/btoa ?
	[2.4] What is Apple-Single/Double ?
	[2.5] What do file suffixes like .hqx, .sit, .bin, etc ... mean
	      and how can I convert such files back to normal Macintosh
	      applications and documents?
	[2.6] How can I use a binary-downloaded file that appears as an
	      unusable text file on the Mac desktop?

[3] Macintosh File-transfers

	[3.1] What program(s) do(es) Kermit, FTP (client), and/or
	      X,Y,Z-MODEM and where can I get them?
	[3.2] What is the latest version of ZTerm?
	[3.3] What is the Communications Toolbox (CTB)?
	[3.4] Are there any public-domain or shareware Communication
	      Toolbox tools that support Kermit, and/or X,Y,Z-MODEM?
	[3.5] How can I transfer Macintosh files to/from my Macintosh and
	      other non-Macintosh computers (eg: mainframes, UNIX boxes,
	      PCs)?
	[3.6] What's the best compression program to use when uploading
	      files to an archive or BBS? Are there any other guidelines
	      I should follow?
	[3.7] How can I use the programs that are posted to 
	      comp.binaries.mac?

[4] Introduction to AppleTalk (and Apple Remote Access)

	[4.1] What kind of hardware do I need to set up an LocalTalk
	      network?
	[4.2] How can I change the Chooser "user" and name of my
	      Macintosh? Also: Why can I no longer change the name of
	      my hard-disk?
	[4.3] What is Apple Remote Access ?
	[4.4] Where can I get a Remote Access script for my modem? 
	[4.5] How are IP packets transmitted over a LocalTalk network?
	[4.6] How can I use Apple Remote Access to access the Internet via my
		Mac at work?

[5] Networking, MacTCP, Telnet, SL/IP, PPP

	[5.1] What is MacTCP and what kind of hardware and software do I
	      need to use it? 
	[5.2] What is the difference between AppleTalk, LocalTalk,
	      EtherNet, EtherTalk, TCP/IP, etc?
	[5.3] What is Telnet, and is there a Telnet program for the
	      Macintosh?
	[5.4] Is there a FTP (client/server) program for the Macintosh?
	[5.5] What are SL/IP, CSL/IP and PPP?
	[5.6] How does MacTCP resolve names into IP addresses?

[6] MacX and Other Ways to Interface With UNIX

	[6.1] Can I run X-Windows on my Mac?
	[6.2] How can I run MacX over a modem? Is it feasible?
	[6.3] What is MacLayers and what do I need to use it?
	[6.4] What are UW and MultiSession? Are there other programs like 
	      MacLayers?
	[6.5] Is there a UNIX program that will convert between BinHex and
	      MacBinary?
	[6.6] How can I create LaserWriter PostScript printer files and
	      print them on a PostScript printer connected to a UNIX
	      network?
        [6.7] What is the Columbia AppleTalk Package (CAP)?
        [6.8] How can I use the UNIX NFS file sharing protocol on my Mac?

[7] Sending and receiving Mail and Usenet News with your Macintosh

	[7.1] How can I send/receive Internet mail with my Macintosh?
	[7.2] How can I read/post Usenet news with my Macintosh?

[8] Miscellaneous

	[8.1] I don't have FTP --- How can I access the various archives
	      through e-mail?
	[8.2] What aids are available for programmers wishing to write TCP/IP
	      applications for the Macintosh?

Appendices:

[A]	List of Common File Suffixes and Abbreviations
[B]	List of Macintosh archive sites available through the Internet
[C]	Vendor Information
[D]	Contributors
�
================================================================================

[1] Modems and Cables
=====================

[1.1] What kind of modem will work with my Macintosh?
-----------------------------------------------------

        Any *external* Hayes compatible modem will work with your
        Macintosh. There are too many to list or review here. The
        USENET newsgroup comp.dcom.modems is a good place to ask questions
        about the many different external Hayes compatible modems. Such
        modems can be used with any computer (Macintosh, UNIX box,
        MS-DOS PC, Amiga, etc) with a serial port (e.g.: Macintosh modem
        port) interface. However, there *are* modems that are designed
        specifically for use with the Macintosh. Internal Powerbook
        modems, ADB modems, and internal NuBus modems are all examples.

        Assuming you wish to use an external modem, your only other
        hardware consideration is to find an appropriate cable to connect
        it to your Macintosh. Especially at higher baud rates (9600 baud
        and up), a hardware-handshaking cable is recommended (see [1.2]
        for details). There are many non-hardware-handshaking cables
        being sold at reputable computer accessory stores, so it's
        recommended that you ask before buying.

        Various special modems exist with unique features; the most
        notable type is the dual FAX/modem. For more information,
        visit comp.dcom.modems or your local dealer: there are simply
        too many products to describe here.


[1.2] What kind of cable do I need to use my external modem with my Macintosh?
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 

        Most modems have a female DB-25 (25 pin) connector labelled
        RS-232C on their backsides. All Macintoshes since the Mac Plus
        use a mini DIN-8 (8 pin) connector for the two serial ports
        (modem and printer). Earlier models use the larger DB-9 (9 pin)
        connector. Finding a generic cable for any configuration should
        not be very difficult at most computer accessory stores. They
        are typically sold for around $25.

        However, especially at the higher baud rates (9600 baud and up),
        a hardware handshaking cable is highly recommended. Attempting
        to transfer files at high baud rates using a non-hardware-
        handshaking cable will likely result in repeated transmission
        errors, a drop in the transfer rate, and possibly an aborted
        transmission. Since many non-hardware-handshaking cables are
        still being sold, it's a good idea to ask before buying.

	One hardware handshaking cable available by mail-order is the
	CompUnite High-Speed Mac modem cable, available for $14 (as of 
	8/94) from Celestin Company (see the end of Part 4 of this FAQ 
	for vendor information). This product has been listed as a BMUG 
	(Berkeley, California Macintosh User's Group) Choice Product.

        If you want to "roll-your-own" or are having problems getting
        your modem and your Macintosh to communicate, read on. The
        serial ports on the Macintosh are not actually RS-232C ports
        but are instead RS-422 compliant, a similar but better standard.
        This explains some of the difficulty in implementing hardware-
        handshaking.

        One way to wire your cable is as below:

                Macintosh (DTE)                           Modem (DCE)
                    DIN-8                                    DB-25

                Pin  Signal                               Signal  Pin
                 1    HSKo   ---------------------------   RTS     4
                 2    HSKi   ---------------------------   CTS     5
                 3    TxD-   ---------------------------   TxD     2
                 4    GND    ---------------------------   GND     7
                 5    RxD-   ---------------------------   RxD     3
                 6    TxD+   (nc)                    .--   DSR     6
                 7    GPi    (nc)                    '--   DTR    20 
                 8    RxD+   ---------------------------   GND     7  

                    shield   ---------------------------   shield

                                Figure 1.2.1

        If your modem cannot be configured to ignore DTR, or if you
        are using an old 1200 baud or 2400 baud modem, the pinout in
        Figure 1.2.1 is probably best. However, if you are using a
        high-speed modem that can ignore DTR, and/or Remote AppleTalk,
        you should instead use the pinout in Figure 1.2.2, which is
        the pinout "recommended" by Apple:

                Macintosh (DTE)                           Modem (DCE)
                    DIN-8                                    DB-25

                Pin  Signal                               Signal  Pin
                 1    HSKo   ----------------------+----   RTS     4
                                                   '----   DTR    20

                 2    HSKi   ---------------------------   CTS     5
                 3    TxD-   ---------------------------   TxD     2

                 4    GND    ----+----------------------   GND     7
                 8    RxD+   ----'

                 5    RxD-   ---------------------------   RxD     3
                 6    TxD+   (nc)                    
                 7    GPi    ---------------------------   DCD     8

                    shield   ---------------------------   shield

                                Figure 1.2.2

        Note: You can find a pretty picture of this PICT by using 
        ResEdit to open the Apple Modem Tool Extension CTB tool.

        Note: Be careful! Although technically, you should not be able
        to damage either your modem or computer by using an incorrectly
        wired cable, you should always perform a connectivity test to
        double-check your wiring before using your homemade cable.
        Some serial devices place auxiliary voltages on non-standard
        pins.
        
        Note: If you are having trouble finding or soldering a mini DIN-8
        connector (they can be expensive and are rather small), it is
        suggested you purchase a straight-through DIN-8 to DIN-8 cable
        (often sold for use with serial port switches), cut it in half,
        and wire each end to a DB-25 connector that can plug into your
        modem (resulting in *two* cables).

	Note: The GPi pin is unused on all but the AV Macs. The pinout
	diagrams are correct.

        Note: If you are running A/UX and are having difficulties
        controlling your modem from software, see the comp.unix.aux FAQ
        for the latest information on an A/UX specific cable.


        Many people routinely ask for a pinout diagram for the mini DIN-8
        connector; Figure 1.2.3 shows the pinout as if you were looking at
        the (female) connector on your Macintosh; the (male) cable connector
        will be a mirror image. (Figure artwork by Ben Cranston)

                     Mini DIN-8 Macintosh Serial Connector Pinout
 
               /------###------\         1 HSKo        Output Handshake
             /        ###        \                      (Zilog 8530 DTR pin)
           /                       \     2 HSKi/CLK    Input Handshake *OR*
          /     [|]   [|]   [|]     \                   External Clock
         /       8     7     6       \   3 TxD-        Transmit data (-)
        |                             |
        |                             |  4 Ground      Signal ground
        |     ===       ===    ===    |
        |      5         4      3     |  5 RxD-        Receive data (-)
        |                             |
        |                             |  6 TxD+        Transmit data (+)
         \----+    ===   ===    +----/
          \###|     2     1     |###/    7 N/C         (no connection)
           \##|                 |##/
             \|                 |/       8 RxD+        Receive data (+)
               \------###------/
                      ###

                                Figure 1.2.3
 
         Finally, it should be noted that there is no *best* RS-422 to
         RS-232 cable. You'll see many different wiring diagrams posted
         to Usenet. Each usually has its own purpose and champion; the
         two given in this FAQ, however, are fairly generic and one or
         the other should work with most modems being sold today.


[1.3] What do V.32, V.42, bis, MNP, etc mean?
---------------------------------------------

        Because these topics are universal telecommunications issues,
        they are more fully discussed in comp.dcom.modems. However, a
        short description of some of the more common abbreviations and
        buzzwords is given below.

        An excellent article on the subject of modems, including
        a guide to buying high-speed modems, is available from
        InfoMac (sumex-aim) and its mirror sites as the file
        info-mac/comm/info/modem-guide-11.hqx.
        
           Buzzword         What it typically means
        ---------------   ----------------------------------------------
        bit             : binary digit; amount of information necessary
                          to distinguish between two equally likely
                          events (such as the value of a binary digit)
        byte            : eight bits; size of a single ASCII character
        bps             : bits per second
        baud            : one analog signal state change; people usually
                          use baud and bps interchangeable although most
                          modern modems can encode multiple bits per baud
        Bell 103        : 300 bps U.S. Standard
        Bell 212A       : 1200 bps U.S. Standard
        LAP/M           : Link Access Protocol/Modem.
        MNP             : Microcom Networking Protocol (Proprietary)
        MNP5            : MNP extension; 2 to 1 data compression.
        V.32            : 9600bps, 4800bps
        V.32bis         : 14.4Kbps, 12Kbps, 9600bps, 7200bps, 4800bps
        V.32terbo       : psuedo-standard extending V.32bis to 16.8, 19.2 kbs
        V.42            : MNP 4 and LAP/M modem to modem error correction
        V.42bis         : LAP/M and 4-to-1 data compression.

                             Table 1.3.1


[1.4] How fast can the Macintosh serial ports really go?
--------------------------------------------------------

        The Macintosh operating system supports data rates up to 57600 baud,
        but the Macintosh serial hardware can support transfer rates that
        are much higher if they are externally clocked. Serial port
        sound-input-devices such as the Cedar Technologies SID and
        Farallon's MacRecorder, as well as AppleTalk boxes, use this trick
        to achieve transfer rates greater than 100 Kbps.

Ward McFarland <[email protected]> writes:

	"The clock rate supplied by pre-AV Macs to the SCC (and used for baud 
	rate generation) limits the maximum asynchronous serial speed to 
	57,600 baud. The maximum synchronous speed is 16 times this (as used 
	by the old serial hard drives used on 512K Macs and by the Personal 
	LaserWriters).

	Indeed, the SCC can be externally clocked to faster asynchronous 
	speeds, with a couple of limitiations.  First, the external clock
	is applied to the Mac's CTS input, making it impossible to respond 
	normally to normal modem handshake requests.  Second, since the SCC 
	used in older Macs can only buffer 3 characters, data losses can occur
	due to interrupt service delays. MacRecorder and other custom devices 
	got around this by locking out all system interrupts during serial 
	data transfer.

	The AVs and PowerMacs apparently use a different SCC clock, and I have
	benchmarked fairly good ZModem performance using Smartcom II 4.0 at 
	115,200 and 230,400 baud.  Apple does not publish the serial driver 
	control call to set this, and they state they do not support such
	speeds.  I do not know of anyone besides Hayes who has managed to get 
	Apple to tell them the methodology.  

	Creative Solutions, Inc. [see the end of Part 4 of this FAQ for vendor
	contact information] makes a NuBus card (the "Hustler") and soon will
	make an external SCSI-based device that can support 2 channels at 
	115,200 baud or one at 230,400 baud.  This is currently used by quite 
	a number of people supporting high speed (28.8) modems and direct 
	serial connections. This product works fine with existing 
	communications and bulletin board system software."
        
        Note: Powerbooks are known to have problems at extremely high
        data rates. These problems are caused by Power Manager overhead.
        System 7.1 is supposed to solve or alleviate these problems.

        Note: AppleTalk being active can degrade serial port performance,
        as can ethernet-network traffic. Turning of AppleTalk via
        the Chooser, or disconnecting the ethernet transceiver, are
        work-arounds.

        
[1.5] How can I disable call-waiting when using my modem?
---------------------------------------------------------

        This varies depending on your local phone company, but often,
        if you preced the phone number you wish to tone dial
        with "*70," (omit the quotes but not the comma), you can
        disable call-waiting FOR THAT CALL ONLY.
        
        If you have a strictly rotary dial line, try preceding the
        phone number with "1170".

        In the United Kingdom, the code to use is #43#.
�
================================================================================
[2] File Formats and Conversion
===============================

[2.1] What is a resource (or data) fork?
----------------------------------------

        A Macintosh file has two parts: a data fork and a resource fork.
        Text files and GIF image files are examples of Macintosh files
        that are usually stored completely in the data fork, and have
        an empty (or nonexistent) resource fork. Applications, as a
        a counter-example, store most if not all of their information
        in 'resources' in the resource fork and usually have an empty
        data fork.
        
        Because this two-forked organization of files isn't very common,
        transferring Macintosh files that have non-empty resource forks
        to non-Macintosh machines (such as UNIX boxes, or MS-DOS machines)
        requires special encoding, described below.


[2.2] What is MacBinary?
------------------------

        MacBinary is a standard way of taking a Macintosh file (both
        resource and data forks) and creating a new file with just
        a data fork. This new file can then be transferred through
        machines which know nothing about the native Macintosh file
        system, without losing the information stored in the resource
        fork.
        
        MacBinary also stores other information (such as the filename,
        creation and modification dates, file type and creator) about
        the original file.
        
        If you want to store some Macintosh files on a non-Macintosh
        computer, one way is to convert them to a MacBinary format file
        before transferring. Note that MacBinary files are useless to
        people who are not using Macintosh computers. MacBinary's
        purpose is to encapsulate *all* information contained in a
        Macintosh file for transport over a non-Macintosh medium. For
        this reason, you should not use MacBinary and/or BinHex to
        post GIF images, for example, to Usenet because (1) GIF images
        contain no Macintosh specific information and (2) doing so will
        make it impossible for most non-Macintosh users to display your
        image.

        Although a Macintosh program (called MacBinary) does exist
        to do the converting to and from MacBinary, almost all modern
        Macintosh telecommunications programs have the capability of
        converting and unconverting MacBinary files for you. ZTerm,
        for example, can be configured to automatically detect when
        a MacBinary file is being received and to convert this file
        to its original representation; or, if you are uploading,
        ZTerm can optionally encode the file into MacBinary before
        sending. Fetch, White Knight, and most other commercial and
        shareware products have equivalent or similar capabilities.
        
        Dennis Brothers designed the original MacBinary standard many
        years ago. Yves Lempereur incorporated this standard into
        his Binhex 4.0 program (see [2.3]), solving a major problem
        on Compuserve. About a year later, around the time the Mac Plus
        came out, group discussions on Compuserve led to an enhancement
        of the original MacBinary standard. Since then, BinHex 4.0 and
        the new MacBinary have become the standard way of encapsulating
        Macintosh files for transferring over foreign systems throughout
        the Internet, Usenet, and elsewhere.

        MacBinary I is the name given to the old MacBinary standard.
        MacBinary II is the name given to the new MacBinary standard
        which everybody uses today; in common usage, MacBinary means
        MacBinary II.
        
        
[2.3] (a) What is BinHex? (b) What is uuencode? (c) What are atob/btoa ?
------------------------------------------------------------------------

        (a) A "binary" file is usually intended to describe a file which
        does not always have the high bit in each byte set to zero.
        Text and BinHex files are the most common examples of non-binary
        data. Programs and images are common examples of binary data.
        MacBinary files are specially encoded binary files (see 2.2]).
        
        Unfortunately, many network e-mail and Usenet gateways are only
        receptive to non-binary files. To make it possible to send
        binary files such as Macintosh MacBinary files through e-mail
        or Usenet, it is necessary to convert these files to a text-
        compatible form. BinHex and uuencode are two different ways
        of doing this. Both BinHex and uuencode result in files that
        are larger than the original binary version.
                
        BinHex 4.0, by Yves Lempereur, is a binary to text translator
        that can directly encode any Macintosh document (ie: it knows
        how to convert information in both the resource and data forks).
        BinHex files can be easily recognized since they begin with the
        line:
        
                (This file must be converted with BinHex 4.0)
        
        and are followed by a line starting with a colon, ':'. The
        BinHex encoding of the file follows, and is ended with another
        colon.
        
        There is in fact a program called "BinHex 4.0" in various
        archives, but you don't have to use it to convert files to and
        from BinHex. In fact, due to some bugs, it's best to use some
        of the other more powerful utilities, such as HQXer, DeHqx,
        StuffIt Expander and other StuffIt programs, and Compact Pro,
        to name only a few. UNIX utilities (see [6.5]) that manipulate 
        BinHex, MacBinary, and other types of Macintosh files are also 
        available. StuffIt Expander has the advantage of also being able 
        to automatically expand StuffIt, Compact Pro, and Applelink 
        archives.

        Just about every Macintosh program posted appears as a BinHex
        archive. Some Macintosh archives also store their files in BinHex
        to allow users who don't have (or forget to use) binary mode in
        FTP to succesfully transfer files. 

        BinHex files are denoted by the suffix ".hqx". The specifications
        to BinHex, should you be an interested programmer, are available
        at the University of Michigan's Macintosh archive site as
        mac/misc/documentation/binhex4.0specs.txt, or at InfoMac sites 
        as dev/info/binhex-40-specs.txt .

        There is also a program/format called "BinHex 5.0"; it is NOT
        a more advanced version of "BinHex 4.0" but rather a separate
        _binary_ format (it uses the entire eight-bit ASCII character
        set and is thus not suitable for news postings or e-mail)
        that was the precursor to MacBinary (see [2.2]). Converting
        a file with BinHex 5.0 and then using BinHex 4.0 is another way
        of converting a native Macintosh files with data and resource
        forks into a format that can be e-mailed or posted (and then
        reconstructed). MacBinary, however, is almost always used in
        preference to BinHex 5.0.

        (b) "uuencode" is a binary to text translator that serves the
        same purpose as BinHex, except that it knows nothing about the
        Macintosh resource/data fork structure. uuencode was designed to
        allow UNIX binary files to be easily transferred through text-
        only interfaces, such as e-mail. Every uuencoded file contains
        a line similar to:
        
                begin 644 usa-map.gif
                
        followed by a series of lines of ASCII text characters (which
        are normally 60 characters long and begin with the letter 'M'). 
        The file ends with a line containing the word 'end'. There may 
        be other special keywords included.  Usually, one won't find 
        Macintosh files in uuencode format; however, most non-Macintosh 
        specific binary data posted to Usenet is uuencoded, so if you 
        wish to use any of this data (such as the images posted in 
        alt.binaries.* and elsewhere), you will need to deal with 
        uuencode. The programs 'uuencode' and 'uudecode' exist on most 
        UNIX systems. If not, ask a local expert to find them. Several 
        programs allow you to convert to and from uuencode using your 
        Macintosh; among these are UUTool 2.3.2 and UULite 1.4.2. 
        uencoded files are usually denoted by the suffix ".uu".

        There is a StuffIt translator to handle uuencode conversion.
        
        (c) atob and btoa are programs typically found on UNIX systems
        that also convert between binary and ASCII-printable character
        sets. Although not as popular as uuencode, btoa produces smaller
        text-compatible versions of binary files that can be e-mailed or
        posted on Usenet. Check your local man pages for details.
        
        There are StuffIt translators to handle atob/btoa conversion.

        
[2.4] What is Apple-Single/Double ?
-----------------------------------
        
        AppleDouble is another means of storing Macintosh files on
        non-Macintosh computers or filesystems, particularly on UNIX
        filesystems that also allow files to be mounted under the
        Macintosh operating system via AppleShare (or an equivalent
        product).

        AppleDouble files are actually two files. The data fork
        of the corresponding Macintosh file is stored in a single
        file just as it exists on the Macintosh using the original
        filename. The resource fork is stored in a second file whose
        name is obtained by prefixing the original filename with '%'.
        More extensive documentation is available at ftp.apple.com.
        
        A few Macintosh programs decode these files; one such utility
        is Tiger 1.11. The macutils UNIX utilities [see 6.5] may also
        be useful. Eudora 1.4 and later also handles this format.
        
        If you are trying to figure out how to access the files in
        the 'mac.bin' directory at ftp-archive maintained by the
        University of Michigan, don't bother; all those files exist
        in .hqx format in the 'mac' directory.

        
[2.5] What do file suffixes like .hqx, .sit, .bin, etc ... mean and how
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
        can I convert such files back to normal Macintosh applications
        and documents?
        
        Most files available by FTP or posted to Usenet are modified
        twice to allow them to more easily pass through foreign computer
        systems. Files may be compressed to make them smaller, and/or
        they are almost always translated to either BinHex (.hqx) or
        MacBinary (.bin) format (see [2.2] and [2.3] for an explanation
        of these formats).
        
        How a Macintosh file has been translated and compressed for
        transmission is indicated by its suffix.  Normally a file will
        have a name similar in form to: filename.xxx.yyy, where:
        
                .xxx indicates how it was compressed
                .yyy indicates how it was translated
        
        Usually, .xxx is one of: .cpt, .dd, .sea, .sit
        Usually, .yyy is one of: .bin, .hqx, .image
        
        To convert a file back to its native Macintosh format, you will
        typically need to go through one step per suffix. For example,
        the filename "Swatch.cpt.hqx" indicates that a Compact Pro
        archive (.cpt) "Swatch" has been translated to BinHex (.hqx).
        To recreate the file(s) in the original archive, you must
        first 'undo' the BinHex transformation, creating a Compact Pro
        archive, and then open the Compact Pro archive and extract
        the file(s) in the archive.

        You can use the following table to determine what Macintosh
        programs decode which formats. For a more complete description
        of the various Macintosh archival programs, see the excellent
        FAQ for comp.sys.mac.apps.

      Suffix: .sit  .cpt  .hqx  .bin  .pit  .Z  .image  .dd  .zip  .uu  .tar
  Extractors
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 StuffIt 3.0  | !     X     X     X     X    X           X     !    !     !
 $ Expander   | X     X     X
 Compact Pro  | *     X     X
 UULite 1.4.2 |                                                     X
 MacCompress  |                              X
 SunTar       |             X     X     X                                 X
 BinHex 5.0   |                   X
 BinHex 4.0   |             X
 DiskDoubler  | *                       X                X
 ZipIt        |                                                X
 UnZip        |                                                X
 DiskCopy     |                                    X
 Packit       |                         X
 MacGZip      | 			     X

                                Table 2.5.1

      ! Note: StuffIt Deluxe now includes translators for .tar, .uu,
        MacBinary, atob, btoa, AppleLink packages, AppleSingle, DiskDoubler,
        and UNIX compress. These translators can also be used with StuffIt
        Lite. .arc and .zip translators are also distributed with StuffIt
        Deluxe, but remain part of the commercial package. In order to
        expand DiskDoubler archives, StuffIt uses inter-application
        communication and hence requires DiskDoubler to be installed.
      
      $ 'Expander' refers to StuffIt Expander 3.0.7 which can decode BinHex,
        StuffIt, Compact Pro, and Applelink archives. It supports drag-
        and-drop under System 7. StuffIt Expander is distributed free by
        Aladdin Systems Inc. 

      * StuffIt formats after 3.0 are recognized


        The following file suffixes indicate formats that are native
        to the Macintosh and which can be manipulated using the indicated
        programs:
        
        .bin    MacBinary files; see [2.2]
        .cpt    Compact Pro archive files; [see 3.6]
        .dd     DiskDoubler archive files; [see 3.6]
        .hqx    BinHex files; see [2.3], [3.7]
        .image  Apple DiskCopy disk image file (typically used for
                distributing system software); latest version available
                via anonymous ftp from ftp.apple.com
        .pit    Packit files; [see 3.6]
        .sea    Self-extracting archive files; this usually denotes an
                application which can be double-clicked upon to create
                a decompressed version of the archive
        .sit    StuffIt archive files; [see 3.6]
        .sitd   mistakenly used to indicate files created by StuffIt
                Deluxe; *all* StuffIt files should be given the .sit
                extension (says the author!)
        
                                Table 2.5.2

        
        The following file suffixes indicate formats that are not native
        to the Macintosh, but in most cases, files of these types can
        be manipulated on the Macintosh using the indicated programs.
        
        .arc    MS-DOS PC archive file; ArcPop, MacArc
        .arj    MS-DOS PC archive file; unArjMac
        .gif    Compuserve Graphics Interchange File; many programs,
                free, shareware and commercial exist to display and/or
                modify these images; some of the popular shareware ones
                are: QuickGIF and GIFConverter.
        .lzh    Amiga or old MS-DOS PC archive file; LHarc or MacLHa
        .shar   UNIX shell archive file; Unshar 1.5
        .uu     UNIX uuencoded files; see [2.3]
        .Z      UNIX 'compress' archive file; MacCompress 3.2
        .z      GNU ZIP file; typically created on UNIX
        .zip    MS-DOS PC archive file; UnZip, ZipPop, ZipIt

                                Table 2.5.3

[2.6] How can I use a binary-downloaded file that appears as an
      unusable text file on the Mac desktop?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Celeste Dolan    <[email protected]> responds:

A familiar problem, and one I've seldom been able to solve by changing
the file type and creator of the "text file." The -39 is a "logical end
of file" error, for what that may be worth.

I know of two methods that will restore the PC-downloaded file to a file
that your Mac will recognize. Method #1 requires Apple File Exchange,
which comes with your System Software set on the "Tidbits" disk. It also
requires the Mac-to-MacBinary/MacBinary-to-Mac set of translators for
AFE, which do NOT come with AFE on the System set. I found them on AOL a
couple of years ago, but they are probably available at some of the
usual ftp sites. Put the translators in the same folder as AFE and open
AFE. Make sure BOTH drive windows are active and choose "MacBinary to
Mac" from the menu called either "Mac to Mac" (if you don't have a DOS
disk in your floppy drive or you're running something like PC File
Exchange that lets you access DOS disks from the desktop) or "PC to Mac"
(DOS disk in floppy drive and no DOS-mounting software running).
Highlight the file that needs fixing and hit the "translate" button in
the center of the screen. The translated file will have its proper Mac
icon and behave the way you expect it to.

Method #2 uses StuffIt. I have tested this with StuffIt Deluxe 3.0.7,
but not with StuffIt Lite 3.0.7 (shareware version). Open StuffIt, and
make sure you have your preferences set to show the "Translate" menu. Go
to this menu and choose "MacBinary" from the translator list. A submenu
with the choices "encode" and "decode" will appear. Hold down the OPTION
KEY, choose "decode" and navigate to the file you want to fix. (In my
experience, the file may not show up in the window if you don't hold the
OPTION key down.) Tell StuffIt to open the file and then where to save
the decoded file. Save, and you'll have a usable file.
�
================================================================================
[3] Macintosh File-transfers
============================

[3.1] What programs support Kermit, FTP (client), and/or X,Y,Z-MODEM
--------------------------------------------------------------------
        and where can I get them?
        
        The following is a fairly complete list of the popular free, shareware,
        and payware terminal and file-transfer programs currently available.
        (Last revised: 6/94, but this list is probably not complete).

CL:     Communicate Lite, $50 SRP, various discounts available, 
        Mark/Space Softworks, [email protected]
CM:     Comet, free, Cornell University
        [email protected]; 
        FTP from ftp.cit.cornell.edu
GT:     GrafTerm, $50 shareware, Infrastructure Software
MI:     MacIntercomm, $130, New World Computing, Inc., (818) 999-0607,
        [email protected]
MK:     MacKermit, free, source code is available, [email protected]
ML:     MacLayers 1.30, free, UNIX source included, Eric C. Rosen and 
        David W. Trissel, [email protected]
MT:	MacToPic Plus, $295, site licenses available, Carnation Software,
	(206) 333-4288, [email protected]
MP:     MicroPhone II 5.0, $175, cheaper sidegrades often available, Software 
        Ventures Corporation, (510) 6441325, [email protected]
        Also, MicroPhone Pro, a slightly more capable package.
PT:     PacerTerm, $159, Pacer Software, (619) 454-0565,
        [email protected]
PW:	Pathway Access Macintosh, The Wollongong Group, (800) 872-8649
	[in California (800) 962-8649], [email protected]
QV:     QVT, $50 shareware, QPC Software
SC:     Smartcom II,  $84, $59 upgrade from Smartcom, Hayes,
        (404) 441-1617, BBS: 800-US-HAYES
ST:     SITcomm 1.0, $120, sidegrades are $49, and existing Aladdin customers
        pay only $39, Aladdin Systems, (408) 761-6200, 
        [email protected] or [email protected]
TM:     Term, free, Peter DeCamillo and Jon Gilbert
        [email protected]
TL:     Terminal, free, source code included, Erny Tontlinger
        [email protected]     
TR:     Termulator, $25 shareware, Brad Quick  
TY:     Termy, free, Ice Engineering, [email protected]
VP:     VersaTerm Pro, $177, Synergy Software, (215) 779-0522,
        [email protected]
VT:     VersaTerm, $90, Synergy Software, (215) 779-0522
        [email protected] 
WK:     White Knight, $85, Freesoft, (412) 846-2700
ZT:     ZTerm, $30 shareware, $40 with disk, Dave Alverson,
        [email protected]
5P:     5PM, $370, About Software Corporation, [email protected]
        (408) 725-4249


        The archive sites described in the Appendix are the best place
        to look for free or shareware file-transfer programs. Other
        commercial but non-shareware ("payware") products must be
        purchased from a dealer or the company directly.

        Table 3.1.1 summarizes file transfer capabilities of various
        Macintosh telecommunications programs.
        
Programs:   ZT SC MP ST VT VP WK TR PT GT ML MK QV TM TL TY CM 5P MI CL MT PW
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Protocols |
__________|
XMODEM    | X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X     X     X        X  X  X  X
YMODEM    | X  X  X  X  X  X  X                 X     X           X     X
ZMODEM    | X  X  X  X        X  X  X                 X        X  X  X  X
Kermit    |    X  X  X  X  X  X     X        X  X              X  X     X
QuickB    | X  X  X           !                       X           X
B Plus    | X  X  X                                               X
FTP       |             X  X        X                          X        X   X
TFTP      |                                                 X               X
rmac/wmac |                                        X
Flash     |                   X   
FT3270    |                                                 X
CTB tools |          X  X  X        X                    X     X     X


              !  White Knight supports the QuickB protocol through an
                 FTP-able external RCMD module, NewQuickB.PROC.

                                Table 3.1.1

        
        Table 3.1.2 summarizes the terminal-emulation capabilities of
        various Macintosh telecommunications programs:

Programs:   ZT SC MP ST VT VP WK TR PT GT ML MK QV TM TL TY CM 5P MI CL MT PW
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Terminals |
__________|
TTY       |    X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X                 X     X  X  X  X   X  X
VT52      |    X  X           X                 X           X     X  X 
VT100     | X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X              X  X  X  X   X  X
VT102     |    X  X  X  X  X  X     X           X           X  X  X  X
VT220     |       X     X  X        X           X              X  X         X
VT320     |       X           X     X                          X            *
VT420     |                                                    X
PC/ANSI   | X  X  X                                               X
IBM3270   |       X                                X        X  X            X
IBM5250   |                                                    X
Tek 4010  |             X  X           X
Tek 4014  |             X  X           X
Tek 4105/7|                X                                                *
TVI950    |                                        X
DG210/211 |             X  X
Prestel   |    X
Controls  | X  X  X
CTB tools |          X              X                    X     X     X
Viewpoint |                                                               X
Wyse 50   |       X                                                       X
Prism     |                                                               X
                                Table 3.1.2

	* optional


        Table 3.1.3 summarizes the scripting capabilities of various
        Macintosh telecommunications programs:

Programs:    ZT SC MP ST VT VP WK TR PT GT ML MK QV TM TL TY CM 5P MI CL MT PW
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Scripting  |
___________|
Recording  |    X  X  X  X  X  X     X                       X
If/Else    |       X  a        X  X  X        X        X        X	     X
Loops      |       X  a              X        X        X     X  X	     X
XCMDs      |       X           X  X  X                          X
FileOps    |       X  a        X     X        X              X  X	     X
Arithmetic |       X  a        X     X        X        X        X	     X
Variables  | X     X  a        X  X  X        X        X        X	     X
User Input |       X  a        X  X  X        X              X  X	     X
Key Remaps |       X              X  X        X              X  X         *  X
Arrays     |       X  a              !        X        X	
Wait/Send  |       X  a  X     X                             X        X	     X
AppleScript|       X  X

                   a  denotes capability is accessible through AppleScript

                                Table 3.1.3

        Note: SITcomm is fully AppleScript-able (all features can be
        controlled through AppleScript). The Frontier Runtime portion
        of the Frontier scripting system is also bundled with SITcomm.

        ! Although PacerTerm does not support arrays per se, it
          does implement HyperTalk's chunk expressions that allow
          any variable to be referred to as a collection of
          characters, items, words, or lines.

	* Allows programmable function keys

        The February, 1993 issue of "MacUser" reviews White Knight,
        MicroPhone II, Smartcom II (for the Macintosh), ZTerm, and
        MacIntercomm. The review is also useful for those new to
        telecommunications in general.

        Peter Newton's DialScript 1.7, archived at rascal.ics.utexas.edu,
        is a telecommunications scripting utility useful for automating
        complicated logins and then automatically launching applications
        or startup documents. It's free and the source is available.

        
[3.2] What is the latest version of ZTerm?
------------------------------------------

        ZTerm is currently at revision level 0.9 (4/93). Other released
        versions were 0.7, 0.75 and 0.8, and 0.85.

        Two "fake" versions of ZTerm have circulated. Recently (4/93),
        a hacked version called "ZTerm 0.93 XK", based on 0.9, was 
        distributed.

        An older also fake version labelled "ZTerm 1.0" has also been
        seen. Neither versions were released by the author, Dave Alverson.

        For the latest scoop on ZTerm, as well as advice on features, bugs,
        bug fixes, and more, see Leslie Jones' ZTerm FAQ which is posted
        to comp.sys.mac.comm, comp.sys.mac.apps, news.answers, and the
        InfoMac and UMich archives.


[3.3] What is the Communications Toolbox (CTB)?
-----------------------------------------------

        The Communications Toolbox is a Macintosh operating system
        interface that provides a standard interface for programmers
        writing communications programs. Rather than make calls to
        control the modem serial port, for example, a programmer can
        call an equivalent CTB routine. This allows the operating system
        to manage the serial port(s) just like any other limited
        resource. In addition, specific "tools" that interface with
        modems, provide terminal emulation, or handle file transferring
        can be implemented as external add-on features to CTB-aware
        programs.

        The CTB requires System 6.0.4 or later. The CTB is built into
        System 7. Tools can be added by placing them in the Extensions
        folder; rebooting is not necessary. Under System 6.0.X, CTB
        tools belong in the Communications folder.


[3.4] Are there any shareware or freeware tools that support Kermit,
--------------------------------------------------------------------
        and/or X,Y,Z-MODEM?

        Termy 1.0, freeware from Ice Engineering, is the only CTB-aware
        application that can be obtained via anonymous FTP. Termy has
        no built-in support for any connection methods, file transfer
        protocols, or terminal emulation, so you will need to obtain
        Communication Toolbox tools for each of these.

        Tim Endres has written and released TGE TCP Tool, a Connection
        Tool for the Communications Toolbox. It provides TELNET and
        transparent TCP connections. The tool is free for personal use.

        Several modem Connection tools are available from the various
        FTP sites. These include the Apple Modem Tool 1.11, the Hayes
        Modem Tool 1.02, the CCL Modem Tool 1.0, and the Zoom Modem
        Tool 1.11. After recently releasing his CTB File Transfer tool,
        Kermit Tool GH (which supports MacBinary, RLE compression,
        and other features), Glenn Howes has gone on to release a YMODEM 
        tool.
        
        The Basic Connection Tools Disk is available from ftp.apple.com
        as /dts/mac/sys.soft/netcomm/basic-conn-set-1-1-1-image.hqx .
        You will need DiskCopy or MountImage to decode the image file.
        This disk includes VT102 and TTY terminal tools, XMODEM and Text
        File Transfer tools, and Modem, Serial, and Appletalk
        Connection tools (10/92).

        Advanced Software Concepts has demonstration versions of
        several CTB tools at InfoMac sites in the demo directory.
        Demo versions of a TCP/IP Connection tool, an FTP File Transfer 
        tool, as well as VT420, IBM3270, and IBM5250 Terminal tools
        are being distributed (10/92).

        Stalker Software has a demonstration version of its VideoTex 
        terminal tool at InfoMac sites. Stalker has also released a
        free CEPT Modem Tool, which is equivalent to the CCL Modem Tool
        but also supports the CEPT-1 low-level protocol used by European
        VideoTex systems.

        New free and shareware CTB tools inevitably get posted to Info-
        Mac where they appear in the info-mac/comm directory and also
        to mac.archive.umich.edu in mac/system.extensions/commtoolbox.
        If you give the command "ls *tool*" in these directories
        through an anonymous FTP connection, you can get a list of
        all the free and shareware CTB tools currently available.

        There are also a number of available *payware* tools:
       
        o Mark/Space Softworks has developed a ZMODEM CTB tool (along
        with XMODEM and YMODEM tools). A demonstration version of the
        ZMODEM tool is available for anonymous FTP with the restriction
        that uploading is not supported. The demo is available in the
        Communications directory at Info-Mac FTP sites, among other places.

	o MacToPic Plus supports the CommToolBox and can transfer to
	machines using Ethernet, AppleTalk, and TCP/IP networks, as well
	as regular dialup lines. It includes
	XMODEM, YMODEM, ZMODEM, Kermit, and FTP file transfer protocols.
	It can emulate Viewpoint, Wyse 50, VT101, and Prism terminals.
        The emulators support video attributes such as dim, reverse, underline,
        132-column codes, and graphic characters sent from the host computer, 
        as well as enhanced Viewpoint mode. It supports 25 special commands
	that can be sent from the host to the Mac to initiate data transfers,
	and display pictures and QuickTime movies under host control.

        o MicroPhone Pro includes a Telnet tool (along with some FAX
        support software). MicroPhone II does not include the Telnet
        tool, unfortunately.

        o PacerTerm ships with a broad collection of tools, including:
        XMODEM, ZMODEM, Kermit, and FTP file transfer tools; Telnet,
        LAT, ADSP, and serial connection tools; and TTY, VT102, and
        VT320 terminal tools.

        o Seaquest Software has released XMODEM, YMODEM, ZMODEM, and 
	Kermit file transfer tools. 

        o SITcomm ships with a full set of CTB tools; included are XMODEM,
        YMODEM, ZMODEM, and Kermit file transfer tools, as well as TTY and
        VT102 connection tools, and Apple Modem Tool v1.5.
        
        o Versaterm and Versaterm Pro include FTP client and server file
        transfer tools and Telnet, LAT, SL/IP, and ADSP connection
        tools.

        o 5PM ships with a Telnet Tool and the Apple Basic Connectivity
        Set (XMODEM, ADSP, serial, modem, TTY, VT102, VT320). Other tools
        are available from Advanced Software Concepts : FTP, VT420,
        IBM3270 and IBM5250.


[3.5] How can I transfer Macintosh files to/from my Macintosh and other
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
        non-Macintosh computers (eg: mainframes, UNIX boxes, PCs)?

        If your telecommunication program supports MacBinary (they
        almost all do), turn MacBinary on. This usually involves
        selecting a menu option or clicking a radio button in a
        'preferences' type dialog box. Then, transfer your file
        normally. Your Macintosh file will be sent as a MacBinary file
        that can be treated as an ordinary binary file.
        
        If your telecommunication program does not support MacBinary,
        get a copy of the MacBinary program and use it to make a
        MacBinary version of your Macintosh file. Then send this
        MacBinary file. Meanwhile, look around at the various shareware
        and commercial telecommunications programs that do support
        Macbinary. See [3.1].
        
        Note: Not all files need to be transferred as MacBinary files.
        In particular, most text and non-Macintosh specific binary files
        (like GIF/JPEG images) do not. See [2.2] for more information.

        To actually "download" a file (eg: transfer it from a remote
        host computer to your Macintosh), you must first instruct the
        remote computer to send the file by issuing a command. For
        example, to download a file from a Unix machine using XMODEM,
        you would first have to give a command similar to:
        
                % sx filename
        
        where 'sx' is the local Unix program to send a file using XMODEM
        and 'filename' is the name of the file you wish to send. Then,
        locally, you must start the file transfer by typically choosing
        a menu option in your terminal program. The process is similar
        for Kermit transfers. Terminal programs that support ZMODEM
        should recognize the start of a ZMODEM download automatically.

        Note: Not all systems are alike. The command to start XMODEM
        may not necessarily be 'sx'; another possibility is 'xmodem'.
        Ask your local system administrator if you cannot find the
        right program; most sites support something. Also, see the
        listing below.

        To upload, first issue the appropriate receive command on the
        remote host computer; then, select the local send option in your
        terminal program. Good ZMODEM packages can start the remote file
        transfer automatically.
        
        If you experience multiple CRC errors when downloading with
        ZMODEM, especially after backgrounding the download, try sending
        your file using a fixed window size, eg: 'sz -w 1024 filename'.
        If errors persist, also try escaping control characters,
        eg: 'sz -ew 1024 filename'. Depending on your setup, you may
        be able to use a larger window size (eg: use 4096 or 2048
        instead of 1024) which can slightly reduce transfer time.
        
        Typical Unix programs that support transfering files via a
        serial (modem) link:
        
        Kermit          XMODEM          YMODEM          ZMODEM
        -------         ------          ------          ------
        kermit          sx              sb              sz
        ckermit         xmodem

        If you are trying to transfer a lot of information between
        a Macintosh and an MS-DOS PC, and your Macintosh has an FDHD
        disk drive (also known as a SuperDrive), using Apple File
        Exchange, or any of the various shareware and payware programs
        that allow you to access (or even mount) MS-DOS formatted 3.5"
        HD diskettes, can greatly speed up the transfering process. 
        Apple File Exchange even provides for automatic translation
        of certain types of files. If you are transfering a lot of
        information between a Macintosh and a Unix system, you can
        use the (free) Macintosh program suntar to read 1.44 MB Unix
        tar floppies.

        Note: On most Sun Microsystems' floppy drives, the appropriate
        formatting command is "fdformat -ev /dev/rfd0c". This will
        verify and eject the disk after formatting. Then use tar to 
        copy files to the device /dev/rfd0c.


[3.6] What's the best compression program to use when uploading files
---------------------------------------------------------------------
        to an archive or BBS? Are there any other guidelines I should
        follow?

        Best Compression: (Revised 3/93)
        ---- -----------

        The shareware program StuffIt Lite ($25) (and its commercial
        sibling, StuffIt Deluxe) are generally regarded as providing 
        the best compression performance of the many Macintosh 
        compression utilities. Both programs also sport a fancy
        user-interface. Registered users of StuffIt Lite can upgrade
        to StuffIt Deluxe for $45, which includes many other compression
        tools that are not directly applicable to telecommunications.

        The shareware program Compact Pro ($25) provides similar compression 
        performance to StuffIt Lite and also has a loyal set of users.

        Individual preferences differ, so the editor suggests you try
        using both programs (StuffIt Lite and Compact Pro are available
        for FTP at the various archives sites) and choose the one you 
        like best. Note that StuffIt 1.5.1 and Stuffit Classic are 
        *not* the same as, nor as good as, StuffIt Lite 3.0.

        Posting Macintosh Programs: (Revised 4/93)
        ------- --------- --------
        
        You should use either StuffIt Lite, StuffIt Deluxe, or Compact
        Pro to compress Macintosh files you send to anonymous FTP sites
        and BBS's. Do not post PackIt, Disk Doubler, SuperDisk, Zip,
        or any other type of archive (including self-extracting
        archives -- see below). Stuffit Lite 3.0 and Compact Pro
        have evolved as the standard archive formats for posting
        Macintosh files for good reasons.
 
        Regardless of which archiver you use, PLEASE DO NOT MAKE AN
        AN ARCHIVE YOU ARE POSTING SELF-EXTRACTING! The extra code
        added to the file to make it self-extracting is NOT insignificant
        in size. The convenience of self-extracting archives is not worth
        the space they waste at anonymous-FTP sites and BBS's (where
        literally thousands of compressed files are stored). Self-
        extracting archives are useful in other contexts, but should be
        discouraged as a medium for posting to archives. Also, don't
        rely on the archive maintainer having the time to extract your
        self-extracting post and re-archiving it; these volunteers are
        simply too busy to take on this additional burden.
       
        Before you create your archive, set the Finder label of all
        files you plan to include in the archive to 'None'.
 
        Avoid using strange punctuation marks in filenames that you
        will distribute. Characters such as exclamation points, spaces,
        dollar signs, etc, are legal characters in Macintosh filenames
        but can be difficult to work with on non-Macintosh systems
        (where most Macintosh archives are stored). Since BinHex and
        MacBinary store your original Macintosh filename, removing
        strange characters from a BinHex'd or MacBinary'd file before
        distributing will not affect the original filename. As an
        example, MyFile-215.sit is a perfectly acceptable filename.

        After you have created the archive and named it appropriately,
        BinHex encode it (see [2.3]). Edit the resulting text file
        and include a short description of the archive you want to
        distribute, including any system requirements and problems.
        If you include a signature, limit it to a single line.
        
        Finally, upload the text file (if necessary) and e-mail it
        to [email protected] Your subject line should
        specify a suggested name and location for your submission,
        eg:
        
              To: [email protected]
              Subject: app/myfile-215.sit.hqx

        Mailing your archive to macgifts automatically submits it
        to the InfoMac archives, mac.archive.umich.edu, and the
        Usenet group comp.binaries.mac. 

        Thanks for complying with these guidelines. 


[3.7] How can I use the programs that are posted to comp.binaries.mac?
----------------------------------------------------------------------

        The files posted to comp.binaries.mac are in BinHex 4.0 format.
        Long files are split into several postings that must be
        concatenated IN THE PROPER ORDER (and usually with headers
        and signatures removed) before converting.

        First, read the man page or other documentation for your
        newsreader. A little time spent here can save you a lot of time
        doing repetitive tedious work later. Find out how to save an
        article to a file.

        Next, save all the posted articles for a given program posted to
        comp.binaries.mac to a single file. Don't combine postings that
        are for different programs, but do save multi-part postings to
        the same file, in increasing order of part number. For example,
        if you are using the UNIX newsreaders 'rn', 'trn', or something
        similar:

        *****  15 unread articles in comp.binaries.mac--read now? [=ynq]
         2761 Great Icon Editor (part 1 of 2)
         2762 Great Icon Editor (part 2 of 2)
         2764 Hypercard Resource Tools
         2765 Idea 1.2 (part 01 of 11)
         2766 Idea 1.2 (part 02 of 11)
         2767 Idea 1.2 (part 03 of 11)
         2768 Idea 1.2 (part 04 of 11)
         2769 Idea 1.2 (part 05 of 11)
         2770 Idea 1.2 (part 06 of 11)
         2771 Idea 1.2 (part 07 of 11)
         2772 Idea 1.2 (part 08 of 11)
         2773 Idea 1.2 (part 09 of 11)
         2774 Idea 1.2 (part 10 of 11)
         2775 Idea 1.2 (part 11 of 11)
        What next? [npq] 2761 s iconeditor.hqx
        2761    Saved to mailbox /u/joe/News/iconeditor.hqx
        What next? [npq] 2762 s iconeditor.hqx
        2762    Saved to mailbox /u/joe/News/iconeditor.hqx
        
        At this point, download the file "iconeditor.hqx" (it will be
        automatically placed in your "News" directory) to your Macintosh
        and use a program like StuffIt Expander, DeHqx, HQXer, or Compact
        Pro to convert the .hqx file to a Macintosh file.

        Warning:  The original BinHex utility, BinHex 4.0, has a bug
        that causes it to crash on large or corrupted .hqx files. It
        also requires you to strip mail-headers off of .hqx files before
        decoding.
        
        The Macintosh file you create may in fact be an archive that you
        then need to unarchive with the appropriate program. See the
        list of file suffixes to determine which program(s) to use.

        Note: You can streamline the process by:
        
        --> using the Unix program 'mcvert' or 'hexbin' (see [6.5]) to
            convert the .hqx file to a MacBinary file on your Unix host.
            Since the .hqx file is usually 30% to 40% larger than the
            MacBinary file, this saves download time. These utilities
            are also smart enough to handle stripping headers and
            signatures, although you must still save the postings in the
            proper order.
                                
        --> using one of the many utilities that exist to reorder
            postings automatically before you convert them from
            BinHex

        --> learning enough about your newsreader program to save more
            than one article at once in a particular order

        --> checking out the programs: StuffIt Expander, DeHqx and HQXer
�
================================================================================
[4] Introduction to AppleTalk (and Apple Remote Access)
=======================================================

[4.1] What kind of hardware do I need to set up an LocalTalk network?
---------------------------------------------------------------------

        Be sure you have read section [5] and understand the difference
        between LocalTalk and PhoneNet. Setting up an AppleTalk network
        based on either LocalTalk or PhoneNet requires purchasing a box
        that connects to your Macintosh's serial (printer) port with the
        appropriate mini DIN-8 or DB-9 connector and provides, in the
        case of LocalTalk, two mini DIN-8 connectors for Apple's
        (expensive) multiwire AppleTalk cables, or, in the case of the
        less expensive PhoneNet, two standard RJ11 (modular telephone)
        jacks. Both boxes look similar to Figure 4.1.1.
        
                        +-----------------+
        to/from <------>|                 |
        rest of         |                 |<-------->  to Macintosh or
        network <------>|                 |                 printer
                        +-----------------+

                                Figure 4.1.1

        Computers and printers should be connected serially; that is,
        chain the devices in any convenient order, with either
        a single AppleTalk cable (LocalTalk network) or telephone
        cable (PhoneNet network) connecting neighboring machines.
        Do *not* connect the ends of a LocalTalk or PhoneNet
        network --- this is not a ring (eg: TokenRing) network.

        It should be noted that Apple is "strongly encouraging"
        new AppleTalk networks to be Ethernet-based.


[4.2] How can I change the Chooser "user" and name of my Macintosh?
-------------------------------------------------------------------
      Also: Why can I no longer change the name of my hard-disk?

        To change the owner and name of your Macintosh under System 7,
        select "Controls Panels" from the Apple Menu and double-click
        on the "Sharing Setup" Control Panel.
        
        The Chooser "user" is the "Owner name:". Change it like any
        standard edit field.
        
        The name of your Macintosh is the "Macintosh name:".
        
        Also on this Control Panel is a button to turn File Sharing
        on and off. When File Sharing is on, you cannot change the
        name of shared disks. If you are trying to change the name
        of your hard disk but cannot get the name to turn into an
        edit field, File Sharing is probably on. Use the Sharing
        Setup Control Panel to turn File Sharing off, change your
        hard disk name, and then turn File Sharing back on (unless
        you have no need for it).

        
[4.3] What is Apple Remote Access ?
---------------------------------------

        Apple Remote Access is a software package that allows you 
        to dial-in to an AppleTalk network (or to create an AppleTalk 
        network between two Macintoshes via dial-up modems) from a 
        remote Macintosh. Remote Access requires at minimum:
        
            o   a Macintosh (possibly connected to an AppleTalk
                network) designated as the host with a dedicated
                high speed modem, or a dial-in server with ARA
                support
        
            o   one or more remote Macintoshes with modems
            
            o   a phone line connecting the host Macintosh with
                the remote Macintosh

            o   copies of the Remote Access software running on the
                designated host as well as on all remote machines 
        
        Once configured, connecting the remote machine to the AppleTalk
        network is as simple as clicking a button. Modem control is
        handled automatically (assuming one of the many included modem
        scripts works with your modem; see [4.4]). Passwords and call-
        back facilities are provided.
        
        Once connected, the remote machine can use the AppleTalk
        network normally. One can print remotely, send messages,
        access remote filesystems, monitor network traffic, etc.

        Throughput, even when using 9600 baud modems, will be
        significantly lower than through a LocalTalk or PhoneNet
        connection; however, except for program launching and file
        copies, the added delay is small.
        
        You CAN use slower 2400 baud modems, but you will probably not
        enjoy the experience.


        The University of Melbourne has developed a useful but not
        well known package known as ARNS, or A Remote Network Server.
        ARNS allows remote clients to use network services such as 
        printing and file sharing. The server runs on a UNIX host; 
        clients connect through an IP interface (e.g. MacTCP, CAP).
        With ARNS, it is possible to use a dial-up SL/IP account to
        tunnel into an existing UNIX based AppleTalk network. For more
        information, anonymously FTP to munnari.oz.au, directory mac.


[4.4] Where can I get a Remote Access script for my modem? 
----------------------------------------------------------

        If none of the (many) included modem scripts work with your
        modem, try:
        
            o   searching the InfoMac archives for a script for your
                modem; several scripts have been posted recently
        
	    o   searching the database of Remote Access scripts maintained
		by Apple. Use ARA to dial (512) 908-8118, and log on as
		guest

            o   making a copy of the script that works best with
                your modem (the scripts are in the Extensions Folder
                which is in the Systems Folder), opening it up with
                a text editor, and experimenting; this assumes you
                have a copy of your modem's manual and know the
                basics about the Hayes command set. If you are
                succesful, post your script so others can benefit!


[4.5] How are IP packets transmitted over a LocalTalk network?
---------------------------------------------------------------

	A Mac on a LocalTalk network, if that network only uses the
AppleTalk protocol, does not send and receieve IP packets. Instead,
it uses DDP (AppleTalk) packets. If the Mac is attempting
to use an AppleTalk service (for example, AppleShare file
sharing), then it will speak DDP to the Mac serving as the AppleShare
server, and that server will talk back to the Mac in DDP. All is well;
only one protocol is used.

	If, on the other hand, the LocalTalk-connected Mac wants to
use IP services (for example, telnet or ftp), it must first
encapsulate its IP packets in DDP packets, and then pass those DDP
packets over the network. This encapsulation is done by MacTCP. At some
point these DDP packets must be converted into IP packets (esentially
by stripping off their AppleTalk headers) if they are to be sent over
an IP network such as the Internet. This translation is done by a
DDP-IP gateway (sometimes called a MacIP server). This DDP-IP gatway
is connected on one side to the AppleTalk network (here we use the
term "AppleTalk" because the protocol being used is AppleTalk; the
network may be a LocalTalk network, but need not be), and on the other
side to an IP network (which is eventually connected to the Internet,
we assume). In addition to converting DDP packets into IP packets, the
DDP-IP gateway converts IP packets destined to AppleTalk nodes on its
network into DDP packets. Of course, MacTCP on your Mac must decapsulate
the DDP packet and extract the IP packet, which is then passed to the
IP application (telnet, ftp, etc.) running on your Mac. The process
looks something like this:

	I
	n
	t  IP  -----------   DDP    -------------  IP  ---------------
	e------| DDP-IP  |----------| MacTCP on |------| your IP     |
	r      | Gateway | Apple-   | your Mac  |      | application |
	n      ----------- Talk	    -------------      ---------------
	e		   Network			(telnet, ftp, ...)
	t

	Therefore, to use IP services on a Mac connected to a
LocalTalk network, you must use the MacTCP control panel to select a
link icon which support MacIP service (e.g. LocalTalk, EtherTalk, or
Remote Only). A pop-up menu will be added below the link icon, listing
all the zones on the AppleTalk network to which you are currently attached.
There you choose the zone in which your DDP-IP Gateway resides.
You must also configure the MacTCP IP information your Mac
appropriately. "Appropriately" means that if the DDP-IP gateway assigns
a different IP address each time IP services are requested of it, you 
must select "server" addressing. If the DDP-IP gateway assigns
fixed IP addresses (i.e. each node on the AppleTalk network
has its own permanent IP address) then you should select "manual"
addressing and enter your proper IP address. You must also fill in the
Domain Name Server information as it pertains to your site. Note that
you do not have to bother with setting the default IP gateway or
subnet mask, since your Mac doesn't need to know this; it will be
sending ALL its IP traffic to the DDP-IP gateway; that gateway knows
about IP routes and subnet masks, and it handles the routing of the
packets.

	In summary, the equipment you need in order to get IP services on
your LocalTalk-connected Mac are MacTCP on the Mac and a DDP-IP gateway
(which may be hardware such as a Shiva FastPath, a compatible Cisco
router, or a Cayman Gatorbox).

NOTE: These days, most networked Macs are on an Ethernet network. In
this case, the transport medium is Ethernet, not LocalTalk, and the
AppleTalk packets are encapsulated in Ethernet packets before being
sent out over the Ethernet. Therefore, the DDP-IP gateway takes
Ethernet packets off the Ethernet, extracts the DDP packets,
then extracts the IP Packet, and then sends that IP packet off onto
the Internet. Likewise, the DDP-IP gateway takes IP packets destined
to nodes in its LAN off the Internet, encapsulates them in DDP,
then encapsulates them in the appropriate Ethernet headers, and then 
puts them onto the Ethernet. The DDP-IP gateway can also facilitate
communication between DDP Macs and IP hosts (UNIX workstations, for
example) on the same Ethernet through an analogous conversion process.


[4.6] How can I use Apple Remote Access to access the Internet via my
	Mac at work?
---------------------------------------------------------------------

	First, if you have not read [4.5], then read it now. You must
understand [4.5] in order to understand the answer to this question.

	The Apple Remote Access connection between your Mac at home and
your Mac at work is, in effect, a LocalTalk network; therefore, AppleTalk,
and not IP, is the protocol used over this line. 

	The remote (ARA) Mac is the same as the networked Mac in [4.5]. It
must be running a properly-configured MacTCP as well as the ARA client
software. Your Mac at work is not the same as the Mac in [4.5];
it needs to be running the ARA Personal Server software, but does NOT
need to be running MacTCP, since the packets it will receieve over the
telephone line are DDP packets (with IP encapsulated inside) and it
merely needs to pass these packets on to the DDP-IP gateway. The Chooser
on the remote (ARA) Mac must select the the DDP-IP gateway. The Chooser
on the office Mac does not require any particular setting.

	Once this is done, you will be able to use IP services from
your Mac at home. If you want to receieve IP services for your Mac at
work, simply install MacTCP on that Mac and configure MacTCP as you
configured MacTCP on the Mac at home (this is described in [4.5]).

	The situation here looks something like this:

I
n  IP -----------  DDP ----------------           --------------
t-----| DDP-IP  |------| ARA Personal |    DDP	  | ARA client |
e     | Gateway |  ^   | Server on    |-----------| on Mac at  |
r     -----------  |   | Mac at work  | telephone |   home     |
n		   |    ----------------  line    --------------
e		AppleTalk				| 
t		 network				| DDP
							|
						  ---------------
						  | MacTCP on   |
						  | Mac at home |
						  ---------------
							|
							|  IP
							|
						  ------------------
						  | IP application |
						  | on Mac at home |
						  ------------------
						  (telnet, ftp, ...)

Again, we note that your Mac at work can be connected to an Ethernet
network instead of a LocalTalk network. In this case, your office
Mac's IP packets are encapsulated in DDP and then encpauslated in
Ethernet headers before being sent over the network (and, when receiving,
the opposite takes place). [The office LAN is labeled "AppleTalk network"
in the above diagram.]

	Thus, to connect your Mac at home to the Internet via your
Mac at work, you need the following hardware and software
	o a modem on your Mac at home  (at least 9600 baud modem is
	o a modem on your Mac at work		highly recommended here!)
	o Apple Remote Access client software on your Mac at home
	o Apple Remote Access Personal Server software on your Mac at
		work
	o MacTCP on your Mac at home
	o Your office Mac must be connected to an AppleTalk network
		which contains a DDP-IP gateway, and that gatway
		must have a path to the Internet

�
================================================================================
[5] Networking, MacTCP, Telnet, SL/IP, PPP
==========================================

[5.1] What is MacTCP and what kind of hardware and software do I need to use it?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        
        MacTCP is Apple's implementation of the Defense Advanced Research
        Projects Agency (DARPA) TCP/IP Protocols (see [5.2]). MacTCP's
        software interface is a Control Panel, which means that it loads
        when your Macintosh boots. Under System 6.0.X, MacTCP will reside
        in the System Folder; under System 7.0, it should be placed in
        the Control Panels Folder.
        
        MacTCP accomplishes two important tasks: it is a tool that lets
        programmers who wish to develop TCP/IP based applications do
        so without "reinventing the wheel". By providing a standard
        interface to TCP/IP network hardware, MacTCP also makes it
        possible for more than one TCP/IP based application to run on a
        Macintosh at any one time. For example, you can simultaneously
        use a Telnet program, an FTP program, and share a filesystem
        via NFS when you use MacTCP to provide the interface to your
        TCP/IP network.
        
        The latest version (11/93) of MacTCP is MacTCP 2.0.4. The last
        pre-2.0 version, MacTCP 1.1.1, remains in common use. Both 
        versions require a Macintosh Plus or later CPU, System 6.0.5 
        or better, a direct connection to an Ethernet or TokenRing 
        network (typically a Ethernet or TokenRing card), a SL/IP or 
        PPP dialup connection, or a connection to a LocalTalk network 
        with a DDP-IP router such as a Shiva FastPath, Cayman Gatorbox, 
        Webster Multigate, or Compatible EtherRoute TCP.

        If you are using System 7.1, you should be using MacTCP 2.0.4 or 
        higher, or at the very least 1.1.1.  Note: There are known bugs 
        with 2.0; Apple recommends upgrading. Upgraders for various version
        are available at various FTP sites, including Info-Mac sites
        and seeding.apple.com.

        As indicated above, MacTCP is an Apple product available from
        APDA; product numbers and official names are listed below (8/93).
        Note that MacTCP 2.0 is known by "Connection for Macintosh".

        M8113Z/A    TCP/IP Connection for Macintosh       59.00
        M8114Z/A    TCP/IP Administration for Macintosh  199.00

        Individuals interested in obtaining MacTCP may wish to investigate
        Adam Engst's book, "Internet Starter Kit for Macintosh". Published
        by Hayden and typically selling for $30 (or less), it includes
        MacTCP and other software useful for accessing the Internet from
        your Macintosh. It's ISBN number is 1-56830-064-6.

        Many universities have campus site licenses for MacTCP; your site 
        may also have such an arrangement --- check before buying.  It 
        is also now possible to buy MacTCP from mail-order companies;
        check around, and you may find a better price than APDA.

        Annual site licenses pricing (7/93):  .edu   .com

               1 - 2000 Macintosh CPUs        $1000  $3000
            2001 - 5000                       $1500  $4500
            5000 - unlimited                  $2500  $7500

        For more detailed information regarding setting up a Macintosh
        to connect to a TCP/IP network using MacTCP, see Eric Behr's
        report on MacTCP which is archived at the various FTP sites
        as mac-tcp-info.txt. This report provides a lot of useful
        information for first-time Macintosh networking administrators.


[5.2] What are AppleTalk, LocalTalk, EtherNet, EtherTalk, TCP/IP, etc?
----------------------------------------------------------------------

        When attempting to describe networking terms, a distinction
        should be drawn between networking _protocols_ (such as
        AppleTalk and TCP/IP) and networking _hardware_ (such as
        LocalTalk, Ethernet, and TokenRing). In most cases, a specific
        protocol can be used over more than one hardware medium.

        In order to help understand the interaction of these disparate
        parts in a real-world network, we can adopt the useful analogy
        of multi-layer cake with the physical wire at the very bottom
        and the software which you are running at the very top.

        Thus, we can think of LocalTalk, Ethernet and TokenRing as being
        the layers at the bottom, AppleTalk and TCP/IP in the middle and
        programs like NCSA Telnet, NFS/Share and MacX at the top.


        The following terms describe protocols (software descriptions)
        common to the Macintosh networking world:

        * AppleTalk: A proprietary suite of protocols developed by Apple
        Computer, Inc. that provides for near-transparent network
        connections between Macintosh computers. However, within the
        last few years AppleTalk has been ported to operating systems
        other than the Macintosh OS, including UNIX, VMS and DOS.
        Questions about the AppleTalk protocol are probably best posed
        in the newsgroup comp.protocols.appletalk .

        * TCP/IP: A suite of protocols developed by the Defense Advanced
        Research Projects Agency (DARPA) whose purpose is multi-platform
        connectivity. TCP/IP drivers are available for almost all of the
        computer platforms in use today, including micros, minis, main-
        frames and supercomputers. TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control
        Protocol/Internet Protocol, because these are the two most widely
        used protocols in the suite.  However, TCP/IP includes the User 
        Datagram Protocol (UDP), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP),
        Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) and others.

        * EtherTalk: The driver which allows AppleTalk protocols to be
        transported by Ethernet.
        
        * TokenTalk: The driver which allows AppleTalk protocols to be
        transported over IBM TokenRing networks.


        The following terms describe hardware (the physical link such
        as the wire(s) connecting computers) common to the Macintosh
        networking world:

        * LocalTalk: One type of hardware over which AppleTalk protocols
        can be transported. LocalTalk has a throughput of 230.4 Kilobits
        per second, or roughly a quarter of a Megabit per second.

        * PhoneNet: Another type of hardware commonly used to transport
        AppleTalk packets. PhoneNet mates LocalTalk hardware with
        ordinary (unused) telephone wire. PhoneNet is probably the
        cheapest way to connect widely separated Macintosh computers
        within a single building.
        
        * Ethernet: A network medium over which AppleTalk, TCP/IP and
        other protocols travel, often simultaneously. Ethernet's maximum
        throughput is 10 Mbps. Competing successors offer 100 Mbps.
        
        * TokenRing: A network medium developed (and patented) by IBM
        based on a topology of a ring of nodes connected serially by a
        single cable. Each node, or computer, speaks on the cable only
        when it has posession of a token. TokenRing technology can
        demonstrate throughputs of ranging from 4 to 16 Megabits per 
        second.


[5.3] What is Telnet, and is there a Telnet program for the Macintosh?
----------------------------------------------------------------------

        Telnet is a high speed terminal connection protocol designed
        with TCP/IP in mind. A Telnet program allows you to connect
        to computers that accept Telnet sessions (such as UNIX boxes)
        with interactive full-screen console input and output
        capabilities in mind.

        There are several Telnet programs for the Macintosh. The first
        and most widely used is NCSA Telnet, which is free and can be
        found via anonymous FTP from ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu (as well as
        elsewhere). The latest version is 2.6 and supports TEK 4105
        graphics, provides both an FTP server *and* client, and can do
	session logging. Versions 2.6 and later require MacTCP. That
	version also adds a completely new configuration system.

        Comet, the Cornell Macintosh Terminal Emulator, is a
        Freeware communications program which offers multiple VT102 and
        IBM 3278 emulator Telnet sessions (using MacTCP) as well as
        serial VT102 connections. A TFTP server is provided for TCP/IP
        file transfer; in addition the "ft3270" file transfer protocol
        supports file transfer with IBM VM hosts over Telnet and serial
        connections.  Comet 3.0 supports scrollbars and a ".edit" TextEdit
        window for each session. Comet is available via anonymous FTP from the
        pub/mac/comm/comet/ directory of ftp.cit.cornell.edu.

        Hytelnet is a Telnet program available for various personal
        computers including the Macintosh. The Macintosh version is
        based upon Hypercard 2.x. Contact Charles Burchill at
        <[email protected]> for more information about Hytelnet.

        InterCon Systems has a fully-functional Telnet Connection Tool
        for use with the CTB). InterCon's TCP/Connect II includes 
        Telnet and FTP facilities (and a host of other features).

        Versaterm 4.6.2 ships with a Telnet Connection Tool (in
        addition to MacTCP). However, this tool seems to be intended
        to be used only with Versaterm and does not support all
        Telnet features.

        Advanced Software Concepts distributes 5PM with MacTCP, a
        Telnet Connection Tool and a FTP server. 5PM includes a
        HyperTalk-like scripting engine and allows the user to create
        "palettes" which are similar to HyperCard cards.

        Stanford University Networking Systems has distributed a package
        known as SU-Mac/IP that includes Telnet, FTP, tn3270, printing
        facilities and other MacTCP based capabilities. The package
        can be licensed *ONLY* by "degree-granting institutions of
        higher education". For information, either send e-mail to
        [email protected] or call [USA] (415) 723-3909.
        

[5.4] Is there a FTP (client/server) program for the Macintosh?
---------------------------------------------------------------

        Yes, you can choose from freeware, shareware and payware
        varieties:
        
        * NCSATelnet (see [5.3]) includes both FTP client and server
        capabilities.
        
        * Fetch 2.1.1 (from Dartmouth) is a free FTP client application
        for educational institutions. Otherwise, it requires a license.
        Fetch provides a more intuitive interface than the conventional
        text-based mechanism.

        * FTPd, $10, by Peter Lewis <[email protected]>, is a
        high-quality shareware FTP server with many features:

          o Multiple simultaneous users.
          o Uses System 7 Users & Groups to define users and passwords
          o Supports BinHex and MacBinary transfers, including the MACB 
            command.
          o Allows login to other AppleShare servers on the local
            network.
          o Allows different formats of a file to be fetched.
          o Pattern matching in change directory command.
          o Individual initial directory for any user.
          o FTP site descriptions sent after login.
          o Directory descriptions sent after CD command.
          o Supports the CatSearch feature to allow very fast volume
            wide searches.

        * HyperFTP, a Hypercard-based FTP client.

        * XferIt, by Steve Falkenburg, a shareware FTP client.
        
        * Versaterm 4.6.2 also ships with an FTP CTB Tool.

        * Advanced Software Concepts sells FTPShare, a commercial FTP
          server product and has posted a demo to InfoMac. Main features
          (according to authors) are:

        	o Operates very similar to System 7 FileSharing.
        	o Also works under System 6.
        	o Quite fast.

	* Pathway Access Macintosh from The Wollongong Group, Inc. offers
	  both FTP client and FTP server, with a graphical user interface
	  for both. The product also includes a large suite of terminal
	  emulations for telnet connections, a script compiler, and a print
	  server.
        
[5.5] What are SL/IP, CSL/IP and PPP?
-------------------------------------

        SL/IP stands for Serial Line Internet Protocol.  SL/IP is a
        "non-standard" for framing IP packets and shipping them over
        a serial line (e.g. a cable, or a pair of modems), thus
        allowing a home machine to dial up and become part of the
        Internet. Effectively, SL/IP turns a serial port into a logical
        ethernet port.

        Many workstations and terminal servers can support SL/IP. On
        the Macintosh side, several vendors offer SL/IP modules for
        MacTCP. (These vendors and products are summarized below).
        Macintosh software which communicates with the outside world
        via MacTCP will continue to work over SL/IP, albeit somewhat
        more slowly due to the relatively low bandwidth of modem
        connections.

        CSL/IP stands for Compressed SL/IP.  CSL/IP reduces the size of
        the headers in IP packets by eliminating a certain amount of
        redundancy.  This improves interactive performance.

        PPP stands for Point-to-Point Protocol.  PPP can support both
        synchronous and asynchronous connections and protocols that
        are not IP-based (such as AppleTalk). It provides specifications 
        for error detection, feature negotiation, escaping control 
        characters, etc.  PPP is becoming more and more popular, 
        especially as MacPPP, a MacTCP extension available via anonymous 
        FTP from merit.edu in pub/ppp, has matured into a stable and 
        viable alternative to the various available MacTCP SL/IP LAPs.
        Although SL/IP continues to be more prevalent than PPP, PPP will
        become more prevalent in the future. For more information on PPP,
        consult the FAQ for the newsgroup comp.protocols.ppp.

        Recently, several vendors have provided SL/IP LAPs for MacTCP.
        What is a "MacTCP SL/IP LAP"? To quote Steve Dorner, "It's an
        extension that allows MacTCP to work over a phone line, allowing
        you to use any MacTCP application over your modem, if you have
        the right dialins." LAP stands for Link Access Protocol. You
        choose the LAP you want to use via the MacTCP Control Panel.

        Currently, the following SL/IP products for the Macintosh are
        readily available:      
                
           o MacSLIP from Hyde Park Software is a MacTCP extension that
             supports SL/IP and CSL/IP and a scripting language for
             session. Individual copies sell for $49.95.
                
             Contact: [email protected], [USA] (800) 531-5170. Sales
             and support are handled by TriSoft.

             Reports of transfer rates as high as 1500 bytes/sec have
             been posted to comp.sys.mac.comm by users of MacSLIP on
             V.42bis 9600 baud modems. Transfer rates as high as 3 KB/sec
             are possible through a 38400 baud connection.
             
           o InterCon Systems is shipping a MacTCP extension with their
             networking product (TCP/Connect II), and as a separate
             package (InterSLIP).

             HOWEVER, InterCon has graciously made InterSLIP available
             to Internet users for FREE. You can FTP InterSLIP from
             ftp.intercon.com in InterCon/sales. 
             
             Demonstration versions of various InterCon products are also
             available at this FTP address.
 
             Contact: [email protected], [USA] (703) 709 9890
        
           o Synergy Software offers a CSL/IP MacTCP extension with
             its Versaterm/Versaterm-PRO packages. If you already own
             Versaterm, SL/IP is a $20 upgrade. If you buy the complete
             Versaterm 4.6.2 package (about $90), you will also get an
             FTP server and client, a Telnet connection tool, and MacTCP.
             Performance is comparable to that of MacSLIP.

             Contact: [USA] (215) 779 0522

           o If you are only interested in Telnet and FTP capability,
             you may want to examine NCSA Telnet (see [5.3]).

        For a review of Macintosh SL/IP products, see the November 16, 1992
        issue of "Open Systems Today". Benchmarks are included.

        Note: If you are using MacTCP over a dialup SL/IP or PPP link, 
        MacTCP 2.0.4 or later is recommended. Previous versions have 
        an annoying retransmission problem that can slow down serial
        connections. If you must use v1.1.1, get the MacTCP-Patch
        program; it's available as mac/misc/update/mactcppatch.cpt.hqx
        at mac.archive.umich.edu.


[5.6] How does MacTCP resolve names into IP addresses?
------------------------------------------------------

        If you are having problems configuring MacTCP to use dynamic
        Domain Name Service entries, the following empirical description
        of the behavoir of MacTCP's name resolution protocol may be
        useful.

        The description assumes some familiarity with IP addressing.


        Step 1.  Expand the target name.

        If the target name contains a ".", the target name is the expanded 
        target name.  Otherwise, prepend the name to the domain marked with 
        the  "Default" button in the MacTCP control panel.  The 
        concatenation of the name and this domain becomes the expanded 
        target name.  Proceed to Step 2.

        Examples:
              Assume "slcs.slb.com" is the default domain for MacTCP.

              "valhalla" expands to "valhalla.slcs.slb.com".
              "cayman.com" expands to "cayman.com".
              "apple."  expands to "apple."


        Step 2.  Check the Hosts file in the System Folder of this Macintosh.

        If there is an exact match between the expanded target name from 
        Step 1 and a name in the Hosts file, the corresponding IP address 
        from the first such match in the Hosts file is the target IP address;
        otherwise proceed to Step 3.  Trailing "." characters on either the
        expanded target name or Hosts file name are ignored for this test.

        Examples:
              Assume "slcs.slb.com" is the default domain for MacTCP.

              "linus" expands and matches "linus.slcs.slb.com" in Hosts.
              "apple." matches "apple" in Hosts.
              "apple" expands and does *not* match "apple" in Hosts.


        Step 3.  Find the domains that contain the expanded name.

        Search through the domains from the MacTCP control panel entries, 
        and build a list of the domains that contain the expanded target 
        name.  A domain contains the expanded target name if the domain is 
        a final string of the expanded target name.  A "." by itself in the 
        MacTCP control panel is a domain containing any expanded target 
        name.  The default domain is always added as the last domain of 
        the list, whether it contains the expanded target name or not.  
        Proceed to Step 4.

        Examples:
              Assume "slcs.slb.com" is the default domain for MacTCP.

              "valhalla" is expanded and contained in domain "slcs.slb.com".
              "apple." is *not* contained in domain "slcs.slb.com".
              "apple" is expanded and contained in domain "slb.com".
              "anyhost" is contained in domain ".".


        Step 4.  Consult the name servers of the containing domains.

        Consult the Domain Name Servers, in the order found, based on the 
        corresponding IP addresses from their entries in the MacTCP control
        panel.  The servers are given the expanded target name to translate.  
        If a MacTCP is unable to contact a server, or if the server returns
        a non-authoritative negative reply, the next server in line is tried.
        Otherwise, the result from the server just contacted, either a 
        successful translation, or an authoritative "unable to resolve", is
        the final result.

�
================================================================================
[6] MacX and Other Ways to Interface With UNIX
==============================================

[6.1] Can I run X-Windows on my Mac?
------------------------------------

        Yes. For Macintosh OS users (not using A/UX), two possibilities
        exist.

        MacX is an X-Windows server for the Macintosh, developed by
        Apple. With MacX running, your Macintosh can serve as a display
        server for any X-Windows client program (such as xterm, xbiff,
        etc). The client programs must be running on a separate
        machine running UNIX (unless you are also running A/UX, Apple's
        brand of UNIX for the Macintosh).
        
        MacX's technical capabilities, as described by Alan Mimms
        in "X for the rest of us" (2/91) and paraphrased in the FAQ
        for comp.windows.x are as follows:
        
          MacX runs on MacPlus or newer machines with >= 2MB of memory
          and system software 6.0.4 or later. Version 1.1 is fully
          X11R4-based. It supports full ICCCM-compatible cut and paste
          of text AND graphics between the Macintosh and X11 worlds,
          the SHAPE extension (including SHAPEd windows on the Macintosh
          desktop), an optional built-in ICCCM-compliant window manager,
          X11R4 fonts and colors, a built-in BDF font compiler, and
          built-in standard colormaps. 
        
        To connect your Macintosh to a network of machines capable of
        running X-Windows clients, MacX uses MacTCP. For the best
        performance, you will want to access this network through
        LocalTalk or normal Ethernet. However, it is also possible
        to make the connection over a high-speed modem and use MacX
        to run X-Windows clients on remote machines; you will need
        a SL/IP LAP module for MacTCP to do this --- see [6.2] for the
        details.
        
        MacX can be purchased from official Apple retailers, such as
        most university campus stores, for about $300 (less if you
        qualify for an educational discount). MacX is also bundled
        with A/UX 3.0.x.

        The FAQ for comp.windows.x also describes another product,
        eXodus, as follows:
        
          eXodus from White Pine Software (603-886-9050) runs on any
          Mac with at least 1MB of memory and runs the X server within
          a standard Macintosh window.  Version 3.0 [6/91] supports
          intermixing of X and Mac windows and the ADSP protocol. The
          version supports the SHAPE extension and includes DECwindows
          support.

        For information regarding using MacX with A/UX, see the FAQ
        for comp.unix.aux and/or ask questions in that newsgroup,
        and/or investigate wuarchive.wustle.edu:/systems/aux/X11R5.
        You _can_ run X11R5 directly under A/UX 3.0.x, which provides
        significantly better performance.


[6.2] How can I run MacX over a modem? Is it feasible?
------------------------------------------------------

        Now that several SL/IP LAP modules for MacTCP are available,
        it is possible to run MacX over a modem. You are advised that
        performance will be significantly poorer than you may be
        expecting, especially if you are not using a high-speed modem
        (eg: 9600 baud or higher with compression and/or error-
        detection). With high-speed modems, using MacX to bring up
        xterms and other text-oriented clients is usable; however,
        any sort of graphics-intensive program (eg: xdvi) is going
        to require some patience (but should be bearable).
        
        Thus, in addition to MacX, to be able run MacX over a modem
        you need:
        
                1. A modem. A high-speed modem with v.32bis and v.42bis
                   is *STRONGLY* recommended.
                2. A terminal-server at your site that offers dial-up
                   SL/IP or PPP connections. You'll have to ask your
                   site or system administrator about this one. 
                3. A SL/IP (or CSL/IP) or PPP LAP module for MacTCP. 
                   See [5.5] for details on such products.

        If you are specifically interested in just having multiple
        connections to a UNIX box that you connect to over a modem,
        other options include using a Telnet program with SL/IP (see
        [5.3]), or MacLayers or UW [which do not need SL/IP] (see [6.3],
        [6.4]).


[6.3] What is MacLayers and what do I need to use it?
-----------------------------------------------------

        MacLayers allows you to logon to a UNIX host and open more than
        one window over a single (serial) connection. Each window
        can correspond to a (login) shell or program running on your
        choice of host(s). Up to seven full-screen resizable VT-100
        windows are allowed.
        
        In addition, MacLayers provides a primitive (but useful
        anyway) mechanism to download binary files "in the background",
        allowing you to work in other windows while you download.
        No upload facility (except for text pasting) is provided.
        At this time, MacLayers does not support the CTB. However,
        it is freely distributable (but may not be sold).

        MacLayers requires:
        
                1. A UNIX host which supports sockets.
                2. A Macintosh with 128 KB ROMs or larger.
                   MacLayers does not work with the old 64 KB ROM
                   machines. (You need a MacPlus or better).

        MacLayers comes in two parts: a program you run on your
        Macintosh and a set of C source files that you compile
        on your UNIX host (a Makefile is provided). When you login
        to your host while running MacLayers on your Macintosh, you
        simply run one of the UNIX-side programs to start up the
        windowing system (similar to running a windowing-environment
        like X-Windows at the console, except that everything is
        character based -- no graphics).

        MacLayers is currently at version 1.30. The author is working 
        hard to improve MacLayers; current plans include better terminal
        emulation, faster downloading, uploading, and more!

        Please send all electronic correspondence regarding MacLayers
        to the address [email protected]  The
        latest version of MacLayers is available via anonymous FTP
        from rascal.ics.utexas.edu in mac/communications/MacLayers.

        You are STRONGLY encouraged to upgrade to the latest version.
        The most common response to requests for features and bug
        reports is: "Get the latest version from rascal."


[6.4] What are UW and MultiSession? Are there other programs like MacLayers?
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

        Editorial Comment: One should note that the editor of this FAQ and
        the current author of MacLayers are one in the same. This may or
        may not introduce an unavoidable bias into the following comments:

        * UW (short for UNIX Windows) is a program similar in style and
        intent to MacLayers (see [6.3]) --- that is, it provides a
        multi-window interface to a UNIX hosts. UW has been around a
        lot longer than MacLayers but, as far as I know, hasn't been
        updated in quite a long time. It offers most of the same
        features as MacLayers, but no facility for downloading
        is provided. UW does have the advantage of working with the
        older 64 KB ROM machines, but in general, MacLayers is the
        superior program.

        * MultiSession is a recently released program with similar goals.
        It includes error-correction in its Macintosh-to-UNIX protocol,
        but this makes it quite sluggish. As of this writing (6/93),
        the UNIX side of MultiSession runs properly only under ULTRIX.
        For more information on MultiSession, please see its documentation
        or contact the author; please do not send e-mail to the editor.
        MultiSession's author is Thomas R. Lawrence ([email protected]).


[6.5] Is there a UNIX program that will convert between BinHex and MacBinary?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

        Yes, there are at least two that will handle BinHex 4.0, MacBinary,
        and other conversions. macutil and mcvert are distributed as
        UNIX shar archvies and can be found in the unix directory at
        InfoMac sites. Source code is included (of course) so you will
        need a C compiler to build the programs:

    * macutil
        
          macutil is a collection of utilities for manipulating Macintosh
          files in MacBinary [see 2.2] or BinHex [see 2.3] format, or over
          AppleDouble, AUFS, or CAP servers.
          
          As of (8/92), macutil includes three programs:
          
                o hexbin - a program to convert BinHex 4.0 to MacBinary;
                  it also converts uuencode (and UULite) files to their
                  native binary format; support for .dl, .hex, and .hcx
                  formats (all predecessors of BinHex 4.0) also exists
                          
                o macsave - a MacBinary filter program to convert
                  between various MacBinary representations, including
                  a single .bin file, three separate .data, .rsrc, .info
                  files, and AUFS format. macsave also allows one to
                  "peek" inside MacBinary files

                o macunpack - a program to unpack PackIt, StuffIt,
                  Diamond, Compactor/Compact Pro, most StuffIt Classic
                  and StuffIt Deluxe, DiskDoubler, Zoom and LHarc/MacLHa
                  archives.

                  It also decodes BinHex 5.0, MacBinary, uuencode, and
                  UNIX compress (ie: .Z suffix) files (as well as variants
                  of compress implemented by various Macintosh compress
                  programs).

                  Support for password protected and/or multi-segment
                  archives of various types is minimal or non-existent.

        The various authors of the macutil utilities are too numerous
        to list here; consult the README files that come with the package
        for the details.

    * mcvert
        
          mcvert allows you to convert BinHex files to MacBinary files
          and vice versa. In addition, you can create MacBinary files
          with empty resource forks from normal files, as well as perform
          other transformations. mcvert can also decode PackIt
          archives.

          mcvert was originally written in 1987 by Doug Moore, but is
          now maintained by Joseph Skudlarek, [email protected],
          who has fixed added many new features and made mcvert easier
          to use. The latest version of mcvert is available at InfoMac 
          sites.

     * xbin

          xbin is an old program, similar to a primitive version of mcvert.
          It converts BinHex files into a set of three files which model
          the data, resource, and info forks of a Macintosh file; recall
          that all of this information is contained in a single MacBinary
          file (see [2.2]). Unless you have software that can reconstruct
          a MacBinary file from these three separate files (mcvert will
          do this), xbin will be pretty useless.

          xbin is pretty dead on UNIX platforms, but VMS folk continue to
          use it because, unlike mcvert of the macutil pacakge, xbin
          compiles under VMS.


[6.6] How can I create LaserWriter PostScript printer files and print them 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
        on a PostScript printer connected to a UNIX network?

        If you are running System 7.x or later, make sure you using
        the LaserWriter 8.0 driver set (or something more recent,
        such as 8.1.1). You can FTP these Extensions from Apple at
        ftp.apple.com. Select Print from your application and
        check the option entitled 'Disk File' or 'Print to Disk'.
        Then click on Options and configure things to create a minimal
        PostScript file by unchecking all boxes. Do not include
        any extra fonts. Now, "print" the file.

        If you are running System 7, you will be prompted to select
        the destination folder and name for the PostScript file.
        Otherwise, it will be named "PostScript' (or 'PostScript#'
        where '#' is a digit) and placed either in the System folder,
        the application's current folder, or the root folder on the
        startup disk. You may rename the file.

        Upload (or otherwise transfer) the PostScript file to your
        UNIX system, treating it as a text file, unless you are
        including graphics or fonts in your output (in which case you
        should be safe and take the extra steps and treat the file as
        an eight-bit binary file).
        
        Note: If you are a pre-System 7 user or cannot upgrade to the
        latest LaserWriter drivers, you are encouraged to read the file 
        tips/generating-postscript at InfoMac archives. Also check
        out the program 'Trimmer'.

        Note: If you are trying (vainly) to use Macintosh PostScript
        files as figures using the psfig macro under Tex or LaTeX,
        get the mactotex package from the University of Michigan's
        archive site in util/unix. This utility makes importing
        Macintosh PostScript files into (La)TeX painless; it also
        includes a useful 'cleanps' utility, that strips Macintosh
        PostScript files of unneeded parts.

[6.7] What is the Columbia AppleTalk Package (CAP)?
---------------------------------------------------

The Columbia AppleTalk Package allows supported UNIX machines to speak
AppleTalk, the built-in networking language every Macintosh running
the MacOS understands. CAP provides an AppleShare 2.0 compatible file
server (aufs) for sharing UNIX disks with Macintosh computers, a
LaserWriter spooler (lwsrv) for spooling Macintosh print-jobs and
a printing program (papif) for printing Macintosh files on ethernet-
accessible LaserPrinters. Many other contributed programs are also
available. Using CAP, UNIX disks and printers can be made accessible 
via the Chooser.

CAP is free and in common use wherever large AppleTalk and UNIX
networks converge. For more information, consult the documentation at
one of the following FTP sites:

rutgers.edu            src/{cap60.tar.Z,cap60.patches/*}
munnari.oz.au          mac/{cap60.tar.Z,cap.patches/*}
gatekeeper.dec.com     pub/net/appletalk/cap/{cap60.tar.Z,cap.patches/*}
ftp.kuis.kyoto-u.ac.jp net/cap/{cap60.tar.Z,cap60.patches/*.Z}
src.doc.ic.ac.uk       mac/multigate/{cap60.tar.Z,cap.patches/*}

An alternative to CAP that offers higher performance but is not currently
compatible with as many UNIX platforms is netatalk, available via FTP
from terminator.rs.itd.umich.edu. 

[6.8] How can I use the UNIX NFS file sharing protocol on my Mac?
-----------------------------------------------------------------

NFS, the Network File System, is the file sharing protocol used by many
UNIX workstations. You can access files stored on UNIX file servers
which are running an NFS server by using an NFS client on your Mac.
You must be connected to an IP network and be using MacTCP to use NFS on
your Mac. Two Mac NFS client programs (both are commercial products; no
shareware Mac NFS client currently exists) are

* NFS/Share(TM) from Intercon Software
	* Simple to use -- files from the remote systems take on the
	  format of the Mac documents you always use. There are no new
	  operating procedures or software systems to learn. Certain
	  text files, such as UNIX, are accessible from any Macintosh
	  editor or word processor.
	* Macintosh resident -- Once you have the physical link to the
	  network and NFS/Share, you need nothing other than access to
	  NFS servers on the network. NFS/Share works with Macintosh
	  computers and is completely System 7.0 compatible
  	* Access multiple remote machine easily -- Just go through Apple's
	  Chooser and you are there. A list of available servers on remote
	  systems appears in a pop-up window. You can access remote
	  machines at the same time, and, just like your hard drive,
	  they appear as icons on your dektop
	* Apple standard -- NFS/Share uses Apple's defined standards
	  (AppleSingle or AppleDouble) for representing files for foreign
	  file systems
	* Simultaneous access -- Multiple users can easily access the
	  same infomation at the same time without the need for different
	  mounting points.
 	* Security maintained -- User authentication done through Sun
	  Microsystem's NIS (Yellow Pages), PCNFSD, or BWNFSD. Each user
	  is presented with lists of access or mounting points automatically.

* PathWay Client NFS from The Wollongong Group
	* High-performance NFS client designed for Macintosh computers
	  using either System 6 or System 7.
	* Utilizing the NFS protocol, PathWay Client NFS users can share
	  files and use applications that reside on local and/or remote
	  systems that have NFS servers.
	* Easily accessed through the chooser to mount NFS server volumes,
	  just like AppleShare.
	* Simple installation via installer script
	* Supports symbolic links
	* Support for browsing NFS servers and remote printers
	* Supports PCNFSD 2.0 for user authentication, and multiple GIDs
	  are supported
	* Supports LOCKD and BWNFSD for file sharing and record locking
	* User-definable file permissions
	* Ability to mount multiple NFS volumes at boot time
	* Displays RPC information such as mount points, server daemons, etc.
	* Ability to function as a print server
	* Includes MacTCP and SNMP agent
	* Supports non-default authenatication daemons

[Note: The above information was taken directly from sales information
provided by the two companies.]
�
================================================================================
[7] Sending and receiving Mail and Usenet News with your Macintosh
==================================================================

[7.1] How can I send/receive Internet mail with my Macintosh?
-------------------------------------------------------------

        There are a variety of ways to do this depending primarily
        on how you connect your Macintosh to the rest of the world.
        The most popular and practical methods are summarized below:

        Note: Methods of sending and receiving e-mail that are specific
              to A/UX are not discussed; see the FAQ for comp.unix.aux.
        
        * UUCP
        
        Perhaps the most practical way to interact with Usenet for most
        is to use UUCP (Unix-to-Unix-Copy). UUCP is a protocol originally 
        intended to be used to transfer files between Unix machines over
        telephone lines. Various UUCP programs exist for the Macintosh,
        from freeware to shareware to payware. In addition to the UUCP
        software, you must find a host machine connected to the Internet
        (or equivalent) that is willing to send and receive your e-mail
        (and news, if you wish [see 7.2]). There are commercial
        services that provide this capability in various regions of
        the country; check the newsgroup alt.bbs.internet for more
        information. Once you have identified and arranged to receive
        and send e-mail from such a service, you need to register your 
        site with a unique name in the UUCP maps.
        
        -> Mac/gnuucp is a port of the GNU UUCP sources to the Macintosh.
        Sources are included. The interface uses the standard Think C
        command-line substitute. A Hypercard mail reader is provided.
        Usable, but not recommended if you intend on transfering a lot
        of files.

        -> UUPC 3.0 is a substantially better freeware implementation of
        the UUCP protocol for the Macintosh. UUPC 3.0 includes support
        for various flavors of UUCP that provide better performance
        with high-speed error-correcting modems. Full source code
        is provided. UUPC 3.0 was implemented by a coalition of
        programmers led by Dave Platt. Thanks!

        -> uAccess, a payware product (about $300) from Ice
        Engineering supports the CTB and can be used to send and
        receive both e-mail and news postings via a UUCP link.
        See [7.2] for more information.


        * MacTCP: SMTP, POP
        
        SMTP (Simple-Mail-Transfer-Protocol) and POP (Post-Office-
        Protocol) are two protocols for transfering electronic mail
        between machines that have a TCP/IP interface or equivalent.
        Usually, on the Macintosh, such an interface is provided via
        MacTCP and/or the Communications Toolbox.
        
        -> Eudora is perhaps the best written and most popular e-mail
        program available for the Macintosh. Eudora is a complete and
        versatile e-mail package which can send e-mail via SMTP (either
        through the CTB or a serial connection) and receive e-mail via
        a POP server. It can even be used with UUPC 3.0 (as a mail
        reader and message generator, not a transport agent). Eudora
        can also be used to transfer arbitrary Macintosh files between
        computers through its BinHex 4.0 attachment features. Many
        accolades go to the author, Steve Dorner. Free and commercial 
        versions of Eudora exist: (1/94)

        Eudora 1.3.1 (free) -- last version to work under System 6 & 7
        Eudora 1.4.1 (free) -- System 7 only; expanded feature set 
        Eudora 2.0.1 (pay) --- commercial version; even more features

        You can FTP the free versions of Eudora from ftp.qualcomm.com 
        in mac/eudora. Please send all e-mail inquiries about Eudora
        to [email protected] . Qualcomm has said it will continue
        to release new versions.

        -> LeeMail is a shareware ($25) MacTCP-based SMTP and POP3 mailer for
        the Macintosh. LeeMail allows you to send and receive Internet
        mail directly from your Macintosh --- if you have a fixed IP
        address (manual addressing). Otherwise, if your Macintosh uses
        dynamic addressing to determine its IP address, you can use
        LeeMail to send mail from your Macintosh but should use a
        different Reply-To address. LeeMail supports various enclosures.
        Author: Lee Fyock <[email protected]>

        -> TCP/Connect II, from Intercon Systems, includes support for
        both SMTP and POP based e-mail.


        * Other:

        -> Fernmail, a shareware program ($20), can be used as a stand-
        alone mailer program to read and compose e-mail messages. It can
        also be used to send e-mail between different users of the same
        Macintosh but has no built-in facility to transfer messages
        between machines. It is most useful as a front-end for UUCP
        mailers that lack a sophisticated mail management program.
        Author: Dave Platt <[email protected]>
        
        
[7.2] How can I read/post Usenet news with my Macintosh?
--------------------------------------------------------

        Again, the various options depend primarily on how your
        Macintosh is connected to Usenet. The various ways to
        connect your Macintosh to outside networks are summarized
        elsewhere in this FAQ. What follows is a brief description of
        the more popular software packages, according to connection
        method.

        Note: Methods of sending and receiving news that are specific
              to A/UX are not discussed; see comp.unix.aux instead.

        * UUCP

        -> uAccess, a commercial product (about $300) from Ice
        Engineering (and the product from which uATerm and Termy were
        derived) is a well-designed product that works well enough to
        allow you to use your Macintosh as a Usenet node (if you have
        enough disk space). uAccess supports the CTB and comes with a
        terminal emulator. It was reviewed in the July, 1992 issue of
        _UnixWorld_.

        -> rnMac, a shareware program ($25) written by Roy Wood
        <[email protected]>, is a reasonably spiffy offline newsreader.
        The original intention was for rnMac to work in conjunction with
        UUPC and ToadNews (by John Mah <[email protected]>)
        to allow you to set up a uucp-based Usenet newsfeed on a Mac.
        rnMac is quite stable and full-featured, and even does a passable
        job as a mailer (no match for Eudora, FernMail, etc.).  rnMac,
        ToadNews, UUPC are each available from archive sites such
        as sumex and umich.

        * MacTCP - NNTP
        
        Most (if not all) MacTCP-based newsreaders for the Macintosh
        will require access to a NNTP news server. NNTP (Net News
        Transfer Protocol) is a protocol used to transfer articles
        between a central news server and many client machines over
        TCP/IP or a serial link.
        
        -> NewsWatcher is a free MacTCP-based NNTP news client. It
        supports a graphical "point and click" interface for browsing
        and reading news. The program was featured in Apple's technical
        "d e v e l o p" magazine (#6) with source; you can also FTP the
        source from ftp.apple.com. The application itself is available
        at other archives.
        
        Development versions of NewsWatcher are generally made available 
        for anonymous FTP from ftp.acns.nwu.edu in the directory
        pub/newswatcher.
        Contact: send e-mail to <[email protected]>

        -> Nuntius is a thread-based, MacTCP-based NNTP news reader with
        a graphical Finder-like user interface. It is actively supported
        by its author. One nice feature of Nuntius is its ability to
        automatically extract binaries from selected threads. Nuntius
        is designed to be used with Eudora as its editor and mailer.
        Author: Peter Speck
	More information: there is a mailing list supporting the the Nuntius
		program. Send e-mail to <[email protected]> to distribute
		a message to the list.

        -> InterNews is described as "a Macintosh interface to the world
        of Usenet news". It is a relatively new but well-designed MacTCP-based 
        NNTP client for the Macintosh. Subscriptions, newsgroups, and articles
        are organized and selectable via resizable and configurable panes.
        InterNews is free to users of educational and non-profit organizations;
        it is available for anonymous FTP at ftp.dartmouth.edu:/pub/mac.
        Commercial and government users are asked to purchase a license.

        -> TheNews is a shareware ($25) MacTCP-based NNTP news reader.
        You can respond to articles via a local SMTP server also.
        Author: Bill Cramer <[email protected]>

        -> TCP/Connect II, from Intercon Systems, includes an NNTP based
        news reader, as well as e-mail (and other) facilities.

        -> VersaTerm-Link includes a NNTP based news reader, as well as 
        e-mail facilities.
        
        * Serial - NNTP
                
        --> NetFeed is a NNTP newsreader designed to communicate with
        a NNTP server via modem. It includes an article reader and
        a simple scripting language to facilitate dialing the modem.
        NetFeed is shareware, but the authors seem to only ask for a
        postcard if you use their software.
        Authors: Bill Burns <[email protected]>
                 Brad Boyer <[email protected]>

�
================================================================================
[8] Miscellaneous
=================

[8.1] I don't have FTP --- How can I access the Macintosh FTP archives
----------------------------------------------------------------------
        through e-mail?

        First, look in the Appendix of this FAQ. Descriptions on how
        to access mailservers that mirror the InfoMac archives are
        provided there. Also, the University of Michigan maintains
        an e-mail server for its Macintosh archive; send a message
        to [email protected] with the command "help" in
        the message body for details.

        If you have Gopher access, note that the InfoMac archives at
        sumex-aim.stanford.edu are accessible via Gopher. If your
        Macintosh is connected to the Internet via MacTCP, for example,
        you can use one of the many Macintosh Gopher clients to
        access InfoMac.

        If you have AFS (Andrew File System) access, you can access
        the Macintosh archive at the University of Michigan via your
        UNIX file system: cd /afs/umich.edu/group/itd/archive/mac .
        You may have to ask your AFS/system adminisrator to add 
        umich.edu to the list of mounted AFS sites, however.
        
        For more general help on accessing FTP sites through e-mail,
        send e-mail to [email protected] and include a line
        containing "send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources" in the
        message body. You will be e-mailed instructions on how to use
        FTP sites via e-mail.

[8.2] What aids are available for programmers wishing to write TCP/IP
	      applications for the Macintosh?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

	* PathWay API Developer's Tool Kit Macintosh from The Wollongong
	  Group provides:
		* BSD 4.3 Sockets library
		* Stream (TCP) and datagram (UDP) socket types
		* Blocking and nonblocking socket modes
		* Include files and sample programs for Apple MPW 3.2
		* PathWay API Programming Guide
		* Works on System 6.0.x, 7.0, and 7.1


�
================================================================================
Appendix
========

[A] List of Common File Suffixes and Abbreviations
--------------------------------------------------

        Suffix  Description
        ------- ------------------------------------------------------
        .bin    MacBinary files; see [2.2]
        .cpt    Compact Pro archive files; see [3.6]
        .dd     DiskDoubler archive files; see [3.6]
        .gif    Compuserve Graphics Interchange File (image file)
        .gz     Gnu zip archive file; MacGzip
        .hqx    BinHex files; see [2.3], [3.7]
        .image  Apple DiskCopy disk image file; see [2.5]
        .jpg    JPEG image file, also .jpeg
        .sea    Self-extracting archive files
        .shar   Unix shell archive file 
        .sit    StuffIt archive files; [see 3.6]     
        .uu     UNIX uuencoded files; see [2.3]
        .Z      UNIX 'compress' archive file; MacGZip
        .z      UNIX (gnu zip) 'gzip' archive file; MacGZip
        .zip    MS-DOS PC archive file; ZipIt

        Abbrev-
        iation  Description
        ------- ------------------------------------------------------
        A/UX    Apple Unix
        ADB     Apple Desktop Bus
        AFE     Apple File Exchange
        ARA     Apple Remote Access (was AppleTalk Remote Access)
        bps     bits per second
        CSL/IP  Compressed SL/IP
        csmc    comp.sys.mac.comm
        CTB     Communications Tool Box
        CTS     Clear-To-Send
        DSR     Data-Set-Ready
        DTR     Data-Terminal-Ready
        FTP     File Transfer Protocol
        IP      Internet Protocol
        LAP     Link Acess Protocol
        MNP     Microcom Networking Protocol
        NNTP    Net News Transfer Protocol
        PPP     Point-to-Point Protocol
        RTS     Request-To-Send
        SID     Sound Input Device
        SL/IP   Serial Line Internet Protocol; also seen as SLIP
        TCP     Transmission Control Protocol
        uw      Unix Windows


�
[B] List of Macintosh archive sites available through the Internet
------------------------------------------------------------------

All shareware or freeware programs described in this FAQ are available
from one of the many archives that mirror the InfoMac archives at sumex
and at other Macintosh FTP sites described below.

Of course, since almost all files are distributed in BinHex format,
the first program you need to get hold of is "BinHex 4.0" or better --
one of the programs described in [2.3] that has the capability to
decode BinHex files. If you have FTP access, try to FTP the file
info-mac/util/binhex4.bin from sumex-aim.stanford.edu with 'binary'
mode set (issue the command 'binary' to the FTP server). This file
is a MacBinary version of BinHex 4.0. If you don't have a binary-
capable FTP, or if you forget to use binary, you will get a corrupted
file when you transfer the file to your Mac. Alternatively, you can
FTP a MacBinary version of StuffitExpander from wuarchive.wustl.edu
in /systems/mac/info-mac/util as the binary file stuffit-expander-303.bin.

If you don't have FTP access or binary FTP doesn't seem to work for you,
try to friend who has BinHex 4.0 (or equivalent) on a disk that you can
copy. Or, if you have a Pascal compiler handy, you can download the
Pascal source from sumex and compile it. But your best bet is to ask
around.

Unless otherwise indicated, the following FTP sites are all anonymous
FTP sites available through the Internet. Logon as "anonymous" or "ftp" 
and give your e-mail address as the password. Remember that the use of 
anonymous FTP at these sites is a privelege, not a right, so please act
accordingly. Type 'ls' to get a directory listing. Use the command 'cd'
followed by a directory name to move to a specific directory. USe the
command 'cd ..' to move back "up" to the previous directory. 
Issue the command 'binary' to change to FTP BINARY mode. Give the command
'get' followed by a filename to retrieve a specific file.

Sites are grouped by geographical location. North American users are
strongly encouraged to use the North American sites. Practically
everything found on other continents can also be found somewhere in
North America. Similarly, non-North American users are advised to check
out their local sites first. Ftp.apple.com is the notable exception.


NORTH AMERICA:

** ftp.apple.com **
This FTP site is maintained by Apple. You can FTP System 7, TuneUp,
various Developer Technical Support items (including all the Tech
Notes), QuickTime, and much more. You will need the Apple DiskCopy
program (available online) to make floppy-disk versions of the disk
images.

** mac.archive.umich.edu ** (141.211.32.2)
University of Michigan's Macintosh Public Domain and Shareware Archive.
All files are in the mac directory (mac.bin is a directory useful only
to local University of Michigan users). Has lots of Macintosh files that
don't seem to be available anywhere else (including many that are not
at sumex-aim.stanford.edu). Announcements of recent additions to the 
archives are routinely seen in comp.sys.mac.digest. Read the file 
'/mac/00help/submissions.txt' for details on submitting. The archive
is accessible via AFS (the Andrew File System) which is by far the
best way to access it; see [8.1]. 

** microlib.cc.utexas.edu **
The University of Texas Computation Center maintains a large and useful
Macintosh archive in microlib/mac (Archives for other personal computers
are also available here). Submissions can be e-mailed (in BinHex form)
to [email protected] (which are then rebroadcasted
elsewhere; this is the easiest way to distribute public-domain or
shareware stuff throughout the Internet).

** sumex-aim.stanford.edu ** (36.44.0.6)
Official home of the Info-Mac archives. This site is heavily used and has 
anonymous FTP connections limited during local working hours, so you are 
STRONGLY encouraged to use one of the many sites which mirror the sumex 
archives (such as mac.archive.umich.edu or wuarchive.wustl.edu).  All 
Macintosh files are stored in the directory info-mac in a tree
structure by generic file type. Announcements of recent additions are
posted (daily) to comp.sys.mac.digest. You should read the file in the
help subdirectory called 'posting-guidelines.txt' for details on
submitting files to the archive. This site is also accesible via Gopher.

** wuarchive.wustl.edu ** (128.252.135.4)
Washington University maintains a mirror archive of sumex-aim and also
mac.archive.umich.edu (among others). Look in mirrors/info-mac and
mirrors/archive.umich.edu respectively. This site is also useful for
other reasons and can be mounted via NFS (see the README files in the
top level).


If you don't have FTP access, you can access the sumex-aim InfoMac
archives by using the LISTSERVer at Rice University in Houston, TX.
For example, to retrieve the file util/cpt-expand-10.hqx, send a message
containing the line "$macarch get UTIL/CPT-EXPAND-10.HQX" to
[email protected] UNIX users may also find the following script
useful:

#!/bin/csh -f
# macarch.get
if test $# -ne 1
then
        echo Usage: $0 archive-name-of-file-to-retrieve
        exit 1
fi
echo \$macarch GET   $1 | mail [email protected]

The files HELP/ALL-FILES.TXT, HELP/ACCESSING-FILES.TXT, and other
files in the HELP hierarchy are useful files to try retrieving
initially.


EUROPE:

** ftp.funet.fi ** (128.214.6.100)
The Finnish University and Research network (FUNET) archive site.
Macintosh files are in pub/mac. Read the README file in the top level,
especially if you are FTP-ing "long distance".

** nic.switch.ch ** (130.59.1.40)
The Swiss Academic and Research Network (SWITCH) maintains an info-mac
mirror on nic.switch.ch. Files are in the directory /mirror/info-mac 
and are updated daily.

** src.doc.ic.ac.uk ** (146.169.2.1)
Archive site maintained by UKUUG Software Distribution Service,
Department of Computing, Imperial College, London, UK. Macintosh
files are in directory packages/mac. Mirrors of sumex-aim.stanford.edu
and mac.archive.umich.edu are in mac/sumex and mac/umich respectively.
Some files are compressed using Unix compress (.Z); see the README
file.

** irisa.irisa.fr ** (131.254.254.3)
Archive site maintained by Institut de Recherche en Informatique et
Systemes Aleatoires in Rennes, Brittany, France. This site maintains an
archive of various comp.binaries.* group, including comp.binaries.mac.
Files are in News/comp.binaries.mac. Warning: Files in this directory
are numbered and numerous so avoid asking for a directory listing;
that is, don't type 'ls' or 'dir'. Rather, change to this directory
and download the file 'index' which maps the "Subject:" line to
a number which you can then 'get'. 


If you don't have FTP access, you can access the InfoMac archives
by sending e-mail to the mirror archive kept on [email protected]
Files must be requested by their (14 digit) number, so first send 
a message containing only the line "get macfile listing" for a full 
index, or ask for the most recent additions by sending "index newmac".


AUSTRALIA:

** archie.au ** (139.130.4.6)
AARNet Archive Server, Melbourne, Australia. Macintosh files are
in micros/mac. This site also mirrors sumex-aim.stanford.edu (look in
micros/mac/infomac) and mac.archive.umich.edu (look in micros/mac/umich).


JAPAN:

** utsun.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp ** (133.11.11.11)
University of Tokyo archive site. Macintosh files are in pub/Mac.
This site also mirrors info-mac at sumex-aim.stanford.edu; check
the pub/Mac/info-mac directory.

�
[C] Vendor Information
----------------------

These vendors are either mentioned in this FAQ or provide products
relating to Macintosh networking. Neither the editor of this list
nor any of the contributors necessarily endorse any of the vendors
or their products. The following information is provided for your
convenience only. 

Please bring any errors or additions to the attention of the editor.

Vendor                                  Contact Methods:
--------------------------------------- --------------------------------
About Software Corporation		[USA] (408) 725-4249
					e-mail: [email protected]
					anonymous FTP at ftp.ascus.com

Advanced Software Concepts              e-mail:
                                            [email protected]
                                        anonymous FTP at 192.70.34.153

Alverson Software                       e-mail: [email protected]

Apple Developers Association (APDA)     [USA] (408) 974 4667
                                        e-mail: [email protected]
                                        MacTCP orders and information:
                                        [USA] (800) 282-2732
                                        [USA] (408) 562-3971 {FAX}
                                        [CANADA] (800) 637-0029

Asante					e-mail: [email protected]
					AppleLink: asante.tech
					Anonymous FTP at ftp.asante.com

Carnation Software			[USA] (206) 333-4288
					e-mail: [email protected]
                                        HTML home page (ftp) at ftp.netcom.com
					    in /pub/carnation/HT.Carn.Home.html
Cayman Systems                          [USA] (800) 473 4776
                                        e-mail: [email protected]
                                        e-mail: [email protected]
                                        anonymous FTP at ftp.cayman.com

cc:Mail/Lotus Development               [USA] (800) 448-2500
                                        [Int'l] 011-44-784-455-445
                                        e-mail: [email protected]

Celestin Company			[USA] (800) 835-5514
					[USA] (206) 385-3767
					[FAX] (207) 385-3586
					AOL: Celestin
					CompuServe: 71630,650
					e-mail: [email protected]

Compatible Systems                      [USA] (800) 356 0283
                                        e-mail: [email protected]
                                        anonymous FTP at ftp.compatible.com

Creative Solutions, Inc.		[USA] (800) 367-8465
					[USA] (301) 984-0262
					[FAX] (301) 770-1675
					AppleLink: CSI
					CompuServe: 70240,504
					eWorld: 'CSI Tech'
					e-mail: [email protected]

Dayna Communications			[USA] (801) 269-7200
					[USA] (801) 269-7363 (fax)
					e-mail: [email protected]
					e-mail: [email protected] (customer service)
					e-mail: [email protected]
					AOL: DAYNACOM

Freesoft                                [USA] (412) 846-2700

Global Village                          [USA] (415) 390-8300
                                        e-mail: [email protected]
                                        America Online: GlobalVill
                                        CompuServe: 75300,3473

Hayes                                   [USA] (404) 441-1617
                                        [CANADA] (519) 746-5000
                                        [USA/CANADA] (800) US-HAYES {BBS}
                                        [USA/CANADA] (404) HI-MODEM {BBS}
                                        [UK] 081-848-1858
                                        [UK] 081-569-1774 {BBS}
                                        [HK] 852-887-1037
                                        
ICE Engineering, Inc.                   [USA] (313) 449-8288
                                        e-mail: [email protected]
                                        e-mail: [email protected]

InterCon Systems                        [USA] (800) 468-7266 (sales)
                                        [USA] (703) 709-5500 (sales)
                                        [USA] (703) 709-5520 (tech)
                                        e-mail: [email protected]

Mark/Space Softworks                    [USA] (800) 799-4737 (sales)
                                        [USA] (510) 649-7627 (sales)
                                        [USA] (408) 293-7299 (support)
					[USA] (408) 293-7298 (fax)
                                        [USA] (408) 293-7290 (bbs)
                                        e-mail: [email protected]
                                        America Online: MARKSPACE
                                        AppleLink: MARKSPACE
                                        anonymous ftp at netcom.com:pub/mspace

Mercury System, Inc.                    [USA] (310) 553-0881
                                        [USA[ (310) 553-1291 (fax)

Pacer Software                          [USA] (619) 454-0565
                                        e-mail: [email protected]

QUALCOMM, Incorporated                  [USA] (800) 2-EUDORA
                                        [USA] (619) 587-1121
                                        e-mail: [email protected]
                                        ftp: ftp.qualcomm.com [192.35.156.5]

Seaquest Software                       [USA] (503) 531-0252
					[USA] (503) 629-8442 (fax)
					e-mail: [email protected]
					AppleLink: D0937
					America Online: Seaquest1
					eWorld: Seaquest

Shiva                                   [USA] (800) 458-3550
                                        [USA] (617) 621-0190 {BBS}
                                        e-mail: [email protected]
                                        e-mail: [email protected]
                                        e-mail: [email protected]
                                        anonymous FTP at shiva.com

Smartcom (Hayes)                        [USA] (404) 441-1617
                                        [USA] (800) US-HAYES (BBS)

Software Ventures Corporation           [USA] (510) 644-1325
                                        e-mail: [email protected]

Stalker Software                        [USA] (800) 262 4722 (voice)
                                        [USA] (408) 370 3170 (fax)
                                        [EUROPE] 49 221 442 138

StarNine Technologies                   [USA] (510) 649-4949
                                        [USA] (510) 548-0393 (fax)
                                        e-mail: [email protected]

Synergy Software                        [USA] (215) 779-0522
                                        e-mail: [email protected]

TriSoft (Hyde Park sales/support)       [USA] (800) 531-5170

Webster Computer Corp.                  [AUSTRALIA] 61 3 764 1100

White Pine Software                     [USA] (603) 886-9050 

The Wollongong Group, Inc.		[USA except California] (800) 872-8649
					[California only] (800) 962-8649
					e-mail: [email protected]

ZyXEL                                   [USA] (800) 255-4101
                                        [USA] (714) 693-0808
                                        [USA] (714) 693-0762 (BBS)
                                        [USA] (714) 693-8811 (fax)
                                        [CANADA] (416) 534-1508
                                        [CANADA] (416) 534-1312
�
[D] Contributors
----------------

The editor of this FAQ would like to graciously thank all of the
following individuals who have contributed in some form or another
to the answers provided above, and to the many others not listed
who have nonetheless encouraged and corrected me along the way.

        Dave Alverson                   (ZTerm, Powerbooks)
        Steve Baumgarten                (Versaterm)
        Jack Brindle                    (BinHex, MacBinary)
        Eric Behr                       (MacTCP)
	Jim Browne			(NCSA Telnet)
        Josh Cole                       (Networking, MacTCP, AppleDouble)
        Bill Coleman                    (Smartcom)
	Celeste Dolan			(Question [2.6])
        Steve Dorner                    (Eudora, SL/IP)
        Don Gilbert                     (SL/IP)
        Tom Gewecke                     (European E-Mail, Archives)
        Elliotte Rusty Harold           (General, File Transfer Programs)
        Greg Kilcup                     (MacX, CSL/IP, PPP)
        Andy Y. A. Kuo                  (Networking)
        Peter N. Lewis                   (General, FTPd)
	Ward McFarland			(Macintosh serial port speeds)
        Bill MacGregor                  (MacTCP Name Resolution)
        Leonard Rosenthol               (General, StuffIt)
        Kevin Eric Saunders             (Comet)
        Eric P. Scott                   (General)
        Jon L. Spear                    (General, Baud Etymology)
	Irwin S. Tillman		(IP over Local/EtherTalk, IP over ARA)
        Werner Uhrig                    (Macintosh Expert)
        Rick Watson                     (MacSLIP)

================================================================================