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DHCP FAQ

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                                   DHCP FAQ
                                       
   Author
          John Wobus, [email protected] (corrections welcome)
          
   Date
          3/28/96
          
   This file
          http://web.syr.edu/~jmwobus/comfaqs/dhcp.faq.html
          
Questions

    1. General
         1. What is DHCP?
         2. What is DHCP's purpose?
         3. Who Created It? How Was It Created?
         4. How is it different that BOOTP or RARP?
         5. Why shouldn't clients assign IP numbers without the use of a
            server?
         6. Can DHCP support statically defined addresses?
         7. Can a BOOTP client boot from a DHCP server?
         8. Can a DHCP client boot from a BOOTP server?
         9. Is a DHCP server "supposed to" be able to support a BOOTP
            client?
        10. Is a DHCP client "supposed to" be able to use a BOOTP server?
        11. Can a DHCP client update its DNS entry through DHCP?
        12. Can a DHCP server back up another DHCP server?
        13. When will the server to server protocol be defined?
        14. Is there a DHCP mailing list?
        15. In a subnetted environment, how does the DHCP server discover
            what subnet a request has come from?
        16. Where is DHCP defined?
        17. What other sources of information are available?
        18. Can DHCP support remote access?
        19. Can a client have a home address and still float?
        20. How can I relay DHCP if my router does not support it?
        21. How do I migrate my site from BOOTP to DHCP?
        22. Can you limit which MAC addresses are allowed to roam?
        23. What are the Gotcha's?
    2. Info on Implementations
         1. What features or restrictions can a DHCP server have?
         2. What freeware DHCP servers are available?
         3. What commercial DHCP servers are available?
         4. Which vendors of client software currently support DHCP?
         5. What are the DHCP plans of major client-software vendors?
         6. What Routers forward DHCP requests?
         7. What Routers include DHCP servers?
         8. What Servers forward DHCP requests?
         9. Which implementations support or require the broadcast flag?
        10. How can I run Windows 95 without a DHCP server?
        11. Do any servers limit the MAC addresses that may roam?
        12. What are the Gotcha's specific to various implementations?
            
Answers

    1. General
         1. What is DHCP?
            
            DHCP stands for "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol".
         2. What is DHCP's purpose?
            
            DHCP's purpose is to enable individual computers on an IP
            network to extract their configurations from a server (the
            'DHCP server') or servers, in particular, servers that have
            no exact information about the individual computers until
            they request the information. The overall purpose of this is
            to reduce the work necessary to administer a large IP
            network.
         3. Who Created It? How Was It Created?
            
            DHCP was created by the Dynamic Host Configuration Working
            Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF; a
            volunteer organization which defines protocols for use on the
            Internet). As such, it's definition is recorded in an
            Internet RFC and the Internet Activities Board (IAB) is
            asserting its status as to Internet Standardization. As of
            this writing (March 1996), DHCP is an Internet Proposed
            Standard Protocl and is Elective. BOOTP is an Internet Draft
            Standard Protocol and is Recommended. For more information on
            Internet standardization, see RFC1920 (March 1996).
         4. How is it different that BOOTP or RARP?
            
            DHCP is based on BOOTP and maintains some backward
            compatibility. The main difference is that BOOTP was designed
            for manual pre-configuration of the host information in a
            server database, while DHCP allows for dynamic allocation of
            network addresses and configurations to newly attached hosts.
            Additionally, DHCP allows for recovery and reallocation of
            network addresses through a leasing mechanism.
            
            RARP is a protocol used by Sun and other vendors that allows
            a computer to find out its own IP number, which is one of the
            protocol parameters typically passed to the client system by
            DHCP or BOOTP. RARP doesn't support other parameters and
            using it, a server can only serve a single LAN. DHCP and
            BOOTP are designed so they can be routed.
         5. Why shouldn't clients assign IP numbers without the use of a
            server?
            
            It is theoretically possible for client-machines to find
            addresses to use by picking an address out of the blue and
            broadcasting a request of all the other client machines to
            see if they are using them. Appletalk is designed around this
            idea, and Apple's MacTCP can be configured to do this for IP.
            However, this method of IP address assignment has
            disadvantages.
              1. A computer that needs a permanently-assigned IP number
                 might be turned off and lose its number to a machine
                 coming up. This has problems both for finding services
                 and for security.
              2. A network might be temporarily divided into two
                 non-communicating networks while a network component is
                 not functioning. During this time, two different
                 client-machines might end up claiming the same IP
                 number. When the network comes back, they start
                 malfunctioning.
              3. If such dynamic assignment is to be confined to ranges
                 of IP addresses, then the ranges are configured in each
                 desktop machine rather than being centrally
                 administered. This can lead both to hidden configuration
                 errors and to difficulty in changing the range. Another
                 problem with the use of such ranges is keeping it easy
                 to move a computer from one subnet to another.
         6. Can DHCP support statically defined addresses?
            
            Yes. At least there is nothing in the protocol to preclude
            this and one expects it to be a feature of any DHCP server.
            This is really a server matter and the client should work
            either way. The RFC refers to this as manual allocation.
         7. Can a BOOTP client boot from a DHCP server?
            
            Only if the DHCP server is specifically written to also
            handle BOOTP queries.
         8. Can a DHCP client boot from a BOOTP server?
            
            Only if the DHCP client were specifically written to make use
            of the answer from a BOOTP server. It would presumeably treat
            a BOOTP reply as an unending lease on the IP address.
            
            In particular, the TCP/IP stack included with Windows 95 Does
            not have this capability.
         9. Is a DHCP server "supposed to" be able to support a BOOTP
            client?
            
            The RFC on such interoperability (1541) is clear: "In
            summary, a DHCP server: ... MAY support BOOTP clients,"
            (section 2). The word "MAY" indicates such support, however
            useful, is left as an option.
        10. Is a DHCP client "supposed to" be able to use a BOOTP server?
            
            
            The RFC on such interoperability (1541) is clear: "A DHCP
            client MAY use a reply from a BOOTP server if the
            configuration returned from the BOOTP server is acceptable to
            the DHCP client." (section 3). The word "MAY" indicates such
            support, however useful, is left as an option.
        11. Can a DHCP client update its DNS entry through DHCP?
            
            No. There has been some discussion about adding this ability
            to DHCP.
            
            (Note: as far as I can tell, the DNS needs no protocol update
            since the server already tells the clients how long they can
            use the information they receive; what is really needed is a
            DNS server that can make fuller use of this feature and that
            cooperates with a DHCP server, perhaps through the use of
            some new "DHCP-server-to-DNS-server" protocol).
        12. Can a DHCP server back up another DHCP server?
            
            This is the purpose of the "server to server protocol" (see
            next question). I know of no other way that you can keep a
            "hot" spare server in synch with your production server.
            However, it is possible that some server vendors have
            addressed this issue with their own features.
        13. When will the server to server protocol be defined?
            
            The DHC WG of the IETF is actively investigating the issues
            in inter-server communication. The protocol should be defined
            "soon".
        14. Is there a DHCP mailing list?
            
            There are several:

List                            Purpose
----                            -------
[email protected]            General discussion: a good list for
                                server administrators.
[email protected]          DHCP bakeoffs
[email protected]          Implementations
[email protected]         Server to server protocol
[email protected]           DNS-DHCP issues
[email protected]            DHCP for IPv6

        The lists are run by [email protected] which can be used to
            subscribe and sign off. Archives for the dhcp-v4 list (which
            used to be called the host-conf list) are stored at
            ftp://ftp.bucknell.edu/pub/dhcp/.
        15. In a subnetted environment, how does the DHCP server discover
            what subnet a request has come from?
            
            DHCP client messages are sent to off-net servers by DHCP
            relay agents, which are often a part of an IP router. The
            DHCP relay agent records the subnet from which the message
            was received in the DHCP message header for use by the DHCP
            server.
            
            Note: a DHCP relay agent is the same thing as a BOOTP relay
            agent, and the latter phrase is more commonly used.
        16. Where is DHCP defined?
            
            In Internet RFCs.
            
              RFC1541
                      R. Droms, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol",
                      10/27/1993.
                      
              RFC1534
                      R. Droms, "Interoperation Between DHCP and BOOTP",
                      10/08/1993.
                      
              RFC1533
                      S. Alexander, R. Droms, "DHCP Options and BOOTP
                      Vendor Extensions", 10/08/1993.
                      
        A web site for RFCs is:
            http://ds.internic.net/ds/dspg1intdoc.html
        17. What other sources of information are available?
            
            See the dhcp-v4 mailing list mentioned above as well as its
            archives.
            
              DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
                      http://www.bucknell.edu/~droms/dhcp/
                      
              Problems and Solutions of DHCP: Experiences with DHCP
                      implementation and Operation
                      A. Tominaga, O. Nakamura, F. Teraoka, J. Murai.
                      http://info.isoc.org/HMP/PAPER/127/html/paper.htm
                      l
                      
              DHCP Resources
                      Alan Dobkin.
                      http://NWS.CC.Emory.Edu/WebStaff/Alan/Net-Man/Com
                      puting/DHCP/
                      
              Internet Drafts
                      Internet drafts are works in progress intended to
                      update the current RFCs or specify additional
                      functionality, and sometimes there is one or more
                      draft related to DHCP. All Internet Drafts are
                      available from various sites: the US East Cost site
                      is ftp://ds.internic.net/internet-drafts/; a web
                      site is http://ds.internic.net/ds/dsintdrafts.html.
                      The DHCP-related drafts currently have filenames of
                      the form "draft-ietf-dhc-SOMETHING". These
                      DHCP-related drafts are also stored at
                      ftp://ftp.bucknell.edu/pub/dhcp/, and are
                      available through
                      http://www.bucknell.edu/~droms/dhcp/. I cannot be
                      more specific about the documents because they are
                      by their nature temporary.
                      
        18. Can DHCP support remote access?
            
            PPP has its own non-DHCP way in which communications servers
            can hand clients an IP address called IPCP (IP Control
            Protocol) but doesn't have the same flexibility as DHCP or
            BOOTP in handing out other parameters. Such a communications
            server may support the use of DHCP to acquire the IP
            addresses it gives out. This is sometimes called doing DHCP
            by proxy for the client. I know that Windows NT's remote
            access support does this.
            
            A feature of DHCP under development (DHCPinform) is a method
            by which a DHCP server can supply parameters to a client that
            already has an IP number. With this, a PPP client could get
            its IP number using IPCP, then get the rest of its parameters
            using this feature of DHCP.
            
            SLIP has no standard way in which a server can hand a client
            an IP address, but many communications servers support
            non-standard ways of doing this that can be utilized by
            scripts, etc. Thus, like communications servers supporting
            PPP, such communications servers could also support the use
            of DHCP to acquire the IP addressees to give out.
            
            I am not currently aware of any way in which DHCP can support
            client-computers served solely by PPP or SLIP. Such a
            computer doesn't have the IEEE-style MAC address that DHCP
            requires to act as its key to determining which
            client-computer is which within the same subnet.
            Communications servers that acquire IP numbers for their
            clients via DHCP run into the same roadblock in that they
            have just one MAC address, but need to acquire more than one
            IP address. One way such a communications server can get
            around this problem is through the use of a set of unique
            pseudo-MAC addresses for the purposes of its communications
            with the DHCP server. Another way (used by Shiva) is to use a
            different "client ID type" for your hardware address. Client
            ID type 1 means you're using MAC addresses. However, client
            ID type 0 means an ASCII string.
        19. Can a client have a home address and still float?
            
            There is nothing in the protocol to keep a client that
            already has a leased or permanent IP number from getting
            a(nother) lease on a temporary basis on another subnet (i.e.,
            for that laptop which is almost always in one office, but
            occiasionally is plugged in in a conference room or class
            room). Thus it is left to the server implementation to
            support such a feature. I've heard that Microsoft's NT-based
            server can do it.
        20. How can I relay DHCP if my router does not support it?
            
            A server on a net(subnet) can relay DHCP or BOOTP for that
            net and Windows NT is an example of a server with that
            capability.
        21. How do I migrate my site from BOOTP to DHCP?
            
            I don't have an answer for this, but will offer a little
            discussion. The answer depends a lot on what BOOTP server you
            are using and how you are maintaining it. If you depend
            heavily on BOOTP server software to support your existing
            clients, then the demand to support clients that support DHCP
            but not BOOTP presents you with problems. In general, you are
            faced with the choice:
              1. Find a server that is administered like your BOOTP
                 server only that also serves DHCP. For example, one
                 popular BOOTP server, the CMU server, has been patched
                 so that it will answer DHCP queries.
              2. Run both a DHCP and a BOOTP server. It would be good if
                 I could find out the gotcha's of such a setup.
              3. Adapt your site's administration to one of the available
                 DHCP/BOOTP servers.
              4. Handle the non-BOOTP clients specially, e.g. turn off
                 DHCP and configure them statically: not a good solution,
                 but certainly one that can be done to handle the first
                 few non-BOOTP clients at your site.
        22. Can you limit which MAC addresses are allowed to roam?
            
            Sites may choose to require central pre-configuration for all
            computers that will be able to acquire a dynamic address. A
            DHCP server could be designed to implement such a
            requirement, presumeably as an option to the server
            administerator. See section below on servers that implement
            this.
        23. What are the Gotcha's?
               o A malicious user could make trouble by putting up an
                 unofficial DHCP server.
                    # The immediate problem would be a server passing out
                      numbers already belonging to some computer yielding
                      the potential for two or more "innocent bystander"
                      nodes ending up with the same IP number. Net result
                      is problems using the nodes, possibly intermittent
                      of one or the other is sometimes turned off.
                    # A lot of problems are possible if a renegade server
                      manages to get a client to accept its lease
                      offering, and feeds the client its own version of
                      other booting parameters. One scenario is a client
                      that loads its OS over the network via tftp being
                      directed to a different file (possibly on a
                      different server), thus allowing the perpetrator to
                      take over the client. Given that boot parameters
                      are often made to control many different things
                      about the computers' operation and communication,
                      many other scenarios are just as serious.
             Note that BOOTP has the same vulnerabilities.
               o The "broadcast flag": DHCP includes a way in which
                 client implementations unable to receive a packet with a
                 specific IP address can ask the server or relay agent to
                 use the broadcast IP address in the replies (a "flag"
                 set by the client in the requests). The definition of
                 DHCP states that implementations "should" honor this
                 flag, but it doesn't say they "must". Some Microsoft
                 TCP/IP implementations used this flag, which meant in
                 practical terms, relay agents and servers had to
                 implement it. A number of BOOTP-relay-agent
                 implementations (e.g. in routers) handled DHCP just fine
                 except for the need for this feature, thus they
                 announced new versions stated to handle DHCP.
               o Some of the virtual LAN schemes, i.e., those that use
                 the packet's IP number to decide which "virtual LAN" a
                 client-computer is on for the purposes of TCP/IP, don't
                 work when using DHCP to dynamically assign addresses.
                 DHCP servers and relay agents use their knowledge of
                 what LAN the client-station is on to select the subnet
                 number for the client-station's new IP address whereas
                 such switches use the subnet number sent by the
                 client-station to decide which (virtual) LAN to put the
                 station on.
               o Routers are sometimes configured so that one LAN on one
                 port has multiple network (or subnet) numbers. When the
                 router is relaying requests from such a LAN to the DHCP
                 server, it must pass along as IP number that is
                 associated with one of the network (or subnet) numbers.
                 The only way the DHCP server can allocate addresses on
                 one of the LAN's other network (or subnet) numbers is if
                 the DHCP server is specifically written to have a
                 feature to handle such cases, and it has a configuration
                 describing the situation.
               o The knowledge that a particular IP number is associated
                 with a particular node is often used for various
                 functions. Examples are: for security purposes, for
                 network management, and even for identifying resources.
                 Furthermore, if the DNS's names are going to identify IP
                 numbers, the numbers, the IP numbers have to be stable.
                 Dynamic configuration of the IP numbers undercuts such
                 methods. For this reason, some sites try to keep the
                 continued use of dynamically allocatable IP numbers to a
                 minimum.
               o With two or more servers serving a LAN, clients that are
                 moved around (e.g. mobile clients) can end up with
                 redundant leases. Consider a home site with two DHCP
                 servers, a remote site with DHCP services, and a mobile
                 client. The client first connects to the home site and
                 receives an address from one of the two serves. He/she
                 then travels to the remote site (without releasing the
                 lease at the home site) and attempts to use the acquired
                 address. It is of course NAK'ed and the client receives
                 an address appropriate for the remote site. The client
                 then returns home and tries to use the address from the
                 remote site. It is NAK'ed but now the client broadcasts
                 a DHCPDISCOVER to get a address. The server that holds
                 the previous lease will offer the address back to the
                 client but there is no guarantee that the client will
                 accept that address; consequently, it is possible for
                 the client to acquire an address on the other server and
                 therefore have two leases within the site. The problem
                 can be solved by using only one server per subnet/site
                 and can be mitigated by short lease lengths. But in a
                 very mobile environment, it is possible for these
                 transient servers to consume more than their fair share
                 of addresses.
    2. Info on Implementations
         1. What features or restrictions can a DHCP server have?
            
            While the DHCP server protocol is designed to support dynamic
            management of IP addresses, there is nothing to stop someone
            from implementing a server that uses the DHCP protocol, but
            does not provide that kind of support. In particular, the
            maintainer of a BOOTP server-implementation might find it
            helpful to enhance their BOOTP server to allow DHCP clients
            that cannot speak "BOOTP" to retrieve statically defined
            addresses via DHCP. The following terminology has become
            common to describe three kinds of IP address
            allocation/management. These are independent "features": a
            particular server can offer or not offer any of them:
               o Manual allocation: the server's administrator creates a
                 configuration for the server that includes the MAC
                 address and IP address of each DHCP client that will be
                 able to get an address: functionally equivalent to BOOTP
                 though the protocol is incompatible.
               o Automatic allocation: the server's administrator creates
                 a configuration for the server that includes only IP
                 addresses, which it gives out to clients. An IP address,
                 once associated with a MAC address, is permanently
                 associated with it until the server's administrator
                 intervenes.
               o Dynamic allocation: like automatic allocation except
                 that the server will track leases and give IP addresses
                 whose lease has expired to other DHCP clients.
        
            
            Other features which a DHCP server may or may not have:
               o Support for BOOTP clients.
               o Support for the broadcast bit.
               o Administrator-setable lease times.
               o Administrator-setable lease times on manually allocated
                 addresses.
               o Ability to limit what MAC addresses will be served with
                 dynamic addresses.
               o Allows administrator to configure additional DHCP
                 option-types.
               o Interaction with a DNS server. Note that there are a
                 number of interactions that one might support and that a
                 standard set & method is in the works.
               o Interaction with some other type of name server, e.g.
                 NIS.
               o Allows manual allocation of two or more alternative IP
                 numbers to a single MAC address, whose use depends upon
                 the gateway address through which the request is
                 relayed.
               o Ability to associate two or more dynamic address pools
                 on separate IP networks (or subnets) with a single
                 gateway address. This is the basic support for
                 "secondary nets", e.g. a router that is acting as a
                 BOOTP relay for an interface which has addresses for
                 more than one IP network or subnet.
               o Support for User Class Information option.
               o Support for Vendor Class Information option.
               o Administrator-setable T1/T2 lengths.
               o Interaction with another DHCP server. Note that there
                 are a number of interactions that one might support and
                 that a standard set & method is in the works.
               o Use of PING (ICMP Echo Request) to check an address
                 prior to dynamically allocating it.
               o Server grace period on lease times.
        
            
            Following are some features related not to the functions that
            the server is capable of carrying out, but to the way that it
            is administered.
               o Ability to import files listing manually allocated
                 addresses (as opposed to a system which requires you to
                 type the entire configuration into its own input
                 utility). Even better is the ability to make the server
                 do this via a command that can be used in a script,
                 rdist, rsh, etc.
               o Graphical administration.
               o Central administration of multiple servers.
         2. What freeware DHCP servers are available?
            
            (This is not necessarily a complete list)


950415 Bootp server:
 Bootp 2.4.3 (not DHCP, but with the "DHCP patches" mentioned
 below, can handle DHCP requests)
 ftp://ftp.mc.com/pub/bootp-2.4.3.tar.Z
950425 Bootp server version 2.4.3 with "samba" DHCP patches
 (does manual allocation of IP addresses)
 http://www.sghms.ac.uk/~mpreston/bootp_dhcp.tar.Z
 (within http://www.sghms.ac.uk/~mpreston/tools.htm")
950706 "samba" DHCP patches for bootp server:
 (does manual allocation of IP addresses)
 ftp://nimbus.anu.edu.au:/pub/tridge/samba/contributed/DHCP.patch
 (note: I've heard that the patched server will crash if it receives
  one particular optional packet, the DHCP Release packet)
950711 Patched bootp server supporting DHCP-based "automatic" allocation:
 (gives addresses dynamically, but never takes them away)
 ftp://ftp.ntplx.net/pub/networking/bootp/bootp-DD2.4.3.tar.gz
951219 BOOTP server and patches for DHCP
 ftp://africa.geomic.uni-oldenburg.de/pub/people/joey/dhcp/bootpd/
960112 OS/2 port of BOOTP server with patches for manual DHCP support
 ftp://ftp.leo.org/pub/comp/os/os2/tcpip/systools/bootpd-243-dhcp.zip
960130 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology "Mondo-DB" LAN administration
 project: modified DHCP server planned
 http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~allard/Mondo-DB/index.html
950630 WIDE Project:
 Akihiro Tominaga ([email protected])
 WIDE Project
 Keio Univ.
 Japan
 ftp://sh.wide.ad.jp/WIDE/free-ware/dhcp/dhcp-1.2.1.tar.gz
 Check Archie for dhcp-1.2.1 because lots of sites distribute it.
 Beta version:
 ftp://sh.wide.ad.jp/WIDE/free-ware/dhcp/dhcp-1.3beta.tar.gz
960308 Internet Software Consortium DHCP/BOOTP Server (ISC dhcpd beta 0)
 ftp://www.isc.org/pub/dhcp/DHCPD-BETA-0.tar.gz
 http://www.isc.org/isc
960308 Carnegie Mellon University DHCP/BOOTP server (SunOS, dhcp-3.3.6)
 ftp://ftp.net.cmu.edu/pub/dhcp/dhcp-3.3.6.tar.gz

         3. What commercial DHCP servers are available?
            
            (This is not necessarily a complete list)


950425 Silicon Graphics
950613 NetWare/IP 2.1 will NOT support DHCP but support for enhanced
       bootp will be provided.  I'm guessing this means DHCP-format
       packets, but no address leasing.
950714 FTP Software (Services OnNet Product)
       http://www.ftp.com/mkt_info/services.html
950714 Microsoft Windows NT
       http://www.microsoft.com/NTServer/
       http://www.microsoft.com/BackOffice/techbriefs/tech1000.htm
950714 Hewlett Packard HP-UX
950906 IBM: included in Warp Server which is in beta
951010 Wollongong: included in next release of PathWay for OpenVMS which is in
       beta
951010 TGV: DHCP/BOOTP server will be included in Multinet for VMS v3.5.
       http://www.tgv.com/
951121 TGV(800-848-3440): MultiNet 3.5 for OpenVMS includes DHCP server.
       mailto:[email protected]
       http://www.tgv.com/
951207 IBM: DHCP server included in AIX 4.1.4 server packages.
       Also includes custom DNS server that is "DHCP knowledgeable".
       http://www.ibmlink.ibm.com/(search for DHCP in SalesManual)
951219 Puzzle Systems: WEBserv (NLM(s) that do DHCP, BOOTP, HTTP, and FTP)
       mailto:[email protected]
       http://www.puzzle.com/
951220 ON Technology: IPTrack is a Novell Server-based DHCP/BOOTP server (NLM)
       http://www.on.com/on/onprods/iptrack.html/
951220 Process Software: server for OpenVMS included in TCPware for OpenVMS
       http://www.process.com/
960108 Sun Solstice LAN Management Package (SolarNet)
       http://www.sun.com/cgi-bin/show?sunsoft/Products/Networking-products/pro
ducts/pcadmin.html
       http://www.sun.com/cgi-bin/show?products-n-solutions/sw/solstice/network
/prod_spec_solstice_solarnet.html
960110 Quadritek Systems, Inc. (DHCP server included in next release)
       http://www.qtek.com/qsi-qip.html
960130 Network TeleSystems: Shadow (PC-based)
       http://www.ntsi.com/nts_shadow.html
960130 Digital: RoamAbout Mobile IP Client/Server Network Software V2.0
       http://www.digital.com/info/Customer-Update/940620001.txt.html
960208 Competitive Automation's JOIN (415-321-4006): SunOS4.x, Solaris2.x,
       DECOSF3.x,4.x, HP-UX 9 & 10 DHCP/BOOTP servers.
       http://www.join.com/
960209 Microsoft Windows NT Server
       http://www.microsoft.com/NTServer/
       http://www.microsoft.com/BackOffice/techbriefs/tech1000.htm
       ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/bussys/winnt/winnt-docs/papers/tcpipimp.doc
960312 Nevod Inc. Proxy IP/DHCP Server (PIP) Beta-1.0
       http://www.nevod.com/pip/index.html
960327 Xedia: IP/Assist 1.0 feature for their switches includes DHCP service.
       http://www.xedia.com
960328 Novell: Netware IP 2.2 includes a DHCP server.
       ftp://ftp.novell.com/updates/unixconn/nwip22/nips22.exe

         4. Which vendors of client software currently support DHCP?
            
            (This is not necessarily a complete list)


950417 Shiva: proxy client for remote users (in Lanrovers and Netmodems)
950421 Microsoft: Windows for Workgroups
950425 Sun
950425 Silicon Graphics
950425 Hewlett-Packard
950502 NetManage: Chameleon 4.5
950630 Beame & Whiteside Software: resells Dirk Koeppen EDV-Beratungs-GmbH's
       TCP/IP BOOT-PROM
950705 Microsoft: MS-TCP/IP 3.11a & MS-TCP/IP 3.11b
950711 Microsoft: Windows NT 3.5
950711 Microsoft: Windows for Workgroups 3.11a
950711 Frontier Technologies(800-929-3054): in SuperTCP for Windows
       http:www.frontiertech.com
       [email protected]
950712 Beame & Whiteside(800-720-7151): BW-Connect NFS for DOS & Windows
950725 IBM: a future release of AIX
950728 Sun: PCNFS for Windows
950802 Wollongong: PathWay Access ver 3.2 (Windows)
       http://www.twg.com/
950802 WRQ: Reflection Network Series products (version 5) for Windows
       http://www.wrq.com/
950814 Competitive Automation(415-321-4006): SunOS4.x, Solaris2.x and
       DECOSF3.x,4.x clients
950906 IBM: included in Warp Server which is in beta
950915 Stampede: included in Remote Office Gold
951113 Persoft(800-368-5283): TCP Addition and Portable TCP
       http://www.persoft.com
951207 Dirk Koeppen EDV-Beratungs-GmbH: TCP/IP DHCP Boot ROMs (TCP/IP
       BOOT-PROM) www.dunkel.de/dksoft
951207 IBM: AIX 4.1.4 client and server packages include a DHCP client.
       http://www.ibmlink.ibm.com/(search for DHCP in SalesManual)
951220 Attachmate: IRMA TCP Suite Version 3.1
960130 Digital: RoamAbout Mobile IP Client/Server Network Software V2.0
       http://www.digital.com/info/Customer-Update/940620001.txt.html
960209 FTP Software: OnNet 2.0 (Windows)
       http://www.ftp.com/
960209 FTP Software: PC/TCP 4.0 (DOS)
       http://www.ftp.com/
960305 TGV: will be included in MultiNet for Windows V1.2
       http://www.tgv.com/
960312 Core Systems: Internet-Connect for Windows 95 Version 2.1 has DHCP
       proxy client.
       http://ns1.win.net/~core/Coresys/homepage.html
960312 Novell: I heard a report that they offer a client.
960313 Apple: Open Transport 1.1 included with System 7.5.3 & runs on
       68030, 68040, and PowerPC Macintoshes.
960314 Apple: Open Transport 1.1 shrink wrap version will be offered.

         5. What are the DHCP plans of major client-software vendors?
            
              Apple MacOS
                      MacTCP's successor, Open Transport, supports DHCP.
                      Open Transport 1.1 ships with System 7.5 Update 2.0
                      (which updates MacOS to version 7.5.3, released
                      March 11, 1996) and supports any 68030, 68040, or
                      PowerPC Macintosh. A shrink wrap version of Open
                      Transport is planned.
                      
              Microsoft Windows95
                      supports it and does not support BOOTP. I heard a
                      rumor that BOOTP support will be added.
                      
              Novell LAN Workplace for DOS
                      has plans for client support later in 1995.
                      
              IBM OS/2
                      will support it; I have no news on when or what
                      version.
                      
         6. What Routers forward DHCP requests?
            
            (This is not necessarily a complete list).
            
            Note that in general, these routers probably already had
            BOOTP forwarding, but lacked the support for the BOOTP
            broadcast flag (see "broadcast flag" under What are the
            Gotcha's? above). It is likely that many other routers also
            support BOOTP forwarding.
            
              Cisco
                      (from Cisco FAQ) Routers running GSYS version
                      9.21(4) and 10.0(3) as well as later releases.
                      
              Wellfleet/Bay
                      (from Wellfleet FAQ) DHCP is supported by enabling
                      BOOTP support (with transmission and/or reception
                      as needed).
                      
              3Com Netbuilder
                      Version 7.2 software can support DHCP relaying
                      through the use of its generic UDP Helper service.
                      Version 8.0 and later officially supports DHCP.
                      
              Xyplex
                      Version 5.5 of their routing software supports
                      DHCP.
                      
              ALANTEC
                      The switches' "router" function has have been
                      handling BOOTP forwarding since around 1993.
                      Support for the broadcast flag introduced in a
                      maintenance release of 2.5 of their software and is
                      in version 2.6 and later.
                      
              IBM 2210
                      I've confirmed that Version 1 Release 2 has a BOOTP
                      relay agent. I haven't found out anything about
                      support for the broadcast flag.
                      
         7. What Routers include DHCP servers?
            
            DHCP requires disk storage (or some other form of reliable
            non-volatile storage), making the task of DHCP service
            compatible with servers but incompatible with dedicated
            routers. There are a number of server types that can be
            configured to both route and serve DHCP (especially
            all-in-one "Internet Gateways" designed to be web servers,
            firewalls, etc.), but no dedicated routers.
         8. What Servers forward DHCP requests?
               o DHCP Relay Agent supplied with Windows NT Resource Kit
                 (version 3.51).
               o For Novell servers, there are NLMs that forward BOOTP
                 requests, thus DHCP requests. The "forward BOOTP NLM" is
                 included in Netware 4.1. You can get this support in
                 Netware 3.11 and 3.12 also, but you must apply the
                 TCP31A.EXE patch which is located on Netwire. Here are
                 two such NLMs that are available online:
                    # ftp://netlab2.usu.edu/misc/bootpfd.zip(unsupported
                      Novell software, 1993)
                    # ftp://netlab2.usu.edu/misc/bootp311.zip(unsupported
                      Novell software, 1991)
         9. Which implementations support or require the broadcast flag?
            
            The broadcast flag is an optional element of DHCP, but a
            client which sets it works only with a server or relay that
            supports it.
               o Clients
                 
                    Microsoft Windows NT
                            DHCP client support added with version 3.5
                            sets the broadcast flag. Version 3.51 and
                            later no longer set it. The exception is in
                            the remote access support: it sets the flag
                            when it uses DHCP to acquire addresses to
                            hand out to its PPP clients.
                            
                    tcp/ip