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Frequently Asked Questions About Fonts

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  Frequently Asked Questions About Fonts
                                                      The comp.fonts FAQ
                                                          Version 2.1.5.
                                                         August 14, 1996
  Compiled by Norman Walsh
  Copyright (C) 1992-95 by Norman Walsh <[email protected]>.  The previous
  version was 2.1.4.
  Portions of the OS/2 section are Copyright (C) 1993 by David J.
  Birnbaum.  All rights reserved.  Reproduced here by permission.
  Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
  document provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
  preserved on all copies.
Subject: Table of Contents

  1. General Information
    1.1. Font Houses
    1.2. What's the difference between all these font formats?
    1.3. What about "Multiple Master" fonts?
    1.4. Is there a methodology to describe and classify typefaces?
    1.5. What is the "f" shaped "s" called?
    1.6. What about "Colonial" Typefaces?
    1.7. What is "Point Size"?
    1.8. Where can I get ... fonts.
    1.9. Where can I get fonts for non-Roman alphabets?
    1.10. What about fonts with the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) s...
    1.11. How can I convert my ... font to ... format?
    1.12. Are fonts copyrightable?
    1.13. Typeface Protection
    1.14. File Formats
    1.15. Ligatures
    1.16. Built-in Fonts
    1.17. Glossary
    1.18. Bibliography
    1.19. Font Encoding Standards
    1.20. PostScript
    1.21. TrueType
    1.22. Unicode
    1.23. Can I Print Checks with the MICR Font?
    1.24. Rules of Thumb
    1.25. Acknowledgements
    1.26. A Brief Introduction to Typography
    1.27. A Brief History of Type
    1.28. The Role of National Orthography in Font Design
    1.29. Interesting Fonts
    1.30. Pronounciation of Font Names
    1.31. What is it?
    1.32. Equivalent Font Names
    1.33. Digital Type Design Tools
    1.34. Type Design Firms
    1.35. What does `lorem ipsum dolor' mean?
  2. Macintosh Information
    2.1. Macintosh Font formats
    2.2. Frequently Requested Mac Fonts
    2.3. Commercial Font Sources
    2.4. Mac Font Installation
    2.5. Mac Font Utilities
    2.6. Making Outline Fonts
    2.7. Problems and Possible Solutions
    2.8. Creating Mac screen fonts
  3. MS-DOS Information
    3.1. Frequently Requested MS-DOS fonts
    3.2. MS-DOS Font Installation
    3.3. What exactly are the encodings of the DOS code pages?
    3.4. MS-DOS Font Utilities
    3.5. Converting fonts under MS-DOS
      3.5.1. Converting Mac Type 1 fonts to MS-DOS format
      3.5.2. Converting PC Type 1 and TrueType fonts to Mac format
      3.5.3. Converting PC Type 1 fonts into TeX PK bitmap fonts
      3.5.4. Converting TeX PK bitmaps into HP LaserJet softfonts (and vice...
      3.5.5. TrueType to HP LaserJet bitmap softfonts (HACK!)
    3.6. MS-DOS Screen Fonts (EGA/VGA text-mode fonts)
  4. OS/2 Information
    4.1. Preliminaries
    4.2. Fonts under DOS
    4.3. Windows
    4.4. Differences between Windows and OS/2
    4.5. Installation under Windows and Win-OS/2
    4.6. FontSpecific PostScript Encoding
    4.7. AdobeStandardEncoding
    4.8. AdobeStandardEncoding under Windows (and Win-OS/2)
    4.9. AdobeStandardEncoding under OS/2
    4.10. Consequences for OS/2 users
    4.11. Advice to the user
    4.12. OS/2 2.1 and beyond
  5. Unix Information
  6. Sun Information
    6.1. Fonts Under Open Windows
      6.1.1. Does OpenWindows support Type 1 PostScript fonts?
      6.1.2. Improving font rendering time
      6.1.3. Making bitmap fonts for faster startup
      6.1.4. Converting between font formats (convertfont, etc.)
      6.1.5. Xview/OLIT fonts at 100 dpi
    6.2. Where can I order F3 fonts for NeWSprint and OpenWindows?
  7. NeXT Information
    7.1. Tell me about NeXTstep fonts
    7.2. Tell me more about NeXTstep fonts
    7.3. Porting fonts to the NeXT
    7.4. Font availability
    7.5. Why can I only install 256 fonts on my NeXT?
  8. Amiga Information
  9. Atari ST/TT/Falcon Information
    9.1. SpeedoGDOS
    9.2. Atari File Formats
    9.3. Frequently Requested Atari Fonts
  10. X11 Information
    10.1. Getting X11
    10.2. Historical Notes about X11
    10.3. X11 Font Formats
    10.4. X11 Font Server
    10.5. Fonts and utilities for X11
  11. Utilities Information
    11.1. How do I convert AFM files to PFM files
    11.2. PS2PK
    11.3. TeX Utilities
    11.4. MFPic
    11.5. fig2MF
    11.6. GNU Font Utilities
    11.7. Font Editors
    11.8. The T1 Utilities
    11.9. Where to get bitmap versions of the fonts
    11.10. Converting between font formats
    11.11. Getting fonts by FTP and Mail
    11.12. MetaFont to PostScript Conversion
    11.13. How to use Metafont fonts with Troff
    11.14. PKtoBDF / MFtoBDF
    11.15. PKtoPS
    11.16. PKtoSFP / SFPtoPK
    11.17. PostScript to MetaFont
    11.18. Mac Bitmaps to BDF Format
  12. Vendor Information
Subject: 1. General Information
  Many FAQs, including this one, are available by anonymous ftp from in the directory pub/usenet/news.answers.  Each posted
  section of the FAQ is archived under the name that appears in the
  "Archive-name" header at the top of the article.  If you are unable to
  access via ftp, you can get the FAQs via email.  Send the
  message "help" to [email protected].
  This FAQ is a work in progress.  If you have any suggestions, I would be
  delighted to hear them.  After many months of inactivity, I hope to
  begin a major update on the FAQ.  Please send in your comments.  And
  thanks for being patient.
  This FAQ is maintained in TeXinfo format.  A Perl script constructs the
  postable FAQ from the TeXinfo sources.  The FAQ is also available from
  The comp.fonts Home Page on the World Wide Web:
  This is also the site for The Internet Font Archives.
  TeX DVI, PostScript, Emacs Info, plain text, and HTML versions of this
  FAQ are available from the web at  FTP access to these
  archives has been temporarily suspended.
  The posted version of the FAQ is organized in a quasi-digest format so
  that it is easy to find the questions you are interested in.  All
  questions that appear in the table of contents can be found by searching
  for the word "Subject:" followed by the question number.
  The "TeXinfo" distribution from the Free Software Foundation contains a
  program called "Info" that can be used to read the Info version of the
  FAQ in a hypertext manner.  The "TeXinfo" distribution can be obtained
  from in the /pub/gnu directory.  At the time of this
  writing, texinfo-2.16.tar.gz is the most recent version.  Info files
  can also be read in hypertext form by GNU Emacs.
  Future versions of the FAQ will make more use of the hypertext
  capabilities provided by the Info format.  At present, the FAQ is
  organized as a simple tree.  A plain ASCII, postable version of the FAQ
  will always be maintained.
  All trademarks used in this document are the trademarks of their
  respective owners.
  Standard disclaimers apply.
Subject: 1.1. Font Houses
  This section will be expanded on in the future.  It contains notes about
  various commercial font houses.
  Adobe Systems, Inc.
  Adobe Systems Incorporated develops, markets, and supports computer
  software products and technologies that enable users to create, display,
  print, and communicate electronic documents. Adobe licenses its
  technology to major computer and publishing suppliers, and markets a
  line of type and application software products.
  See "Miles, Agfa Division"
  Home of Alphabets, Inc., designOnline is the online resource for
  design.  The majority of the interactivity is happening on [their]
  FirstClass server, currently available by dialup and across the
  Miles, Agfa Division
  Compugraphic which was for a while the Compugraphic division of Agfa,
  is now calling itself "Miles, Agfa Division" (yes, the Miles drug
  company), since CG's off-shore parent Agfa has been absorbed by Miles.
  So typographically speaking, Compugraphic, CG, Agfa, A-G ag, and Miles
  all refer to the same company and font library. Their proprietary fonts
  are still CG Xyz, but the name is Miles Agfa.
  Quadrat Communications
  Quadrat Communications is a digital type foundry based in Toronto,
  Ontario, Canada.  [David Vereschagin] began creating and designing type
  a few years ago, intrigued by the new possibilities presented by
  Altsys's Fontographer software. [His] first project was the plain style
  of Clear Prairie Dawn, a sans serif text face, which took three years
  to complete. As well as designing [his] own faces, [he's] also
  available for the creation of custom faces.
Subject: 1.2. What's the difference between all these font formats?
  This question is not trivial to answer.  It's analogous to asking what
  the difference is between various graphics image file formats.  The
  short, somewhat pragmatic answer, is simply that they are different
  ways of representing the same "information" and some of them will work
  with your software/printer and others won't.
  At one level, there are two major sorts of fonts: bitmapped and outline
  (scalable).  Bitmapped fonts are falling out of fashion as various
  outline technologies grow in popularity and support.
  Bitmapped fonts represent each character as a rectangular grid of
  pixels.  The bitmap for each character indicates precisely what pixels
  should be on and off.  Printing a bitmapped character is simply a
  matter of blasting the right bits out to the printer.  There are a
  number of disadvantages to this approach.  The bitmap represents a
  particular instance of the character at a particular size and
  resolution.  It is very difficult to change the size, shape, or
  resolution of a bitmapped character without significant loss of quality
  in the image.  On the other hand, it's easy to do things like shading
  and filling with bitmapped characters.
  Outline fonts represent each character mathematically as a series of
  lines, curves, and 'hints'.  When a character from an outline font is
  to be printed, it must be 'rasterized' into a bitmap "on the fly".
  PostScript printers, for example, do this in the print engine.  If the
  "engine" in the output device cannot do the rasterizing, some front end
  has to do it first.  Many of the disadvantages that are inherent in the
  bitmapped format are not present in outline fonts at all.  Because an
  outline font is represented mathematically, it can be drawn at any
  reasonable size.  At small sizes, the font renderer is guided by the
  'hints' in the font; at very small sizes, particularly on
  low-resolution output devices such as screens, automatically scaled
  fonts become unreadable, and hand-tuned bitmaps are a better choice (if
  they are available).  Additionally, because it is rasterized "on
  demand," the font can be adjusted for different resolutions and 'aspect
  Werenfried Spit adds the following remark:
  Well designed fonts are not scalable. I.e. a well designed 5pt font is
  not simply its 10pt counterpart 50% scaled down. (One can verify this
  by blowing up some small print in a copier and compare it with large
  print; or see the example for computer modern in D.E. Knuth's TeXbook.)
  Although this fact has no direct implications for any of the two
  methods of font representation it has an indirect one: users and word
  processor designers tend to blow up their 10pt fonts to 20pt or scale
  them down to 5pt given this possibility.  Subtle details, but well...
  LaserJet .SFP and .SFL files, TeX PK, PXL, and GF files, Macintosh
  Screen Fonts, and GEM .GFX files are all examples of bitmapped font
  PostScript Type 1, Type 3, and Type 5 fonts, Nimbus Q fonts, TrueType
  fonts, Sun F3, MetaFont .mf files, and LaserJet .SFS files are all
  examples of outline font formats.
  Neither of these lists is even close to being exhaustive.
  To complicate the issue further, identical formats on different
  platforms are not necessarily the same.  For example Type 1 fonts on
  the Macintosh are not directly usable under MS-DOS or Unix, and
  It has been pointed out that the following description shows signs of
  its age (for example, the eexec encryption has been thoroughly hacked).
  I don't dispute the observation and I encourage anyone with the
  knowledge and time to submit a more up to date description.
  It has further been suggested that this commentary is biased toward
  Kingsley/ATF.  The omission of details about Bitstream (and possibly
  Bauer) may be considered serious since their software lies inside many
  3rd-party PostScript interpreters.
  The moderators of this FAQ would gladly accept other descriptions/
  explanations/viewpoints on the issues discussed in this (and every
  other) section.
  [Ed Note: Liam R. E. Quin supplied many changes to the following
  section in an attempt to bring it up to date.  Hopefully it is a better
  reflection of the state of the world today (12/07/92) than it was in
  earlier FAQs]
  Henry Schneiker <reachable electronically?> wrote the following
  description of the differences between several scalable font
  ((( semi-quote )))
  There has been a lot of confusion about font technologies in recent
  times, especially when it comes to Type 1 versus Type 3 fonts, "hints,"
  PostScript compatibility, encryption, character regularizing, kerning,
  and the like.
     * Encryption (eexec)
       All fonts produced with Adobe's font technology are protected
       through data encryption. The decryption is provided by the `eexec'
       (encrypted execute) PostScript operator and, until recently, was
       only present in Adobe's licensed PostScript.
       Adobe has published the details of the Type 1 font format in the
       `Black Book', Adobe Type 1 Font Format (version 1.1), Adobe
       Systems Inc., 1990.  The encryption was mainly used because of
       font copyright problems; unencrypted fonts can also be used, but
       these tend to use an efficient binary encoding, also in documented
       the Type 1 book, and so are still not readable PostScript.
     * Type 1, Type 3, and Type 5 font formats
       There are generally three font formats used in Adobe PostScript
       printers: Type 1, Type 3, and Type 5. Type 1 fonts are Adobe's
       downloadable format. Type 3 fonts are third-party downloadable
       format. Type 5 fonts are the ROM-based fonts that are part of your
       There is no functional difference between a Type 1, Type 3, or
       Type 5 font. A Type 3 font can do anything a Type 1 or Type 5 font
       can do.  The only real difference between them is where the
       `BuildChar' routine comes from. For Type 1 and Type 5 fonts it's
       built into the printer. For Type 3 fonts it's built into the font.
       In other words, anything a Type 1 font can do a Type 3 font can
       also do.
       [Ed note: the reverse is not true.  Type3 fonts can do things that
       Type1 fonts cannot.  But they aren't hinted...]
       When PostScript is asked to generate a character, PostScript looks
       in the font's dictionary for FontType. If FontType is 1 or 5
       PostScript executes an internal routine that knows how to
       interpret the font data stored in CharStrings. If FontType is 3
       PostScript executes the routine BuildChar from the font's
       dictionary to interpret the font data (often stored in
       However, each BuildChar routine is written to read data formatted
       in a method convenient to the vendor. Adobe, Altsys, Bitstream, and
       Kingsley/ATF all format their font data differently and, hence,
       have different BuildChar routines.
       [Ed note: relative hard disk efficiency of Kingsley vs. Adobe fonts
       deleted on 12/07/92]
       Type 5 fonts are special in that they often include hand-tuned
       bitmaps for the commonly used sizes, such as 10- and 12-point.
       Other sizes are generated from the outlines in normal fashion.
       Don't confuse Type 1, Type 3, and Type 5 fonts with Bitstream's
       Type A, Type B, Type C, and Type F. They are not the same and
       serve only to confuse the issue.
     * Resolution `hints'
       When a character is described in outline format the outline has
       unlimited resolution. If you make it ten times as big, it is just
       as accurate as if it were ten times as small.
       However, to be of use, we must transfer the character outline to a
       sheet of paper through a device called a raster image processor
       (RIP). The RIP builds the image of the character out of lots of
       little squares called picture elements (pixels).
       The problem is, a pixel has physical size and can be printed only
       as either black or white. Look at a sheet of graph paper. Rows and
       columns of little squares (think: pixels). Draw a large `O' in the
       middle of the graph paper. Darken in all the squares touched by the
       O. Do the darkened squares form a letter that looks like the O you
       drew? This is the problem with low resolution (300 dpi). Which
       pixels do you turn on and which do you leave off to most accurately
       reproduce the character?
       All methods of hinting strive to fit (map) the outline of a
       character onto the pixel grid and produce the most
       pleasing/recognizable character no matter how coarse the grid is.
       [Ed note: deleted some paragraphs that are no longer true.  Times
     * Optical Scaling
       Optical Scaling modifies the relative shape of a character to
       compensate for the visual effects of changing a character's size.
       As a character gets smaller, the relative thickness of strokes,
       the size of serifs, the width of the character, the
       inter-character spacing, and inter-line spacing should increase.
       Conversely, as a character gets larger, the relative thickness,
       widths, and spacing should decrease.
       Contrast this with linear scaling, in which all parts of a
       character get larger or smaller at the same rate, making large
       characters look wide and heavy (strokes are too thick, serifs are
       too big) while small characters look thin and weak.
     * Kerning
       As applied to PostScript fonts, kerning refers to kern pairs. A
       kern pair specifies two characters (e.g., A and V) and the
       distance to move the second character relative to the first. The
       typical use of a kern pair is to remove excessive space between a
       pair of characters.  However, it may also be used to add space.
     * PostScript clones
       There are currently several printer manufacturers on the market
       with PostScript clones. To be viable, a PostScript clone must
       comply with the `red book' (PS Language Reference Manual).
       In order to avoid paying royalties to Adobe, and because Adobe's
       Type 1 font format was originally proprietary, many PostScript
       interpreters use some other font format.  Sun uses F3, and some
       other vendors use Bitstream's Speedo format, for example.  The
       only real problem this causes is that the widths of characters
       (the `font metrics') may vary from Adobe's, so that programs that
       assume the Adobe character widths will produce poor quality
       output.  Bitstream fonts used to be particularly bad in the early
       days, but they and most or all of the other vendors have solved
       those problems.
     * Apple TrueType [Ed note: formerly "Royal (`sfnt')"] format and
       System 7
       Apple's new System 7.0 supports a new format of outline font that
       will allow high-quality characters of any size to be displayed on
       the screen.  TrueType stores font outlines as B-spline curves
       along with programmed resolution hints. B-spline curves are faster
       to compute and easier to manipulate than the Bezier curves used in
       Adobe is not going to support Apple's new format by converting the
       Adobe/Linotype library to B-spline format. There are two reasons
       for this: First, there is no support for font encryption (yes, the
       hooks are there, but nothing is implemented). Second, Adobe does
       not want to dilute PostScript and its font library. However, the
       Macintosh is too big a market to simply turn away from. Therefore,
       Adobe will provide its Font Manager to display its own fonts on
       the Mac screen.  Apple ships Adobe's ATM for this purpose.
  ((( unquote )))
Subject: 1.3. What about "Multiple Master" fonts?
  Multiple Master Fonts are an extension to the Adobe font format.
  providing the ability to interpolate smoothly between several "design
  axes" from a single font. Design axes can include weight, size, and
  even some whacko notions like serif to sans serif.  Adobes' first
  Multiple Master Font was Myriad - a two-axis font with WEIGHT (light to
  black) on one axis, and WIDTH (condensed to expanded) along the other
  axis. In the case of Myriad, there are four "polar" designs at the
  "corners" of the design space. The four designs are light condensed,
  black condensed, light expanded, and black expanded.
  Given polar designs, you can set up a "weight vector" which
  interpolates to any point within the design space to produce a unique
  font for a specific purpose. So you can get a "more or less condensed,
  somewhat black face".
  Multiple Master Fonts can be used on any PostScript printer.  Multiple
  Master Fonts need a new PostScript operator known as makeblendedfont.
  The current crop of Multiple Master Fonts supply an emulation of this
  operator so the printer doesn't need this operator.
  A short tutorial on Multiple Master Fonts and makeblendedfont appears
  in PostScript by Example, by Henry McGilton and Mary Campione,
  published by Addison-Wesley.
  Danny Thomas contributes that there are a few PostScript interpreter
  (version)s which have bugs that appear with the emulation of the
  makeblendedfont operator used to support Multiple Master fonts. There
  weren't many exhibiting this problem, though it may have happened even
  with one Adobe interpreter.
Subject: 1.4. Is there a methodology to describe and classify typefaces?
  There is a standard, Panose, but it is mostly ignored by typographers
  (not because it's bad, just because they don't need it).  The Panose
  system is documented, among other places, in the Microsoft Windows 3.1
  Programmer's Reference from Microsoft Press.
  The ISO also has a scheme, but it is not Panose.
  At least one book by a respected authority, Alexander Lawson, Printing
  Types: An Introduction, describes another, less rigorous system [ed: of
  his own], which is exposited in "An Introduction" and used without
  exposition in his later "Anatomy of a Typeface".
  There is another book, Rookledges International Typefinder, which has a
  very complete system that uses tell-tales of individual glyphs as well
  as overall style to index most known faces right in the book.
  J. Ben Leiberman has another book on type face description.
  Terry O'Donnell adds the following comments:
  The current ISO system was initiated (I believe) by Archie Provan of
  RIT--a successor to Mr. Lawson. Whereas in typographic practice or
  teaching--only a high level classification is necessary - times have
  changed and the current ISO system aims to accomplish something beyond
  the high level. A major goal is to aid software to help users make
  selections. For example, a naive user might ask for all fonts on a font
  server which have a Roman old style appearance. Another goal would be
  to help users with multi-lingual text: a user creating a document in
  English using e.g. Baskerville wants to know what Arabic or Japanese
  language font on his system/file server would harmonize well with the
  Baskerville. It is not all in place yet--but the more detailed ISO
  classes--and the current addition of non-latin typefaces--are an
  attempt to address this issue.
  A second goal is to help with the font substitution problem. Neither
  ISO or Panose address the metrics issues in font substitution--but both
  might aid software in picking the nearest style of available available
Subject: 1.5. What is the "f" shaped "s" called?
  Both the "f" with half a crosbar (roman) and the integral sign (italic)
  are called long-S.
Subject: 1.6. What about "Colonial" Typefaces?
  Why does colonial printing have that "Colonial" feel?
  Colonial type was either very roughly treated by moist salt air on the
  crossing and in colonial port cities, or was copied locally by tacky
  techniques (such as driving used foundry type into soft lead to make
  very soft deformable matrices), and the paper was very rough, which
  abrades both the serifs and the hairlines.  So except for the best work
  done with new, european types, the serifs were much smaller, even
  broken off, than the original founder/punchcutter intended.  Thins
  could be abraded by rough paper to nothingness, esp after humid salt
  air had leached the hardener out of the alloy.
  Peter Honig contributes the following alternative explanation of the
  roughness of colonial types:
  The roughness of early fonts was caused by several factors: Type was
  quite expensive and was used for many years (even if somewhat damaged).
  Also, printing presses would only be set up to print one side of one
  folio at a time, so you would not need to set more than a couple of
  pages at once.  This meant that the printer did not need as many copies
  of each character, however, each character got used very frequently.
  The early casting techniques did not produce as perfect or consistant
  examples as we have today.  That is, the face of a character might not
  be quite planar with the page, or its sides might not be quite
  parallel. Lastly, the inks of the past were not as advanced those of
  What fonts are good for mock-colonial uses?
  For example, what fonts have the following features: old-style figures
  (non-lining numbers), the long s character, slightly irregular shapes
  (a la type produced by colonial printers), and a decent complement of
  ligatures.  And what about free or cheap faces like this?
  I don't know if any exist with all of 1-5. As I believe you get what
  you pay for, especially in fonts, I haven't looked at free and
  cheap-copy fonts.
  Microsoft's expansion set for their Win3.1 optional fonts has Garamond
  Expert & Expert Extensions, which has a good complement of ligatures
  and I think I remember it having the long ess too.  I forget about
  OSFigs; it should tho'.  Monotype's metal faces "16th Century Roman"
  and "Poliphilus" may be available in digital; if so, they imitate early
  presswork with early and are very close to what one wants.
  "A commercial supplier [not yet sampled] is Image Club Graphics in
  Calgary (1-800-661-9410).  It is called Caslon Antique.  It is supplied
  as both roman and italic, together, for $25. They advertise in
  MacWorld/MacUser/MacBlah.   I am unable to tell from abcDEF123 if the
  numerals are old-style, but I think not.  Ligatures?  long-S?  Not yet
  known.  Guillemots, though, are there. ... Letraset, circa 1977,
  showing a Caslon Antique with modern numerals, no ligatures, and only
  UKPounds and German ss extensions." [Ike Stoddard]
  NB: Caslon Antique is not a Caslon per se: "The last Caslon to mention
  is that ubiquitous but unrelated Caslon Antique, which possesses no
  similarity whatsoever to the original. This old reprobate was
  introduced by Barnhart Brothers of Chicago under the name Fifteenth
  Century. Its negative reception lasted until about 1918, when, with a
  simple name change to Caslon Antique, it became the most commonly
  selected type for reproductions of colonial American printing. It is
  now seen in everything from liquor advertisments to furniture
  commercials" [Lawson, 1990,Anatomy]
  Miles Agfa (Compugraphic) has always had a Caslon Antique; I don't know
  if it is available for TrueType or Type 1, but Agfa has been doing
  TrueType bundles at reasonable prices. [wdr]
  Peter Honig contributes the following suggestions:
       Name         Year     Irreg.  Long S  OSfig  Comment   ---
       ---     -----  -----  ----  ------
     * Poliphilus A cleaned-up reproduction of type from 1499.  It's only
       slightly irregular and does not contain the long S, but does have
       old style figures.  From Italy, founded by Francesco Griffo.
     * Old Claude An exact reproduction of Garamond from 1532.  It is
       irregular and does not contain the long S, but it does have old
       style figures.  From France, founded by Claude Garamond.
     * Blado An exact reproduction of type from 1539.  It is irregular
       and does not contain the long S, but it does have old style
       figures.  From Italy, founded by Antinio Blado (designed by
       Ludovico delgi Arrighi).
     * Van Dijck An exact reproduction of type from the 1660s.  It is
       irregular and does not contain the long S, but it does have old
       style figures.  From Holland, founded by Van Dijck.
     * Adobe Caslon A cleaned-up reproduction of type from the 1720s.  It
       isn't irregular but it does contain the long S, old style figures,
       and several ligatures.  From England, founded by William Caslon.
  Blado, Poliphilus, and Van Dijck are available from Monotype. Adobe
  Caslon is available from Adobe. Old Claude is available from Letter
  Perfect. In my opinion, Old Claude is font that is worthy of close
  attention. Although it lacks the long S, it is VERY accurately
  reproduced. Although Adobe Caslon is not irregular, it has a great set
  of authentic ornaments from the Renaissance and Baroque. It is also the
  only set that I am aware of, that has the long S and its ligatures.
  [Bill Troop notes: I do not believe that Monotype ever had a font called
  16th Century Roman. You are thinking of a private face created by Paul
  Hayden-Duensing for his private press based on old Italian punches. It
  is very rough indeed, but I can assure you no Colonial printer had a
  typeface as stylish.
  Poliphilus does indeed exist in digital form, and is fairly faithful,
  but again is far too stylish to give the proper feel of US Colonial
  printing.  Nor is Antique Caslon, so called, anything to do with the
  Caslon types used by American printers-except those who used this bogus
  type at the end of the 19th century.
  Monotype Bell is a faithful copy of a font that was actually used in
  the US, but it is far more modern than the Caslon types. Nobody has yet
  done a really authentic Caslon, and it is a curious fact, but none of
  the Caslon revivals, in any of metal, photo, or digital formats, has
  ever been based on the best Caslon sizes. I have been toying with such
  a revival.
  Monotype Van Dijk can hardly be called a faithful copy of a metal font;
  the outlines are far more regular, for instance, than what Monotype did
  for Bell. In addition, the less interesting forms of the lower case f
  and f-ligatures were chosen for the digital version, and the alternate
  f was not supplied. That makes it a very uninteresting font to use in
  digital form. In addition, the italic has been unbelievably badly
  spaced in the digital version. (Harry Carter complained about the
  spacing in the 13pt Roman in the metal version.)
  For anyone wishing to recreate the feel of early-to-mid 18th century
  printing, a battered, sensitive revival of Caslon would be desirable.
  The Giampa version is interesting, but is based on a poor model. ]
  What fonts could a colonial printer have had?
  According to D.B.Updike in the classic reference "Printing Types: Their
  History, Forms & Use", he indicates that most colonial work was with
  types of the Caslon Old Style fonts and cheap copies of same in the
  18th C.  Before that, it would have been the older Dutch & English
  faces, almost always lagging English tastes.  If you can find the
  Oxford Fell types, they are classic Dutch-as-used-by-englishmen.
  Anything with a Dutch moniker and the Oldstyle adjective is probably
  ok; Van Dijck if you find it, say (died 1673).
  Ben Franklin recommended Caslon faces.  But these were not available in
  England before 1720, first full broadside in 1734. Lawson declares that
  the first printing of the Declaration of Independance was in Caslon.
  Wilson's Scotch Modern was the "modern" font that surfaced in quantity
  in america.  If the Scotch Roman your vendor has is sort-of  like-Bodoni
  but nicer than his Bodoni, that's it.  It wasn't available until late
  1700s, though.
Subject: 1.7. What is "Point Size"?
  This article was constructed from a posting by William D. Ricker from
  Sep 1992.
  In general terms, point size is a relative measure of the size of a
  font.  It used to have a more concrete meaning in the "old days" of
  In the world of Photo-typesetters and digital fonts, the distance from
  the top of the tallest ascender to the bottom of the longest descender
  is only an approximate lower bound on the point size of a font; in the
  Old days, it was almost always a firm lower bound, and there was warning
  on the exception.
  Point-size is the measure of default or minimum inter-baseline
  distance; inter line distance in absense of leading, a/k/a "set solid".
  If you don't know if the text was set solid or leaded, you can't tell
  the point-size with a measuring glass unless you know if the type design
  includes built-in space betweed adjacent, set-solid lines.
  Exceptions to the points size equals ascender to descender size rule:
     * In metal, there was usually a little room between the highest and
       lowest corners of the face and the body size, so that the Matrix
       was completely molding the face and not relying on the mold-body
       to form a vertical side to the printing face--since a bevel or
       beard is desirable for impression and strength.
     * If the designer of a face thinks it should always be set leaded,
       s/he may choose to include the minimal leading in the design, in
       which case it is included in the base point size, and no capital,
       lowercase-ascender, or lowercase-descender will get very near the
     * In some faces the capitals are taller than the ascenders, and
       others vice versa.  (Vertical sticks on capitals are called stems,
       not ascenders.) A minimum point size estimate would normally be
       the height of the font's "envelope", to borrow from
     * The point size of a "Titling Face" may not include descenders; in
       which case the Q's tail hangs off the body as a vertical kern.
       Such a face in metal usually has "Titling" in the name, although
       sometimes the fact that only capitals are available is all the
       hint given.
       ([William D. Ricker's] metal font of Ray Shaded, cast on a Monotype
       Display caster, has "vertical kerns" if you will: the hanging
       shaded tail of the Q and some punctuation below the 24pt body,
       because it has no lower-case.  It might be better described as
       being 36/24, thirty-six point type cast on a twenty-four point
       body, since the cap A is about the height and density of a
       Ultrabold 36pt A in many other fonts.  It would be called 36/24
       Caps if a lowercase had been cast on a 36 point body, but since
       only UC was ever cut, as UC-only titling, it was standardly issued
       and refered to as a 24 point titling--much to the confusion of
     * The Continental Point, a/k/a the Didot point, (and its Pica Em
       equivalent, the Cicero) is just a hair longer.  15 Ciceros=16
       Picas, 15 Didots=16 Points.  So type which is imported or cast
       from imported matrices has been, and still is, cast on the next
       size larger body in anglo-american points.  So an 11D/12 or 12D/14
       type will look larger than a similar 12pt font but smaller than a
       simlar 14pt font, by about a point of fixed built-in leading that
       the designer didn't intend.  What happened when these faces were
       converted to photo and digital composition, I don't know.  (I
       could find out.) Probably some were scaled to American sizes
       proportionally from the european masters, some copied from the
       American castings with built-in leading to ease conversion, and
       some were probably done both ways at different conversion houses.
  Net result: unless you know it's Adobe Times Roman or whatever and just
  want to know what point size & leading options were, you can't measure
  the size with a definition and an optical micrometer.  The defnition is
  embodied/manifested in the typesetting "hardware", even if it is
  software, not the product.
  Knuth's Assertion
  What about Knuth's assertion that point size is "a more-or-less
  arbitrary number that reflects the size of type [a font] is intended to
  blend with"?
  That statement is true only in the context of MetaFonts.  MetaFonts
  (and this definition) are perfectly adequate for Knuth's purposes but
  not fully descriptive of all of typography.  And definitely not
  conformant to established usage.
  This is not meant to condemn heterodoxy, but just to warn that while the
  ASCII markup notations in Knuth's "Second Great Work" [TeX and MetaFont]
  are even more widely disseminated than his wonderful coinage of
  mathematical notations in "The First Great Work" [The Art of Computer
  Programming, volumes I, II, and III], MetaFont has not been accepted as
  an encoding for all useful fonts for the future, and the defintions of
  font characteristics in MetaFont context must be taken with a large
  grain of salt when used with fonts outside the MetaFont font-generation
  Knuth's quotation, when applied to a (non-MetaFont) font designer,
  overstates the arbitrariness of the design choice; the designer was
  stating in the old days that you'd need a saw, a file, or a caster with
  his matrices if you wanted to use negative leading to set his type
  closer than he wanted to see it set; and today, in Photo/digital
  composition, the designer is either indicating the opinion of the
  original metal-head or his own design advice as to what the minimum
  distance between adjacent baselines should be.
  Also, point size is very poor predictor of blending, except in a
  mechanical sense in terms of not-overflowing the same rectangles.  Some
  faces to blend in the same line with 12 point type will need to be
  10/12 or 14/12, due to differences in the way they fill the space.
  (The overall leading should fit the body type.)  Harmony and contrast of
  overall color, shape, style, etc. are much more important considerations
  for blending than body-size.  (For two types to work together, there
  must be sufficient harmonies between them to work together and
  sufficent contrasts to be easily distinguished.  See Carl Dair's books.)
  If one wants to understand usage of typographical terms in the general
  milieu, the Chicago Manual of Style's appendix on Typesetting for
  Authors is a good capsule presentation of history and terminology; if
  one wants the nitty-gritty on how digital type does, or at least
  should, differ and be treated differently from just copies of metal,
  see Richard Rubinstein, Digital Typography, MIT Press.  On type in
  general, consult D.B. Updike in a library (out of print), or
  A(lexander) S. Lawson (who covers electronic type in his latest
Subject: 1.8. Where can I get ... fonts.
  Before I go any farther, let me extol the virtues of the Archie servers.
  If you need to find something on the net, and you have any idea what it
  might be called, Archie is the place to go.  In North America, telnet to
  "" and login as "archie".  There are many other
  servers around the world, any Archie server can give you a list of other
  servers.  There are better documents than this to describe Archie and
  you should be able to find them from the above starting point.  If you
  have trouble, feel free to ask norm (via Email please, no need to
  clutter comp.fonts with a query about Archie ;-).
  In addition to the telnet option, several archie clients exist including
  a very nice X11 implementation (Xarchie).
     * Adobe Type 1 Fonts in MS-DOS/Unix Format:

     * Adobe Type 1 Fonts in Mac Format:

     * Adobe Type 3 Fonts in Mac Format:

     * TrueType fonts in MS-DOS Format:

     * TrueType fonts in Mac Format:

     * TeX PK/PXL/GF fonts:
       The TeX community has its own support groups that can provide
       better answers to this question.  The canonical list of MetaFont
       fonts is posted occasionally to comp.text.tex.  The comp.text.tex
       newsgroup (or the Info-TeX mailing list, if you do not have access
       to news) are good places to start.  Email norm if you need more
       specific information.
     * LaserJet bitmap fonts:

       Also on other simtel20 mirrors...
  If you know of other archive sites (the above list is no where near
  complete) or other formats that are available on the net, please let us
  The sites above represent places where shareware and public domain fonts
  are available.  Many, many typefaces are not available in shareware
  form.  And many shareware faces are less than adequate for a variety of
  reasons, particularly at small sizes.  It seems to be the consensus of
  the comp.fonts community that "you get what you pay for."  If you need a
  professional quality font, you should probably buy it from a
  The list of font vendors in Appendix A (annotated with information about
  non-Roman alphabets) was contributed by Masumi Abe.  Masumi was Adobe's
  Manager of Typographic Marketing for Asia.  He has since left Adobe.
  Many font CDs are now available which offer many fonts for a low
Subject: 1.9. Where can I get fonts for non-Roman alphabets?
  As mentioned above, the list of font vendors is annotated with
  information about non-Roman alphabets.  Commercially, Masumi suggests
  that Linguists' Software is the current [ed: as of 7/92] leading
  supplier of non-Roman fonts.
  Ian Tresman contributes:
  The Multilingual PC Directory is a source guide to multilingual and
  foreign language software, including fonts, for PCs. Over a hundred
  different languages are included, from Arabic to Hieroglyphics to Zulu.
  A 1200 word description is available from the publishers, Knowledge
  Computing, email: [email protected].
Subject: 1.10. What about fonts with the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols?
  I summarized Scott Brumage's recent post for the FAQ:
  Shareware or free (PostScript Type 1 and/or TrueType):
     * TechPhon
       Seems to lack some characters and has no zero-offset characters
       (for accents).
     * PalPhon
       A phonetic font which you can get by anonymous ftp from  It is called PalPhon. There are actually
       two fonts: the basic PalPhon and one with additional accents and
       symbols called PalPi. The package includes some documents on using
       the fonts as well.
     * SIL-IPA
       SIL-IPA is a set of scalable IPA fonts containing the full
       International Phonetic Alphabet with 1990 Kiel revisions. Three
       typefaces are included:
          * SIL Doulos (similar to Times)
          * SIL Sophia (similar to Helvetica)
          * SIL Manuscript (monowidth)
       Each font contains all the standard IPA discrete characters and
       non-spacing diacritics as well as some suprasegmental and
       puncuation marks. Each font comes in both PostScript Type 1 and
       TrueType formats.  The fonts are also available for Microsoft
       These fonts were designed by the Printing Arts Department of the
       Summer Institute of Linguistics, Dallas, Texas.
  Shareware or free (TeX):
  METAFONT sources of the phonetic symbols developed by
  Tokyo-Shoseki-Printing and Sanseido are available.  The font contains
  all of IPA (Internatioanl Phonetic Alphabet) symbols.
  You can get phonetic symbols METAFONT (named TSIPA) from
  The IP address for is
  Linguist's Software Adobe (ITC Stone Phonetic [#255], Times Phonetic
  This is Info file, produced by Makeinfo-1.55 from the
  input file FAQ.texinfo.
Subject: 1.11. How can I convert my ... font to ... format?
  Conversion from one bitmapped format to another is not generally too
  difficult.  Conversion from one scalable format to another is very
  difficult.  Several commercial software packages claim to perform these
  tasks, but none has been favorably reviewed by the comp.fonts community.
  Converting Between TrueType and Adobe Type 1 Formats
  This section was constructed from postings by Primoz Peterlin and Bert
  Medley in Sep 1993.
  There are several commercial tools that will convert between these
  formats.  There are no shareware or free tools that will do the job.
  See also "Why do converted fonts look so bad?".
  FontMonger by Ares Software
  Performs conversion between Adobe Type 1, Adobe Type 3 and TrueType
  formats in both PC-DOS and Mac flavours, as well as simple glyph
  editing.  Currently at version 1.0.7, patches available via CompuServe.
  Available for Mac and MS Windows.  Commercial product, price \$60-80.
  Alltype by Atech Software
  Performs font conversion.  A stable product, being on a market for a
  while.  Available for PC-DOS/MS Windows only.  Commercial product.
  Atech is supposedly leaving the business.
  Fontographer by Altsys Co.
  Comprehensive package, allowing creation of fonts as well as conversion
  between formats.  Available for Mac and MS Windows.  Commercial
  product, price cca. \$270 (PC version).
  Metamorphosis by Altsys Co.
  Available for Mac.  Commercial product.  More info needed.
  Converting Between Other Scalable Formats
  Many of the programs in the preceding section claim to be able to
  convert between other formats as well.  And there are probably other
  commercial programs as well.  However, as several people have noted,
  conversion from one scalable format to another is a bad idea.  If the
  original font was well hinted, the converted font will not be.  Of
  course, if the original was poorly hinted, maybe it won't matter much.
  In an effort to settle a long-running and oft-asked question, I'll be
  PostScript Type 1, Type 3, Type 5, or any other scalable PostScript
  format.  Not from PostScript Type 1 to TrueType.  Not to or from
  Intellifont.  Not to or from Sun F3 format.
  For specific conversions, check the platform specific parts of the FAQ.
  Most of the conversions discussed require platform specific tools.
  Here is a summary of the conversions discussed (and the section in
  which they appear):
  Mac Type 1 PostScript
       To PC Type 1 PostScript (MS-DOS).  To TrueType (commercial).
  PC Type 1 PostScript
       To Mac Type 1 PostScript (Mac, commercial).  To TrueType
       (commercial).  To TeX PK (MS-DOS).
       To Type 1 PostScript (Mac and MS-DOS, commercial).  To HP LaserJet
          bitmaps (MS-DOS, hack!).
  TeX PK
       To HP LaserJet bitmap softfonts (MS-DOS).
  HP LaserJet bitmap softfonts
       To TeX PK (MS-DOS).
  In addition, Adobe ships a copy of Adobe Font Foundry with all of its
  fonts which can convert Type 1 fonts into HP LaserJet softfonts.
  Why Do Converted Fonts Look So Bad?
  This section was constructed from postings by Mark Hastings and David
  Glenn in Aug 1993.
  With all commercially available conversion tools, converting fonts
  between scalable formats almost always results in a font inferior to
  the original.  (The rare case where a converted font is not inferior to
  the original occurs only when the original is a cheap knock-off, and
  the automatic hinting of the conversion program is better than
  automatic hinting used in the original!)
  David Glenn contributes the following analysis:
  There are a few probable [reasons why converted fonts, especially screen
  fonts, look inferior to the original]. First off, any font that's
  converted uses a converting algorithm which will make an exact copy at
  best. Because no currently available converter even comes close to
  copying faithfully the manual tweaks and hinting in a font file, you
  often end up with poor screen fonts and poor output. The only reason
  that printed output from the converted font looks markedly better than
  the screen font is that the printed output is at a higher resolution.
  The converter achieves better results on the higher resolutions because
  hinting is less important at higher resolutions.  Screen fonts are
  incredibly complex to make well.  You have very few pixels to represent
  a very aesthetic and distinct design. That's why at small sizes almost
  all typefaces look alike--how do you represent a graceful concave side
  on the letter "L" for Optima with only 12 pixels in height and one in
  width? You can't. And that's why most fonts look similar at 10pt,
  unless they're hand hinted by typograhers.
  One thing that may come into play when fonts are converted between
  platforms, for example between PC/Windows format and Mac format, is that
  fonts are hinted down to a certain number of pixels per em. On a Mac
  screen (72 dpi) there is a one-to-one correspondence between the ppem
  and the point size of a font.  Under windows, the usual VGA screen is
  96dpi and fonts that look good at 8 or 9 pt under windows might look
  like crap on a Mac 'cuz the fonts weren't hinted below 10 or 11ppem.
  Also, the conversion programs may have made the appearance worse at
  some sizes than others.
  Whenever you convert fonts from one platform to the other keep in mind
     * Your license with the type foundry may or may not allow this.
     * The font may or may not have the correct character sets in it.
     * The TT font file may or may not have all the tables necessary.
     * Your converter may make it so ugly that you don't want to use it...
  Smoothing Bitmaps
  This section was constructed from postings by Jason Lee Weiler and
  Piercarlo Antonio Grandi
  Enlarging bitmapped images is easy, but enlarging them without creating
  very jagged edges is much more demanding.  There are several
     * If you are interested in programming your own solution, the FAQ will provide pointers to a number of resources
       that can get you started.
     * If the bitmaps are in a standard format, the 'xv' tool (an X11
       picture viewing tool) includes magnify and smooth functions that
       may perform adequately.
     * Commercial tools like Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw, and many
       others include tracing functions that can translate some bitmaps
       into acceptable outlines (which can be enlarged without
     * The GNU Font Utilities include a tracing tool that may be helpful.
Subject: 1.12. Are fonts copyrightable?
  This topic is hotly debated at regular intervals on comp.fonts.  Terry
  Carroll.  provides the following analysis of current [ed: as of 6/92]
  legislation and regulation regarding fonts and copyrights in the United
  States.  Terry is "Editor in Chief" of Volume 10 of the Santa Clara
  Computer and High Technology Law Journal.  Members of the comp.fonts
  community are encouraged to submit other materials that add clarity to
  the issue.
  It has been pointed out that this section deals primarily font copyright
  issues relevant to the United States and that this situation is not
  universal.  For example, in many parts of Europe typeface designs are
  "First, the short answer in the USA: Typefaces are not copyrightable;
  bitmapped fonts are not copyrightable, but scalable fonts are
  copyrightable.  Authorities for these conclusions follow.
  Before we get started, let's get some terminology down:
  A typeface is a set of letters, numbers, or other symbolic characters,
  whose forms are related by repeating design elements consistently
  applied in a notational system and are intended to be embodied in
  articles whose intrinsic utilitarian function is for use in composing
  text or other cognizable combinations of characters.
  A font is the computer file or program that is used to represent or
  create the typeface.
  Now, on to the legal authorities:
  Volume 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations specifies this about the
  copyrightability of typefaces:
  "The following are examples of works not subject to copyright and
  applications for registration of such works cannot be entertained: . . .
  typeface as typeface" 37 CFR 202.1(e).
  The regulation is in accordance with the House of Representatives report
  that accompanied the new copyright law, when it was passed in 1976:
  "The Committee has considered, but chosen to defer, the possibility of
  protecting the design of typefaces.  A 'typeface' can be defined as a
  set of letters, numbers, or other symbolic characters, whose forms are
  related by repeating design elements consistently applied in a
  notational system and are intended to be embodied in articles whose
  intrinsic utilitarian function is for use in composing text or other
  cognizable combinations of characters.  The Committee does not regard
  the design of typeface, as thus defined, to be a copyrightable
  'pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work' within the meaning of this bill
  and the application of the dividing line in section 101."  H. R. Rep.
  No.  94-1476, 94th Congress, 2d Session at 55 (1976), reprinted in 1978
  U.S. Cong. and Admin. News 5659, 5668.
  It's also in accordance with the one court case I know of that has
  considered the matter: Eltra Corp. V. Ringer, 579 F.2d 294, 208 USPQ 1
  (1978, C.A. 4, Va.).
  The U.S. Copyright Office holds that a bitmapped font is nothing more
  than a computerized representation of a typeface, and as such is not
  "The [September 29, 1988] Policy Decision [published at 53 FR 38110]
  based on the [October 10,] 1986 Notice of Inquiry [published at 51 FR
  36410] reiterated a number of previous registration decisions made by
  the [Copyright] Office.  First, under existing law, typeface as such is
  not registerable.  The Policy Decision then went on to state the
  Office's position that 'data that merely represents an electronic
  depiction of a particular typeface or individual letterform' [that is, a
  bitmapped font] is also not registerable."  57 FR 6201.
  However, scalable fonts are, in the opinion of the Copyright Office,
  computer programs, and as such are copyrightable:
  "... the Copyright Office is persuaded that creating scalable typefonts
  using already-digitized typeface represents a significant change in the
  industry since our previous [September 29, 1988] Policy Decision.  We
  are also persuaded that computer programs designed for generating
  typeface in conjunction with low resolution and other printing devices
  may involve original computer instructions entitled protection under the
  Copyright Act.  For example, the creation of scalable font output
  programs to produce harmonious fonts consisting of hundreds of
  characters typically involves many decisions in drafting the
  instructions that drive the printer.  The expression of these decisions
  is neither limited by the unprotectable shape of the letters nor
  functionally mandated.  This expression, assuming it meets the usual
  standard of authorship, is thus registerable as a computer program."  57
  FR 6202."
Subject: 1.13. Typeface Protection
  [This article first appeared in TUGboat 7:3 (October 1986), pp. 146-151.
  Reproduced with permission.]
  The main question of typeface protection is: "Is there anything there
  worth protecting?" To that the answer must certainly be: "Yes." Typeface
  designs are a form of artistic and intellectual property."  To
  understand this better, it is helpful to look at who designs type, and
  what the task requires.
  Who makes type designs?
  Like other artistic forms, type is created by skilled artisans.  They
  may be called type designers, lettering artists, punch-cutters,
  calligraphers, or related terms, depending on the milieu in which the
  designer works and the technology used for making the designs or for
  producing the type.
  ("Type designer" and "lettering artist" are self-explanatory terms.
  "Punch-cutter" refers to the traditional craft of cutting the master
  image of a typographic letter at the actual size on a blank of steel
  that is then used to make the matrix from which metal type is cast.
  Punch-cutting is an obsolete though not quite extinct craft. Seeking a
  link to the tradition, modern makers of digital type sometimes use the
  anachronistic term "digital punch-cutter". "Calligrapher" means
  literally "one who makes beautiful marks".  The particular marks are
  usually hand-written letters, though calligraphers may design type, and
  type designers may do calligraphy.)
  It usually takes about seven years of study and practice to become a
  competent type designer. This seems to be true whether one has a Ph.D.
  in computer science, a high-school diploma, or no academic degree.  The
  skill is acquired through study of the visual forms and practice in
  making them.  As with geometry, there is no royal road.
  The designing of a typeface can require several months to several years.
  A family of typefaces of four different styles, say roman, italic, bold
  roman, and bold italic, is a major investment of time and effort.  Most
  type designers work as individuals. A few work in partnership (Times
  Roman(R), Helvetica(R), and Lucida(R) were all, in different ways, the
  result of design collaboration).  In Japan, the large character sets
  required for a typeface containing Kanji, Katakana, and Hiragana induce
  designers to work in teams of several people.
  Although comparisons with other media can only be approximate, a
  typeface family is an accomplishment on the order of a novel, a feature
  film screenplay, a computer language design and implementation, a major
  musical composition, a monumental sculpture, or other artistic or
  technical endeavors that consume a year or more of intensive creative
  effort.  These other creative activities can be protected by copyright
  or other forms of intellectual property protection.  It is reasonable
  to protect typefaces in the same way.
  The problem of plagiarism
  A lack of protection for typeface designs leads to plagiarism, piracy,
  and related deplorable activities. They are deplorable because they
  harm a broad range of people beyond the original designers of the type.
  First, most type plagiarisms are badly done. The plagiarists do not
  understand the nature of the designs they are imitating, are unwilling
  to spend the necessary time and effort to do good work, and
  consequently botch the job. They then try to fob off their junk on
  unsuspecting users (authors, editors, and readers). Without copyright,
  the original designer cannot require the reproducer of a type to do a
  good job of reproduction. Hence, type quality is degraded by
  unauthorized copying.
  Secondly, without protection, designs may be freely imitated; the
  plagiarist robs the original designer of financial compensation for the
  work. This discourages creative designers from entering and working in
  the field. As the needs of typography change (on-line documents and
  laser printing are examples of technical and conceptual changes) new
  kinds of typefaces are required. Creative design in response to such
  needs cannot flourish without some kind of encouragement for the
  creators. In a capitalist society, the common method is property rights
  and profit.  In a socialist (or, in the past, royalist) society, the
  state itself might employ type artists. France, as a monarchy and as a
  republic, has had occasional state sponsorship of typeface design over
  the past 400 years. The Soviet Union has sponsored the design of new
  typefaces, not only in the Cyrillic alphabet, but also in the other
  exotic scripts used by various national groups in the Soviet Union.
  Those who would justify plagiarism often claim that the type artists do
  not usually receive a fair share of royalties anyway, since they have
  usually sold their designs to some large, exploitive corporation.  It
  is true that type designers, like many artists, are often exploited by
  their "publishers", but plagiarism exacerbates the problem. Plagiarism
  deprives the designer of decent revenues because it diverts profits to
  those who merely copied the designs. Plagiarism gives the manufacturer
  yet another excuse to reduce the basic royalty or other fee paid for
  typeface designs; the theme song is that the market determines the
  value of the design and cheap rip-offs debase the value of a face.  For
  those interested in the economic effects of piracy, it is clear that
  plagiarism of type designs ultimately hurts individual artists far more
  than it hurts impersonal corporations.
  Kinds of protection for type
  There are five main forms of protection for typefaces:
     * Trademark
     * Copyright
     * Patent
     * Trade Secret
     * Ethics
  A trademark protects the name of a typeface. In the U.S., most
  trademarks are registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  The R in a circle (R) after a trademark or tradename indicates U.S.
  registration. The similarly placed TM indicates that a trademark is
  claimed, even if not yet officially registered. However, a trademark may
  be achieved through use and practice, even without registration. Owners
  of trademarks maintain ownership by use of the trademark and by
  litigation to prevent infringement or unauthorized use of the trademark
  by others.
  As a few examples of registered typeface trademarks, there are Times
  Roman (U.S. registration 417,439, October 30, 1945 to Eltra
  Corporation, now part of Allied); Helvetica (U.S. registration 825,989,
  March 21, 1967, also to Eltra-Allied), and Lucida (U.S. reg. 1,314,574
  to Bigelow & Holmes). Most countries offer trademark registration and
  protection, and it is common for a typeface name to be registered in
  many countries. In some cases the registrant may be different than the
  originator. For example, The Times New Roman (Times Roman) was
  originally produced by the English Monotype Corporation. In England and
  Europe, most typographers consider the design to belong to Monotype,
  but the trademark was registered by Linotype (Eltra-Allied) in the
  U.S., as noted above.
  Trademark protection does not protect the design, only the name.
  Therefore, a plagiarism of a design is usually christened with a
  pseudonym which in some way resembles or suggests the original
  trademark, without actually infringing on it. Resemblance without
  infringement can be a fine distinction.
  Some pseudonyms for Times Roman are: "English Times", "London", Press
  Roman, "Tms Rmn".  Some for Helvetica are "Helios", "Geneva",
  "Megaron", "Triumvirate". So far, there seem to be none for Lucida.
  There are generic typeface classifications used by typographers and type
  historians to discuss styles, trends, and categories of design.
  Occasionally these apparently innocuous classification systems are
  employed by plagiarists to devise generic pseudonyms, such as "Swiss
  721" for Helvetica, and "Dutch 801" for Times Roman. It is not certain
  whether this usage of a generic classification is more for
  clarification or for obfuscation. In general, the proper tradename is a
  better indicator of identity, quality, and provenance in typefaces than
  a generic name. Some people believe that the same is true for other
  commodities such as wine, where taste is important.
  A trademark usually consists of both a proprietary and a generic part.
  For example, in the name "Lucida Bold Italic", "Lucida" is the
  proprietary trademark part and "Bold Italic" is the generic part. The
  generic word "type" is usually understood to be a part of the name,
  e.g. "Lucida Bold Italic type". Sometimes a firm will append its name
  or a trademarked abbreviation of it to the typeface name, to achieve a
  greater degree of proprietary content, e.g. "B&H Lucida Bold Italic".
  A related matter is the use of the name of a type's designer. A firm
  that ethically licenses a typeface will often cite the name of the
  designer-- e.g. Stanley Morison (with Victor Lardent) for Times Roman,
  Max Miedinger (with Edouard Hoffmann) for Helvetica, Charles Bigelow
  and Kris Holmes for Lucida. Although a person's name is not usually a
  registered trademark, there are common law restrictions on its use.
  The marketing of plagiarized type designs generally omits the names of
  the designers.
  Although Trademark is an incomplete kind of protection, it is used
  effectively (within its limitations) to prevent the theft of type names.
  Certain traditional typeface names, usually the surnames of illustrious
  designers like Garamond, Caslon, Baskerville, Bodoni, and others have
  become generic names in the public domain.  Trademark protection of
  such names requires the addition of some proprietary word(s), as with
  these hypothetical creations, "Acme New Garamond", or "Typoluxe
  Copyright of typefaces can be divided into two parts: copyright of the
  design itself; and copyright of the font in which the design is
  implemented. In the U.S., typeface designs are currently not covered by
  copyright. This is a result of reluctance by the copyright office to
  deal with a complex field; by lobbying against copyright by certain
  manufacturers whose profits were based on typeface plagiarism; by a
  reluctance of Congress to deal with the complex issues in the recent
  revision of the copyright law.
  The reluctance of Americans to press for typeface copyright may have
  been influenced by a feeling that typeface plagiarism was good for U.S.
  high-tech businesses who were inventing new technologies for printing,
  and plagiarizing types of foreign origin (Europe and England).  If the
  situation becomes reversed, and foreign competition (from Japan,
  Taiwan, and Korea) threatens to overcome American technological
  superiority in the laser printer industry, then American firms may do
  an about-face and seek the protection of typeface copyright to help
  protect the domestic printer industry. Such a trend may already be seen
  in the licensing of typeface trademarks by Adobe, Hewlett-Packard, IBM,
  Imagen, and Xerox in the U.S. laser printer industry.
  In Germany, where typeface design has always been a significant part of
  the cultural heritage, and where typefounding has remained an important
  business, there are more than one kind of copyright-like protections for
  typefaces. Certain long-standing industrial design protection laws have
  been used to protect typeface designs in litigation over royalties and
  plagiarisms. Further, there is a recent law,  the so-called
  "Schriftzeichengesetz" enacted in 1981, that specifically protects
  typeface designs.  New designs are registered, as is done with
  copyright in most countries.  This law only protects new, original
  designs. It is available to non-German designers and firms.  Therefore,
  some type firms and designers routinely copyright new designs in West
  Germany.  This gives a degree of protection for products marketed in
  Germany. Since multinational corporations may find it cheaper to
  license a design for world-wide use rather than deal with a special case
  in one country, the German law does encourage licensing on a broader
  scale than would initially seem to be the case.
  France, like Germany, has ratified an international treaty for
  protection of typefaces. This 1973 Vienna treaty will become
  international law when four nations ratify it. So far, only France and
  West Germany have done so, and thus a design must be protected
  separately in each country.  Even when the treaty becomes law, it will
  take effect only in those countries that have ratified it. The treaty
  was principally the work of the late Charles Peignot, a French
  typefounder, and John Dreyfus, an English typographer and typographic
  scholar. Presently, typefaces may be registered for protection in
  France under a 19th century industrial design protection law.
  In the U.S., there continues to be some movement for typeface design
  protection. A proposed bill that would protect the designs of useful
  articles, like type, has been in committee for a few years. It seems to
  be going nowhere.
  Digital (as opposed to analog) fonts may be protected by copyright of
  digital data and of computer programs. It has been established that
  computer software is copyrightable. Therefore, software that embodies a
  typeface, e.g. a digital font, is presumably also protected.  There is
  some objection to this kind of copyright, on the grounds that the
  ultimate output of the program or the result of the data (i.e. a
  typeface design) is not copyrightable. However, the current belief
  expressed by the National Commission on New Technological Use of
  Copyrighted Works is that software is copyrightable even if its function
  is to produce ultimately a non-copyrightable work.  Hence, typefaces
  produced by Metafont or PostScript(R), two computer languages which
  represent fonts as programs, are presumably copyrightable. Typefaces
  represented as bit-map data, run-length codes, spline outlines, and
  other digital data formats, may also be copyrightable. Some firms do
  copyright digital fonts as digital data.  % The copyright office is
  currently reviewing %this practice to determine if it is acceptable.
  Note that the designs themselves are still not protected in the U.S.  A
  plagiarist could print out large sized letters (say, one per page) on an
  Apple LaserWriter, using a copyrighted PostScript digital font, and then
  redigitize those letters by using a scanner or a font digitizing program
  and thus produce a new digital font without having copied the program or
  digital data, and thus without infringing the copyright on the font. The
  quality of the imitation font would usually be awful, but it wouldn't
  violate copyright. Of course, the plagiarist would usually need to
  rename the font to evade trademark infringement.  [As I write these
  words, I have the guilty feeling that I have just provided a recipe for
  type rip-off, but others have obviously thought of just such a
  scheme--John Dvorak has even proposed something like it in one of his
  Design Patent
  The designs of typefaces may be patented in the U.S. under existing
  design patent law. Many designs are patented, but type designers
  generally don't like the patent process because it is slow, expensive,
  and uncertain. Nevertheless, some types do get patented, and it is a
  form of potential protection. Note that this is Design Patent--the
  typeface doesn't have to be a gizmo that does something, it merely has
  to be unlike any previous typeface. The drawback here is that most
  attorneys and judges are not aware that there are more than two or
  three typefaces: say, handwriting, printing, and maybe blackletter.
  Therefore, litigating against infringement is an educational as well as
  a legal process.  It is easy to see that typeface theft is more subtle
  than knocking over a liquor store; it may not be illegal and the
  returns may be greater.
  Protections like design patent are available in many other countries,
  but there is not an international standard (to my knowledge) so the
  situation must be examined on a country by country basis.
  Invention Patent
  Methods of rendering typefaces can be patented as mechanical or
  electronic inventions. For example, the old hot-metal Linotype
  machinery was protected by various patents, as was the IBM Selectric
  typewriter and type ball.  IBM neglected to trademark the typeface
  names like Courier and Prestige, so once the patents had lapsed, the
  names gradually fell into the public domain without IBM doing anything
  about it (at the time, and for a dozen years or so, IBM was distracted
  by a major U.S. anti-trust suit).  Most students of the type protection
  field believe that those names are probably unprotectable by now,
  though IBM could still presumably make a try for it if sufficiently
  There is currently a noteworthy development regarding a patent for
  outline representation of digital type as arcs and vectors, with special
  hardware for decoding into rasters. This patent (U.S. 4,029,947, June
  14, 1977; reissue 30,679, July 14, 1981) is usually called the Evans &
  Caswell patent, after its inventors.  It was originally assigned to
  Rockwell, and in 1982, Rockwell sued Allied Linotype for infringement.
  Allied settled out of court, having paid an amount rumored to be in the
  millions.  Rockwell sold the patent, along with other typographic
  technology, to Information International, Inc. (III), which then sued
  Compugraphic for infringement. According to the Seybold Report, a
  respected typographic industry journal, Compugraphic recently settled
  out of court for 5 million dollars.  Although many experts believe the
  patent to be invalid because of several prior inventions similar in
  concept, it nevertheless seems to be a money-maker in corporate
  litigation. The Seybold Report has speculated on which firms III would
  litigate against next. Among the candidates suggested by the Seybolds
  was Apple for its LaserWriter, which uses outline fonts. Since the
  entire laser printer industry and the typesetting industry is moving
  toward outline font representation, Apple is certainly not alone.  The
  Seybolds further speculate on whether the difference between
  character-by-character CRT typesetting and raster-scan laser typesetting
  and printing would be legally significant in such a case.  Ultimately,
  some firm will hold out for a court judgement, and the matter will be
  decided.  %Although the Evans & Caswell patent doesn't have much to do
  with %typeface copyright per se, it does make many font vendors nervous.
  Trade Secret
  Given that typeface designs have relatively little copyright protection
  in the U.S., they are often handled as trade secrets. The secret must
  apply to the digital data or programs only, because the images
  themselves are ultimately revealed to the public as printed forms.  It
  is much more difficult to reconstruct the formula of Coca-Cola from its
  taste than it is to reconstruct the design of Helvetica from its look
  on the page. The exact bitmap or spline outline of a digital font is
  usually not reconstructable from the printed image, although CRT screen
  fonts at usual resolutions (60-120 dots per inch) may be reconstructed
  by patient counting and mapping of bits off a screen display.  Typeface
  licenses often contain stipulations that the digital data will be
  encrypted and confidential.  Just as a firm will protect the secret of
  a soft drink recipe, so a type firm will protect the exact nature of
  its digital data.
  Some typographers are motivated by higher principles than greed,
  profit, expediency, and personal interest. Idealists afflicted with
  concepts of ethical behavior and a vision of typography as a noble art
  may find it distasteful to use plagiarized types.  Some graphic
  designers insist on using typefaces with bona-fide trademarks, both to
  ensure that the type will be of high quality, and to encourage
  creativity and ethics in the profession.  A consequence of plagiarism
  that is sometimes overlooked is a general erosion of ethics in an
  industry. If it is okay to steal typeface designs, then it may be okay
  to purloin other kinds of data, to falsify one's resume, to
  misrepresent a product, and so forth.  Most professional design
  organizations attempt to promote ethical standards of professional
  behavior, and personal standards may extend to avoidance of plagiarism.
  The Association Typographique Internationale (ATypI) is an international
  organization of type designers, type manufacturers, and letterform
  educators. Its purpose is to promote ethical behavior in the industry,
  advancement of typographic education, communication among designers, and
  other lofty aims. Members of ATypI agree to abide by a moral code that
  restricts plagiarism and other forms of depraved behavior (pertaining to
  typography). These are noble goals, but some members (especially
  corporate members) of ATypI, confronted with the pressures and
  opportunities of commercial reality, nevertheless plagiarize typefaces
  of fellow members, the moral code notwithstanding. Since ATypI is a
  voluntary organization, there is very little that can be done about
  most such plagiarism. Some years back, a world-famous type designer
  resigned %the noted type designer Hermann Zapf from the ATypI Board of
  Directors in protest over the organization's flaccid attitude toward
  plagiarists among its ranks. He has since agreed to sit on the board
  again, but criticism of the organization's inability to prevent type
  rip-offs by its own members, not to mention by non-members, continues
  to be heard. Moderates in ATypI believe that a few morals are better
  than none. It is not clear whether their philosophical stance derives
  from Plato, Hobbes, or Rousseau.
  Given the general attitude of users toward copyrighted video and
  software, it is doubtful that ethical considerations will hinder most
  end-users' attitude to plagiarized type fonts. A desire to have the
  fashionable "label" or trademark may be a greater motivation toward the
  use of bona-fide fonts than an ethical consideration.
  Further reading
  "The State of the Art in Typeface Design Protection", Edward Gottschall,
  Visible Language, Vol. XIX, No. 1, 1985 (a special issue on "The
  Computer and the Hand in Type Design"--proceedings of a conference held
  at Stanford University in August, 1983).
  Der Schutz Typographischer Schriftzeichen, by Guenter Kelbel.  Carl
  Heymans Verlag KG, Cologne, 1984. (A learned account, in juridical
  German prose, of the significance of the Vienna Treaty of 1973 and the
  West German Schriftzeichengesetz of 1981.)
  These notes were originally prepared at the request of Brian Reid, for
  informal distribution. They are based on the author's review of
  available literature on the subject of typeface protection, and on
  personal experience in registering types for trademark, copyright, and
  patent. However, they are %While they result from careful research, no
  claim is made for accuracy; not legal advice.  If one is contemplating
  protecting or plagiarizing a typeface, and seeks legal opinion, it is
  advisable to consult an attorney.  The term "plagiarize" (and words
  derived from it) is used here in its dictionary sense of "to take and
  use as one's own the ideas of another" and does not mean that the
  practice of typeface plagiarism is illegal, as that is determined by
  the laws of a particular country.
  The author is a professor of digital typography as well as a
  professional designer of original digital typefaces for electronic
  printers and computer workstations. He therefore has an obvious bias
  toward the inculcation of ethical standards and the legal protection of
  artistic property.  Other commentators might have a different
Subject: 1.14. File Formats
  Many different kinds of files are available on the net.  These files
  contain many different kinds of data for many different architectures.
  Frequently, the extension (trailing end) of a filename gives a good
  clue as to the format of its contents and the architecture that it was
  created on.
  In order to save space, most files on the net are compressed in one way
  or another.  Many compression/decompression programs exist on multiple
  Multiple files and directories are often combined into a single
  `archive' file.  Many archive formats perform compression automatically.
  File Format Extensions
     * .tar
       Unix `tape archive' format.  Tar files can contain multiple files
       and directories.  Unlike most archiving programs, tar files are
       held together in a wrapper but are not automatically compressed by
     * .Z
       Unix `compress' format.  Compression doesn't form a wrapper around
       multiple files, it simply compresses a single file.  As a result,
       you will frequently see files with the extension .tar.Z.  This
       implies that the files are compressed tar archives.
     * .z .gz
       GNU zip format.  GNU zip doesn't form a wrapper around multiple
       files, it simply compresses a single file.  As a result, you will
       frequently see files with the extension .tar.z or .tar.gz.  This
       implies that the files are compressed tar archives.  Do not confuse
       GNU Zip and PKZip or GNU Zip and Unix compress, those are three
       different programs!
     * .hqx
       Macintosh `BinHex' format.  In order to reliably transfer Mac files
       from one architecture to another, they are BinHex encoded.  This
       is actually an ascii file containing mostly hexadecimal digits.
       It is neither a compression program nor an archive format.
     * .sit
       Macintosh `Stuffit' archive.
     * .cpt
       Macintosh `Compactor' archive.
       Like the .tar.Z format that is common among Unix archives,
       Macintosh archives frequently have the extensions .sit.hqx or
       .cpt.hqx indicating a BinHex'ed archive.
     * .arc
       PC `arc' archive.  This is an older standard (in PC terms, at
       least) and has gone out of fashion.
     * .zip
       PC `zip' archive.  This is the most common PC archive format today.
     * .arj
       PC `arj' archive.
     * .zoo
       PC `zoo' archive
     * .lzh
       PC `lha/lharc' archive.
     * .uue
       `UUencoding' format.  In order to reliably transfer binary data
       across architectures (or through email), they are frequently
       uuencoded.  This is actually an ascii file.  It is neither a
       compression program nor an archive format.
  Font Formats
  Just as the are many, many archive formats, there are many different
  font formats.  The characteristics of some of these formats are
  discussed below.  Once again, the file extension may help you to
  determine the font type.  (On the Mac, the resource TYPE field is
  (probably) a better indicator).
     * PostScript Type 1 Fonts:
       Postscript Type 1 fonts (Also called ATM (Adobe Type Manager)
       fonts, Type 1, and outline fonts) contains information, in outline
       form, that allows a postscript printer, or ATM to generate fonts
       of any size.  Most also contain hinting information which allows
       fonts to be rendered more readable at lower resolutions and small
       type sizes.
     * PostScript Type 3 Fonts:
       Postscript type 3 fonts are an old outline font format that is not
       compatible with ATM.  Most developers have stopped using this
       format except in a few special cases, where special type 3
       characteristics (pattern fills inside outlines, for example) have
       been used.
     * TrueType Fonts:
       Truetype fonts are a new font format developed by Microsoft with
       Apple.  The rendering engine for this font is built into system 7
       and an init, the Truetype init, is available for system 6 (freeware
       from Apple).  It is also built into MS Windows v3.1.  Like
       PostScript Type 1 and Type 3 fonts, it is also an outline font
       format that allows both the screen, and printers, to scale fonts to
       display them in any size.
     * Bitmap Fonts:
       Bitmap fonts contain bitmaps of fonts in them.  This a picture of
       the font at a specific size that has been optimized to look good
       at that size. It cannot be scaled bigger without making it look
       horrendously ugly.  On the Macintosh, bitmap fonts also contain
       the kerning information for a font and must be installed with both
       type 1 and type 3 fonts.  Their presence also speeds the display
       of commonly used font sizes.
  Font Format Extensions
     * .afm
       Adobe Type 1 metric information in `ascii' format (human parsable)
     * .bco
       Bitstream compressed outline
     * .bdf
       Adobe's Bitmap Distribution Format.  This format can be converted
       to the platform specific binary files required by the local X
       Windows server.  This is a bitmap font format distributed in ASCII.
     * .bez
       Bezier outline information
     * .cfn
       Calamus Font Notation. Vector font format, without hinting, but
       with greater accuracy when compared to Type 1 fonts. Used by a.o.
       Calamus (Atari, Windows NT), a DTP program with Soft RIP.
     * .chr
       Borland stroked font file
     * .ff, .f3b, .fb
       Sun formats.  More info when I know more...
     * .fli
       Font libraries produced by emTeX fontlib program.  Used by emTeX
       drivers and newer versions of dvips.
     * .fnt
       Bitmapped GEM font in either Motorola or Intel format.
     * .fon
       An MS-Windows bitmapped font.
     * .fot
       An MS-Windows kludge for TrueType fonts.  The fot file points to
       the actual TrueType font (in a ttf file).
     * .gf
       Generic font (the output of TeX's MetaFont program (possibly
     * .mf
       TeX MetaFont font file (text file of MetaFont commands)
     * .pfa
       Adobe Type 1 Postscript font in ASCII format (PC/Unix) I believe
       that this format is suitable for directly downloading to your
       PostScript printer (someone correct me if I'm wrong ;-)
     * .pfb
       Adobe Type 1 PostScript font in "binary`' format (PC/Unix) Note:
       this format is not suitable for downloading directly to your
       PostScript printer.  There are utilities for conversion between
       PFB and PFA (see the utilities section of the FAQ).
     * .pfm
       Printer font metric information in Windows format
     * .pk
       TeX packed bitmap font file (also seen as .###pk where ### is a
     * .pl
       TeX `property list' file (a human readable version of .tfm)
     * .ps
       Frequently, any PostScript file.  With respect to fonts, probably
       a Type3 font.  This designation is much less `standard' than the
       others.  Other non-standard extensions are .pso, .fon, and .psf
       (they are a mixture of type 1 and type 3 fonts).
     * .pxl
       TeX pixel bitmap font file (obsolete, replaced by .pk)
     * .sfl
       LaserJet bitmapped softfont, landscape orientation
     * .sfp
       LaserJet bitmapped softfont, portrait orientation
     * .sfs
       LaserJet scalable softfont
     * .spd
       Vector font in Speedo format.
     * .tdf
       Vector font type definitions for Speedo fonts.
     * .tfm
       TeX font metric file.  Also an HP Tagged Font Metric file.
     * .ttf
       An MS-Windows TrueType font.
     * .vf
       TeX virtual font which allows building of composite fonts (a
       character can be composed of any sequence of movements, characters
       (possibly from multiple fonts) rules and TeX specials)
     * .vpl
       TeX `property list' (human readable) format of a .vf
Subject: 1.15. Ligatures
  A ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed
  as a unit.  Generally, ligatures replace characters that occur next to
  each other when they share common components.  Ligatures are a subset
  of a more general class of figures called "contextual forms."
  Contextual forms describe the case where the particular shape of a
  letter depends on its context (surrounding letters, whether or not it's
  at the end of a line, etc.).
  One of the most common ligatures is "fi".  Since the dot above a
  lowercase 'I' interferes with the loop on the lowercase 'F', when 'f'
  and 'i' are printed next to each other, they are combined into a single
  figure with the dot absorbed into the 'f'.
  An example of a more general contextual form is the greek lowercase
  sigma.  When typesetting greek, the selection of which 'sigma' to use
  is determined by whether or not the letter occurs at the end of the
  word (i.e., the final position in the word).
     * Amanda Walker provides the following discussion of ligatures:
       Ligatures were originally used by medieval scribes to conserve
       space and increase writing speed.  A 14th century manuscript, for
       example, will include hundreds of ligatures (this is also where
       "accents" came from).  Early typefaces used ligatures in order to
       emulate the appearance of hand-lettered manuscripts.  As
       typesetting became more automated, most of these ligatures fell
       out of common use.  It is only recently that computer based
       typesetting has encouraged people to start using them again
       (although 'fine art' printers have used them all along).
       Generally, ligatures work best in typefaces which are derived from
       calligraphic letterforms.  Also useful are contextual forms, such
       as swash capitals, terminal characters, and so on.
       A good example of a computer typeface with a rich set of ligatures
       is Adobe Caslon (including Adobe Caslon Expert).  It includes:
       Upper case, lower case, small caps, lining numerals, oldstyle
       numerals, vulgar fractions, superior and inferior numerals, swash
       italic caps, ornaments, long s, and the following ligatures:
       ff fi fl ffi ffl Rp ct st Sh Si Sl SS St (where S=long s)
       [Ed: Another common example is the Computer Modern Roman typeface
       that is provided with TeX. this family of fonts include the ff,
       fi, fl, ffi, and ffl ligatures which TeX automatically uses when
       it finds these letters juxtaposed in the text.]
       While there are a large number number of possible ligatures,
       generally only the most common ones are actually provided.  In
       part, this is because the presence of too many alternate forms
       starts reducing legibility.  A case in point is Luxeuil Miniscule,
       a highly-ligatured medieval document hand which is completely
       illegible to the untrained eye (and none too legible to the
       trained eye, either :)).
     * Don Hosek offers the following insight into ligatures:
       Ligatures were used in lead type, originally in imitation of
       calligraphic actions (particularly in Greek which retained an
       excessive number of ligatures in printed material as late as the
       19th century), but as typefaces developed, ligatures were retained
       to improve the appearance of certain letter combinations. In some
       cases, it was used to allow certain letter combinations to be more
       closely spaced (e.g., "To" or "Vo") and were referred to as
       "logotypes". In other cases, the designs of two letters were merged
       to keep the overall spacing of words uniform. Ligatures are
       provided in most contemporary fonts for exactly this reason.
     * Liam Quin makes the following observations:
       The term ligature should only be used to describe joined letters in
       printing, not letters that overlap in manuscripts.
       Many (not all) accents came from the practice of using a tilde or
       other mark to represent an omitted letter, so that for example the
       Latin word `Dominus' would be written dns, with a tilde or bar over
       the n.  This is an abbreviation, not a ligature.
       Most ligatures vanished during the 15th and 16th Centuries.  It was
       simply too much work to use them, and it increased the price of
       book production too much.
  [Ed: there is no "complete" set of ligatures.]
  This is Info file, produced by Makeinfo-1.55 from the
  input file FAQ.texinfo.
Subject: 1.16. Built-in Fonts
     * PostScript printers (and Adobe Type Manager) with 13 fonts have:
       Courier, Courier-Bold, Courier-BoldOblique, Courier-Oblique,
       Helvetica, Helvetica-Bold, Helvetica-BoldOblique,
       Helvetica-Oblique, Symbol, Times-Bold, Times-BoldItalic,
       Times-Italic, Times-Roman
     * Postscript printers with 17 fonts have:
       Courier, Courier-Bold, Courier-BoldOblique, Courier-Oblique,
       Helvetica, Helvetica-Bold, Helvetica-BoldOblique, Helvetica-Narrow,
       Helvetica-Narrow-Bold, Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique,
       Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique, Helvetica-Oblique, Symbol, Times-Bold,
       Times-BoldItalic, Times-Italic, Times-Roman
     * Postscript printers with 35 fonts have:
       All of the above, plus the following:
       ZapfChancery-MediumItalic, ZapfDingbats, AvantGarde-Book,
       AvantGarde-BookOblique, AvantGarde-Demi, AvantGarde-DemiOblique,
       Bookman-Demi, Bookman-DemiItalic, Bookman-Light,
       Bookman-LightItalic, NewCenturySchlbk-Bold,
       NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic, NewCenturySchlbk-Italic,
       NewCenturySchlbk-Roman, Palatino-Bold, Palatino-BoldItalic,
       Palatino-Italic, Palatino-Roman
     * HP LaserJet printers (II, IIP)
       Courier 10, Courier 12, LinePrinter 16.66, ...
     * HP LaserJet printers (III, IIIP)
       All of the above, plus the following:
       Scalable Times Roman and Scalable Univers using Compugraphic's
       Intellifont hinted font format.
     * HP LaserJet IV printers
       All of the above, plus the following scalable (Intellifont) faces:
       Courier, Courier Bold, Courier Italic, Courier Bold Italic, CG
       Times, CG Times Bold, CG Times Italic, CG Times Bold Italic CG
       Omega, CG Omega Bold, CG Omega Italic, CG Omega Bold Italic
       Coronet, Clarendon Condensed Univers Medium, Univers Bold, Univers
       Medium Italic, Univers Bold Italic Univers Medium Condensed,
       Univers Bold Condensed, Univers Medium Condensed Italic, Univers
       Bold Condensed Italic Antique Olive, Antique Olive Bold, Antique
       Olive Italic Garamond Antiqua, Garamond Halbfett, Garamond Kursiv,
       Garamond Kursiv Halbfett Marigold, Albertus Medium, Albertus Extra
       Bold Arial, Arial Bold, Arial Italic, Arial Bold Italic Times New,
       Times New Bold, Times New Italic, Times New Bold Italic Symbol,
       Wingdings, Letter Gothic, Letter Gothic Bold, Letter Gothic Italic
     * SPARCPrinters
       The basic 35 fonts plus four scaled faces of each of Bembo, Gill
       Sans, Rockwell, Lucida, Lucida Bright, Sans and Typewriter, giving
       a total of 57 fonts, all in the F3 format.
Subject: 1.17. Glossary
  [ I ripped this right out of the manual I wrote for Sfware.  If you have
  comments, improvements, suggestions, please tell me... ]
       [ed: this is an 'off-the-cuff' definition, feel free to clarify it
       for me ;-) ]
       On low-resolution bitmap devices (where ragged, ugly characters
       are the norm) which support more than two colors, it is possible
       to provide the appearance of higher resolution with anti-aliasing.
       Anti-aliasing uses shaded pixels around the edges of the bitmap
       to give the appearance of partial-pixels which improves the
       apparent resolution.
       The baseline is an imaginary line upon which each character rests.
       Characters that appear next to each other are (usually) lined up so
       that their baselines are on the same level.  Some characters extend
       below the baseline ("g" and "j", for example) but most rest on it.
       A bitmap is an array of dots. If you imagine a sheet of graph paper
       with some squares colored in, a bitmap is a compact way of
       representing to the computer which squares are colored and which
       are not.
       In a bitmapped font, every character is represented as a pattern of
       dots in a bitmap. The dots are so small (300 or more dots-per-inch,
       usually) that they are indistinguishable on the printed page.
       (1) The smallest component of written language that has semantic
       value.  Character refers to the abstract idea, rather than a
       specific shape (see also glyph), though in code tables some form
       of visual representation is essential for the reader's
       understanding.  (2) The basic unit of encoding for the Unicode
       character encoding, 16 bits of information.  (3) Synonym for "code
       element".  (4) The English name for the ideographic written
       elements of Chinese origin.
       Downloading is the process of transferring information from one
       device to another.  This transferral is called downloading when the
       transfer flows from a device of (relatively) more power to one of
       (relatively) less power.  Sending new fonts to your printer so that
       it "learns" how to print characters in that font is called
       A particular collection of characters of a typeface with unique
       parameters in the 'Variation vector', a particular instance of
       values for orientation, size, posture, weight, etc., values.  The
       word font or fount is derived from the word foundry, where,
       originally, type was cast.  It has come to mean the vehicle which
       holds the typeface character collection.  A font can be metal,
       photographic film, or electronic media (cartridge, tape, disk).
       (1) The actual shape (bit pattern, outline) of a character image.
       For example, an italic 'a' and a roman 'a' are two different glyphs
       representing the same underlying character.  In this strict sense,
       any two images which differ in shape constitute different glyphs.
       In this usage, "glyph" is a synonym for "character image", or
       simply "image".  (2) A kind of idealized surface form derived from
       some combination of underlying characters in some specific
       context, rather than an actual character image.  In this broad
       usage, two images would constitute the same glyph whenever they
       have essentially the same topology (as in oblique 'a' and roman
       'a'), but different glyphs when one is written with a hooked top
       and the other without (the way one prints an 'a' by hand).  In
       this usage, "glyph" is a synonym for "glyph type," where glyph is
       defined as in sense 1.
       When a character is described in outline format the outline has
       unlimited resolution.  If you make it ten times as big, it is just
       as accurate as if it were ten times as small.
       However, to be of use, we must transfer the character outline to a
       sheet of paper through a device called a raster image processor
       (RIP). The RIP builds the image of the character out of lots of
       little squares called picture elements (pixels).
       The problem is, a pixel has physical size and can be printed only
       as either black or white. Look at a sheet of graph paper. Rows and
       columns of little squares (think: pixels). Draw a large `O' in the
       middle of the graph paper. Darken in all the squares touched by the
       O. Do the darkened squares form a letter that looks like the O you
       drew? This is the problem with low resolution (300 dpi). Which
       pixels do you turn on and which do you leave off to most accurately
       reproduce the character?
       All methods of hinting strive to fit (map) the outline of a
       character onto the pixel grid and produce the most
       pleasing/recognizable character no matter how coarse the grid is.
       (noun): That portion of a letter which extends beyond its width,
       that is, the letter shapes that overhang - the projection of a
       character beyond its sidebearings.
       (verb): To adjust the intercharacter spacing in character groups
       (words) to improve their appearance.  Some letter combinations
       ("AV" and "To", for example) appear farther apart than others
       because of the shapes of the individual letters.
       Many sophisticated word processors move these letter combinations
       closer together automatically.
  outline font/format
       See 'scalable font'
       The (more or less) original point system (Didot) did have exactly
       72 points to the inch. The catch is that it was the French
       imperial inch, somewhat longer than the English inch, and it went
       away in the French revolution. What most people now think of as
       points were established by the United States Typefounders
       Association in 1886. This measure was a matter of convenience for
       the members of the Association, who didn't want to retool any more
       than they had to, so it had no relationship to the inch. By that
       date, people realized that the inch was an archaic measure anyway;
       the point was set to be 1/12 of a pica, and an 83-pica distance
       was made equal to 35 centimeters. (Talk about arbitrary!)
       Thus the measure of 72.27/in. is just an approximation. Of course,
       when PostScript was being written, it was necessary to fit into an
       inch-measured world. For the sake of simplicity PostScript defined
       a point as exactly 1/72". With the prevalance of DTP, the
       simplified point has replaced the older American point in many
       uses. Personally, I don't see that it matters one way or the
       other; all that counts is that there's a commonly-understood unit
       of measurement that allows you to get the size you think you want.
       That is, after all, the point ;)
  scalable font
       A scalable font, unlike a bitmapped font, is defined mathematically
       and can be rendered at any requested size (within reason).
       A softfont is a bitmapped or scalable description of a typeface or
       font.  They can be downloaded to your printer and used just like
       any other printer font.  Unlike built-in and cartridge fonts,
       softfonts use memory inside your printer.  Downloading a lot of
       softfonts may reduce the printers ability to construct complex
  symbol set
       The symbol set of a font describes the relative positions of
       individual characters within the font.  Since there can only be 256
       characters in most fonts, and there are well over 256 different
       characters used in professional document preparation, there needs
       to be some way to map characters into positions within the font.
       The symbol set serves this purpose.  It identifies the "map" used
       to position characters within the font.
       The features by which a character's design is recognized, hence
       the word face.  Within the Latin language group of graphic shapes
       are the following forms: Uncial, Blackletter, Serif, Sans Serif,
       Scripts, and Decorative.  Each form characterizes one or more
       designs.  Example: Serif form contains four designs called Old
       Style, Transitional, Modern, and Slab Serif designs.  The typeface
       called Bodoni is a Modern design, while Times Roman is a
       Transitional design.
Subject: 1.18. Bibliography
  Editors note: the following books have been suggested by readers of
  comp.fonts.  They are listed in no particular order.  I have lost the
  citations for some of the submissions.  If you wrote a review that
  appears below and you aren't credited, please let norm know.
  I have decided that this is the best section for pointers to other font
  resources (specs and other documents, for example).  These appear after
  the traditional bibliographic entries.  As usual I will happily accept
  entries for this section.  As of 9/92, the only files listed are the
  TrueType font information files available from Microsoft.
  Bill Ricker contributed the following general notes:
  The Watson-Guptill, Godine, and Dover publishers all have many
  typography titles. Godine and Dover tend to be excellent; W-G tends
  toward 'how-to' books which are good for basics and juried Annuals of
  job work.
  Hermann Zapf and his Design Philosophy, Society of Typographic Arts,
  Chicago, 1987.
  On Stone -- The Art and Use of Typography on the Personal Computer,
  Sumner Stone, Bedford Arts, 1991.
  Of the Just Shaping of Letters, Albrecht Durer, isbn 0-486-21306-4.
  First published in 1525 as part of his theoretical treatise on applied
  geometry, "The Art of Measurment".
  Champ Flevry, Geofroy Troy.
  First published in 1529 Troy attempts, in this book, to design an ideal
  Roman alphabet upon geometrical and aesthetic principles.
  The Alphabet & Elements of Lettering, Frederic W. Goudy, isbn
  0-486-20792-7. Revised 1942 edition.
  This very interesting book looks at the history of letter shapes as
  well font design.
  The Mac is Not a Typewriter, Robin Williams, Peachpit Press.
  A good, clear explanation of what typography is, and how to get it from
  your computer. Mac-specific, but full of excellent general advice. I
  think there's also a PC version. Available at most computer bookstores
  Rhyme and Reason: A Typographic Novel, Erik Spiekermann, H. Berthold AG,
      ISBN 3-9800722-5-8.
  Printing Types (2 vols), Daniel Berkely Updike, Dover Press.
  Affordable edition of the most readable history of type, lots of
  Notes: Both the Dover and Harvard U. P. editions were 2 volumes.  The
  Dover editions were paperback and the Harvard hardback.  It appears
  that the Dover edition is out of print.  Collectible HUP editions are
  not cheap although later HUP editions may be had.  Most libraries have
  later HUP and Dover editions.  If someone knows of a source, please
  pass it along.
  The Art of Hand Lettering, Helm Wotzkow, Dover Press, reprint from 1952.
  Looking Good In Print, Roger C. Parker, Ventana Press,       ISBN:
  Well, as a beginner's book, [it] isn't bad. I can't say that I agree
  with the author's tastes all the time, but he at least gives some good
  examples. Also there are some nice _Publish_-style makeovers.  Don
  Hosek <[email protected]>
  Book Design: A Practical Introduction, Douglas Martin, Van Nostrand
  Reinhold, New York: 1989. 206pp.
  Along with Jan White's book (see below), this provides a fairly
  complete guide to book design.  Martin's book is somewhat more
  conservative in outlook and also reflects his UK background.  Don Hosek
  <[email protected]>
  Digital Typography: An Introduction to Type and Composition for Computer
  System Design, Richard Rubinstein, Addison-Wesley, Reading,
  Massachusetts: 1988. 340pp.
  An interesting, technological approach to typography which is worth
  reading although not necessarily always worth believing. A not
  insubstantial portion of the text is dedicated to representing type on
  a CRT display and Rubinstein devotes some time to expressing
  characteristics of typography numerically.  Don Hosek
  <[email protected]>
  Graphic Design for the Electronic Age, Jan V. White, Watson-Guptill
  Publications, New York: 1988. 212pp.
  A good handbook for document design. In a well-organized approach,
  White covers the principles for laying out most of the typographics
  features of a technical document. White is a bit overeager to embrace
  sans-serif types and in places his layout ideas seem a bit garish, but
  it's still a quite worthwhile book.  Don Hosek
  <[email protected]>
  Xerox Publishing Standards: A Manual of Style and Design, Watson-Guptill
  Publications, New York: 1988. 400pp.
  Overall, a disappointing book. It is divided into four sections of
  widely varying intent: "Publishing Process," "Document Organization,"
  "Writing and Style" and "Visual Design." None of them is really
  adequate for the task and all are highly centered on the Xerox method
  for publishing. As a guide to Xerox' process, it succeeds, but as a
  manual for general use, it falls far short. In print.  Don Hosek
  <[email protected]>
  Methods of Book Design (3rd edition), Hugh Williamson, Yale University
  Press, New Haven: 1983. 408pp.
  It is a bit out-of-date as regards technology, but on issues relating
  purely to design it is comprehensive and definitive.  Well, I suppose
  it could be argued that printing technology influences design - e.g.
  some types look fine in metal but lousy in digital imagesetting - and
  therefore a book that is out-of-date in technology can't really be
  "definitive" in matters of design either. In any event, _Methods_ is
  more than adequate for a beginner's needs.  My paper-bound copy (ISBN
  0-300-03035-5) was \$13.95; cheap at twice the price!  Cameron Smith
  <[email protected]>
  The Thames & Hudson Manual of typography, Rauri McLean, Thames & Hudson
  An excellent book if you start getting more interested in type.  Look
  for Rauri McLean's other books after this one...  Liam R.E. Quin
  <[email protected]>
  Typography and Why it matters, Fernand Baudin.
  There is no better introduction than [it].  It's not a primer on
  subjects such as "what does Avant Garde look like," or "This is a good
  font for books." It is a good primer on the things you need to know
  before the rest should be considered. He's a lovely writer, to boot.
  [My copy is at work, so I may have munged the title-look up Baudin in
  "Books in Print" and improvise :-)]
  Ari Davidow <[email protected]>
  Better Type, Betty Binns
  It's definitely not a lightweight beginner's introduction, but I've
  found [it] to be indispensable.  It's a large-format hardcover, but you
  can find it remaindered for cheap if you look around.  The book goes
  into great detail about how factors like line spacing, line length,
  point size, and design of typeface (evenness of stroke weight,
  x-height, etc.) affect readability.  When you've gotten the basics out
  of the way and want to learn more about the fine nuances of type color,
  this book is an absolute must.  David Mandl <[email protected]>
  Printing Types: An Introduction..., S. Lawson, (revised) 1990
  I'd also recommend Alexander S. Lawson's books especially /Printing
  Types: An Intro.../ (revised), 1990, which includes electronic types
  now.  Bill Ricker <[email protected]>
  Tally of Types, Stanley Morrison, Cambridge University Press.
  A keepsake for CUP on the Monotype fonts he'd acquired for them when he
  was Type Advisor to both Brit.Monotype & CUP (Cambridge University
  Press, Cambs.UK), which discusses his hindsight on some of the great
  revival fonts and some of the better new fonts.  Bill Ricker
  <[email protected]>
  Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press, 1982;
                ISBN 0-226-10390-0.
  The chapter on Design and Typography is most directly relevant, but
  there are a lot of hints scattered all through the Chicago Manual on
  making your words more readable and your pages more attractive.  Stan
  Brown <[email protected]>
  X Window System Administrator's Guide (O'Reilly X Window System Guides,
  volume 8), O'Reilly
  It gives advice about setting up fonts, etc.  Liam Quin <[email protected]>
  How Bodoni intended his types to look Bodoni, Giambattista. Fregi e
  Majuscole Incise e Fuse de ...  Bodoni, Harvard University Library
  Inexpensive collectible, reproduced as a keepsake by the Houghton
  Library at Harvard. [wdr]
  The Elements of Typographic Style, Robert Bringhurst, Hartley & Marks
  0-88179-033-8 pbk \$15, Z246.B74 1992 0-88179-110-5 cloth, \$25.
  A typography for desktop publishers who want to absorb some style.
  Informed by the historical european tradition and the desktop
  advertising, tempered by oriental yin-yang and examples. A page-turner
  with repeat-read depth.
  The only book I've seen that discusses page proportions that admits
  there are more than three ways that describes how to find one that
  feels good for your page. [wdr]
  Hermann Zapf on the cover-blurb: "All desktop typographers should study
  this book. ... I wish to see this book become the Typographers' Bible."
  Printing It, Clifford Burke, Ballantine,  0-345-02694-2.
  Manual for the hobby letterpress printer. [wdr]
  Twentieth Century Type Designers, Sebastian Carter, Taplinger, 1987.
  Discusses the talented adaptators of old faces to machine caster and
  film/laser, as well as the designers of new works.  Indexed? [wdr]
  Design with Type, Carl Dair, University of Toronto Press, 0-8020-1426-7.
  In print again (or still?); the ISBN above may be stale.
  A great introduction to the issues of practicality and taste that
  confront the users of type. A prized possession. I only regret that the
  book does not include among the excerpts from his Westvaco pamphlets
  the Seven Don'ts of Typography. [wdr]
  Typography 6: The Annual of the Type Directors Club, Susan Davis, ed.,
  Watson-Guptill, 0-8230-5540-x.
  Specimens of Type Faces in the U.S. G.P.O., John J. Deviny, director.,
  US G.P.O.
  Practice of Typography: Plain Printing Types, Theodore Low De Vinne,
  Century Co./DeVinne Press.
  One of the earlier critical studies, in four volumes of which this is
  my personal favorite, and still a classic reference. If one wants to
  understand 18th and 19th century typography in context, this writer
  lived the transition  from eclectic to standard sizes, and comments
  with taste. [wdr]
  An Essay on Typography, Eric Gill, Godine,  0-87923-762-7.
  The Alphabet and Elements of Lettering, Frederic W. Goudy, Dorset Press
  (Marboro Books), 0-88029-330-6
  Lovely. A wonderful way to learn Goudy's taste.
  Stanley Morison Displayed, Herbert Jones,  Frederick Muller Ltd / W,
  Lovely. A wonderful way to learn Morrison's taste.
  Printing Types: An Introduction..., Alexander S. Lawson et. al., Beacon
  1971,?Godine? 1990; (2nd Ed includes electronic types now)
  "Good introduction to comparisons of typefaces, with a detailed history
  and a key family or face of each general category.  Denounces rigid
  indexes of type faces." [wdr]
  Anatomy of a Typeface, Alexander Lawson,  Godine, 0-87923-333-8,
  Z250.L34 1990
  Deep description of the authors' favorite exemplar and its influences
  and relatives in each type category. It follows, without explicating,
  the category system developed in the prior book. [wdr]
  Types of Typefacs and how to recognize them, J. Ben Lieberman,
  Sterling, 1968
  "This isn't very good really, but it does give lots of examples of the
  main categories." [Liam] [Old bibliographies praised this one, but I
  haven't seen it so I can't comment.- wdr]
  Tally of Types (& other titles), Stanley Morrison,  Cambridge U. Press.
  A keepsake for CUP on the Monotype fonts he'd acquired for them when he
  was Type Advisor to both Brit. Monotype & CUP (Cambridge University
  Press, Cambs.UK), which discusses his hindsight on some of the great
  revival fonts and some of the better new fonts. [wdr]
  Rookledge's International Type Finder 2nd, Perfect, Christopher and
  Gordon Rookledge, Ed Moyer Bell Ltd / Rizzoli,  1-55921-052-4,
  Z250.P42 [1st Ed was NY: Beil 1983]
  "Lg. trade pb. Indexed by stylistic & characteristic features. Shows
  A-Z, a-z, 0-9 in primary figures, whether lining or ranging.
  Particularly distinctive sorts are marked for ease of comparison.
  Separate tables collect the distinctive characters for assistance  in
  identifying a sample." [wdr]
  English Printers' Ornaments, Henry R. Plomer, Burt Franklin
  Paragraphs on Printing, Bruce Rogers, [Rudge] Dover, 0-486-23817-2
  Digital Typography: An Introduction to Type and Composition for
  Computer System Design, Richard Rubinstein, Addison-Wesley, Reading,
  Massachusetts: 1988. 340pp.
  For people who are disappointed with how the type looks on the laser,
  this book explains the subleties of that medium and of the screen that
  others miss. This is a study of the Human Factors of computer
  typographic systems. [wdr]
  The Case for Legibility, John Ryder, The Bodley Head,  0-370-30158-7,
  The Solotype Catalog of 4,147 Display typefaces, Dan X. Solo, Dover,
  0-486-27169-2,   Z250.5.D57S654 19
  "Working catalog of a specialty Graphics Arts shop.  They use
  proprietary optical special effects techniques to get Desktop
  Publishing effects, and more, without the laser-printer grain.  Great
  listing of 19th Century Decorated Types - probably the largest
  collection in the world. Prices to order headlines from them are NOT
  cheap however.  Their services are for professional or serious hobby
  use only. Solo's previous Dover books show some number of complete
  alphabets of a  general peculiar style; this one shows small fragments
  of his entire usable collection, important as an index.  (According to
  private correspondence, they have more faces that have not yet been
  restored to usable condition.) Not well indexed, but indexed." [wdr]
  Stop Stealing Sheep & find out how type works, Erik Spiekermann & E.M.
  Ginger., Adobe Press, 1993
  Introductory, motivational.  If you wonder why there are so many type
  faces in the world, this is the book for you! [Liam] [The title refers
  to the old joke: "A man who would  letterspace lowercase would also
  steal sheep." [wdr]]
  The Art & Craft of Handmade Paper, Vance Studley, Dover, 0-486-26421-1,
  TS1109.S83 1990
  Letters of Credit, Walter Tracey, Godine Press
  "I can't recommend this too highly.  It's not as introductory as the
  Sheep Book, but conveys a feeling of love and respect for the letter
  forms, and covers a lot of ground very, very well." [Liam]
  Printing Types: Their History, Forms & Use, Daniel Berkely Updike,
  Harvard University Press, reprint by Dover.
  The standard reference. Tour-de-force history of type and type-styles.
  A trifle conservative in its biases, but typography is conservative for
  good reason: readability. Check the addenda for his final words on
  newer faces. [wdr]
  1.  I believe the Dover edition to be 3 vols Pbk; both the collectable
  and later Harvard U.P. editions were two vols hbk.
  2.  I am informed by my bookseller & Books In Print that the Dover
  edition is out of print. *sigh*  If a source be known, let me know.
  Collectible HUP eds are not cheap, although later HUP eds may be had.
  Most libararies have later HUP or Dover eds. [wdr]
  Modern Encyclopedia of Typefaces, 1960-90, Lawrence W. Wallis, Van
  Nostrand Reinhold, 0-442-30809-4, Z250.W238 1990
  "Gives examples of most typefaces, almost all digital, designed &
  distributed  in the last 30 years. Cross indexed by foundry and
  designer, and sources and  looks-likes. Some historical bits.  Shows
  full a-z,A-Z,0-9, a few points  (punctuation); and 0-9 again if both
  lining and oldstyle supplied.  Only   complaint is that it omits small
  caps even from what few fonts have 'em and the accented characters, of
  which most have some but too few.  List \$25." [wdr]
  About Alphabets: Some Marginal Notes on Type Design, Hermann Zapf, MIT
  Press, 0-262-74003-6
  Hermann Zapf & His Design Philosophy, Hermann Zapf, Society of
  Typographic Arts, Chicago
  "Anything about, by, or vaguely connected with Hermann Zapf is probably
  worth reading several times :-)" [Liam]
  Manuale Typographicum, Hermann Zapf,  MIT Press, 0-262-74004-4
  There are two books of this title  (portrait and landscape); this is
  the only mass-market edition of either. Both are Zapf's selections of
  interesting typographical quotations in his inimitable display
  typography. [wdr]
  Microsoft Windows 3.1 Programmer's Reference, Microsoft Press.
  Documents the Panose system of typeface classification.  Probably
  contains a general discussion of TrueType under MS Windows 3.1.
  Introduction to Typography, 3rd ed, Faber, London, 1962.
  A very good introduction for any beginner. Also discusses things like
  illustrations and cover design, although not in great detail.
  Simon was a purist, as the editor of the 3rd edition remarks.  He did
  not mention phototypesetting in his original edition, but some
  observations on its uses and abuses have since been added.  Anders
  Thulin <[email protected]>
  Eve Damaziere contributes:
  Twentieth Century Type, Lewis Blackwell, Calmann & King, London (GB),
  1992. Chez Flammarion (1993 - 256 p.) pour l'edition francaise (french
  It's a very intelligent account of the history of type in our century,
  and its links to art, technics and politics (history). Lots of
  pictures, too. At the end of it, a "description and classification of
  types", from the 15th century up to now : the author follows the
  classification of Maximilien Vox (1952), a french graphist.
  [ed: additional bibliographic information appears in the file
  "Additional-bibliography" on  I have not yet had
  time to integrate this bibliographic information into the FAQ]
Subject: 1.19. Font Encoding Standards
  What is a character set?
  A character set is a collection of symbols in a specific order.  Some
  common character sets are ASCII and ISO Latin 1.
  What is an encoding vector?
  The term "encoding vector" is most frequently heard in the context of
  PostScript fonts. An encoding vector embodies a particular character
  set, it is simply the list of all the characters in the character set
  in the order in which they occur.
  Most font technologies limit a particular encoding to 256 characters;
  an Adobe Type 1 font, for example, may contain an arbitrary number of
  characters, but no single encoding vector can contain more than 256.
  Some common encodings are:
     * Adobe Standard Encoding - the default encoding of many PS Type1
     * Apple Standard Encoding - the default encoding on a Mac
     * US ASCII                - seven bit ASCII
     * ISO Latin-1             - an eight bit multi-national character
       set encoding
     * Cork Encoding           - the TeX community's eight bit standard
     * FC                      - an eight bit encoding for African
     * TeX text                - the TeX community's seven bit defacto
       standard (CMR)
  Where can I get them?
  You can get tables showing the layout of many standard character sets
  from the Kermit distribution (via anonymous ftp from in /kermit/charsets.
Subject: 1.20. PostScript
  What About PostScript UNIQUEIDs?
  This section was constructed from a posting by Johannes Schmidt-Fischer
  in Jun 1993.
  All PostScript Type 1 fonts should contain a UniqueId.  This is a
  number which should be, as the name suggests, unique (at least among
  the fonts that you download to the printer at any given time).
  There are many PostScript fonts on the 'Net which have identical
  UniqeIds.  If two of these fonts are downloaded to the same printer at
  the same time, attempts to use either font may cause the wrong
  characters to be printed.
  In a nutshell, the reason that the wrong characters may be printed is
  that the printer may be storing the rendered glyphs in its font cache,
  addressed by UniqueID.  So, if two fonts, /Foo and /Bar, both have
  UniqueID=5 and /Foo's 10pt "A" is currently in the cache, a request for
  /Bar's 10pt "A" will cause the wrong character to be printed. Rather
  than rendering /Bar's "A" from its (correct and unambiguous) outline,
  the printer will note that the cache contains a 10pt "A" for font 5 and
  will copy it from the cache (resulting in /Foo's "A" printing for /Bar).
  Adobe's "Red Book" contains a detailed discussion of this topic.
  Can a Type 1 Font Be Shaded?
  David Lemon contributes:
  There are three ways to get grey into a font. The first is to make a
  series of Type 1 fonts, each of which will be used for a single shade
  of grey (or other color). The user then sets copies of the characters
  on top of each other, selecting each and setting it to the shade
  desired. It's a bit inconvenient (and won't work in a word processor)
  but it gets full resolution, good hinting and gives the user lots of
  control. This is the approach Adobe has used in its "chromatic" fonts
  (as in Adobe Wood Type 3 and Copal) and is viable for both Type 1 and
  TrueType formats.
  As an alternative, the designer can approximate shades of grey in the
  characters by using many little dots (a sort of halftone effect) or
  lines (as in cross-hatching). This leads to pretty complex characters,
  which may choke some rasterizers, and won't hint well. As with the
  first method, this is viable (more or less) for both Type 1 and
  The third method is more direct but limited. In this approach, the
  designer/producer creates the shades of grey in a font-editing program.
  The limitation is that such a font must be written in Type 3, which is
  a generalized PostScript format (Type 1 and TrueType recognize only
  solid shapes). Such a font won't be supported by ATM, so your screen
  display will suffer and you'll be restricted to PostScript printers. On
  the plus side, your greys will be rendered at the full resolution of
  the printer you use.
Subject: 1.21. TrueType
  George Moore announces the following information regarding TrueType
  "I am pleased to announce that there is now one central location for all
  official Microsoft TrueType information available on the Internet.  The
  9 files listed below are available for anonymous ftp access on in the /developr/drg/TrueType-Info directory.  The
  most important of those files is the TrueType Font Files
  Specifications, a 400 page book which describes in excruciating detail
  how to build a TrueType font.  Other information is also available in
  the same directory and other files will be added from time to time.
  For those people who do not have ftp access to the Internet can find the
  same information available for downloading on Compuserve in the
  Microsoft developer relations forum (GO MSDR) in the TrueType library.
  Please be aware that the TrueType specifications is a copyrighted work
  of Microsoft and Apple and can not be resold for profit.
  TrueType developer information files on
    1.,, and
       The TrueType Specification:
       These three compressed files contain the "TrueType Font Files
       Specifications", a 400 page book complete with illustrations which
        details how to construct a TrueType font from scratch (or build
       a tool   to do so), the TrueType programming language, and the
       complete format   of each sub-table contained in the .TTF file.
       These documents are   stored in Word for Windows 2.0 format and
       require Windows 3.1 for   printing.  See the "readme.doc" (in for printing   instructions.  Requires 2.5MB of disk
       space after uncompression.
       This manual is a superset of the similar specifications from Apple
       and   has added information specific to Windows that is not
       present in the   Apple version.
       An MS-DOS executable which will dump the contents of a TrueType
       font   out in a human-readable fashion.  It allows you to dump the
       entire   font, or just specific sub-tables.  This tool, combined
       with the   specifications above, allows very effective debugging
       or exploration   of any TrueType font.  For example, to dump the
       contents of the 'cmap'   (character code to glyph index mapping)
       table, enter:
       ttfdump fontname.ttf -tcmap -nx
       Entering "ttfdump" with no options will give you a help message.
       Example C source code on how to parse the contents of a TrueType
       font.    Although this particular example will open up the file
       and locate the   font name contained within the 'name' table, it
       could be readily   adapted to parse any other structure in the
       file.  This compressed zip   file also contains many useful
       include files which have pre-defined   structures set up for the
       internal tables of a TrueType font file.    This code may be
       useful for developers who wish to parse the TrueType   data stream
       returned by the GetFontData() API in Windows 3.1.
       A 31 page Word for Windows 2.0 document which is targeted for the
       Windows developer who is interested in learning about some of the
        capabilities TrueType adds to Windows 3.1.  Contains many
       A text file which describes all of the information necessary for a
        Windows developer to add TrueType font embedding capabilities to
       their   application.  Font embedding allows the application to
       bundle the   TrueType fonts that were used in that document and
       transport it to   another platform where the document can be
       viewed or printed   correctly.
       The TrueType Technical Talks 1 and 2.  These text files describe
       some   of the things that are happening with TrueType behind the
       scenes in   Windows 3.1.  The first document walks the reader
       through all of the   steps that occur from when the user first
       presses the key on the   keyboard until that character appears on
       the screen (scaling, hinting,   drop out control, caching and
       blitting).  The second talk describes   one of the unique features
       of TrueType called non-linear scaling which   allows the font
       vendor to overcome some of the physical limitations of   low
       resolution output devices.
       This text file contains useful typographic information on the 22
       Lucida fonts which are contained in the Microsoft TrueType Font
       Pack   for Windows.  It gives pointers on line-layout, mixing and
       matching   fonts in the family and a little history on each
       typeface.  This   information was written by the font's designers,
       Chuck Bigelow & Kris   Holmes."
Subject: 1.22. Unicode
  [ed: This is a summary of the Unicode info I've gleaned from the net
  recently, the whole Unicode issue needs to be addressed better by the
  FAQ...someday...  someday...I'll get to reorganize the whole thing]
  What Is Unicode?
  Charles A. Bigelow notes:
  The authors of the Unicode standard emphasize the fact that Unicode is a
  character encoding, not a glyph encoding. This might seem like a
  metaphysical distinction, in which characters have some "semantic"
  content (that is, they signify something to literates) and and glyphs
  are particular instantiations or renderings of characters--Plato talked
  about this kind of stuff--but in practice it means that most ligatures
  are not represented in Unicode, nor swash variants, nor figure variants
  (except for superior and inferior, which are semantically distinct from
  baseline figures), and so on.
  For further information, consult The Unicode Standard: Worldwide
  Character Encoding Version 1.0, Vol. 1 (alphabets & symbols) and Vol 2.
  (Chinese, Japanese, Korean characters), by The Unicode Consortium,
  Addison Wesley Publishing Co, 1991, ISBN 0-201-56788-1, 0-201-60845-6.
  What is the Unicode Consortium?
  The Unicode Consortium is an international body responsible for
  maintaining the Unicode standard.  Their email address is
  <[email protected]>
  To obtain more information on Unicode or to order their printed material
  and/or diskettes contact:
                           Steven A. Greenfield
                          Unicode Office Manager
                           1965 Charleston Road
                          Mountain View, CA 94043
                             Tel. 415-966-4189
                             Fax. 415-966-1637
  Unicode Editing
  James Matthew Farrow contributes:
  I use `sam' for all by text editing.  It is X editor based on an editor
  for the blit called jim.  Papers describing sam as well as a
  distribution of sam itself are available for ftp from
  The sam there is a Unix port of the Plan 9 version.  Plan 9 is a full
  unicode operating system, even around before NT!  The libraries sam is
  built upon therefore support 16 bit wide characters.  The graphics
  library, supplied with it at present does not.  However they may be
  planning to distribute a new version which does soon.  The library just
  plugs in replacing the library that comes with sam.  No modification is
  necessary.  Character are stored using the utf-2 encoding.
  All of the files I had before I started working with sam were 7 bit
  ascii so no conversion was needed.  Now I have ditched xterm in favour
  of 9term: a terminal emulator in the style of 81/2 (the Plan 9
  interface).  This lets me type Unicode characters on the command line,
  as part of filenames, in mail, wherever and most Unix utilities cope
  without modification.  This is about to be released.  I'm looking for
  beta testers.  ;-)
  Is a special keyboard required?
  No.  ASCII Characters are typed as normal.  Common characters above
  0x7f are typed using two letter abbreviations.  The table is similar to
  the troff special character codes, e.g, Alt-12 gives you a 1/2, Alt-'e
  gives you e acute, Alt-bu a bullet and so on.  This table is hardwired
  into the library at present but is trivial to change.  Other codes are
  accessed by typing their hex value, for instance the smiley is
  Alt-X263a (0x263a being a smiley character in the Unicode character
  Is roman-to-Unicode conversion available?
  All normal 7 bit ascii characters are encoded as themselves so no
  translation is needed.  There are conversion routines in the library
  (runetochar and chartorune) which will do the conversion and it should
  be pretty simple to convert files already in another format.  You would
  have to write something to do the transliteration yourself.  A small
  patch to the system would let you enter different language `modes' for
  text entry.
  Are there PostScript or TrueType fonts available?
  Apparently there is a version of the Lucida fonts by Bigelow and Holmes
  which support Unicode.  This is the information I have on them.
  [ed: quoting another source]
  [Windows NT] will ship with a Unicode TrueType font containing
  approximately 1,500 characters.  The font is called "Lucida Sans
  Unicode" and was specifically designed by Bigelow and Holmes for
  Microsoft to contain the following Unicode sets:
       Latin 1
       European Latin
       Extended Latin
       Standard Phonetic
       Modifier Letters
       Generic Diacritical
       Extended Cyrillic
       Currency Symbols
       Letterlike Symbols
       Mathematical Operators
       Super & Subscript
       Form & Chart Components
       Geometric Shapes
       Miscellaneous Technical
       Miscellaneous Dingbats
  The bitmap fonts which comes with the utf version of the libXg graphics
  library (the library upon which sam is built) support a sparse subset
  of the full character set.  That is, only a few of them have glyphs at
  present.  A font editor such as xfedor would let you add more.  The list
  of those currently available is pretty much as the above list.
  I use 9term and sam as a matter of course now and have for several
  months.  I enjoy the convenience of putting special characters and
  accented characters in my mail as well as being able to do some
  phonetic work all in the one terminal/editor suite.
Subject: 1.23. Can I Print Checks with the MICR Font?
  This comes up all the time: standard ordinary laser toner is magnetic
  and will be read by the banks.  The gotcha is that standard laser toner
  rubs off in the *very* high-speed sorting equipment that are used, and
  this makes read rates drop low and the banks will hate you.
  I researched check printers for a customer, and was surprised to find
  this.  The Troy(tm) printers he bought are basically stock Ricoh
  engines that have slightly tighter paper handling (for registration),
  plus they add a proprietary Teflon-type powder coating on the output
  path to coat the checks.
  I saw some examples of checks printed with and without this special
  coating after running through something like 40 passes through check
  processing equipment, and the one without the coating was a mess. These
  require special handling that the banks do *not* like.  Apparently,
  they go after companies that issue these kinds of checks with special
  processing fees.
Subject: 1.24. Rules of Thumb
  It is difficult to set out guidelines for font usage, because almost
  any rule can be brilliantly broken under the right circumstances.
     * General guidelines:
          * Never lose track of the kind of work you're doing. An effect
            that would ruin a newsletter might be just the thing for a
            record cover.  Know when you can safely sacrifice legibility
            for artistic effect.
          * Keep in mind the final reproduction process you'll be using.
            Some effects (like reversed type, white on black) can be hard
            to read off an ordinary 300-dpi laser, but will work if
            finals are done on a high-resolution printer, such as a
            Linotronic. Will the pages be photocopied? Offset? Onto rough
            paper, shiny paper?  All these factors can and should
            influence your choice of fonts and how you use them.
          * Running some comparative tests is a good idea. Better to blow
            off a few sheets of laser paper now than to see a problem
            after thousands of copies are made.
          * No one can teach you font aesthetics; it must be learned by
            example.  Look at beautiful magazines, posters, books with
            wide eyes, so that you can see how it's done. Examine ugly
            printed matter critically and consider why it's hard to read.
     * Good rules of thumb:
          * If you need a condensed font, find one that was designed that
            way, rather than scaling an existing font down to a
            percentage.  Any scaling distorts a font's design; excessive
            scaling interferes with legibility - this goes for widening
            as well as narrowing. Extended faces do exist, although they
            aren't as common as condensed ones.
          * Many people feel that bold or italic type, or type in ALL
            CAPS, is more legible: "This is the most important part of
            the newsletter, let's put it in bold." In fact, legibility
            studies show that such type is actually harder to read in
            bulk. Keep the text in a normal style and weight, and find
            another way to emphasize it - box it, illustrate it, run it
            in color, position it focally.
          * Too much reverse type - white on black - is hard on the eyes.
            It can be a nice effect if used sparingly. Don't reverse a
            serif font, though - its details will tend to fill in. Stick
            to reversing bold sans-serifs, and remember to space them out
            a bit more than usual.
          * It is always safest to use a plain serif font for large
            amounts of text. Because Times is widely used, it doesn't
            mean it should be avoided. Fonts like Palatino, Times,
            Century Old Style are deservedly popular because people can
            read a lot of text set in such faces without strain.
            Don't expect anyone to read extensive text set in a condensed
          * As point size gets bigger, track tighter, and (if the
            software allows) reduce the spacebands as well. A spaceband
            in a headline size (anything over 14 point) should be about
            as wide as a letter "i".
          * If you only have a few large headlines, hand-kerning the
            type, pair by pair, can make the end result much more
            pleasing.  Besides, working with fonts this closely makes
            them familiar.
          * Column width and justification are major elements in design.
            The narrower the column, the smaller the type can be; wide
            rows of small type are very hard to read. Often it's a better
            idea to set narrow columns flush left rather than justified,
            otherwise large gaps can fall where hyphenation isn't
          * Use curly quotes.
          * Don't put two spaces at the end of a line (.  ) instead of (.
            ) when using a proportionally spaced font.
  This is Info file, produced by Makeinfo-1.55 from the
  input file FAQ.texinfo.
Subject: 1.25. Acknowledgements
  The moderators would like to express their gratitude to the whole
  community for providing insightful answers to innumerable questions.  In
  particular, the following people (listed alphabetically) have
  contributed directly to this FAQ (apologies, in advance, if anyone has
  been forgotten):
                       Masumi Abe <[email protected]>
                       Glenn Adams <[email protected]>
            Daniel Amor <[email protected]>
                 Borris Balzer <[email protected]>
               Charles A. Bigelow <[email protected]>
                   David J. Birnbaum <[email protected]>
                Tim Bradshaw <[email protected]>
                         Morgan S. Brilliant <???>
                      Arlen Britton <[email protected]>
                       Stan Brown <[email protected]>
                Scott Brumage <[email protected]>
                     Lee Cambell <[email protected]>
                 Terry Carroll <[email protected]>
              Gerd Castan <[email protected]>
                       Ari Davidow <[email protected]>
       Eve Damaziere <[email protected]> (c/o Stephane Bortzmeyer)
                  Lawrence D'Oliveiro <[email protected]>
                     Pat Farrell <[email protected]>
                 James Matthew Farrow <[email protected]>
                Stephen Friedl <[email protected]>
              Peter J. Gentry <[email protected]>
                 Yossi Gil <[email protected]>
               Timothy Golobic <[email protected]>
                   Kesh Govinder <[email protected]>
              Piercarlo Antonio Grandi <[email protected]>
                      Robert Green <[email protected]>
                     Rick Heli <[email protected]>
                 Jeremy Henderson <[email protected]>
                      Henry ??? <[email protected]>
                      Gary <[email protected]>
                   Berthold K.P. Horn <[email protected]>
                      Peter Honig <[email protected]>
                      Don Hosek <[email protected]>
                     Bharathi Jagadeesh <[email protected]>
               Chang Jin-woong <[email protected]>
                     Darrell Leland <[email protected]>
                       David Lemon <[email protected]>
                          Jon <[email protected]>
                      ??? <[email protected]>
                      ??? <[email protected]>
                      Otto Makela <[email protected]>
                  David Mandl <[email protected]>
                Kate McDonnell <[email protected]>
                   George Moore <[email protected]>
                   Robert Morris <[email protected]>
                  Stephen Moye <[email protected]>
                   Erlend Nagel <[email protected]>
                Terry O'Donnell <[email protected]>
               Rick Pali <[email protected]>
                    Sean Palmer <[email protected]>
                    Jon Pastor <[email protected]>
                PenDragon <[email protected]>
                  Stephen Peters <[email protected]>
                     Bill Phillips <[email protected]>
               Thomas W. Phinney <[email protected]>
                      Jim Reese <[email protected]>
                      Bill Ricker <[email protected]>
                          Liam Quin <[email protected]>
                            Henry Schneiker <?>
                       Tom Scott <[email protected]>
                 Bill Shirley <[email protected]>
               Cameron Smith <[email protected]>
                  Daniel S. Smith <[email protected]>
                     Frank F. Smith <[email protected]>
                    Werenfried Spit <[email protected]>
                      Anthony Starks <[email protected]>
                    Ike Stoddard <[email protected]>
                   Danny Thomas <[email protected]>
                   Anders Thulin <[email protected]>
                  Ian Tresman <[email protected]>
                    Bill Troop <[email protected]>
                   Erik-Jan Vens <[email protected]>
                     Amanda Walker <[email protected]>
               Jason Lee Weiler <[email protected]>
Subject: 1.26. A Brief Introduction to Typography
  Space, time, and bandwidth are too limiting to provide a complete
  introduction to typography in this space.  I'd be very willing to make
  one available for anonymous ftp, if you want to write one, but I'm not
  going to write it-I have neither the time nor the expertise.  However,
  the following description of Times, Helvetica, and Courier will suffice
  for a start.  For more information, several books on typography are
  listed in the bibliography.
  Comments by Laurence Penney:
  Laurence Penney offers the following description of Times, Helvetica,
  and Courier:
  Times is a typeface designed in the 1930s for the Times newspaper in
  London and is now used widely in books, magazines and DTP. Its design
  is based on the typographical principles evolved since Roman times
  (upper case) and the 16th century (lower case). It is called a
  TRANSITIONAL typeface, after the typefaces of the 17th century which it
  resembles.  Like all typefaces designed for typesetting large
  quantities of text, it is proportionally spaced: the i takes about a
  third the width of an M.  Personally I don't like Times too much and
  prefer the more elegant Garamond and Baskerville, but these will
  probably cost you money...  Note: The Transitionals came after the Old
  Styles (like Garamond) and before the Moderns (like Bodoni).
  Helvetica is an example of a SANS-SERIF typeface. These first appeared
  in the late 19th century in Germany and flourished in the 1920s and
  30s, when they were regarded as the future of typography.  It's more a
  geometric design than the humanist design of Gill Sans, but less
  geometric than Avant Garde and Futura. To my mind it lacks elegance,
  and Adrian Frutiger's Univers shows how this kind of typeface should be
  done. (Just compare the B, R, Q, a, g of Univers and Helvetica to see
  what I mean - and don't you just love Univers's superbly interpreted
  ampersand ?!) Helvetica is one of the few fonts that is improved by its
  BOLD version.
  Another interesting approach to sans-serif is Optima, by Hermann Zapf,
  which keeps the stroke-weight variations which sans-serifs usually
  reject. Use sans-serif fonts for the same applications as Times, above,
  but where you're less concerned with elegance, and more with a
  functional appearance - they're generally reckoned to be slightly less
  legible than good serifed fonts. They're also very suitable for display
  Courier is a typeface derived from typewriter styles. It should ONLY be
  used when you want to simulate this effect (e.g. when writing letters
  Courier usually appears "friendlier" than Times). Like all typewriter
  fonts, it is MONOSPACED (characters all have the same width) and is
  thus suitable for typesetting computer programs. However there are
  nicer looking monospace fonts than Courier (which has oversize serifs),
  that still remain distinct from the text fonts like Times and
  Helvetica. A good one is OCR-B, designed by Frutiger. Note that
  monospaced fonts are less economical on space than proportional fonts.
  [ed: Following the original posting of this message, Laurence Penny and
  Jason Kim discussed the issue privately.  The following summary of
  their discussion may serve to clarify some of the more subtle points.
  My thanks to Laurence and Jason for allowing me to include this in the
  LP-1> The Transitionals came after the Old Styles (like Garamond) and
  before the Moderns (like Bodoni).
  JK> Not necessarily true!  Ideologically, yes, but not chronologically.
  I believe, for example, that Bodoni predates New Century Schoolbook or
  some such typeface.
  LP-2> What I meant by "X came after Y" was "the first examples of X
  appeared after the first examples of Y" - it's called precis. Some
  people still make steam trains, but you can still say "Steam engines
  came before diesels." This is chronological, not ideological in my book.
  LP-1> Another interesting approach to sans-serif is Optima, by Hermann
  Zapf, which keeps the stroke-weight variations which sans-serifs
  usually reject. Use sans-serif fonts for the same applications as
  Times, above, but where you're less concerned with elegance, and more
  with a functional appearance - they're generally reckoned to be
  slightly less legible than good seriffed fonts. They're also very
  suitable for display work.
  JK> Slightly? I have several textbooks typeset by utter fools and they
  are a pain in the ass (and eyes) to read! Please don't encourage anyone
  to use Optima (or any sans serif fonts for that matter) "for the same
  applications as Times," which, need I remind you, was designed for
  *newspaper* work!!
  LP-2> OK, maybe I was a little over-generous to Univers, Helvetica,
  etc., but I think variation is extremely important in typography. Have
  you ever read the British magazine "CAR" ? That uses Helvetica light (I
  think) in a very legible and attractive way, IMO.  I agree, though,
  Optima is crappy for text, but it's a very valuable experiment and
  looks beautiful when printed in high quality for titling, etc. And yes,
  *books* in Helvetica are generally awful.
  JK> Serifs have been scientifically shown to be a *lot* easier on the
  reader, as they guide the eyes along the lines.
  LP-2> In all tests I've seen the serifs have always won the day, but
  only with certain seriffed fonts, and fonts like Univers aren't far
  behind. The "tracking" advantage for serif fonts is reduced when you're
  talking about narrow newspaper/magazine columns.
  JK> You wrote a pretty short and partial history of type. Why ignore
  the roots of type (blackletter) as well as the climax (moderns-give an
  explanation) and subsequent 'post-modern' revivals?
  LP-2> I was just talking about the place the 3 most common DTP types
  hold in the history of typography, and a few associated pitfalls. It
  wasn't meant as a "history of typography" at all. Please feel free to
  provide such a history yourself.
  JK> I think any short list of specific faces is incomplete without
  mention of Palatino, the most popular Old Style revival in existence.
  LP-2> Do you? To my mind Palatino is grossly over used. You must agree
  it looks bad for dense text. It isn't a proper "oldstyle revival" at
  all, more of a "calligraphic interpretation" of it. Zapf designed it as
  a display face, and wasn't too concerned about lining up the serifs
  (check out the "t"). And it just *has* to be printed on 1200dpi devices
  (at least) to look good in small sizes. OK then, maybe a short list is
  incomplete without a caution NOT to use Palatino...
  JK> Also, if this is meant to be a "quick history/user guide for those
  fairly new to using fonts on desktop publishing systems," then I would
  recommend more directions about the proper uses of certain faces (e.g.,
  Goudy for shaped text, Peignot for display *only*) and styles (e.g.,
  italics for editorial comments, all-caps for basically nothing).
  LP-2> Okay, okay. I was only sharing a few ideas, not trying to write a
  book. Surely you agree that the 3 typefaces I chose are by far the most
  commonly used and abused these days? I don't think a discussion of
  Goudy or Peignot fits in very well here, unless we're hoping to make a
  very wide-ranging FAQL. Regarding styles: first, italics are used
  principally for *emphasis* (rather than bold in running text); second,
  all good books have a few small caps here and there, don't they? - all
  mine do...
  JK> Sorry if I come across as critical. I think the idea of making a
  FAQL is a good one, as is your effort. We just have to make sure it
  doesn't give any newbies the wrong impressions and further perpetuate
  the typographical morass we're facing today.
  LP-2> Sorry if I come across as defensive, but I stand by what I said
  and object to the suggestion that I am "perpetuating the typographical
  morass". (I don't know if you really intended this - apologies if you
  Comments by Don Hosek:
  Don Hosek offers the following additional notes:
  The "Times" in most printers is actually a newer version of the font
  than Monotype's "Times New Roman" which it is originally based on.
  Walter Tracy's _Letters of Credit_ gives an excellent history of the
  face which was based on Plantin and in the original cutting has metrics
  matching the original face almost exactly. Another interesting note
  about the face is that it is almost a completely different design in
  the bold: this is due to the fact that old-styles are difficult to
  design as a bold. Incidentally, the classification of Times as a
  transitional is not firm. It likely is placed there by some type
  taxonomists (most notably Alexander Lawson) because of the bold and a
  few minor features. Others, myself included, think of it as a old
  style. The typeface listed in the Adobe catalog as Times Europa was a
  new face commissioned in 1974 to replace the old Times (whose 50th
  birthday was this past October 3rd).
  Hermann Zapf is not particularly pleased with any of the
  phototypesetting versions of Optima. As a lead face, Optima is very
  beautiful. His typeface "World", used in the World Book Encyclopedia is
  one recutting for photocomp which improves the font somewhat. He is on
  record as saying that if he had been asked, he would have designed a
  new font for the technology.
Subject: 1.27. A Brief History of Type
  Thomas W. Phinney contributes the following discussion of the history
  of type(1):
  It is difficult to cover all the developments and movements of
  typography in a short space.  My separation of evolving technologies
  from the development of typefaces is an artificial one--designs and the
  technology used to create them are not truly separable--but perhaps it
  is conceptually useful.
  Where names of typefaces are used, I attempt to use the original name:
  there are often clones with very similar names.
  I shall update, clarify and correct this essay periodically, and will be
  happy to credit contributors. I can be e-mailed on CompuServe at
  75671,2441 (Internet: [email protected]).
  Type Technology--The Four Revolutions
  Gutenberg (ca. 1450-1480) & The Impact of Printing
  Before the printing press, books were produced by scribes (at first,
  primarily based in monasteries, although by the 12th century there were
  many lay copiers serving the university market). The process of writing
  out an entire book by hand was as labor-intensive as it sounds (try it
  some time): so much so that a dozen volumes constituted a library, and a
  hundred books was an awe- inspiring collection.
  This remained true until the invention of movable type, the perfection
  of which is attributed to Johannes Gutenberg (although the Chinese had
  it several centuries earlier, and a Dutch fellow named Coster may have
  had some crude form a decade earlier). Gutenberg, although a man of
  vision, did not personally profit from his invention. He worked for over
  a decade with borrowed capital, and his business was repossessed by his
  investors before the first mass-produced book was successfully
  printed--the Gutenberg Bible of 1454, printed in Mainz by Fust and
  Gutenberg's basic process remained unchanged for centuries. A punch made
  of steel, with a mirror image of the letter is struck into a piece of
  softer metal. Molten metal is poured into this, and you get type. The
  type is put into a matrix to form the page of text, inked, then pressed
  into paper.
  Within several decades typesetting technology spread across Europe.
  The speed with which it did so is impressive: within the first fifty
  years, there were over a thousand printers who set up shops in over two
  hundred European cities. Typical print runs for early books were in the
  neighborhood of two hundred to a thousand books.
  Some of these first printers were artisans, while others were just
  people who saw an opportunity for a quick lira/franc/pound. The modern
  view of a classical era in which craftsmanship predominated appears
  unjustified to scholars: there has always been fine craft, crass
  commercialism, and work that combines both.
  To those who have grown up with television, radio, magazines, books,
  movies, faxes and networked computer communications it is difficult to
  describe just how much of a revolution printing was. It was the first
  mass medium, and allowed for the free spread of ideas in a completely
  unprecedented fashion. The Protestant Reformation might not have
  occurred, or might have been  crushed, without the ability to quickly
  create thousands of copies of Luther's Theses for distribution.
  Many groups sought to control this new technology. Scribes fought
  against the introduction of printing, because it could cost them their
  livelihoods, and religious (and sometimes secular) authorities sought to
  control what was printed. Sometimes this was successful: for centuries
  in some European countries, books could only be printed by government
  authorized printers, and nothing could be printed without the approval
  of the Church.  Printers would be held responsible rather than authors
  for the spread of unwanted ideas, and some were even executed. But this
  was a largely futile struggle, and most such restraints eventually
  crumbled in the western world.
  Industrial Revolution: Steam, Line-casting & Automated Punch-cutting (start 1870-95; end 1950-65)
  Amazingly, the printing press and the science of typecutting had only
  minor refinements from the late 1500s to the late 1800s. Towards the
  end of this period, the industrial revolution brought major innovations
  in printing technology. Rotary steam presses (steam 1814, rotary 1868)
  replaced hand- operated ones, doing the same job in 16 per cent of the
  time; photo-engraving took over from handmade printing plates.
  Typesetting itself was transformed by the introduction of line-casting
  machines, first Ottmar Mergenthaler's Linotype (1889), and then the
  Monotype machine. Essentially, line-casting allowed type be chosen,
  used, then recirculate back into the machine automatically. This not
  only introduced a huge labor savings in typesetting, (again, on the
  order of the 85% reduction in printing time), but also rendered
  obsolete the huge masses of metal type created by the previously
  existing type foundries.
  While typesetting and printing speeds increased phenomenally, so did the
  speed of punchcutting. In 1885, Linn Boyd Benton (then of Benton, Waldo
  & Company, Milwaukee) invented a pantographic device that automated the
  previously painstaking process of creating punches. His machine could
  scale a drawing to the required size, as well as compressing or
  expanding the characters, and varying the weight slightly to compensate
  for the larger or smaller size-- this last being a crude form of the
  "optical scaling" done by skilled typographers making versions of the
  same font for different sizes. In optical scaling, the thickest strokes
  retain the same relative thickness at any size, but the thinnest
  strokes are not simply scaled up or down with the rest of the type, but
  made thicker at small sizes and thinner at large display sizes, so as
  to provide the best compromise between art and readability.
  The economic impact of all these advances on the type industry cannot be
  overstated. For example, in the United States, the majority of type
  foundries escaped a bankruptcy bloodbath in 1892 by merging into a
  single company, called American Type Founders (ATF). Ultimately
  twenty-three companies merged into ATF, making it far and away the
  dominant American type foundry.
  Also around this time, the "point" measurement system finally reached
  ascendancy. In the earlier days of printing, different sizes of type had
  simply been called by different names. Thus, "Brevier" was simply the
  British name for 8-point type of any style. Unfortunately, these names
  were not standardized internationally; 8-point type was called "Petit
  Texte" by the French and "Testino" by the Italians. Such a naming
  system also allowed wonderful confusion, such as "English" referring
  both to blackletter type, and a 14-point size; "English English" was
  thus a 14-point blackletter!
  Pierre Simon Fournier had first proposed a comprehensive point system in
  1737, with later refinements, but what was ultimately adopted was the
  later version developed by Francois Ambroise Didot. This put
  approximately 72 points to the inch (and now exactly 72 points to the
  inch on most computer- based typesetting systems).
  Photocomposition (Intertype et. al., start 1950-60, end 1975-85)
  The first photocomposition devices (the French "Photon" and Intertype's
  Fotosetter) made their debuts as early as 1944, but didn't really catch
  on until the early 1950s.  Typeface masters for photocomposition are on
  film; the characters are projected onto photo-sensitive paper.  Lenses
  are used to adjust the size of the image, scaling the type to the
  desired size.  In some senses this technology was an "improvement,"
  allowing new freedoms, such as overlapping characters.  However, it
  also pretty much eliminated optical scaling (see 2.2, above), because
  in the rush to convert fonts to the new format, usually only one design
  was used, which was directly scaled to the desired size.
  Digital (start 1973-83)
  The earliest computer-based typesetters were a hybrid between the above-
  mentioned photocomposition machines and later pure digital output. They
  each had their own command language for communicating with output
  devices. Although these machines had advantages, they also had
  problems. None of these early command languages handled graphics well,
  and they all had their own formats for fonts.  However, some of these
  devices are still in service as of 1995, for use in production
  environments which require more speed and less flexibility (phone
  books, newspapers, flight schedules, etc.).
  In the late 1980s PostScript gradually emerged as the de facto standard
  for digital typesetting.  This was due to a variety of reasons,
  including its inclusion in the Apple Laserwriter printer and its
  powerful graphics handling.  When combined with the Macintosh (the
  first widely used computer with a what-you-see-is-what-you-get display)
  and PageMaker (the first desktop publishing program), the seeds were
  all sown for the current dominance of computer-based typesetting.
  Most high-end typesetting still involves printing to film, and then
  making printing plates from the film. However, the increasing use of
  high- resolution printers (600-1200 dots per inch) makes the use of
  actual printing presses unnecessary for some jobs. And the next step
  for press printing is the elimination of film altogether, as is done by
  a few special systems today, in which the computer can directly create
  printing plates.
  Today, although PostScript predominates, there are a variety of
  competing page description languages (PostScript, HP PCL, etc.), font
  formats (Postscript Type One and Multiple Master, Truetype and Truetype
  GX) computer hardware platforms (Mac, Windows, etc.) and desktop
  publishing and graphics programs. Digital typesetting is commonplace,
  and photocomposition is at least dying, if not all but dead. Digital
  typefaces on computer, whether Postscript or some other format, are
  generally outline typefaces, which may be scaled to any desired size
  (although optical scaling is still an issue).
  There has been considerable economic fallout from all this in
  typography.  Although some digital type design tools are beyond the
  price range of the "average" user, many are in the same price range as
  the mid- to high-end graphics and desktop publishing programs.  This,
  combined with the introduction of CD-ROM typeface collections, has
  moved digital type away from being an expensive, specialized tool,
  towards becoming a commodity.  As a result of both this and the brief
  photocomposition interregnum, the previously established companies have
  undergone major shakeups, and even some major vendors, such as American
  Type Founders, have failed to successfully make the digital transition,
  and gone bankrupt instead (although at this time ATF appears to be
  undergoing a resurrection). More recently, even major digital type
  foundries have-dare one say foundered?-on the shoals of ubiquitous
  cheap typefaces (even a licensing deal with Corel Corp seems to have
  been insufficient to save URW).
  Although there is a new accessibility of type design tools for hobbyists
  and professional graphic artists, the decreasing value of individual
  typefaces has resulted in a decrease in the number of working type
  designers per se (both independents and company-employed).
  Type Forms Through the Centuries
  One must keep in mind that although typefaces may have come into use at
  a particular point in time, they often continued in general use far
  beyond that time. Even after the rise of old style typefaces in the
  late 1500s, the blackletter type was commonly used for setting text for
  several centuries (well into the 1900s in Germany). With later
  interpretations of earlier forms being relatively common, the *style*
  of a given typeface may belong to a quite different period from that of
  the typeface itself! Further, many typefaces have very complex
  histories: a type could have been originally designed in metal at one
  time, reworked by someone else later, made into a phototypesetting face
  by another person, and then later created in digital form by yet
  another designer--who might have been working off of any of the above
  as the basis of their work.
  The classification system used here (old style, transitional, modern,
  sans serif, slab serif, etc.) has the virtues of being both simple and
  widely used.  However, the precision and artistic accuracy of this
  system is perhaps dubious: see Robert Bringhurst's Elements of
  Typographic Style or his article in the first issue of Serif magazine
  for a more thorough system.
  In discussing the differences between type, one must refer to a number
  of technical terms. For illustrations of these terms, see also the
  downloadable graphics file TYPHS_72.GIF or TYPHS300.GIF. The numbers
  refer to the dots per inch of the graphic when scaled to a full page:
  72 dpi is a low resolution suitable for screen viewing, while 300 dpi
  is better-suited to laser printing. With any luck, both should be
  available for FTP or download from the same site as this file. If so,
  you would be well advised to refer to these pictures for illustrations
  of both these terms and the differences between different categories of
  typefaces. If you are a newcomer to typography, some sort of visual
  reference is essential to understand the differences between fonts
  explained here. Your options include: the aforementioned graphics
  files; type samples from a book, manual or font vendor's catalog; or
  simply viewing or printing out the fonts you have available on your
  computer system, if you have a reasonable variety.
  Contrast: The degree of difference between the thick and thin strokes in
  a font (if any).
  Stress (axis): The angle at which contrast occurs, usually ranging from
  vertical to a somewhat back-slanted diagonal. This can best be noted by
  looking at, for example, the letter "O" and noting if the bottom left is
  thicker than the top left, and the top right is thicker than the bottom
  right.  If this difference exists, the letter has diagonal stress. If
  the two halves of the "O" are a mirror image of each other, with the
  sides thicker than the top/bottom, then the letter has vertical stress.
  If the top and bottom of the "O" are the same thickness as the sides,
  there is neither contrast nor stress.
  Serifs: Those "finishing strokes" or "fillips" going off the ending
  lines of a letter. For example, when the number "1" or the letter "i"
  are drawn with a bar across the bottom, the two halves of the bar are
  serifs. If the serif is joined to the letter by a slight flaring out,
  it is said to be "bracketed."
  Early Letterforms
  Although writing itself can be traced back to several millennia B.C., to
  Egyptian hieroglyphics and Sumerian cuneiform inscriptions, modern
  letter forms have their most immediate heritage in Roman inscriptions
  from around 50- 120 AD, such as the one on the base of Trajan's Column
  in the Roman Forum (114 AD, digital version by Twombly for Adobe, 1989).
  Although early Latin writing was heavily influenced by these chiseled-
  in-stone letterforms, over the centuries it evolved into a variety of
  other shapes, including uncials and the related Carolingian script. It
  is through this period of the sixth to tenth centuries that we see the
  development of the lower case (minuscule) letter as a different shape
  from the upper case (capital).
  Type forms similar to what we now think of as "normal" letter shapes
  evolved from the Carolingian (or Caroline) minuscule. The Carolingian
  letters are so-called because of their adoption by the Emperor
  Charlemagne (late 10th century) as a standard for education. Digital
  revivals of these exist, such as Carol Twombly's Charlemagne (1989).
  By the fifteenth century, italics also existed, in the form of a cursive
  script which had developed in Rome and Florence.  However, italics at
  this time were a completely separate entity from the upright
  letterforms, as they remained in the early days of printing.
  The first printed types exemplify what most people think of as medieval
  or "old English" lettering, with ornate capitals, roughly diamond-shaped
  serifs, and thick lines. As a group, these typefaces are called
  "blackletter." They evolved from the Carolingian by a gradual movement
  towards narrowing and thickening of lines.
  The general sort of blackletter used by Gutenberg in his first Bible is
  called textura (a shareware digital version of Gutenberg's bible face is
  available, called "Good City Modern"). The other sorts of blackletter
  are fraktur, bastarda and rotunda. Probably the most common blackletter
  revival typefaces in use today are Cloister Black (M.F. Benton, 1904,
  from J.W.  Phinney) and Fette Fraktur.
  It is worth noting that although these typefaces seem very hard to read
  to us today, this is due as much to familiarity as to any objective
  lesser clarity.  Fraktur was in use in Germany well into the 1900s,
  though it was gradually being superseded by Roman typefaces. The Nazis
  at first fostered a return to Fraktur, then outlawed it as a "Jewish
  typeface" in 1940.
  Studies from mid-century found that people can read blackletter with a
  speed loss of no more than 15%. However, there is subjectively more
  effort involved. Blackletter is today most appropriate for display or
  headline purposes, when one wants to invoke the feeling of a particular
  Old Style Typefaces: Centaur, Bembo, Jenson, Garamond, Caslon
  E.P. Goldschmidt, as explained by Stanley Morison, claimed that "the
  supersession of black-letter was not due to any 'technical advance,' it
  was the visible expression of a changed attitude of mind." The
  Renaissance was typified by an obsession with things "classical," in
  the Greco-Roman sense, which had major implications for typography. The
  neo-classical letterforms were somewhat more condensed than the
  Carolingian shapes, but much rounder and more expanded than the
  Old style type is generally considered "warm" or friendly, thanks to
  its origins in Renaissance humanism. The main characteristics of old
  style typefaces are low contrast with diagonal stress, and cove or
  "bracketed" serifs (serifs with a rounded join to the stem of the
  letter). The earliest (Venetian or Renaissance) old style typefaces
  (originally 15th-16th Century) have very minimal contrast, and a sloped
  cross-bar on the lower-case "e." One such is Bruce Rogers' Centaur
  (1916), based on Jenson. Similarly, Monotype's Bembo (1929) is based on
  the work of Francesco Griffo, circa 1499.
  Italics at this point were still independent designs, and were generally
  used completely separately; a whole book could be set in italics.
  Probably the most famous italic of the period is Arrighi's (1524),
  which may be seen today as the italic form of Centaur. Likewise, the
  italic form of Bembo is based on the italic of Tagliente (also 1524).
  Later or baroque old style type (17th Century) generally has more
  contrast, with a somewhat variable axis, and more slope of italic. The
  most common examples are the types of Garamond and Caslon, many variant
  revivals of which exist in digital form.
  Transitional Type: Baskerville, Fournier
  "Transitional" type is so-called because of its intermediate position
  between old style and modern. The distinguishing features of
  transitional typefaces include vertical stress and slightly higher
  contrast than old style typefaces, combined with horizontal serifs. The
  most influential examples are Philippe Grandjean's "Romain du Roi" for
  the French Crown around 1702, Pierre Simon Fournier's work circa 1750,
  and John Baskerville's work from 1757 onwards. Although today we
  remember Baskerville primarily for his typeface designs, in his own
  time people were much more impressed by his printing, which used an
  innovative glossy paper and wide margins.
  Later transitional types begin to move towards "modern" designs.
  Contrast is accentuated, and serifs are more flattened. Current
  examples of such are based on originals from approximately 1788-1810,
  and are dominated by British isles designers, such as Richard Austin
  (Bell, 1788), William Martin (Bulmer) and Miller & Richard (Scotch
  For currently available examples of transitional type, there are many
  types which bear Baskerville's name, descending from one or another of
  his designs. Less common today is P.S. Fournier's work, although
  several versions of it are available in digital or metal form. Although
  Scotch Roman has been a very common face in metal type usage since
  Monotype's 1920 revival, it is not a common digital face. Bell, on the
  other hand, is included in a Microsoft Font Pack, and Bulmer has
  received more attention since its revival by Monotype in late 1994.
  Modern Type: Didot, Bodoni, Walbaum
  "Modern" typefaces are distinguishable by their sudden-onset vertical
  stress and strong contrast. Modern serifs and horizontals are very thin,
  almost hairlines. Although they are very striking, these typefaces are
  sometimes criticized as cold or harsh, and may not be quite as readable
  for very extensive text work, such as books.
  A number of designers, perhaps semi-independently, created the first
  modern typefaces in the late 1700s and early 1800s. One of the first,
  and ultimately the most influential, was Giambattista Bodoni, of Parma,
  Italy.  Ironically, historians of type often relate the development of
  the "modern" letterforms to a then-current obsession with things
  Roman--in this case the strong contrast and sharp serifs of classical
  Roman inscriptions. Although similar interests
  Today, the most common "modern" typefaces are the dozens of
  reinterpretations of Bodoni's work (which itself evolved over time).
  One of the most successful reinterpretations is the 1994 ITC Bodoni by
  Stone et. al., featuring three different optical sizes. Although little
  is seen of Didot, a reinterpretation by J.E. Walbaum (ca. 1800) sees
  occasional use.
  Sans Serif & Slab Serif
  These type forms made their first appearances around 1815-1817. Both are
  marked by simpler letterforms with (usually) relatively uniform stroke
  weight, lacking significant contrast, often geometric in underlying
  The earliest forms of sans and slab typefaces tended to be heavy, often
  monolithic, display faces, but there quickly evolved a wide range of
  styles.  Although the earliest designs are not much used today, their
  descendants are common enough.
  Sans Serif (a.k.a. Gothic or Grotesque)
  Sans serif letters have no serifs, as the name suggests. The low
  contrast and absence of serifs makes most sans typefaces harder to
  follow for general reading. They are fine for a sentence, passable for
  a paragraph, but are difficult to use well in, say, the text of a book.
  The terminology of sans serif types can be confusing: essentially,
  gothic or grotesque are both generic names for sans serif (although
  Letter Gothic, confusingly, is more of a slab serif type).
  In sans serif faces, the italics are often, although not always, simply
  a sloped (mechanically obliqued) version of the roman letters, making
  them totally subordinate to the roman.
  By far the most common sans is Helvetica (1951, Miedinger), despite
  being abhorred by many typographers. Helvetica does have the advantage
  of coming in a huge range of weights and widths, which makes it
  versatile, and its ubiquitous character makes it easy to match. Other
  general-purpose sans serifs include Univers (Frutiger, 1952+), Arial
  (Monotype), Franklin Gothic (M.F. Benton, 1903) and Frutiger (Frutiger,
  Sprouting from the Art Deco movement in the 1920s and 30s (see Art
  Deco), radical geometrical shapes began to be used as the basis for
  sans serif designs.
  There are a few other common sans faces which do not fall cleanly into
  the above categories.  Eric Gill's 1928 Gill Sans has an almost
  architectural quality, and its greater contrast and humanistic design
  makes it better-suited than most sans serif typefaces to setting bodies
  of text.  The same can perhaps be said of a number of late 20th Century
  humanistic sans faces (see below)
  Slab Serif (Egyptian)
  These faces have block-like rectangular serifs, sticking out
  horizontally or vertically, often the same thickness as the body
  strokes.  There is some debate about the origin of slab serif
  typefaces: did they originate by somebody adding serifs to a sans face,
  or were they conceived independently?
  But even if they had a separate genesis as a family, it is certainly the
  case that many of the most common and popular slab serif forms have been
  created by adding slab serifs to sans faces by the same designer (e.g.
  Adrian Frutiger's 1977 Glypha from his Univers, Herb Lubalin's 1974
  Lubalin Graph from his Avant Garde). Other slab serif faces include
  Berthold City (Trump, 1930), Memphis (Weiss, 1930), Serifa (Frutiger,
  1968) and Silica (Stone, 1990).
  The Clarendons or Ionics are an offspring of the slab serif typefaces in
  which the serifs are bracketed. These are often used in newspaper work,
  because their sturdy serifs hold up well under adverse printing
  conditions.  The most famous member of this sub-family is Century
  Schoolbook (M.F. Benton, 1924-35).
  Decorative & Display Type
  Fat Faces
  The "Fat Face" types were an offshoot of the moderns, intended for
  display purposes (that is, to be attention-getting for use in large
  sizes, particularly advertising). The first such types appeared from
  1810-1820. They further exaggerated the contrast of modern typefaces,
  with slab-like vertical lines and extra emphasis of any vertical
  serifs, which often acquired a wedge shape. Bodoni Ultra, Normande and
  Elephant are all examples of fat face types which are closely based on
  early to mid-19th Century originals, and are available in digital form.
  Wood Type
  Wood type answered some of the needs of display advertising during the
  industrial revolution. It derives its name from the fact that instead of
  being made of metal, the type is carved from wood, cut perpendicular to
  the grain. It is distinguished by strong contrasts, an overall dark
  color, and a lack of fine lines. It may be unusually compressed or
  extended. Many wood types have an "Old West" feel, because they are most
  strongly associated with America in the 1870-1900 period. Some of the
  wood types most widely available today are those in an Adobe pantheon
  released in 1990, which includes Cottonwood, Ironwood and Juniper
  (Buker, Lind & Redick).
  Script, Brush, Italic & Freehand
  Script typefaces are based on handwriting; but often this is handwriting
  with either a flexible steel nib pen, or a broad-edged pen, and is thus
  unlike modern handwriting.
  Some common scripts based on steel nib styles include Shelley (Carter,
  1972), Coronet (Middleton, 1937-38), and Snell Roundhand (Carter, 1965,
  based on Snell ca. 1694).
  Script faces based more on the broad-edged tradition include the
  contemporary Park Avenue (Smith, 1933).
  There are also monoline scripts, which lack significant contrast in the
  letter strokes. One such is Freestyle Script.
  Brush typefaces look as if they were drawn with that instrument, which
  most of them were, at least in the original design from which the
  metal/film/digital face was created. Some of them resemble sign-painting
  lettering, such as Balloon (Kaufmann, 1939), Brush Script (Smith,
  1942), and Dom Casual (Dom, 1952).
  Brushwork can also be the basis for script, as with Present Script
  (Sallaway, 1974) and Mistral (Excoffon, 1953)
  Although modern typography typically relegates the italic to a second-
  class citizenship subordinate to the roman, there are still some italic
  typefaces designed as such in their own right. The best known is
  doubtless Zapf Chancery (Zapf, 1979). Others include Medici Script
  (Zapf, 1974) and Poetica (Slimbach, 1992).
  Art Nouveau
  The late Victorian era, from 1880 to World War I, was characterized by
  this ornamental style of art, with its organic, asymmetrical, intricate
  and flowing lines. This "Art Nouveau" (French, meaning "new art")
  produced similarly distinctive typography, which saw a revival during
  the 1960s.
  There are a fair number of digital revivals of art nouveau faces,
  although few are widely used. Some of the more common digital art
  nouveau typefaces are Arnold Boecklin (Weisert, 1904), Artistik,
  Desdemona, Galadriel and Victorian.
  Art Deco
  If Art Nouveau was about finding beauty in organic intricacy, Art Deco
  was perhaps about finding beauty in geometric simplicity. First
  appearing in the 1920s and 30s, Art Deco made a comeback in the 1970s
  and 80s as well.
  Almost by definition, Art Deco meant sans serif type. The most common
  such face is Avant Garde (1974, Lubalin), which is striking but hard to
  read at length. A more graceful geometric sans is Futura (Renner,
  1927-39). There are also more quirky faces in this category, such as
  Kabel (Koch, 1927-30).  A recent popular Art Deco display face is ITC
  Anna (1991?).
  Many of the most interesting typefaces of the twentieth century does not
  fit any of the above categories, or at least not easily. The reason is
  that they reflect not merely a single style, but cumulative experience,
  and the merger of different styles. This is perhaps true even of that
  most mundane of typefaces, Times New Roman (Lardent/Morison, 1931),
  which has old style, transitional and modern elements.
  Synthesis and Serif Type
  Although there are many practitioners of this synthesis, the most famous
  is Hermann Zapf. His Palatino (1948) and Zapf Renaissance (1987) are
  modern typefaces with the spirit of Renaissance letterforms. Melior
  (1952), Zapf Book (1976), and Zapf International (1977) all reflect an
  obsession with the super-ellipse, a rectangulated circle, as the basis
  for letter shapes.
  There have also been many modern revivals of old style which, while
  close to old style in spirit, are not direct revivals of a specific
  original, and show modern influences in the proportions or
  lettershapes. These include the Granjon-inspired Galliard (Carter, 1978)
  and Minion (Slimbach, 1989).
  Synthesis and Sans Serif Type
  After 1950, many designers began to explore a wide range of starting
  points as the basis for sans serif designs. Aldo Novarese's Eurostile
  (1964-5) takes sans serif forms and distorts them towards square and
  rectangular shapes.  Zapf's 1958 Optima is a masterful blend of sans
  serif shapes with Roman and calligraphic influences. Shannon (Holmes &
  Prescott Fishman, 1981) is a sans serif based on celtic manuscript
  proportions. Several designers have reinterpreted ancient Greek
  lettering for a modern sans serif alphabet: most popularly Carol
  Twombly's Lithos (1989), and most recently Matthew Carter's Skia GX
  (1994). Koch's Neuland (1930?) has a rough-hewn strength. Hans Eduard
  Meier's Syntax (1969) is one of the earliest sans typefaces which
  clearly echo renaissance roman letterforms. More recent sans faces
  often draw on a humanistic background, from Spiekerman's Meta to
  Vereschagin's Clear Prairie Dawn.
  "Grunge" Typography
  The most recent typographic wave is one which has sometimes been called
  grunge typography, after the musical movement originating in Seattle.
  Although it is far too early to judge the ultimate impact of grunge, I
  see the form as the merger of the industrial functionalist movement
  called Bauhaus (contemporary with Art Deco, named after the
  architectural school) with the wild, nihilistic absurdism of Dadaism.
  Grunge, like many typographic/artistic movements before it, is a
  rebellion; but this rebellion denies not only the relevance of anything
  previous, but sometimes even the relevance of legibility itself, in the
  belief that the medium *is* the message.
  As grunge type designer Carlos Segura of T-26 says, "Typography is
  beyond letters. Some fonts are so decorative, they almost become
  'visuals' and when put in text form, they tell a story beyond the
  words-a canvas is created by the personality of the collection of words
  on the page."
  Grunge typefaces and typography are seen in magazines such as RayGun.
  Some examples of grunge typography are the work of Barry Deck (Template
  Gothic, Cyberotica, Truth), Nguyen's Droplet, Goren's Morire and Lin's
  Tema Cantante.
  Published Sources:
  Although much of this information is based on prior knowledge, I also
  actively consulted the following publications:
  Bauermeister, Benjamin.  A Manual of Comparative Typography.  Van
  Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, NY: 1988.  ISBN 0-442-21187-2.
  Bringhurst, Robert.  The Elements of Typographic Style.  Hartley &
  Marks, Vancouver, BC: 1992.  ISBN 0-88179-033-8.  The modern classic in
  the field.
  Byers, Steve.  The Electronic Type Catalog.  Bantam Books, New York:
  1991.  ISBN 0-553-35446-9.
  Eisenstein, Elizabeth L.  The Printing Press as an Agent of Change.
  Cambridge University Press, New York: 1979.  ISBN 0-521-29955-1.
  Harper, Laurel.  "Thirstype: Quenching a Type Craving" in How: the
  Bottomline Design Magazine, vol. 10, #1, Jan-Feb 1995.  Although not
  usually a thrilling magazine, had several pieces on typography in this
  issue (see Segura, below).
  Letraset Canada Limited.  Letraset Product Manual. Letraset, Markham,
  Ontario, Canada: 1985.
  Meggs, Philip B. "American Type Founders Specimen Book & Catalog 1923"
  in Print Magazine, vol. 48 #1, Jan-Feb 1994.  Contains some interesting
  info on the effects of industrialization on the type industry.
  Sutton, James & Bartram,  Alan. An Atlas of Typeforms.  Percy, Lund,
  Humphries & Co., Hertfordshire, UK: 1968. ISBN 1-85326-911-5.
  Morison, Stanley & Day, Kenneth.  The Typographic Book: 1450-1935.
  University of Chicago Press, Chicago: 1963.
  Segura, Carlos & Nelson, Lycette.  "Typography in Context: Never Take a
  Font at Face Value" in How: the Bottomline Design Magazine, vol. 10,
  #1, Jan-Feb 1995.
  Tracy, Walter.  Letters of Credit: a View of Type Design.  David R.
  Godine Co.: 1986.
  Updike, Daniel Berkeley.  Printing Types: Their History, Forms & Use.
  Harvard Press: 1962.
  Zapf, Hermann.  "The Expression of Our Time in Typography" in Heritage
  of the Graphic Arts. R.R. Bowker Company, New York: 1972.   ISBN
  Personal Contributions:
  In addition to written sources, which are identified above, I would like
  to thank the following for their helpful comments and corrections (any
  errors are, of course, my responsibility): Robert Hemenway, Mary Jo
  Kostya, and Dan Margulis
  ---------- Footnotes ----------
  (1)  Version 1.02 14 Apr 1995
  This is Info file, produced by Makeinfo-1.55 from the
  input file FAQ.texinfo.
Subject: 1.28. The Role of National Orthography in Font Design
  This article was constructed from postings by Anders Thulin, Charles A.
  Bigelow, and "fieseler" from Jan 1994.
  An open question: what role does national orthography play in the
  asthetics of a given font?
  Given that uppercase letters occur more frequently in German than in
  English, are German font designs better for typesetting German (because
  the designer is more concious of the relationship between capitals and
  lowercase)?  Similarly, are French designs better for typesetting French
  because the designer is more atuned to the appearance of accents?
  Speaking of accents, there are apparently fonts in which the dots over
  the "i" and "j" are not at the same height as the dieresis over
  accented vowels.  (Does anyone have an example of this?)  Surely this is
  an error that a designer accustomed to working with accented letters is
  unlikely to make?
Subject: 1.29. Interesting Fonts
  There's no end of interesting fonts, so this is really just a catch-all
  Highway Gothic
  Kibo (James Parry) provides the following discussion of Highway Gothic:
  Highway Gothic is The Font Company's name for their interpretation of
  the font used on most official road signs in the United States.  (The
  Font Company added a lowercase to most styles.)
  I don't think it has an official name.  There is a government
  publication which shows the fonts (revised in the seventies to make the
  heights metric); I got a copy of it once, from a library specializing in
  transportation, and digitized Series E(M) (normal-width bold caps with
  lowercase, the only USDOT font with lowercase) for a special project.  I
  don't think the specs have changed since the seventies.
  Besides E(M) with lowercase, there is a slightly lighter alphabet
  without lowercase, and three condensed styles.  I recall there was also
  a set of really distorted letters for use in painting vehicle lanes,
  plus a few symbols for bike paths etc.  The alphabets included letters
  and digits only--any periods or hyphens you see on signs are apparently
  Where can I get extravagant initial caps?
  Don Hosek writes:
  I doubt that most decorated initials can be made to work in the type 1
  format because of their complexity. Color only makes things worse.
  One of the best choices for medieval and renaissance decorated alphabets
  hasn't been mentioned yet: BBL Typographic (they have an ad on p. 39 of
  Serif 1). A demo disk is available for \$10, B&W alphabets are \$50 each
  and full color alphabets are \$60.
       BBL Typographic
       137 Narrow Neck Road
       Katoomba, NSW 2780
       011-61-47-826144 FAX
  also distributed by:
       Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies
       LN G99
       State University of New York
       Birmingham, NY 13902-6000
  I know the work only from the Serif ad, but it's gorgeous there (even
  nicer in color, although they decided not to spend the extra money for
  color in their ad... only a select few in Katoomba & Claremont have seen
  the ad in full color). Of course Serif-related disclaimers apply.
  Jon Pastor contributes:
  Check out the Aridi initials, color EPS initials, available on the
  Monotype CD (and, presumably, on the Adobe CD as well, although they
  don't advertise this; Monotype did, in a recent mailing).
  To which Don Hosek amends:
  The Aridi initials are part of the Type Designers of the World
  collection and are available on the MT CD but not the Adobe CD.  Adobe
  has their own line of decorated initials available on their CD. Also
  see the catalogs from FontHaus, FontShop and Precision Type.
  If you want something really unique, why not hire a calligrapher.  It
  may be cheaper than you think.
  Robert Green adds:
  Although they might not be on the Adobe CD, the Fall 1994 Font &
  Function advertises an Adobe "Initial Caps" collection of decorative
  initial caps designed by Marwan Aridi.
Subject: 1.30. Pronounciation of Font Names
  Below each of the following font names, a suggested English
  pronounciation is given.  This information was collected from a
  (relatively) long discussion on comp.fonts.  If you disagree, or have
  other suggestions, please let me know.
  Arnold Boecklin
  "Ar" as in car, "nold" as in "old" with an "n" on the front.  "Boeck"
  is tricker.  The "oe" is actually an umlaut "o" in German, and the
  closest sound to most English speakers is an "er".  So try "Berklin" if
  you want to come close to the original.  Otherwise, just say "Boklin",
  with a long o, like in "boat".
  Ben-Gat.  This according to an ITC brochure.
  I would pronounce Courier not like Jim Courier, but the French way:
  Ku-rie, where "Ku" is pronounced like "coo", only short, and "rie" is
  pronounced "ree-eh".
  Stressed at the last syllable. "Dee-DOOH" (not nasal).
  Fette Fraktur
  "Fet" as in "get" with a "te" that rhymes with "way".  "Frak" rhymes
  with "mock", and "tur" with "tour".
  "Gara-": Use a french "r" instead of an english one. Both "a"s are
  pronounced like the "u" in the word "up". "-mond": the last syllable is
  stressed, and you don't pronounce the "n" and "d", but the whole "ond"
  is a nasal "o". Hold your nose closed and say "Ooh", then you get the
  right sound.  The "ant" in "Avant-Garde" is very similar to this sound,
  it is a nasal situated between "a" and "o".
  Koch Roman
  Pronounced like scottish `Loch', but with K instead of L.
  Lamport lists lah'-tech, lah-tech', lay'-tech and lay'-tecks as valid
  on p.4.  Last I talked to him he'd settled into lay'-tech which has
  always been my pronunciation as well. Somewhere, I heard that LL does
  explicitly rule out L.A.-tech, but he's from northern California which
  explains a lot.
  Mos Eisley
  moss eyes-lee
  There's some contention here, suggested pronouncations:
  "P" like "P" in `Post", "ei" like "a" in "fan", "gn" like "n" in "noon"
  plus "y" in "yes", "ot" - long, closed "o" (I don't know English
  examples), stressed.
  "P" like "P" in `Post", "ei" like "a" in "many", "gn" like "n" in
  "noon" plus "y" in "yes", "ot" - long, closed "o" (I don't know English
  examples), stressed.
  Rhymes with Blech, (as in "Blech, that tasted awfull!")
  Like "tsapf".  The "a" is pronounced like a short version of the well
  known tongue-depresser vowel "aaahhh".  Perhaps a better English analogy
  would be the "o" in "hop" or "hops".
Subject: 1.31. What is it?
  This section identifies common names for several glyphs.
  The "@" Character
  The "at" sign or "commercial at" sign.  In the past, it has also meant
  "each" or "each at".  Consider the following example supplied by Clive
                                           Unit         Extended
          Qnty Unit   Item                 Price        Price
          12   reams  bond paper           @ 5.50       66.00
  Here' "@" means each at or simply each.
  PostScript calls this the "at" sign.
  The "#" Character
  This mark has several common names: 'hash', 'hatch', 'pound sign', and
  'octothorp' among them.  The name "pound sign" is an Americanism that
  causes some confusion in countries that use the pound for currency.
  It was also noted that the # is a medieval abbreviation for Latin
  "numerus" - it is a cursive 'n' with a horizontal slash through it,
  much modified and abstracted.
  One possible derivation of the name "octothorp" was provided by Charles
       ... old English "thorp" meant 'hamlet' or 'village' (I'm not sure
       of the difference, except maybe hamlet is smaller, as its apparent
       diminutive suffix would suggest), and is derived from a much older
       Indo-European word *treb- for 'dwelling', which turns out to mean
       'beam' or 'timber' in Latin "trabs", winding up as "trave" in
       Anglo-Latin, like "architrave" - the beam resting on a column, or
       "trab-" as in "trabecula" - a small supporting beam or bar. As
       Voltaire said, etymology is a science in which the vowels count
       for nothing and the consonants for very little.
       So, maybe "octothorp" means "8-beams", which makes a kind of sense
       if we take the 8 projections to be the thorps, or trabs or traves.
       Though it's only a "quadrathorp" if we think that the beams
  Another explanation has it that the octothorp is a "thorp" surrounded
  by eight cultivated fields.
  Both of these etymologies received some skepticism amongst the readers
  who commented on comp.fonts.
  PostScript calls this the "numbersign".
Subject: 1.32. Equivalent Font Names
  Morgan S. Brilliant, Jon Pastor, and Frank F. Smith have each
  contributed to the following list of equivalent font names.
  The following table shows trade/common names and the equivalent names
  used by other vendors.  The vendor or trademark holder's name is shown
  in parenthesis following each typeface name.
  Aachen Bold (Letraset)
       Aardvark (Corel)
  Activa (Bitstream, Inc.)
       Kuenstler 480
  Ad Lib
       Adelaide (Corel)
  Adsans (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Humanist 970
  Akzidenz Grotesk (H. Berthold AG)
       Gothic 725
  Albertus (Monotype Corporation plc)
       Flareserif 821
  Aldine 401 (Monotype Corporation plc)
  Aldine 721 (Monotype Corporation plc)
  Algerian (S. Blake)
       Algiers (Corel)
       Alto (Corel)
  Amelia (VGC)
       Amy (Corel)
  Americana (ATF)
       Amherst (Corel)
  Antique Olive (Fonderie Olive)
       Incised 901
  Arnold Bocklin
       Arabia (Corel)
  Arquitectura (IC)
       Architecture (Corel)
  Avant Garde (ITC)
       Avalon (Corel)
  Badloc (IC)
       Bedrock (Corel)
  Balloon (ATF)
       Bassoon (Corel)
  Bamboo (ATF)
       Bard (Corel)
  Bauhaus (ITC)
       Bahamas (Corel)
  Bauhaus Heavy (ITC)
       BahamasHeavy (Corel)
  Bauhaus Light (ITC)
       BahamasLight (Corel)
  BeeBopp (IC)
       Beehive (Corel)
  Bembo (Monotype Corporation plc)
       Aldine 401
  Benguit (ITC)
       Bangkok (Corel)
  Bernhard Tango (VGC)
       BallroomTango (Corel)
  Bisque (VGC)
       Brisk (Corel)
  Bitstream Arrust Black BT (Bitstream)
       Bitstream Arrus Black BT (WordPerfect)
  Block (H. Berthold AG)
       Gothic 821
  Bodoni Campanile (Ludlow Industries (UK) Ltd.)
       Modern 735
  Bodoni Poster
       Bodnoff (Corel)
  Book Jacket (VGC)
       Brochure (Corel)
  Bookman (ITC)
       Brooklyn (Corel)
  Broadway (ATF)
       Bravo (Corel)
  Broadway Engraved (ATF)
       BravoEngraved (Corel)
  Brody (ATF)
       Briquet (Corel)
  Brush 445 (H. Berthold AG)
  Brush 738
  Brush Script (ATF)
       Banff (Corel)
  Busorama (ITC)
       Bosanova (Corel)
  Buster (Letraset)
       Busker (Corel)
  Cable (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Geometric 231
  Calligraphic 421 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Calligraphic 810 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Carolus Roman
       Carleton (Corel)
  Carta (Adobe)
       GeographicSymbols (Corel)
       Cancun (Corel)
  Cascade (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Freehand 471
  Cascade Script (Adobe)
       Castanet (Corel)
  Casino (IC)
       Carino (Corel)
  Caslon (ATF)
       Casablanca (Corel)
  Caslon Antique (ATF)
       CasablancaAntique (Corel)
  Caslon Open Face
       CasperOpenFace (Corel)
  Caslon Openfacce (Bitstream)
       Caslon Openface (WordPerfect)
  Centaur (Monotype Corporation plc)
       Venetian 301
  Century Old Style
       CenturionOld (Corel)
  Champagne (IC)
       Campaign (Corel)
  Charlemagne (Adobe)
       Charlesworth (Corel)
  Choc (Letraset)
       Chalk (Corel)
  Choc (Fonderie Olive)
       Staccato 555
  City (H. Berthold AG)
       Square Slabserif 711
  Codex (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Calligraphic 421
  Comic Book (IC)
       Cosmic (Corel)
  Comic Book Two (IC)
       CosmicTwo (Corel)
  Cooper Black
       Cupertino (Corel)
  CopperPlate Gothic (VGC)
       CopperPot (Corel)
  Coronet (Ludlow Industries (UK) Ltd.)
       Ribbon 131
  Cottonwood (Adobe)
       Cottage (Corel)
  Croissant (Letraset)
       Crescent (Corel)
  Decorative 035 (Tetterode Nederland (Lettergieterij Amsterdam))
       Dauphin (Corel)
  Diotima (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Calligraphic 810
  Dom Casual
       DawnCastle (Corel)
  Dutch 801 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Times Roman
  Dutch 801 (Montype Corporation plc)
       Times Roman
  Electra (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Transitional 521
  Elektrik (VGC)
       Eklektic (Corel)
  Englische Screibschrift (H. Berthold AG)
       English 157
  English 157 (H. Berthold AG)
       Englische Screibschrift
  Enviro (Letraset)
       Envision (Corel)
  Eras (ITC)
       Erie (Corel)
  Eras Black (ITC)
       ErieBlack (Corel)
  Eras Contour (ITC)
       ErieContour (Corel)
  Eras Light (ITC)
       ErieLight (Corel)
  Estro (ATF)
       Expo (Corel)
  Eurostile (Adobe)
       Euromode (Corel)
  Eurostile (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Square 721
  Exotic 350 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Fairfield (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Transitional 551
  Fette Fraktur (ITC)
       Frankenstein (Corel)
  Firenze (ITC)
       Florence (Corel)
  Flareserif 821 (Monotype Corporation plc)
  Formal Script 421 (Bitstream, Inc.)
  Formal Script 421 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Franfurt (TFCo)
       FrankHighlight (Corel)
  Frankfurt (TFCo)
       FrankHighlight (Corel)
  Franklin Gothic (ITC)
       FrankfurtGothhic (Corel)
  Franklin Gothic Heav (ITC)
       FrankfurtGothicHeavy (Corel)
  Freehand 471 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Freehand 521 (Ludlow Industries (UK) Ltd.)
  Freehand 575
  Freehand 591
       Bingham Script
  Freestyle Script (Letraset)
       Freeport (Corel)
  Fritz Quadrata (ITC)
       France (Corel)
  Frutiger (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Humanist 777
  Futura 2 (FTNSA)
       Fujiyama2 (Corel)
  Futura Black (Bauer)
       FujiyamaBlack (Corel)
  Futura Cnd Extra Bol (FTNSA)
       FujiyamaExtraBold (Corel)
  Futura Cnd Extra Bold (FTNSA)
       FujiyamaExtraBold (Corel)
  Futura Cnd Light (FTNSA)
       FujiyamaLight (Corel)
  Futura Condensed (FTNSA)
       Fujiyama (Corel)
       Galleria (Corel)
  Garamond (ITC)
       Gatineau (Corel)
  Garamond, American
       Garamond No. 3
  Garamond, Classic (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Garamond, Elegant (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Garamond, Italian (Officine Simoncini s.p.a.)
       Simoncini Garamond
  Garamond, Original (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Stempel Garamond
  Geometric 231 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Geometric 415 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Geometric 706 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Neuzeit Grotesk
  Geometric SlabSerif 703 Light (Bitstream)
       GeometricSlabSerif703Light (WordPerfect)
  Geometric Slabserif 703 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Geometric Slabserif 712 (Monotype Corporation plc)
  Geometric Slabserif 712 (Bitstream, Inc.)
  Gill Sans (Monotype Corporation plc)
       Humanist 521
  Gill Sans Ultra Bold (Monotype)
       GillbertUltraBold (Corel)
  Glasnost (C&G)
       Czar (Corel)
  Glyphic Series (VGC)
       Glacier (Corel)
  Gold Rush (ATF)
       GoldMine (Corel)
  Gothic 725 (H. Berthold AG)
       Akzidenz Grotesk
  Gothic 821 (H. Berthold AG)
  Goudy Old Style
       GoldenOldStyle (Corel)
  Granjon (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Garamond, Elegant
  Graphik (IC)
       Griffon (Corel)
  Graphik Shadow (IC)
       GriffonShadow (Corel)
  Hairpin (VGC)
       Harpoon (Corel)
  Hammersmith (Bitstream, Inc.)
       Humanist 521
  Hanseatic (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Swiss 924
  Harlow (Letraset)
       Hollow (Corel)
  Hebrew (Letraset)
       Alefbet (Corel)
  Helv. Cnd. Black (Linotype)
       SwitzerlandCondBlack (Corel)
  Helv. Cond. Light (Linotype)
       SwitzerlandCondLight (Corel)
       Arial (Microsoft)
  Helvetica (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Swiss 721
  Helvetica (Linotype)
       Switzerland (Corel)
  Helvetica Black (Linotype)
       SwitzerlandBlack (Corel)
  Helvetica Condensed (Linotype)
       SwitzerlandCond (Corel)
  Helvetica Inserat (Linotype)
       SwitzerlandInserat (Corel)
  Helvetica Light (Linotype)
       SwitzerlandLight (Corel)
  Helvetica Narrow (Linotype)
       SwitzerlandNarrow (Corel)
       HomewardBound (Corel)
  Honda (ITC)
       Heidelberg (Corel)
  Humanist 521 (Monotype Corporation plc)
       Gill Sans
  Humanist 521 (Bitstream, Inc.)
  Humanist 777 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Humanist 970 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Incised 901 (Fonderie Olive)
       Antique Olive
  Incised 901 (Bitstream, Inc.)
  Industrial 736 (Societea Nebiolo)
  Informal 011 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Ionic No. 5 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       News 701
  Ironwood (Adobe)
       Ireland (Corel)
  Juniper (Adobe)
       Jupiter (Corel)
  Kabel Bold
       KabanaBold (Corel)
  Kabel Book (ITC)
       KabanaBook (Corel)
  Kaufmann (Kingsley/ATF)
       Koala (Corel)
  Korinna (ITC)
       Korinthia (Corel)
  Kuenstler 480 (Bitstream, Inc.)
  Kuenstler 480 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Trump Medieval
  Kunstler Script (Linotype)
       Kastler (Corel)
  L.C.D. (Letraset)
       LiquidCrystal (Corel)
  Lapidary 333 (Monotype Corporation plc)
  Letter Gothic
       Monospaced (Corel)
  Linoscript (Linotype)
       Linus (Corel)
  Linotext (Linotype)
       Lincoln (Corel)
  Lithos (Adobe)
       Lithograph (Corel)
  Lithos Light (Adobe)
       LithographLight (Corel)
  Machine (ITC)
       Motor (Corel)
  Mandate (Ludlow Industries (UK) Ltd.)
       Freehand 521
  Melior (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Zapf Elliptical 711
  Memphis (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Geometric Slabserif 703
  Mermaid (Bitstream, Inc.)
       Formal Script 421
  Mermaid (Bitstream)
       Merlin (Corel)
  Metro (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Geometric 415
  Micr (IC)
       Keypunch (Corel)
  Mistral (M.Olive)
       Mystical (Corel)
  Mistral (Fonderie Olive)
       Staccato 222
  Modern 735 (Ludlow Industries (UK) Ltd.)
       Bodoni Campanile
  Monospace 821
       Helvetica Monospaced
  Neuland (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Informal 011
       Newfoundland (Corel)
  Neuzeit Grotesk (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Geometric 706
  New Baskerville (ITC)
       Nebraska (Corel)
  New Century Schoolbo
       NewBrunswick (Corel)
  New Century Schoolbook
       NewBrunswick (Corel)
  New Yorker (IC)
       NewOrder (Corel)
  New Yorker Engraved (IC)
  News 701 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Ionic No. 5
  Nuptial Script
       Nuance (Corel)
  Ondine (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Formal Script 421
  Optima (Linotype)
       Ottawa (Corel)
  Optima (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Zapf Humanist 601
  P.T.Barnum (Bitstream)
       BigTop (Corel)
  Paintbrush (IC)
       Palette (Corel)
  Palatino (Linotype)
       PalmSprings (Corel)
  Palatino (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Zapf Calligraphic
  Palette (H. Berthold AG)
       Brush 445
  Paper Clip (VGC)
       Pipeline (Corel)
  Parisian (Kingsley/ATF)
       Paragon (Corel)
  Park Avenue (ATF)
       Paradise (Corel)
  Peignot (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Exotic 350
  Peignot (Linotype)
       Penguin (Corel)
  Peignot Light (Linotype)
       PenguinLight (Corel)
  Pepita (Monotype)
       Pepper (Corel)
  Perpetua (Monotype Corporation plc)
       Lapidary 333
  Plantin (Monotype Corporation plc)
       Aldine 721
  Plaza (Letraset)
       Playwright (Corel)
  Ponderosa (Adobe)
       Posse (Corel)
  Post Antiqua (H.Berthold AG)
       ProseAntique (Corel)
  Poster Bodoni
       Bodoni-WP (WordPerfect)
  Present Script (Linotype)
       President (Corel)
  Princetown (TFCo)
       Indiana (Corel)
  Princetown (TFCo)
       IndianaSolid (Corel)
  Profil (Tetterode Nederland (Lettergieterij Amsterdam))
       Decorative 035
  Provence (Bitstream, Inc.)
       Incised 901
  Pump Triline (Letraset)
       PowerLine (Corel)
  Quicksilver (D.Morris)
       Quantum (Corel)
  Revival 565
  Revue (Letraset)
       Renfrew (Corel)
  Ribbon 131 (Ludlow Industries (UK) Ltd.)
  Rockwell (Monotype Corporation plc)
       Geometric Slabserif 712
  Sabon (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Garamond, Classic
  Simoncini Garamond (Officine Simoncini s.p.a.)
       Garamond, Italian
  Slate (Bitstream, Inc.)
       Geometric Slabserif 712
  Slogun (ZSoft)
       Shogun (Corel)
  Sonata (Adobe)
       MusicalSymbols (Corel)
  Souvenir (ITC)
       Southern (Corel)
  Square 721 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Square Slabserif 711 (H. Berthold AG)
  Squire (M.Neugebauer)
       Scribe (Corel)
  Staccato 222 (Fonderie Olive)
  Staccato 555 (Fonderie Olive)
  Stempel Garamond (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Garamond, Original
       Stamp (Corel)
  Stop (Nebiolo)
       Scott (Corel)
  Surf Style (ITC)
       Surreal (Corel)
  Swiss 721 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Swiss 911
       Helvetica Compressed
  Swiss 921
       Helvetica Inserat
  Swiss 924 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Symbol (ITC)
       GreekMathSYmbols (Corel)
  Symbol (ITC)
       GreekMathSymbols (Corel)
  Tekton (Adobe)
       Technical (Corel)
  Thor (VGC)
       Viking (Corel)
       ThunderBay (Corel)
  Tiffany (ITC)
       Timpani (Corel)
  Tiffany Heavy (ITC)
       TimpaniHeavy (Corel)
  Time (Linotype)
       Toronto (Corel)
  Times Roman (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Dutch 801
  Times Roman (Monotype Corporation plc)
       Dutch 801
  Torino (Societea Nebiolo)
       Industrial 736
  Traffic (T.Hultgren)
       Trafalgar (Corel)
  Transitional 521 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Transitional 551 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Trump Medieval (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
       Kuenstler 480
  Umbra (Kingsley/ATF)
       Umbrella (Corel)
  Univers (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Univers Black (Linotype)
       USABlack (Corel)
  Univers Light (Linotype)
       USALight (Corel)
  University Roman (Letraset)
       Unicorn (Corel)
  Uptight (ITC)
       Uptown (Corel)
  VAG Rounded
       Vogue (Corel)
  Venetian 301 (Monotype Corporation plc)
  Vivaldi (VGC)
       Vivienne (Corel)
  Zapf Calligraphic (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Zapf Chancery (ITC)
       ZurichCalligraphic (Corel)
  Zapf Dingbats (ITC)
       Dixieland (Corel)
  Zapf Elliptical 711 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Zapf Humanist 601 (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Zurich (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Zurich (Linotype AG and/or its subsidiaries)
  Some fonts are published by several vendors using the same name.  This
  table shows the typeface name and the vendors that supply it.  Generally
  this means that one vendor licensed the face from another.
  Augsburger Initials
       The Font Bureau, Inc., Microsoft
  Baskerville Old Face
       URW, Microsoft
  Bell MT
       Monotype, Microsoft
  Bell MT Bold
       Monotype, Microsoft
  Bell MT Italic
       Monotype, Microsoft
  Bernhard Modern BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
  Bernhard Modern Bold BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
  Bernhard Modern Bold Italic BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
  Bernhard Modern Italic BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
  Bitstream Arrus BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
  Bitstream Arrus BT Bold
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
  Bitstream Arrus BT Bold Italic
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
  Bitstream Arrus BT Italic
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
  BitstreamArrus Black BT Italic
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
  Blackletter 686 BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
       Monotype, Microsoft
       Gunnlaugur SE Briem, Microsoft
  Britannic Bold
       URW, Microsoft
  Brush 738 BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
       Monotype, Microsoft
       Monotype, Microsoft
       Corel, Corel
  Contemporary Brush
       Filmotype, Microsoft
  Contemporary Brush B
       Filmotype, Microsoft
       The Font Bureau, Inc., Microsoft
       URW, Microsoft
       The Font Bureau, Inc., Microsoft
       Carter & Cone Type Inc., Microsoft
  Elephant Italic
       Carter & Cone Type Inc., Microsoft
  Engravers' Gothic BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
       URW, Microsoft
  Eurostile Bold
       URW, Microsoft
  Futura Bold
       URW, Microsoft
  Futura Medium
       URW, Microsoft
  Futura Oblique
       URW, Microsoft
  GeometricSlabSerifLight Italic
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
  Gill Sans Ultra Bold
       Monotype, Microsoft
       The Font Bureau, Inc., Microsoft
       The Font Bureau, Inc., Microsoft
  Humanist 521 Condensed BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
  Humanist 521 Condensed Bold BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
  Humanist 521 Light BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
  Humanist 521 Light Italic BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
       Monotype, Microsoft
       Corel, Corel
       Corel, Corel
       ITC, Corel
       URW, Microsoft
  New Caledonia
       Linotype-Hell AG, Microsoft
  New Caledonia Bold
       Linotype-Hell AG, Microsoft
  New Caledonia Italic
       Linotype-Hell AG, Microsoft
  Old English Text MT
       Monotype, Microsoft
       Monotype, Microsoft
  Onyx BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
  OzHandicraft BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
       Filmotype, Microsoft
  Peignot Medium
       URW, Microsoft
       URW, Microsoft
       The Font Bureau, Inc., Microsoft
  Ransom Bold
       The Font Bureau, Inc., Microsoft
  Ransom Bold Italic
       The Font Bureau, Inc., Microsoft
  Ransom Italic
       The Font Bureau, Inc., Microsoft
  Ribbon 131 BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
  Shelley Volante BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
       URW, Microsoft
       URW, Microsoft
  Swiss 721 Black Extended BT
       Bitstream, WordPerfect
  Wide Latin
       URW, Microsoft
  Wingdings 2
       Bigelow & Holmes, Inc., Microsoft
  Wingdings 3
       Bigelow & Holmes, Inc., Microsoft
  The following table summarizes typeface names for which no equivalent
  name is known.  The vendor is listed for each font.  Many of these
  fonts are builtin to the HP LaserJet line of printers.
  Albertus Extra Bold
  Albertus Medium
  Antique Olive
  Antique Olive Bold
  Antique Olive Italic
  CG Omega
  CG Omega Bold
  CG Omega Bold Italic
  CG Omega Italic
  CG Times
  CG Times Bold
  CG Times Bold Italic
  CG Times Italic
  Clarendon Condensed
  Coronet Italic
  Garamond Antiqua
  Garamond Halbfett
  Garamond Kursiv
  Garamond Kursiv Halbfett
  Letter Gothic
  Letter Gothic Bold
  Letter Gothic Italic
  Times New Roman
  Univers  Italic
  Univers Bold
  Univers Bold Italic
  Univers Condensed
  Univers Condensed Bold
  Univers Condensed Bold Italic
  Univers Condensed Italic
Subject: 1.33. Digital Type Design Tools
  This article was constructed from a posting by Charles A. Bigelow in
  Jun 1994 and a posting by Clive Bruton in Jan 1995.
  How do the various digital type designing tools compare?
  Charles A. Bigelow contributes:
  Kris Holmes and I use Ikarus and IkarusM, on the Macintosh, for most of
  our work. We also use Fontographer from time to time. Both are good
  tools.  We have not tried TypeDesigner.  We have tried FontStudio, but
  don't use it.
  IkarusM and Fontographer user interfaces are different (modulo the Mac
  interface). IkarusM displays all "on-curve" points, treating the curves
  as Hermite splines, which it converts to Beziers when making Type1 or
  Type3 fonts, and to quadratic B-splines when making TrueType fonts.
  On-curve points are helpful because they are intuitively more like what
  a naive user would expect--to change a curve, change a point on its
  contour. Fontographer uses bezier on-curve and off-curve control
  points. While these take a little more getting used-to, experienced
  users have no problems manipulating curves by moving around the
  off-curve control points.
  Fontographer uses curve fitting of scanned input and/or mouse
  manipulation of points to get started on outlines. IkarusM uses
  graphics tablet input from drawn (or photographed) artwork or mouse
  manipulation to get started.
  Both provide auto-hinting capabilities (IkarusM just included this in
  version 3.0), but I haven't compared the quality of hinting between the
  applications.  Both provide automatic kerning capabilities, but again I
  haven't compared the quality carefully. IkarusM itself doesn't do
  kerning, but version 3.0 comes with Kernus, a separate auto-kerning
  Fontographer has more "goodies" in terms of the the different kinds of
  output of fonts and screen fonts for different platforms (indeed, we
  prefer it for making BDF bitmaps for UNIX platforms), and in the "finer
  points" so to speak, of manipulating control points, whereas IkarusM
  has more internal accuracy of resolution and more geometric symmetry
  manipulation tools.
  Fontographer has auto-tracing capability, for fitting outlines to
  scanned images, whereas IkarusM needs a separate program, LinusM to do
  that. However, LinusM adds several capabilities that Fontographer does
  not provide.
  I have forgotten the current list price for Fontographer (sorry, but
  I'm sure a Fontographer user or someone from Altsys can provide it; is
  it around \$250 - \$300?). IkarusM + Kernus + LinusM is around \$900,
  but one should check with the URW office in Nashua, NH, to be certain
  of that figure and of what is included.
  There are many other differences between the programs, and perhaps other
  users will want to point them out.
  Which would I choose? Well, I have them both. Kris Holmes and I have
  produced over 75 typefaces with Ikarus, though some of those were with
  Ikarus on VAX or Sun. We are comfortable with Ikarus and feel that it
  provides the highest level of precision and control, which for our
  professional purposes is what we most value. Nevertheless, we find
  Fontographer to be very good tool and continually buy the updates and
  test it and use it for various things when we feel that it is superior
  to Ikarus in particular respects. The best thing would be to test them
  both, but unfortunately, one's preference for one or the other might
  not manifest itself until one has gained more experience.
  Disclaimer: We pay the standard prices and purchase our copies of
  IkarusM and Fontographer and their upgrades, figuring that font tool
  developers deserve to be paid for their work, just like font designers.
  Bigelow & Holmes has font licensing arrangements with URW, the
  developers of Ikarus, but we are not paid by them.
  What about FontStudio?
  [Editors note: This seems like valuable information for the FAQ, which
  is why I've included it in a mostly wholesale fashion as Clive posted
  it.  In general, I'm not a big fan of anonymous contributions, but in
  this case I've chosen to look the other way ;-).  In particular, I've
  made no attempt to disambiguate the personal pronouns in this section!]
  Clive Bruton contributes the following:
  I will now do a mini compendium of all my comments as FontStudio's chief
  promoter, along with all the other people who support my view.
  Sorry to those who are not credited, but others wish to remain
  The following snippets are not necessarily in chronological order, names
  have been changed to protect the guilty!
  Is FontStudio Still Being Marketed?
  Well it's one of those questions isn't it, it is certainly advertised in
  the UK and as far as I know still supported by Letraset UK, but as you
  have probably seen in comp.fonts there has been some debate over the
  relative merits of FontStudio vs Fontographer, my arguement suitably
  backed-up by ...., and there is certainly some doubt over its imediate
  Personally I'd like to see it re-launched, if only because the market
  needs some stimulation in order to produce ground-breaking products, and
  one App/Vendor (Fontographer/Altsys) doesn't make for healthy
  competition, as we've seen with Quark getting fat and lazy over their
  upgrades for XPress with no perceived threat from PageMaker (that should
  change real soon).
  However it (FS) retails in the UK for \$195.00 as opposed to
  Fontographers \$295.00, the current version is 2.0, as it has been for
  over two years, but then again there have been no bug fixes for it, no
  I am sure that you could buy it in the US via Letraset directly, if you
  wanted to. As far as marketing goes, I have just received a software
  brochure from Camalot (UK software vendor) that partly showcases the
  full Letraset range, and FontStudio is in there with the rest.
  If you can't get it in the States, I'm sure I can arrange for it to be
  shipped to you.
  What About Bitmap Generation?
  FontStudio's advantage is that they call the ATM API to get
  ATM-generated bitmaps.  Fontographer generates their own--and the
  results are much heavier and more messy.
  Yes, you're right, I did know, FS has 3 options on this, its own
  generation, which like Fontographers are rather heavy, ATM's which are
  just about perfect, and True Type, which from memory--since I only
  tried it a couple of times--tend to be a bit quirky.
  FontStudio is Better [than Fontographer]?
  Could you elaborate on that? Why do you suppose that FontStudio
  disappeared, and Fontographer is still around? Not being belligerent or
  challenging you, since I'm totally unfamiliar with FontStudio--but
  Altsys is not exactly a Goliath compared to Letraset, in terms of the
  size of the company or the depth of its pockets, and I'm curious why
  such a good product from a big font vendor disappeared.
  I'll chime in here if that's OK. I'm very glad FontStudio came along;
  Fontographer was resting on its laurels until it got serious
  competition. Many people prefer FontStudio's drawing interface (which is
  like Illustrator's) to Fontographer's (which is, unsurprisingly, like
  Freehand's). There are other parts to the interface debate as well, like
  zoom factors, dialog complexity, and so forth, although much of it may
  be a matter of taste.
  XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX was one of FontStudio's beta sites, and they used a lot
  of our advice, so it's not accidental that our designers still tend to
  use it until it's time to move the fonts over to the SPARCs. I use it
  when I'm playing with designs at home.
  It looks like Letraset didn't know how to promote what it had. It's
  worth noting that they'yre divesting themselves of their other graphics
  apps, not just FontStudio. At any rate, the biggest hurdle was that
  Fontographer had a four-year head start, capturing the hearts of nearly
  everyone who was serious about making fonts. Nobody wants to relearn an
  app, so the competition has to be darned good to get people to switch.
  It has happened (witness XPress vs PageMaker) but it's not easy.
  Another problem was that Letraset didn't develop FontStudio, they
  bought it. They and the developers (now Ares, the FontMonger people)
  didn't get along well, and that led to a painfully slow upgrade
  process. Altsys got themselves in gear, and started adding features
  right & left, outdoing FontStudio on nearly every count (technically,
  not necessarily in terms of user experience).
  I can only agree with what XXX has said above, plus...
  Just some more background info on FontStudio/Letraset. Unfortunately
  Letraset never seemed to get the knack of selling software, some
  examples of this are, Letraset were originally the distributors of Adobe
  products in the UK - a job that is now carried out by Principal, they
  also had a full complement of other Mac software - which seems to have
  reverted to its authors or disappeared alltogether, it has recently
  released the first commercially available Plug-In for Illustrator, a
  derivative of LetraStudio, to allow the creation of pespective and
  envelope effects - who knows about this?
  Back to the FontStudio/Fontographer debate, I have tried to use
  Fontographer, but as discussed above, the interface is just awful (as an
  aside, does anyone like FreeHand 4.0's interface?), FontStudios use of
  colour, pop-up menus, and general look and feel is completely at home
  alongside XPress and Illustrator, where as Fontographer, well... isn't!
  All the buzzers and bells are there in Fontographer, but can you really
  take seriously a program that won't allow you to draught your own
  bitmaps! (Yeah I have heard about ATM, that's not the point).
  Also, and I won't lay the blame solely at the door of Altsys, whenever
  I get asked to sort out a problem font, it's always been created with
  Fontographer.  Now whether that is down to Altsys Fontographer (AF)
  trying to things that aren't exactly kosher (like using even/odd rule
  instead of winding), or the skill of the digitisers who did the work
  I've never been able to fathom, but it's usually fixed by importing into
  FontStudio (FS) and re-saving.
  I hope that Ares do something with FS, otherwise sooner or later I am
  going to need a new program (I have found a minor screen draw problem
  when used with System 7.5, I've yet to try it on a PowerMac [anyone
  wants me to, I can send you results]), I have already looked around, and
  seem a lot more likely to buy Ikarus M than AF, it's really that bad.
  I would also like to comment on XXX's point about XPress/PageMaker, I
  hope that Adobe can make a real killer of PM, and reverse that trend,
  XPress>PM that'll be the way to go!
  Just to take Xpress' name in vain again (I don't hate the program, just
  the smug bastards that want to charge me \$190.00 to get a native
  version, and only a native version - Adobe has got the right attitude
  there!) "XPress" is to "Word for Windows", what "FontStudio" is to
  QED. Maybe not!
  If all those in favour send me a *YAY* (addressed to
  [email protected]) and someone sends me e-addresses for Ares
  and Letraset, then I will forward them your support, who knows Altsys
  may even decide to pack the whole Fontographer game in, and Adobe can
  relaunch FontStudio!
Subject: 1.34. Type Design Firms
  Although it has been a long time coming, it seems only natural that the
  comp.fonts FAQ should provide a brief summary of what the various type
  design firms are producing.
  Carter & Cone Type, Inc.
  This description was constructed from postings by Don Hosek, Erik-Jan
  Vens, and David Lemon in Sep, 1993.
       Carter & Cone Type Inc.
       2155 Massachusetts Avenue
       Cambridge, MA 02140
       617-576-0398 or 800-952-2129
       617-354-4146 FAX
  We begin with Carter & Cone not because I think they should be first,
  but because I already have a few articles about them (I probably saved
  the articles more because they were about Galliard, which I have a
  fondness for, than anything else).  Please contribute summaries about
  other foundries (even the foundries themselves are encouraged to
  contribute, althought I'd appreciate it if the advertising overtones
  were kept to a dull roar ;-).
  [Editors note: With appologies to C&C, I have the following snippet:
       >> the designer. He's in business for himself now as half of Carter &
       >> Cone (800 952 2129 voice), and he's worked Galliard over yet again.
       >> Should be cool. Support your local type designer.
  Which half of C&C does this refer to?]
  Don Hosek says:
  The specimen sheets arrived in the mail today (along with the newest
  Font & Function). Carter & Cone has three faces: ITC Galliard [CC]
  which is a family of 11 fonts. The bad news is that assignments of
  characters into expert sets and basic fonts is non-standard (the basic
  font is missing fi and fl). The good news is that the fonts are quite
  inexpensive. The whole set can be purchased for \$150. The font is a
  single weight only (if bold is strictly necessary, Bitstream Galliard
  Bold is consistent in height and can be mixed. On the other hand,
  designers need to learn to avoid the crutch of bold face on their
  pages). It is possible to purchase just those parts of the package
  which are needed. Those able to mix fonts on their own might be able to
  get a decent selection for less than \$150.
  Don continues,
  The second font is Sophia which is a kind of quirky all-caps display
  face. It features a number of upper case ligatures [!] and has a kind
  of Greek-Turkish feel to it (not suprising, really: the face is based
  in 6th c. Constantinople letterforms).  When I first saw this, I didn't
  like it, but it does grow on one.  The price on this is \$60.
  Finally, Don concludes,
  The third font is Mantinia which is a more traditional display roman
  with some interesting features: e.g., more uppercase ligatures and an
  alphabet with superior caps in place of lower case (the La of LaTeX
  could be typeset without kerns or raises using this alphabet). Again,
  this took some growing on one, but I'm more accepting of this (and can
  even imagine using it for real work). The price on this is \$60.
Subject: 1.35. What does `lorem ipsum dolor' mean?
  `Lorem ipsum dolor' is the first part of a nonsense paragraph sometimes
  used to demonstrate a font.  It has been well established that if you
  write anything as a sample, people will spend more time reading the
  copy than looking at the font.  The "gibberish" below is sufficiently
  like ordinary text to demonstrate a font but doesn't distract the
  reader.  Hopefully.
  Rick Pali submits the following from Before and After Magazine, Volume
  4 Number 2.:
  After telling everyone that Lorem ipsum, the nonsensical text that
  comes with PageMaker, only looks like Latin but actually says nothing, I
  heard from Richard McClintock, publication director at the
  Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, who had enlightening news:
  "Lorem ipsum is latin, slightly jumbled, the remnants of a passage from
  Cicero's _de Finibus_ 1.10.32, which begins 'Neque porro quisquam est
  qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit...'
  [There is no one who loves pain itself, who seeks after it and wants to
  have it, simply because it is pain.]. [de Finibus Bonorum et Malorum,
  written in 45 BC, is a treatise on the theory of ethics very popular in
  the Renaisance.]
  "What I find remarkable is that this text has been the industry's
  standard dummy text ever since some printed in the 1500s took a galley
  of type and scambled it to make a type specemin book; it has survived
  not only four centuries of letter-by-letter resetting but even the leap
  into electronic typesetting, essentially unchanged except for an
  occational 'ing' or 'y' thrown in. It's ironic that when the
  then-understood Latin was scrambled, it became as incomprehensible as
  Greek; the phrase 'it's Greek to me' and 'greeking' have common semantic
  One Example of Lorem Ipsum Dolor
  Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetaur adipisicing elit, sed do
  eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad
  minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip
  ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in
  voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur.  Excepteur
  sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia
  deserunt mollit anim id est laborum Et harumd und lookum like Greek to
  me, dereud facilis est er expedit distinct. Nam liber te conscient to
  factor tum poen legum odioque civiuda. Et tam neque pecun modut est
  neque nonor et imper ned libidig met, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed
  ut labore et dolore magna aliquam makes one wonder who would ever read
  this stuff? Bis nostrud exercitation ullam mmodo consequet. Duis aute
  in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. At vver
  eos et accusam dignissum qui blandit est praesent luptatum delenit
  aigue excepteur sint occae.  Et harumd dereud facilis est er expedit
  distinct. Nam libe soluta nobis eligent optio est congue nihil impedit
  doming id Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, set
  eiusmod tempor incidunt et labore et dolore magna aliquam. Ut enim ad
  minim veniam, quis nostrud exerc.  Irure dolor in reprehend incididunt
  ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud
  exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.
  Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse
  molestaie cillum.  Tia non ob ea soluad incommod quae egen ium improb
  fugiend.  Officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum Et harumd dereud
  facilis est er expedit distinct. Nam liber te conscient to factor tum
  poen legum odioque civiuda et tam.  Neque pecun modut est neque nonor
  et imper ned libidig met, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed ut labore et
  dolore magna aliquam is nostrud exercitation ullam mmodo consequet.
  Duis aute in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla
  pariatur. At vver eos et accusam dignissum qui blandit est praesent.
  Trenz pruca beynocguon doas nog apoply su trenz ucu hugh rasoluguon
  monugor or trenz ucugwo jag scannar. Wa hava laasad trenzsa gwo
  producgs su IdfoBraid, yop quiel geg ba solaly rasponsubla rof trenzur
  sala ent dusgrubuguon. Offoctivo immoriatoly, hawrgasi pwicos asi
  sirucor.Thas sirutciun applios tyu thuso itoms ghuso pwicos gosi
  sirucor in mixent gosi sirucor ic mixent ples cak ontisi sowios uf Zerm
  hawr rwivos. Unte af phen neige pheings atoot Prexs eis phat eit sakem
  eit vory gast te Plok peish ba useing phen roxas.  Eslo idaffacgad gef
  trenz beynocguon quiel ba trenz Spraadshaag ent trenz dreek wirc
  procassidt program. Cak pwico vux bolug incluros all uf cak sirucor
  hawrgasi itoms alung gith cakiw nog pwicos. Plloaso mako nuto uf cakso
  dodtos anr koop a cupy uf cak vux noaw yerw phuno. Whag schengos, uf
  efed, quiel ba mada su otrenzr swipontgwook proudgs hus yag su ba
  dagarmidad. Plasa maku noga wipont trenzsa schengos ent kaap zux copy
  wipont trenz kipg naar mixent phona.  Cak pwico siructiun ruos nust
  apoply tyu cak UCU sisulutiun munityuw uw cak UCU-TGU jot scannow.
  Trens roxas eis ti Plokeing quert loppe eis yop prexs. Piy opher
  hawers, eit yaggles orn ti sumbloat alohe plok. Su havo loasor cakso
  tgu pwuructs tyu InfuBwain, ghu gill nug bo suloly sispunsiblo fuw
  cakiw salo anr ristwibutiun. Hei muk neme eis loppe. Treas em wankeing
  ont sime ploked peish rof phen sumbloat syug si phat phey gavet peish
  ta paat ein pheeir sumbloats. Aslu unaffoctor gef cak siructiun gill bo
  cak spiarshoot anet cak GurGanglo gur pwucossing pwutwam. Ghat dodtos,
  ig pany, gill bo maro tyu ucakw suftgasi pwuructs hod yot tyubo
  rotowminor.  Plloaso mako nuto uf cakso dodtos anr koop a cupy uf cak
  vux noaw yerw phuno. Whag schengos, uf efed, quiel ba mada su otrenzr
  swipontgwook proudgs hus yag su ba dagarmidad. Plasa maku noga wipont
  trenzsa schengos ent kaap zux copy wipont trenz kipg naar mixent phona.
  Cak pwico siructiun ruos nust apoply tyu cak UCU sisulutiun munityuw
  uw cak UCU-TGU jot scannow.  Trens roxas eis ti Plokeing quert loppe
  eis yop prexs. Piy opher hawers, eit yaggles orn ti sumbloat alohe
  plok. Su havo loasor cakso tgu pwuructs tyu.
  [This version was found on CompuServe.  It differs from other versions I
  have seen in print, increasingly so as you go along.  It almost looks
  computer-generated, doesn't it?]
  This is Info file, produced by Makeinfo-1.55 from the
  input file FAQ.texinfo.
Subject: 2. Macintosh Information
Subject: 2.1. Macintosh Font formats
  Bitmap Fonts
  Bitmap fonts: on the Macintosh, bitmap fonts also contain the kerning
  information for a font and must be installed with both type 1 and type
  3 fonts. Their presence also speeds the display of commonly used font
  PostScript Type 1
  Postscript Type 1 fonts can be installed on the Macintosh only by using
  accompanying bitmapped fonts.
  PostScript Type 3
  Postscript Type 3 fonts are installed on the Macintosh in the same way
  that Type 1 fonts are.
  Truetype fonts: no bitmapped font is necessary with this type, though
  commonly used sizes are often supplied.
  QuickDraw GX
  This section was constructed from postings by Charles A. Bigelow, Peter
  Moller, David Opstad, and Michael Wang from Sep 93.
  What is it?
  QuickDraw GX (QDGX) is the new Mac OS engine for handling screen
  presentation.  It has many advantages over older engines, among them the
  ability to get ligatures, swashes etc. on the fly.  QDGX is also a
  16-bit font format that allows for example users in Korea to run their
  machines in their native tounge as well as write.
  How is it related to Unicode?
  Although QDGX is a 16-bit encoding, it is "orthogonal" to Unicode
  Unicode, to use a jargon term.  A TrueType font, GX or otherwise, can be
  encoded using the Unicode standard, but that isn't necessary. However, a
  TrueType font, and especially a GX font, can contain glyphs for which
  there is no unique Unicode encoding, e.g. the 'fi' ligature, or a swash
  'a' with a trailing curlicue. TrueType GX fonts, however, contain
  additional information and structure that allows the QDGX system to
  properly substitute variant glyphs for certain characters in the text.
  For the above examples, QDGX will, if requested, look for the sequence
  'f' + 'i' and substitute the 'fi' ligature, or look for 'a' at the end
  of a line and substitute the glyph 'a-trailing curlicue'.
  It is really quite charming to see this happen, and it makes the font
  [...] a clever, trained circus dog that does tricks than a simple font.
  The GX fonts begin to show an additional personality beyond the image of
  the glyphs.  In fact, the font can contain a state machine that controls
  the substitution process--in effect, a computer program. There is
  provision for another state machine controlling kerning as well, to get
  around the problems that can arise with simple pair-based kerning.
  David Opstad contributes the following:
  The bidirectional text reordering algorithm defined in Unicode is fully
  implemented in GX (in fact, during our testing of GX we uncovered some
  problems with the Unicode specification!) Also, and most unfortunately,
  since Unicode is the product of an international committee process there
  were certain compromises that were made in the design, so there really
  are Unicode character codes for certain ligatures and contextual forms
  (e.g.  the "Basic Glyphs for Arabic Language" codes starting at U+FE70).
  Note, however, that GX does not use these; we do Arabic contextual
  processing the same way we do Roman contextual processing. Indeed, it
  is this uniformity of approach that is, I believe, one of GX's main
  One of my greatest hopes (that keeps me going after having worked on
  getting GX done for over five years now) is that we're going to see a
  real renaissance of fonts and creativity in font designs. GX finally
  gets us back to the elegance of calligraphy, with the repeatability and
  precision of the computer.
  What about rotation?
  QDGX supports full 3X3 transformations (including perspective) on all
  objects in the graphics system, including text. Anti-aliasing is not
  included in GX 1.0, but we're looking at it for future versions.
  Is QDGX limited to TrueType fonts?
  Michael Wang contributes:
  Just to clarify, the component of QuickDraw GX that deals with font
  features like automatic ligature substitution is called the Line Layout
  Manager (which I'll abbreviate as LLM), and LLM features are
  independent of scaler technology. In other words, a Type 1 font can
  have all of the LLM features that a TrueType font can have under
  QuickDraw GX.
  In fact, Apple and Adobe bundle a GX version of ATM with the QuickDraw
  GX release along with a Type 1 GX version of Tekton Regular which
  includes lots of additional glyphs and supports most of the LLM
  features. If you are a Macintosh developer, there are beta GX versions
  of ATM and Tekton that you can play around with on the QuickDraw GX
  1.0b1 release that is part of the WWDC CD.
  Lawrence D'Oliveiro contributes:
  One implication of GX for font installation is that Type 1 fonts no
  longer come in "bitmap" vs "screen" versions that live in separate
  files: under QuickDraw GX, they live in "sfnt" resources, and install no
  differently from TrueType fonts.
  As of 1 Mar 95, QuickDraw GX 1.0.1 is the current release.
Subject: 2.2. Frequently Requested Mac Fonts
  Greek Fonts
  This section was constructed from a posting by John Amanatides in Jan
  There are three ways to get Greek out of a Mac.  Approach one is to
  simply use the Symbol font; this solution is the easiest but Symbol
  doesn't have accents and you cannot easily exchange files with friends
  in Greece.  Approach two is go all the way and install Apple's Greek
  system software on your Mac.  It would make it identical to a machine
  sold in Greece and is really only an option for the diehards.  Approach
  three is to just get a Greek keyboard driver and Greek typefaces.  This
  article talks mostly about approach three while it does also mention the
  First some background.  Until the early '80s the Greek alphabet included
  quite a lot of different diacritical marks.  Thus if you are interested
  in classical Greek you will need to get a polytonic version of the
  typeface.  Modern Greek now only uses accents, simplifying the use of
  the alphabet and this is normally what you will get when you ask for a
  Greek typeface.
  There are several encodings of the Greek alphabet.  ISO-8859-7 is the
  most standard.  It is an 8-bit encoding that uses the regular 7-bit
  ASCII standard in the lower 128 positions and Greek in the upper 128.
  Unfortunately, Apple did not use it (sigh).  Apple's encoding is
  slightly different in the upper 128 positions.  All modern Greek
  typefaces for the Mac seem to use this encoding and if you use it you
  can exchange files with your friends in Greece (and use Greek
  dictionaries!).  If you are interested in classical Greek things become
  a little trickier.  I don't know if there is a standard but Linguist's
  Software's (see below) encoding seems to be the most popular.
  Sources of Greek Fonts for the Mac
  You can go all the way with Apple and get their Greek system software
  but getting it is non-trivial.  In North America the only way to get it
  seems to be to get the "Apple Developer Mailing" from APDA.  Designed
  for developers, you get a CD mailed to you monthly.  The CD contains
  the most recent worldwide Mac system software along with a lot of other
  stuff.  It costs \$250 US and you get updates for a year.  The Greek
  system software contains TrueType versions of GrCourier, GrHelvetica,
  GrTimes and several bitmap versions of some of Apple's other typefaces
  along with the Greek keyboard driver.
       APDA 800-282-2732 US
       800-637-0029 Canada
  A second place to get Greek system software is in Greece.  Apple's
  distributor is:
       Rainbow Computer S.A.
       Elia Eliou 75
       Neos Kosmos, Athens
       Greece 117 44
       30-1-9012892 Voice
       30-1-9012540 FAX
  Just because you have the Greek system software doesn't mean you have
  to install the whole system;  you can just take the Greek typefaces and
  the Greek keyboard driver and use them with your current system
  Note: Linguists' Software (see below) also market version 6.0.3 of the
  Greek operating system.
  Linotype sells a variety of Type1 Greek typefaces in both modern and
  polytonic versions and in a variety of weights/styles: Times,
  Helvetica, Baskerville, New Century Schoolbook and Souvenir.  The
  easiest way to purchase them is to get Linotype's CD of locked
  typefaces (a new one is coming out in Dec. '94).  The CD costs \$49 US
  and comes with 4 free fonts.  A Greek keyboard driver comes with the
  typefaces.  Linotype can be reached at:
       Linotype-Hell Company
       425 Oser Avenue
       Hauppage, NY, 11788
       516-434-3616 FAX
  These typefaces are also distributed by FontShop (see below) Note: the
  new CD works on both a Mac and a PC and when you unlock a typeface you
  unlock for both systems.
  FontShop is an international chain of stores which supplies a wide
  variety of typefaces to both professionals and the rest of us.  Their
  North American address is:
       FontShop Canada Limited
       510 Front Street West
       Toronto, Ontario
       Canada M5V 3H3
       416-348-0916 FAX
  Monotype offers two Greek typefaces on their locked CD: Times New Roman
  Greek and Arial Greek.  Each typeface comes in four weights/styles.
  Their CD lists for \$49 and you get 8 free fonts (just enough for both
  of their Greek typefaces :-).  You can reach Monotype at:
       Monotype Typography Inc.
       Suite 2630, 150 South Wacker Drive
       Chicago, IL, 60606
       800-MONOTYP (800-666-6897)
       312-855-9475 FAX
  These typefaces are also distributed by FontShop.  Note: you get a 5 CPU
  Linguist's Software
  Linguist's Software has typefaces for over 250 world languages and
  gives several options for those interested in Greek.  First, you can
  purchase the Greek operating system for the Mac version 6.0.3.  This
  includes GrTimes and GrHelvetica (Type 3) as well as several bit-mapped
  system fonts.  Second, you can purchase their modern Greek typefaces
  Olympus and Philippi (Times and Helvetica clones) in four
  weights/styles and in both Type1 and TrueType along with a keyboard
  driver for System 7.  Finally, they have their own TrueType and Type1
  typefaces in the LaserGreek package.  These are of particular interest
  to Greek scholars since they include extra diacritics for ancient/N.T.
  Greek.  This package now includes a Uncail typeface.  LaserGreek: \$99;
  Modern Greek + keyboard driver: \$99; LaserGreek + GreekOS: \$139;
  LaserGreek + Modern Greek + keyboard driver: \$139.
       Linguist's Software
       PO Box 580
       Edmonds, WA 98020-0580
       206-771-5911 FAX
  Ecological Linguistics
  Ecological Linguistics also provides typfaces for a wide variety of
  world languages.  They have a polytonic version of Times (GreekTimes)
  in their GreekClassical package and monotonic versions of Times and
  Helvetica (GkTimes, GkHelvetica) in four weights/styles in their
  GreekModern package.  Both the GreekClassical and GreekModern packages
  are \$60 US each and come with a keyboard driver.
       Ecological Linguistics
       P.O. Box 15156
       Washington, D.C., 20003
  MacCampus of Germany provides Greek and other Eastern European
  typefaces.  The Greek typefaces come in two flavors: those that are
  based on the modern Greek keyboard layout and those based on the Symbol
  font layout.  MacCampus provides a keyboard driver so that you can use
  the former type on non-Greek Macs.
  The typefaces available are:
  Modern Greek (Greek layout): Olympia (Helvetica clone) and Tiryns
  (Times clone) in 4 weights/styles
  Classical Greek (extra diacritics, Symbol layout): Agora Times,
  Parmenides (light, sans-serif)
       C. Kempgen
       An den Weihern 18
       D-96135 Stegaurach
       (0951) 296739
       (0951) 296425 FAX
  MacCampus typefaces are distributed by FontShop.
  Font World
  Another Greek typeface distributor is Font World.  They also sell a
  variety of Eastern European typefaces.  They provide a package of
  keyboard drivers for a variety of different world languages.  The
  modern Greek typefaces are: FW Palace GK (Palatino?), FW Baskerfield
  GK, FW Peace GK (sans serif) & condensed version, FW Pithos GK
  (Lithos?), FW Stencil GK, FW Textbook GK, FW Tourist GK (Souvenir) and
  FW World GK (Times?).  They come in a variety of weights/styles and go
  for about \$100-\$200.
       Font World, Inc.
       2021 Scottsville Road,
       Rochester, NY 12623
       716-235-6950 FAX
  SkepsiS is a Greek publishing company that is heavily into Macs.  They
  have created and sell several nice typefaces in several weights/styles:
  Corfu (New Century Schoolbook?), Ithaca (Souvenir?), Rhodes
  (University?), Mykonos (Courier?), Paros (Antique Olive?), Samos
  (modern serif), GtcFutura (Futura?), Naxos (Eurostile?), Ios (?) The
  cost for a package containing the above is 60,000 drachmas.
       SkepsiS Ltd
       El. Benizelou 184
       T.K. 176 75, Kallithea
       Athens, Greece
       30-1-952-2088 FAX
  Magenta is a Greek company that sells typefaces for Macs and PCs.
  Their catalog lists over 70 typefaces with names like MgBodoni,
  MgOptima, MgAvantGarde, etc in a variety of weights/styles.  Most are
  modern Greek but they also have a few classical typefaces.  Each
  typeface family goes for about 8,500 drachmas.
       Magenta Ltd
       Antimaxou 17
       115 28 Athens
       30-1-722-9292 phone/FAX
  Note, I have tried to contact Magenta recently and have gotten no
  Fonteiras is a German company that produces non-roman typefaces.  They
  have 26 Greek typefaces, display and text, both polytonic and
  monotonic.  Some of the families include clones of Dynamo, Stencil,
  Broadway, Revue, Futura Black, Lithos, Industria, Insignia, Palatino,
  Helvetica, Times, etc.  Packages go for about \$150-\$200 US and include
  a Greek keyboard driver.  The monotonic typfaces have kerning tables and
  some have real italics.  (Most other vendors only have obliques.)
       Luisenstr. 22
       D-60316 Franfurt
       49-069-4980498 phone/FAX
       [email protected]
  There is a free classical Greek typeface called Ismini that is available
  on the net at:
  Unfortunately, I don't think it uses the same encoding as Linguist's
  Other Fonts
  Many fonts are available at various archives.  The king of Macintosh
  font archives is  On, the
  fonts are located in the following folders:
  The following fonts are in Type 1 format for the Macintosh. Some are
  also available in TrueType format.
     * Tamil
       Paladam, T. Govindram
     * Hebrew
       ShalomScript, ShalomOldStyle, ShalomStick, Jonathan Brecher
     * Japanese
       Shorai (Hirigana, with application)
     * Star Trek
       StarTrekClassic, Star TrekClassicMovies, StarTrekTNGCrille,
       StarTrekTNG Titles, TNG monitors, StarFleet, Klinzai (Klingon font)
     * Command-key symbol
       Chicago (TrueType or bitmap, key: Ctrl-Q),  Chicago Symbols
       (Type3, key: 1), EncycloFont (Type3, key: d)
     * Astrologic/Astronomic symbols
       Hermetica (Type1), InternationalSymbols (Type 3, Mars and Venus
       only), MortBats (Type3), Zodiac (bitmap)
     * IBM OEM Line Drawing Characters
       Try Adobe PrestigeElite or Adobe LetterGothic. They have all the
       characters you want, but the `line draw' characters are unencoded
       -- you will need tools to reencode the outline font itself and
       make a new PFM metric files.
       Or try IBMExtended from Impramatur Systems in Cambridge, Mass.  It
       already is encoded using IBM OEM encoding (some DOS code page).
       The IBM version of Courier distributed freely under the X11
       Consortium also contains the appropriate characters.  It is
       distributed in PC format, however.  Again, the font will have to
       be reencoded for Windows.  Appropriate AFM files for this font can
       be obtained from:
  Many of these mac fonts are available in files that are either entitled
  xxxx.sit or xxxx.cpt.  xxxx.sit files are Stuffit archives.  xxxx.cpt
  files are Compact Pro archives. StuffitLite (shareware $25) and Compact
  Pro (shareware $25) are available at the standard ftp sites.
  Uncompressors for these programs (free) are also available at the
  archive sites. Check the utilities/compression utilities folders.
Subject: 2.3. Commercial Font Sources
  Commercial fonts can be obtained from a number of different companies,
  including the large font houses: Adobe, Font Haus, Font Company,
  Bitstream, and Monotype. At these companies, fonts cost about $40 for a
  single face, and must be purchased in packages. Adobe, Bitstream, and
  Monotype also sell pre-designated type collections for slightly lower
  Image Club sells a wide selection of fonts for about $50 for a 4 font
  Other, cheaper companies sell fonts of lesser quality, including
  KeyFonts, which sells a set of 100 fonts for $50 and Casady & Green's
  Fluent Laser Fonts, a set of 79 fonts for $99. Casady & Greene also
  sells Cyrillic language fonts in Times, Bodoni, and Helvetica sell for
  about $40 for each 4 font family.
  Foreign language fonts, ranging from Egyptian hieroglyphics to Cyrillic
  can be obtained from Ecological Linguistics.
  Please consult the vendor list for a more complete list of vendors.
Subject: 2.4. Mac Font Installation
     * System 7
       Install the fonts by opening the suitcase containing the bitmap
       file and dropping the fonts into your system suitcase, located
       inside your system folder. You will need to quit all other
       applications before doing this.  For a TrueType font, the icon for
       the font will have a stack of "A"s in it, instead of just one.
       Dropping it into your system suitcase will make all sizes of the
       font available. For Postscript type 1 fonts, you also need to
       place the printer font in the extensions folder in your system
       folder. If you are using ATM you need to place these fonts in the
       root level of your system folder (not inside another folder).
       Using Suitcase, a font management utility, you can avoid
       cluttering your system folder with printer fonts.
       You can make new suitcases of fonts (generally not needed, but
       used by those who use Suitcase) by using Font DA mover.  It
       operates the same as in system 6, except that the most recent
       version must be used.
     * System 6
       Bitmap fonts can be installed using Font DA mover to move the
       fonts, located inside suitcases, into your system. You will need
       to restart your computer to make these fonts available. Printer
       fonts must be placed in the system folder, not inside any other
       Truetype fonts can be used with system 6 if you get the Truetype
       init.  Then the fonts can be installed in your system with Font DA
       mover.  Suitcase can also be used under system 6.
Subject: 2.5. Mac Font Utilities
       Suitcase is a nifty little system extension that lets you avoid
       having to install fonts into your system. In system 6, it means
       that you can avoid restarting your system every time you want to
       install a new font.
       In system 7, Suitcase lets you avoid quitting all applications
       before making fonts available. Some programs, like Quark Xpress
       will automatically update their font list when you open a new
       suitcase, allowing much more flexibility in opening and closing
       font suitcases and making different sets of fonts available.
       Suitcase appears in your Apple menu in both system 7 and 6 and
       allows you to open suitcases, as though they were files, thus
       making the fonts contained in them accessible to programs.
       In addition, when suitcase is installed, printer fonts can be
       stored with the bitmap suitcases they correspond to, instead of
       having to drop them into your system folder.
       The most recent version of Suitcase is compatible with TrueType.
       Suitcase is about $54 from the mail order places.
     * Carpetbag
       A shareware program with functionality equivalent to Suitcase.
       Does similar things
     * ATM
       Adobe Type Manager is an Init and Control panel allows accurate
       screen display, at any size of PostScript type 1 fonts. It's
       function is replicated with Truetype (but for different outline
       font format). With it installed, you can print fonts of any size
       to non-PostScript printers. When using ATM, printer fonts must
       either be stored with the bitmap files opened with suitcase (when
       using Suitcase), or they must be stored in the root level of the
       system folder (with System 7.0, printer fonts must be stored in
       the Extension folder if you are not using Suitcase). ATM is now
       available, with the System 7.0 upgrade, as well as directly from
       adobe with 4 Garamond fonts.
       ATM is not built into System 7.1 as previously expected.  With
       System 7.1, printer fonts must be stored in the Fonts folder if
       you are not using Suitcase.
       If you are using version 7.x prior to 7.1, the following hack
       allows you to have a Font folder (if you don't use Suitcase):
       Open the second 'DCOD' resource from the ATM 68020/030 file. Do an
       ASCII search for the string "extn" and change it to "font" (it's
       case sensitive). Save, close, and Reboot.
       This process should work for 68000 machines using the proper ATM
       file instead.
     * Super ATM
       This is a utility that will create fonts, on the fly, that match
       the metrics of any Adobe-brand fonts you don't have.  It does a
       remarkably good job of mimicry because it uses two "generic"
       Multiple Master typefaces, serif and sans serif to simulate the
       appearance of the missing typefaces. (There is a 1.4 megabyte
       database file that allows Super ATM to simulate the fonts that
       aren't there.)  You also get Type On Call (a CD-ROM), which has
       locked outline fonts, and unlocked screen font for all but the
       most recent faces in the Adobe Type library.
     * TTconverter
       A shareware accessory available at the usual archives will convert
       Truetype fonts for the IBM into Macintosh format.
     * reAdobe
       Converts text (PFA) format PostScript Type 1 fonts into Mac format.
     * unAdobe
       Converts Mac format PostScript Type 1 fonts into text (PFA) format.
     * Microsoft Font Pack
       If you work with a mixture of Macs and PCs running Windows 3.1,
       this is a good deal; 100 TrueType fonts compromising the Windows
       3.1 standard set and the two Font Packs for Windows. This includes
       various display fonts, the Windows Wingdings font, and the Lucida
  A variety of programs, for example, Font Harmony, etc. will allow you
  to change the names and ID numbers of your fonts.
  Fontmonger and Metamorphosis will let you convert fonts among several
  formats (type 1 and 3 and Truetype for the Mac and PC), as well as
  letting you extract the font outlines from the printer fonts.
Subject: 2.6. Making Outline Fonts
  This is very, very difficult. Many people imagine that there are
  programs that will simply convert pictures into fonts for them. This is
  not the case; most fonts are painstakingly created by drawing curves
  that closely approximate the letterforms. In addition, special rules
  (which improve hinting, etc.) mandate that these curves be drawn in
  specific ways. Even designing, or merely digitizing, a simple font can
  take hundreds of hours.
  Given that, there are two major programs used for font design on the
  Macintosh, Fontographer ($280) and FontStudio ($400). These programs
  will allow you to import scanned images, and then trace them with
  drawing tools.  The programs will then generate type 1, 3, TrueType and
  Bitmap fonts for either the Macintosh or the IBM PC. They will also
  generate automatic hinting. They also open previously constructed
  outline fonts, allowing them to be modified, or converted into another
  As far as I know, there are no shareware programs that allow you to
  generate outline fonts.
Subject: 2.7. Problems and Possible Solutions
    1. Another font mysteriously appears when you select a certain font
       for display.
       This is often the result of a font id conflict. All fonts on the
       Macintosh are assigned a font id, an integer value. When two fonts
       have the same id, some programs can become confused about the
       appropriate font to use. Microsoft word 4.0 used font id's to
       assign fonts, not their names.  Since id's can be different on
       different computers, a word document's font could change when it
       was moved from one computer to another. Other signs of font id
       problems are inappropriate kerning or leading (the space between
       lines of text).  Some font ID problems can be resolved by using
       Suitcase, which will reassign font ID's for you, as well as saving
       a font ID file that can be moved from computer to computer to keep
       the id's consistent.  Font ID problems can also be solved with
       several type utilities, which will allow you to reassign font
       id's.  Most newer programs refer to fonts correctly by name
       instead of id number, which should reduce the frequency of this
    2. When using a document written in MSWord 5.0, the font mysteriously
       changes when you switch from your computer at home to work, or
       vice versa.
       This is the result of a bug in MSWord 5.0. The MSWord 5.0 updater,
       which can be found at the info-mac archives at sumex (in the demo
       folder), will fix this bug.
Subject: 2.8. Creating Mac screen fonts
  Creating Mac screen fonts from Type 1 outlines
  Peter DiCamillo contributes the following public domain solution:
  BitFont is a program which will create a bitmapped font from any font
  which can be drawn on your Macintosh.  In addition to standard
  bitmapped fonts, it works with Adobe outline fonts when the Adobe Type
  Manager is installed, and works with TrueType?  fonts.  BitFont will
  also tell you how QuickDraw will draw a given font (bitmapped, ATM, or
  TrueType) and can create a text file describing a font and all its
  BitFont was written using MPW C version 3.2.  It is in the public
  domain and may be freely distributed.  The distribution files include
  the source code for BitFont.
  Berthold K.P. Horn contributes the following solution.
  This is a commercial solution.  A font manipulation package from Y&Y
  SERIAL, and some other stuff I forget.
  To convert PC Type 1 fonts to Macintosh use PFBtoMAC on the outline
  font itself; then use AFMtoSCR to make the Mac `screen font'
  (repository of metric info). You may need to use PFMtoAFM to first make
  AFM file.
  To convert Macintosh font to PC Type 1, use MACtoPFA, followed by
  PFAtoPFB.  Then run SCRtoAFM on screen font to make AFM file.  Finally,
  run AFMtoPFM to make Windows font metric file.
  Y&Y are the `TeX without BitMaps' people (see ad in TUGboat):
  Y&Y makes DVPSONE, DVIWindo, and fonts, for use with TeX mostly, in
  fully hinted Adobe Type 1 format.
             Y&Y, Inc., 45 Walden Street, Concord MA 01742 USA
                              (800) 742-4059
                          (508) 371-3286 (voice)
                           (508) 371-2004 (fax)
  Mac Screen fonts can be constructed from outline fonts using
  Fontographer, as well.
Subject: 3. MS-DOS Information
  The easiest way to get outline fonts under MS-DOS is with Microsoft
  Windows 3.x or OS/2 2.x.
  Microsoft Windows 3.0 with Adobe Type Manager (ATM) and OS/2 2.0
  support PostScript Type1 fonts.
  Microsoft Windows 3.1 supports TrueType fonts natively.
  Bitmap fonts are available in a variety of formats: most formats are
  designed with the printer in mind and not the display since (prior to
  graphical environments like Windows, GEM, and OS/2) the majority of
  work under MS-DOS was done with a character-based interface.
Subject: 3.1. Frequently Requested MS-DOS fonts
  Many fonts are available at various archives.  The biggest font archive
  for MS-DOS format fonts is  Note: you can use any
  Mac format Type1 font on your PC by converting it to PC format with the
  free/shareware as described below.
  The following fonts are in Type 1 format for MS-DOS. Some are also
  available in TrueType format.
     * Hebrew
       ShalomScript, ShalomOldStyle, ShalomStick
     * Japanese
     * Star Trek
       Crillee, TNG monitors
     * IBM OEM Line Drawing Characters
       Try Adobe PrestigeElite or Adobe LetterGothic. They have all the
       characters you want, but the `line draw' characters are unencoded
       -- you will need tools to reencode the outline font itself and
       make a new PFM metric files.
       Or try IBMExtended from Impramatur Systems in Cambridge, Mass.  It
       already is encoded using IBM OEM encoding (some DOS code page).
       The IBM version of Courier distributed freely under the X11
       Consortium also contains the appropriate characters.  Again, the
       font will have to be reencoded for Windows.  Appropriate AFM files
       for this font can be obtained from:
       Lee Cambell suggests the following alternative:
       Line Drawing characters are also available on ftp sites as
       gc0651.exe which is a self-expanding archive. It is on cica (and
       mirrors thereof). From the text file that comes with it, it looked
       like it was distributed by Microsoft.  I printed some text in the
       normal A-z range and it looked identical to the truetype Courier
       font distributed with Windows. Perhaps it is an upgrade to that
       font. I didn't try the linedraw glyphs, so I can't say how they
Subject: 3.2. MS-DOS Font Installation
  If you have any information that you feel belongs in this section, it
  would be greatly appreciated.
     * Windows
          * Pat Farrell contributes the following description of font
            installation       under Windows.
            Installing Fonts into Windows:
            This only covers Windows 3.1 with ATM. Font is a four-letter
            word in Windows versions prior to 3.1 due to the distinctions
            between screen fonts and printer fonts. The upgrade price of
            Windows 3.1 is justified by the integration of TrueType into
            the package and the inclusion of useful fonts for all
            Commercial fonts usually have installation instructions with
            their manuals. The approach may differ from the method used
            for PD and shareware fonts.
            To install PD and shareware fonts in Windows 3.1:
              1. Copy the fonts onto a suitable scratch area (i.e. a
                 floppy, or any       temporary area of your hard disk.
              2. Execute "Control Panel" by double-clicking on the icon
                 in the       Windows Program Manager's "main" group.
              3. Double-click on the Fonts icon.
              4. Double-click on the "Add" button.
              5. Select the scratch directory holding the new fonts.
              6. A list of the fonts will be displayed. You can manually
                 select the       fonts you like, or you can use the
                 "Select All" button.
              7. Make sure the "Copy Fonts to Windows Directory"
                 check-box is       checked. This will copy the fonts
                 from the scratch area to your       Windows directory.
              8. Click on the "Ok" button.
          * Special notes for Windows applications:
            Word for Windows (W4W) stores font/printer information in its
            own initialization files. After you add new fonts, you have
            to tell W4W that the printer can use the new fonts. Do this
            by selecting "Printer Setup" from the W4W main "File" menu
            item, click on the "Setup" button, and then click on two "Ok"
            buttons to back out of the setup mode.
          * Note concerning Windows 3.1 upgrade:
            There are two upgrade packages available from Microsoft for
            Win3.1.  There is the standard version which contains
            TrueType support, and about six font families (Times New
            Roman, Arial, Courier, Symbols, Wingdings, etc.). It costs
            something like $50 (US). The second version contains a number
            of TrueType fonts that includes equivalents for the 35
            standard Postscript fonts. This adds an additional $50, which
            is a pretty good value.  However, if you plan on buying
            Microsoft's PowerPoint, it includes the same additional
            fonts/typefaces. So you can save money by not buying the
            fonts twice.
          * More about Windows
               * [Q:] Why are don't the TrueType fonts that come with
                 Microsoft products    (Word-for-Windows, PowerPoint,
                 Windows 3.1 TrueType Font Pack, etc.)    display and
                 print properly on my system?
               * [A:] The font matching algorithm in Win3.1 is fairly
                 simplistic.  If you    install lots of TrueType fonts,
                 the algorithm can get confused. In    this case, "lots"
                 is more than 50 or so.
          * According to Luann Vodder who supports Microsoft Word on
            "There is a procedure which Windows must go through when an
            application requests a font.  Each font contains a list of
            attributes such as Family, FaceName, Height, Width,
            Orientation, Weight, Pitch, etc.  When an application
            requests a font, it fills out a logical font for Windows
            containing the necessary attributes, then starts going
            through a font mapping algorithm to determine which of the
            installed fonts most closely matches the requested (logical)
            font.  Penalties are applied against fonts whose attributes
            do not match the logical font, until the fonts with the
            fewest penalties are determined.  If there is a "tie",
            Windows may need to rely on the order of the fonts in the
            WIN.INI file to determine the "winner".
            If the fonts you want are in your WIN.INI file, and show up in
            Windows' Control Panel, then try moving them higher in your
            WIN.INI file with a file edittor such as SYSEDIT."
          * Kesh Govinder suggested the following warning:
            CAUTION: While many Windows 3.1 users would like to have many
            TrueType fonts at their disposal (and they are many available
            in the PD) a word of caution.  A large number (>50) TT fonts
            will slow down your windows startup time.  This occurs as
            every installed font is listed in the win.ini file, and
            Windows has to go through the entire file before starting up.
            While this may not affect most users, it will especially
            affect users of CorelDraw!, so be warned.
     * Other Programs
       It is an unfortunate fact that almost all MS-DOS programs do things
       differently.  Your best bet is to read the manual that comes with
       the program you want to use.
Subject: 3.3. What exactly are the encodings of the DOS code pages?
  DOS uses `code pages' for `IBM OEM' encoding of fonts.  There are six
  code pages supplied with DOS 5.0:
         437 (English)
         850 (Multilingual - Latin I)
         852 (Slavic - Latin II)
         860 (Portugal)
         863 (Canadian French)
         865 (Nordic)
  (The character code range 0 - 127 is the same in all code pages).
  The problem is that MS idea of how to define what a code page is, is to
  show a low resolution print out of the glyphs!   Which is fine for the
  letters of the alphabet, numerals and the obvious punctuation marks,
  but worthless for accents (is it `cedilla' or `ogonek'? is it `caron'
  or `breve'?) and many other characters.  For example, 249 is a small
  dot, while 250 is a slightly larger dot.  Is one of these supposed to
  be `bullet' (which already occurs at 7)?  Or is one of them maybe
  supposed to be `middot' or `dotcentered'?  Is 228 supposed to be
  `Sigma' or `summation'. Is 225 supposed to be `beta' or `germandbls'?
  Etc etc
  And what is the character that looks like `Pt' in code position 158?
  Anyway, surely there is a table somewhere that defines precisely what
  these encodings are supposed to be.  That is, a table that gives for
  each code number the name and/or a description of the character.
Subject: 3.4. MS-DOS Font Utilities
     * PS2PK
       PS2PK allows you to convert PostScript Type1 fonts into bitmap
       fonts.  The bitmap files produced are in TeX PK format.
     * PKtoSFP
       PKtoSFP allows you to convert TeX PK fonts into HP LaserJet
     * PFBDir/PFBInfo
       PFBDir and PFBInfo format and display the "headers" in a binary
       Type1 font.
Subject: 3.5. Converting fonts under MS-DOS
Subject: 3.5.1. Converting Mac Type 1 fonts to MS-DOS format
  Converting Macintosh Type1 fonts into PC Type1 fonts can be done using
  purely free/shareware tools.  I've outlined the procedure below.  Make
  sure you read the "readme" files that accompany many fonts.  Some font
  authors specifically deny permission to do cross-platform conversions.
  The tools you need
  XBIN in /pub/msdos/mac on     (or other
  UNSIT in /pub/msdos/mac on
       unsiti.exe in /pub/onset/util on
       Peter Gentry indicates that this program can extract SIT
       archives that use the newer compression techniques that     unsit
       doesn't recognize.
  UNCPT in /pub/pc/win3/util on
  REFONT from
  BMAP2AFM from
  XBIN converts Mac "BinHex"ed files back into binary format.  BinHex is
  the Mac equivalent of UUencoding, it translates files into ascii
  characters so that mailers can send them around without difficulty.  It
  also aids in cross platform copying too, I'm sure.  BinHexed files
  generally have filenames of the form "xxx.yyy.HQX".
  UNSIT explodes "Stuffit" archives.  Stuffit archives generally have
  filenames of the form "xxx.SIT".  UNSIT will ask if you want to
  seperate resource and data forks.  Yes, you do.  There has been some
  confusion about whether or not you want headers.  I'm inclined to
  conclude that it can be made to work either way.  Personally, I say no.
  UNCPT explodes "Compactor" archives.  The ext-pc implementation is
  called "extract" and does not require windows (even thought it's in the
  windows section on cica).  Compactor archives generally have filenames
  of the form "xxx.CPT".
  REFONT converts Mac type1 fonts into PC type1 fonts.  It also converts
  Mac TrueType fonts to PC TrueType format.  And vice-versa.
  BMAP2AFM constructs AFM files from the metric information contained in
  Mac screen fonts (.bmap files).  The screen font files do not have any
  standard name (although they frequently have the extension .bmap).  The
  screen fonts have file type "FFIL" which, in combination with some
  common sense, is usually sufficient to identify them.
  I've listed the tools that I've used and the sites that are reasonable
  for me to retrieve them from.  It's probably a good idea to check with
  archie for closer sites if you're not in North America.  These tools
  run under MS-DOS.  XBIN and UNSIT can also be run under Unix.
  How to do it?
  Collect the Mac fonts from the archive or BBS of your choice.  Most of
  these files will be in BinHexed format.  As a running example, I'm
  going to use the imaginary font "Plugh.cpt.hqx".  When I download this
  font to my PC, I would use the name "PLUGH.CPX".  The actual name you
  use is immaterial.
  Run XBIN on PLUGH.CPX.  This will produce PLUGH.DAT, PLUGH.INF, and
  PLUGH.RSR.  The data fork of the Mac file (the .DAT file) is the only
  one of interest to us, you can delete the others.
  If the original file had been "Plugh.sit.hqx", we would be using the
  UNSIT program.  Since I chose a .cpt file for this example, I'm going
  to run UNCPT.
  Run UNCPT on PLUGH.DAT.  You want to extract the AFM file (if present),
  the documentation or readme file (if present), and the Type1 outline
  file.  The AFM and README files will be in the data fork of the archive
  file.  The Type1 outline will be in the resource fork.  The AFM and
  README files have Mac "TEXT" type.  The Type1 outline file has "LWFN"
  type.  I'm not trying to describe this part in a step-by-step fashion.
  Use the docs for UNCPT and UNSIT as a guide.  If you got this far you
  probably won't have much difficulty.  If you do, drop me a line and
  I'll try to help.
  If the font does not contain an AFM file, extract the screen font.
  Screen fonts frequently have the extension .bmap and are "FFIL" type
  files.  Use Bmap2AFM to construct an AFM from the screen font.  If the
  archive _does_ contain an AFM file, it's safe to bet that the author's
  AFM will be better than the one created by Bmap2AFM.
  Finally, run REFONT on the Type1 outline that you extracted above.  The
  result should be an appropriate PC type1 outline.  REFONT will create a
  PFM file for you from the AFM file, if you desire.
  Remember to register your shareware...
  Other comments
  [email protected] makes the following observations:
     * UNCPT is easier to use than UNSIT
     * UNCPT has to be run twice. I usually do it like this
       extract *.cpt -f
       extract *.cpt -f -r
     * When using "unsit30" you probably want the outline file with the
          MacHeader and the others without it. I think that REFONT
       requires it       but I am not sure.
     * REFONT works usually ok. You want a PFA (ASCII) file which is
       directly usable on NeXT (you may need to convert carriage-returns
       to       newlines but I am not sure if it is necessary).
       The biggest problem is with the .afm files that are completely
       missing       or generated by the tools that don't do their job
     * BMAP2AFM requires some extra files (ie. other than bmap2afm.exe) to
            work properly.
Subject: 3.5.2. Converting PC Type 1 and TrueType fonts to Mac format
  Refont (version 1.4) can convert (in both directions) between PC and Mac
  formats of Type1 and TrueType fonts.  Note: it _cannot_ convert
  _between_ formats, only architectures.  The procedure described above
  outlines how to convert a Mac archive into PC format so that you can
  get at the data.  Presumably, the process can be reversed so that you
  can get at the data on the Mac side as well.  Unfortunately, I don't
  have a Mac so I can't describe the process in detail.
  Font Manipulation Package
  The Y\&Y Font Manipulation package can convert PFA/B files into Mac
  format and AFM files into Mac screen fonts.
Subject: 3.5.3. Converting PC Type 1 fonts into TeX PK bitmap fonts
  The release of PS2PK by Piet Tutelaers is a godsend to those of us
  without PostScript printers.  PS2PK converts PC/Unix format Type 1 fonts
  into TeX PK files.  Used in conjunction with the AFM2TFM utility for
  creating TeX metric files, this allows almost anyone to use Type 1
  PostScript fonts.  PS2PK is distributed under the GNU License and has
  been made to run under MS-DOS with DJGPP's free GNU C compiler.  The PC
  version requires a 386 or more powerful processor.  Check with Archie
  for a source near you.
  Note: if TeX PK files are not directly usable for you, there seems to
  be a fair possibility that LaserJet softfonts would be useful.  If so,
  check below for instructions on converting TeX PK files to LaserJet
Subject: 3.5.4. Converting TeX PK bitmaps into HP LaserJet softfonts (and vice-versa)
  There is some possibility that someone will yell 'conflict of interest'
  here, but I don't think so.  I wrote the following utilities:
  PKtoSFP: convert TeX PK files to LaserJet (bitmapped) softfonts
  SFPtoPK: convert LaserJet (bitmapped) softfonts to TeX PK files
  But they are completely free, so I don't gain anything by "advertising"
  them here.  These are MS-DOS platform solutions only.  If you know of
  other solutions, I would be happy to list them.
  This is Info file, produced by Makeinfo-1.55 from the
  input file FAQ.texinfo.
Subject: 3.5.5. TrueType to HP LaserJet bitmap softfonts (HACK!)
  If you have the tools, the following suggestion does work, but it isn't
  easy and it hasn't been automated.  To be honest, I haven't really
  tested it.
  If you are using Windows 3.1, get a LaserJet printer driver (you don't
  need the printer, just the driver).  Using the LaserJet driver, direct
  output to a file and print a simple file containing all the letters you
  want in the softfont in the font that you are converting.  When the
  print job has completed, the output file will contain, among other
  things, a LaserJet softfont of the TrueType font you selected.  If you
  know the LaserJet format, you can grab it out of there.
  I didn't say it was easy ;-)
  This method will not work with ATM [ed: as of 7/92] because ATM does
  not construct a softfont; it downloads the whole page as graphics.
  Here is an overview of the LaserJet bitmap softfont format.  It should
  help you get started.  If you have any questions, ask norm.  If anyone
  wants to write better instructions... ;-)
  Many details are omitted from this description.  They are thoroughly
  discussed in the HP Technical Reference for each model of laser printer.
  I recommend purchasing the Tech Ref.  If you have additional questions
  and do not plan to purchase the Tech Ref (or do not wish to wait for its
  arrival), you can ask norm.
  An HP LaserJet softfont can occur almost anywhere in the output stream
  destined for the printer.  In particular, it does _not_ have to be
  wholly contiguous within the output file.  In fact, fonts can be
  "intermixed" at will.  The following "pieces" make up a font:
  A begin font descriptor command (followed by the descriptor) and a
  series of begin character descriptor commands (followed by their
  associated data).  When a new character descriptor is encountered, it
  is added to the current font (which may change between descriptors).
  In the discussion that follows, the following notational conventions
  are followed:
  Key elements are surrounded by quotation marks.  The quotation marks
  are not part of the element.  Spaces within the element are for clarity
  only, they are not part of the element.  All characters (except ESC and
  #, described below, are literal and must be entered in the precise case
  ESC means the escape character, ASCII character number 27 decimal.
  # means any decimal number.  The meaning of the number is described in
  the commentary for that element.
     * What is a font descriptor?
       A font descriptor begins with a font descriptor command and is
       followed immediately by the data for the descriptor.  Font
       descriptors define data global to the font.  In general, more
       recent printers are less strict about these parameters than older
     * What is the font descriptor command?
       "ESC ) s # W"
       In this command, # is the number of bytes in the descriptor.  The
       first element of the descriptor indicates how many of these bytes
       should be interpreted as the font descriptor (the remaining bytes
       are commentary only-to the printer, at least).  This area is
       frequently used for copyright information, for example, although
       some systems insert kerning data into this area.
     * What is the font descriptor data?
       The data is:
            UI  Font descriptor size
            UB  Descriptor format
            UB  Font type
            UI  Reserved (should be 0)
            UI  Baseline distance
            UI  Cell width
            UI  Cell height
            UB  Orientation
             B  Spacing
            UI  Symbol set
            UI  Pitch
            UI  Height
            UI  xHeight
            SB  Width Type
            UB  Style
            SB  Stroke Weight
            UB  Typeface LSB
            UB  Typeface MSB
            UB  Serif Style
            SB  Underline distance
            UB  Underline height
            UI  Text Height
            UI  Text Width
            UB  Pitch Extended
            UB  Height Extended
            UI  Cap Height
            UI  Reserved (0)
            UI  Reserved (0)
            A16 Font name
            ??  Copyright, or any other information
       UI = unsigned integer, SI = signed integer, UB = unsigned byte, SB
       = signed byte, B = boolean, and A16 =sixteen bytes of ASCII.
       After the font name, ?? bytes of extra data may be inserted.  These
       bytes pad the descriptor out to the length specified in the begin
       font descriptor command.
       Note: integers are always in big-endian order (MSB first).
     * What is a character descriptor?
       A character descriptor describes the character specific info and
       the layout of the bitmap.  Newer printers can accept compressed
       character bitmaps.
     * What is a character descriptor command?
       "ESC * c # E"
       The # is the length of the descriptor, in bytes.
     * What is the character descriptor data?
            UB  Format
             B  Continuation
            UB  Descriptor size
            UB  Class
            UB  Orientation
            SI  Left offset
            SI  Top offset
            UI  Character width
            UI  Character height
            SI  Delta X
            ??  Character (bitmap) data.
       Although older printers cannot accept characters that include
       continuations, newer printers can.  If the "continuation" field is
       1, the character bitmap data begins immediately after that byte and
       the remaining fields _are not_ present.
     * Ok, now I understand the data, what do I look for in the output
      ESC * c # D
            defines the font number (remember the number).
      ESC ) s # W
            defines the font descriptor (as described above).
      ESC * c # E
            specifies the character code (the #, in this case).
                 The next character descriptor maps to this position in
                         the font.  Characters do not have to appear in
            any                particular order.
      ESC ( s # W
            defines the character descriptor (as described above).
       Remember, these can occur in any order.  Experimentation with the
       particular driver you are using may help you restrict the number of
       different cases that you have to be prepared for.
  Please report your experiences using this method to norm (both to
  satisfy his own curiosity and to help improve the FAQ).
Subject: 3.6. MS-DOS Screen Fonts (EGA/VGA text-mode fonts)
  Editors note: the following description was mercilessly stolen from
          comp.archives on 02SEP92.  It was originally Yossi Gil's
  FNTCOL14.ZIP contains more than 200 text mode fonts for EGA/VGA
  displays.  It includes fonts in different sizes for Hebrew, Greek,
  Cyrillic, math symbols and various type styles including smallcaps and
  It is available at
Subject: 4. OS/2 Information
  [ed: Except as otherwise noted, the entire OS/2 section of the
  comp.fonts FAQ List is derived from the "Draft OS/2 Font FAQ" posted by
  David J. Birnbaum.]
  This section if the FAQ is Copyright (C) 1993 by David J. Birnbaum.
  All Rights Reserved.  Reproduced here by permission.
  [ed: Since this section of the FAQ is wholly derived from David's
  document, some sections contain information repeated elsewhere in the
  comp.fonts FAQ.]
  David Birnbaum's Introduction
  4 June 1993
  A couple of weeks ago I posted an inquiry to comp.fonts,
  comp.os.os2.misc, and the OS2-L ListServ concerning some apparent
  peculiarities in the way OS/2 handles font files. These "peculiarities"
  actually reflect regular, systematic differences in OS/2, Windows, and
  DOS font handling, which are not conveniently described in end-user
  documentation. This posting is intended to spare others some of the
  confusion I encountered as a result of this paradigm shift.
  This is the first (draft) distribution of this document and corrections
  and suggestions are welcome. I am grateful to Henry Churchyard, Marc L.
  Cohen, Bur Davis and Kamal Mansour for helpful discussions; they are
  not, of course, responsible for any misinterpretation I may have
  inflicted on their comments.
Subject: 4.1. Preliminaries
  Character: an informational unit consisting of a value (usually a byte)
  and roughly corresponding to what we think of as letters, numbers,
  punctuation, etc.
  Glyph: a presentational unit corresponding roughly to what we think of
  as letters, numbers, punctuation, etc.
  Character vs glyph: Glyph and character are not necessarily the same;
  the character <a> may be mapped to a Times Roman Lower Case <a> glyph
  in one font and to a Helvetica Lower Case <a> glyph in another font.
  Change of glyphs normally means a change in style of presentation,
  while change in characters normally means a change in information.
  There are gray areas and the definitions provided above are general,
  approximate, and imprecise.
  Character set: an inventory of characters with certain assigned values.
  ASCII is a 7-bit character set that specifies which "character cell"
  (byte value) corresponds to which informational unit.
  Code Page: essentially synonymous with character set.
  Font: A collection of glyphs. A specific font may be isomorphic with a
  specific character set, containing only glyphs corresponding to
  characters in that set, with these glyphs mapped to the same byte
  values as the characters they are intended to represent. PostScript
  fonts often contain additional (unmapped) characters. Most importantly,
  PostScript fonts may sometimes be remapped by an operating environment,
  which is what leads to the disorienting cross-environment mismatch that
  spurred my original posting.
  Fonts may be bitmapped or outline in format; a bitmapped format
  corresponds to a particular size and weight for a particular device or
  device resolution, while a single outline font is used to generate
  multiple sizes as needed. Within an outline font system, different
  weights (bold, semibold, italic, etc.) may be encoded as separate font
  resources (separate outline files used to generate the glyphs) or may
  all be generated from a single outline (slanting characters to make
  "italics," fattening them for "bold," etc.).
Subject: 4.2. Fonts under DOS
  I used a large assortment of fonts under DOS for intricate multilingual
  work. My setup at that time consisted of a library of bitmapped fonts
  that could be sent to my HP LaserJet II printer, as well as a set of
  fixed-size, fixed-width screen fonts that were supported by my Hercules
  Graphics Card Plus (not the same as Hercules Graphics; the "Plus"
  included an ability to store 3072 screen glyphs and display any of
  these together, while standard character-mode displays were normally
  limited to 256 or 512 such entities).
  Using XyWrite as a word processor, I would enter a "Mode" command to
  change fonts and character sets simultaneously; this would make
  different sets of screen glyphs available at the keyboard and would
  insert a font-change command for my printer into the text stream. The
  "Mode" and font-change commands were not displayed on the screen. The
  result was not WYSIWYG, since I was limited to fixed-width screen
  display and since I had far more printer glyphs available than the 3072
  limit imposed by my video card; I used a brightness attribute to
  indicate bold, I used the same screen font for different sizes of
  printer fonts, etc. This worked and worked well, in that I could see
  (for example) Russian, Greek, English, Polish, and other characters
  simultaneously on the screen and I could print documents combining them.
  Architecturally, what was going on was that the character sets (code
  pages) and fonts were entirely isomorphic and were hard- coded. If I
  put a particular Russian letter into cell 246 of my screen and printer
  fonts, that character was always there, and any strategy that would let
  me access this cell (remapped keyboards, numeric keypad) was guaranteed
  always to find the same character.
Subject: 4.3. Windows
  I recently began using PostScript fonts in Windows with AmiPro as my
  word processor. These fonts came with printed cards indicating the
  glyph mappings; I could look at the card and it would tell me that a
  specific character lived in cell 246, and if I entered Alt-0246 at the
  numeric keypad that glyph would appear on the screen. If I loaded the
  font into Fontographer for Windows, these glyphs would be arrayed in
  cells according to the map provided by Adobe with the fonts.
  Fontographer also revealed that these fonts had other, "unmapped"
  glyphs assigned to cells above 255.
  Given what appeared to be a hard correspondence among what I saw in
  Fontographer, what was printed in Adobe's maps, and what was displayed
  when I entered something at the keyboard, I naively assumed that
  PostScript fonts were operating much like my bitmapped fonts under DOS.
  There were some obvious differences, the primary one being that glyphs
  of different sizes were all drawn from the same font resource files
  under PostScript, but it appeared as if a glyph lived in a certain cell.
Subject: 4.4. Differences between Windows and OS/2
  This assumption was incorrect; PostScript fonts can be subdivided into
  two types, one of which observes hard and invariant encodings similar
  to those that apply to my bitmapped fonts, while the other represents a
  completely different font mapping strategy. This difference became
  apparent only when I attempted to share PostScript fonts between
  Windows and OS/2 and got some unexpected results.
  A PostScript font under Windows involves two files, a PFB (PostScript
  Font Binary) file, which contains the PostScript instructions needed to
  draw each glyph and some mapping information, and a PFM (Printer Font
  Metrics) file, which encodes width and kerning information. A
  PostScript font under OS/2 also uses the same PFB file, but instead of
  the PFM file it uses an AFM (Adobe Font Metrics) file. The AFM and PFM
  files contain much of the same basic information (although the AFM file
  is somewhat more complete); the most important differences are in
  format (AFM is plain text, PFM is binary) and use (OS/2 uses AFM,
  Windows uses PFM).
Subject: 4.5. Installation under Windows and Win-OS/2
  The OS/2 2.0 Font Palette tool (see below for changes to be introduced
  with 2.1) by default installs fonts (both PFB and AFM files) into the
  "\os2\dll" directory.  Win-OS/2 by default installs PFB files into
  "\psfonts" and PFM files into "\psfonts\pfm".  These defaults can be
  changed; since OS/2 and Win-OS/2 use the same PFB files, the user can
  save disk space by allowing these to be shared (through installing into
  the same directory, e.g., install OS/2 fonts into the "\psfonts"
  directory instead of "\os2\dll".)  Note that fonts must be intalled and
  removed through the Font Palette; if you copy, move, or delete a font
  file without using the Font Palette, the system configuration files are
  not updated and all hell breaks loose.
  Deleting fonts from Win-OS/2 causes the system to update the win.ini
  file to remove references to the font, but does not delete any files
  physically. Deleting fonts from the OS/2 Font Palette updates the
  os2.ini configuration file and physically deletes the AFM and PFB files
  from the disk.  This means that if you are sharing PFB files between
  OS/2 and Win-OS/2, you can delete a Win-OS/2 font without hurting
  native OS/2 operations, since the PFB reamins installed where OS/2
  thinks it is. But if you delete an OS/2 font using the Font Palette,
  the PFB file is erased from the disk even though the win.ini file is
  not updated, so that Win-OS/2 thinks it is still there.
Subject: 4.6. FontSpecific PostScript Encoding
  Every PFB file contains an "encoding vector"; this is a plain text line
  embedded near the head of the PFB file. Encoding vectors are of two
  types: AdobeStandardEncoding and everything else. Adobe usually uses
  the label "FontSpecific" for fonts that are not encoded according to
  AdobeStandardEncoding, and I use it as a cover term here for any such
  If you look at the readable plain text information at the head of a
  FontSpecific type font, it includes a range of text that begins:
         /Encoding 256 array
  followed by a bunch of lines, each of which includes a number (which
  corresponds to a cell in the font layout) and the name of the glyph
  that lives in that cell. The unreadable binary data below this array
  specification lists the name of each glyph and the PostScript
  instructions for how the glyph is to be drawn.  There may be PostScript
  code for drawing glyphs that are not included in the mapping array, but
  only glyphs mentioned in the array specification are available to
  FontSpecific type fonts are comparable to the bitmapped fonts I used
  under DOS. Each character physically is assigned to a specific cell
  within the font file and operating environments are not allowed to
  remap these. The glyph in cell 246 will be the same in both Windows and
Subject: 4.7. AdobeStandardEncoding
  AdobeStandardEncoding is a specific mapping of certain glyphs to
  certain cells; in this respect it resembles FontSpecific encoding.
  Because it is standardized, the array is not spelled out in the PFB
  file; the line
         /Encoding StandardEncoding def
  tells Adobe Type Manager (ATM, either the Windows and Win-OS/2 version
  or the native OS/2 version) that the encoding is "standard," and the
  environments are expected to know what this standard is without having
  the array spelled out in each font file.
  Although AdobeStandardEncoding is a real mapping, there is an
  importance difference between it and various FontSpecific mappings:
  operating environments are expected to remap AdobeStandardEncoding
  fonts according to their own requirements.  That is, although
  AdobeStandardEncoding does assign glyphs to cells, no operating
  environment actually uses these assignments and any environment remaps
  the glyphs before rendering them.  Confusion arises because Windows and
  OS/2 remap such fonts in different ways.
Subject: 4.8. AdobeStandardEncoding under Windows (and Win-OS/2)
  An AdobeStandardEncoding font under Windows is remapped according to a
  character map (code page) that MicroSoft calls Windows ANSI (can other
  code pages be installed in Windows?). This determines which character
  resides in which cell and the font is remapped so that glyphs and
  characters will correspond. Since Fontographer for Windows is a Windows
  application, it displays glyphs not in the cells in which they live
  according to AdobeStandardEncoding, but in the cells to which they get
  reassigned under the remapping to Windows ANSI. There is nothing
  explicit in the PFB file that associates these characters with the
  specific cells in which they appear under Windows.
Subject: 4.9. AdobeStandardEncoding under OS/2
  OS/2 operates within a set of supported code pages; two system- wide
  code pages are specified in the config.sys file and an application is
  allowed to switch the active code page to any supported code page (not
  just these two). DeScribe, for example, currently operates in code page
  (CP) 850, which includes most letters needed for western European Latin
  alphabet writing. CP 850 does not contain typographic quotes, en- and
  em-dashes, and other useful characters. It does contain the IBM
  "pseudographics," which are useful for drawing boxes and lines with
  monospaced fonts.
  When the user inputs a value (through the regular keyboard or the
  numeric keypad), the application checks the active CP, looks up in an
  internal table the name of the character that lives in that cell within
  that CP, and translates it into a unique number that corresponds to one
  of the 383 glyphs supported by OS/2 (the union of all supported code
  pages). This number is passed to PM-ATM (the OS/2 ATM implementation),
  which translate the glyph number into the glyph name that PostScript
  fonts expect and searches the font for that name. The system never
  looks at where a glyph is assigned under the AdobeStandardEncoding
  array; rather, it scans the font looking for the character by name and
  gives it an assignment derived from the active code page. This is the
  remapping that OS/2 performs on AdobeStandardEncoding type fonts.
  As a result, a situation arises where, for example, <o+diaeresis> is
  mapped to cell 246 under Windows ANSI but to cell 148 under CP 850.
  Using the identical PFB file, this glyph is accessed differently in the
  two operating environments.
Subject: 4.10. Consequences for OS/2 users
  If your font has a FontSpecific encoding, there are no unexpected
  consequences; the same glyphs will show up at the same locations in
  both Windows (Win-OS/2) and native OS/2. Regardless of what the active
  code page is, if the font has a FontSpecific encoding OS/2 goes by cell
  value; a specific glyph is hard-coded to a specific cell and OS/2 will
  give you whatever it finds there, even if what it finds disagrees with
  what the active code page would normally predict. In other words,
  FontSpecific encoding means "ignore the mapping of the active code page
  and rely on the mapping hard-coded into the font instead."
  If your font has an AdobeStandardEncoding encoding, the following
  details obtain:
  1) The same PFB file may have glyphs that are accessible in one
  environment but not another. For example, if DeScribe thinks it is
  operating in CP 850, there is no access to typographic quotes, even if
  those do occur in the PFB file and even if Windows can find them in the
  same exact font file. DeScribe could switch code pages, but if the
  application isn't set up to do so (and DeScribe currently isn't), those
  characters are absolutely inaccessible to the user.
  2) If the active code page includes a character that isn't present in
  the font, OS/2 has to improvise. For example, AdobeStandardEncoding
  fonts do not normally include the IBM pseudographics, yet the user who
  inputs the character value for one of these sends the system off to
  look for it. As described above, OS/2 first checks the active font for
  the glyph name that corresponds to that character and, if it finds it,
  displays it.  If the glyph isn't found, OS/2 looks to the system Symbol
  font.  This is not reported back to the user in DeScribe; if I have
  Adobe Minion active (AdobeStandardEncoding, no information anywhere in
  the font files for pseudographics) and input a pseudographic character,
  DeScribe tells me it is still using Adobe Minion, even though it has
  fetched the character it displays and prints from the Symbol font, a
  different font resource file.
Subject: 4.11. Advice to the user
  OS/2's code page orientation provides some advantages, in that it
  separates the character set (code page) mapping from the encoded font
  mapping. The main inconvenience isn't a loss of function, but a
  disorientation as users become accustomed to the new paradigm.
  If you need a glyph that you know is in your PFB file but that isn't in
  the active code page (and if you can't change code pages within your
  application), you can't get at it in OS/2 without tampering with the
  font files. To tamper, you can use font manipulation tools to
  redesignate the PFB file as FontSpecific ("Symbol" character set to
  Fontographer). If you then map the glyphs you need into one of the
  lower 256 cells (with some limitations), they will be accessible in all
  environments. The Fontographer manual does not explain what the
  "Symbol" character encoding label really does, it just tells you not to
  use it except for real symbol fonts. In fact you should use it for any
  font that will not correspond in inventory to the code page supported
  by your application, which means any non-Latin fonts.
  You do not have to recode all your fonts, and you wouldn't normally
  want to do so, since Fontographer hinting is not nearly as good as
  Adobe's own hand-tuning and regenerating a font regenerates the hints.
  All you have to do is make sure you have one FontSpecific type font
  installed that includes your typographic quotes, etc. for each typeface
  you need. Within DeScribe, you can then write a macro that will let you
  switch fonts, fetch a character, and switch back, thereby allowing you
  to augment any group of fonts with a single, shared set of typographic
  quotes (or whatever) that you put in a single FontSpecific font.
  Alternatively, OS/2 also supports CP 1004, which does contain
  typographic quotes and other characters used for high-quality
  typography, but the user may not be able to convince an application to
  invoke this code page if it was not designed to do so.
  You can have any number of FontSpecific fonts installed, which means
  that there is a mechanism for dealing with unsupported character sets
  (code pages).
  You can also tinker with the font files to try to trick the operating
  system. For example, using Fontographer or other utilities, you can
  change the name assigned to a glyph description within the PFB file. If
  you want to use AdobeStandardEncoding and you want to see a specific
  glyph at a specific cell when DeScribe thinks it's using CP 850, you
  have to make sure that the name assigned to the description of that
  glyph is what DeScribe expects to find. OS/2 doesn't care whether, say,
  <o+diaeresis> really looks like <o> with two dots over it, as long as
  it bears the right name.
  This second approach is obviously far more complex and provides much
  more opportunity for error. Its advantage is that OS/2 does not support
  case conversion and sorting (other than in machine order) for
  unsupported code pages, since these operations depend on character
  names. Keeping supported names from supported code pages while changing
  the artwork is one way to maintain order and case correspondences while
  increasing the range of glyphs actually supported. I have not
  experimented with this approach, since the use I would get out of the
  adding functionality (over the FontSpecific encoding approach) is not
  worth the amount of effort required.
Subject: 4.12. OS/2 2.1 and beyond
  OS/2 2.1 will change some aspects of font handling. First, OS/2 2.0
  GA+SP has a bug that can cause OS/2 to crash when an AFM file with more
  than 512 kern pairs is read. This is fixed in 2.1.  (This bug is
  separate from a design limitation in MicroSoft Windows that causes
  large kern tables to be read incorrectly.  This problem is still under
  investigation; watch this space for a report.)
  Fonts in 2.1 will be installed by default into the "\psfonts" directory,
  so that they will normally be shared with Win-OS/2 fonts. (The user will
  still be able to specify a directory; all that will change is the
  default). The user will also be able to instruct the Font Palette not to
  delete font files when fonts are uninstalled, so as to avoid clobbering
  a Win-OS/2 font by removing it from native OS/2 use through the Font
  Palette (although the default will still be to delete the physical font
  OS/2 will stop using AFM files and will replace these with OFM files, a
  binary metrics file (different from PFM) that OS/2 will compile from
  the AFM file during font installation. This will speed font loading,
  since the system will not have to parse a plain text metrics file.
  Additionally, the OS/2 PostScript printer driver used to install its
  own, large font files, but will now use the OFM and PFB files, thereby
  saving 50k-200k of disk space per installed font outline.
  IBM's long-term goal is to replace the 383-entity inventory of
  supported glyphs with Unicode. This is very much a long-term goal and
  there is not even a hint of when it might become available.  It has its
  own problems, stemming from the fact that Unicode is essentially a
  character standard and glyph and character inventories may differ is
  assorted ways, but it will be a significant step in the proverbial
  right direction.
Subject: 5. Unix Information
  See also the 'utilities' section for more information.  Most of the
  utilities described in that section run under Unix.
  The bulk of this section was contributed by Johannes Schmidt-Fischer in
  Jun 1993.
  Unix Font Formats
  Most printers attached to Unix hosts are PostScript printers.  As a
  consequence, most Unix users are also using PostScript fonts.  If you
  are not using a PostScript printer, you need a front-end, like
  GhostScript, to convert the PostScript into a format compatible with
  your printer.
  There is no Unix specific Postscript Type 1 format. The most often used
  (and most easily usable) format is Adobe's PFA format.  The other often
  used format is PFB format. The PFB format is more compact (by about
  50%), but in order to use it you need make sure that your font
  downloading tools are prepared to convert PFB to PFA on fly.
  Postscript Type 3 fonts are no problem, they can be handled the same
  way as Type 1 fonts.
  Most Unix tools expect to get character metric information from AFM
  files.  You may have difficulty using fonts collected off of the 'Net
  if they do not include AFM files
  Font Installation
  It depends. (Well, what did you expect me to say? ;-)
  Printer using an ExitServer
  Convert PFB fonts into PFA format if necessary and then send them to
  printer inside a wrapper like so:
             %!PS-Adobe-2.0 ExitServer Job
             serverdict begin 0 exitserver  % 0: substitute your password
             ...                            % font in PFA-format
  Or include them directly in your print job:
             ...                            % font in PFA-format
             ...                            % other initialisation
             %%Page: 1 i                    % beginning of your job...
             ...                            % ...
Subject: 6. Sun Information
  Someone mailed a file of Sun-related font tips.  Unfortunately, I cannot
  find the file.  If you have any suggestion for this section (or if you
  are the person that mailed me the other list), please forward your
  suggestions to norm.
  [ Note: much of this information is obsolete, based on the
  SunOS4/Solaris2.1 server.  The Solaris 2.3 and later servers are based
  on the standard X11R5 server but with Display PostScript added, so you
  can do Type 1 in the "normal" way (fontdir+mkpsres) ]
Subject: 6.1. Fonts Under Open Windows
  The following information regarding fonts under Open Windows was donated
  by Liam R.E. Quin from the Open Windows FAQ.
Subject: 6.1.1. Does OpenWindows support Type 1 PostScript fonts?
  Type 1 fonts are supported starting with the NeWSprint 2.0 and Solaris
  2.0 (OpenWindows 3.0.1) releases.
  There are also 57 F3 format fonts supplied with OpenWindows which are
  fully hinted.  Documentation on the F3 font format and the F3 font
  interpreter, TypeScaler, is available from Sun.
Subject: 6.1.2. Improving font rendering time
  Although the Sun type renderer (TypeScaler) is pretty fast, it's not as
  fast as loading a bitmap.  You can pre-generate bitmap fonts for sizes
  that you use a lot, and you can also alter and access the font cache
  parameters.      If you have a lot of memory you might want to increase
  the font cache size.
           $ psh -i
           Welcome to X11/NeWS Version3      <--- psh will say this at you
           currentfontmem =                  % type this line ...
           300                               % ... my server was using 300 Kbytes
           1024 setfontmem
                                             % Just to check:
           currentfontmem =
  See pp. 328ff of the NeWS 3.0 Programmer's Guide.  You need to say psh
  -i so that the PostScript packages are loaded - see the psh man page.
  You could also add the following line to your $HOME/.openwin-init file
  to perform this task every time you start OpenWindows:
         echo 1024 setfontmem | psh -i > /dev/null 1>&2
Subject: 6.1.3. Making bitmap fonts for faster startup
  Sun supports the F3 scalable outline format.  These descriptions are
  stored in .f3b files.  The makeafb program is used to create a bitmap
  font at a particular size which is stored in a .afb file, which is an
  Adobe ASCII format for font bitmaps.  X11/NeWS really prefers a binary
  format though for speed and other reasons, so convertfont is used to
  "compile" the font into a font binary or .fb file.
  Once this is done, X11/NeWS needs to understand the relationship between
  the .f3b file and all the bitmaps which are based on it.  Thus, the
  bldfamily program makes these correlations and stores the data in the
  font family or .ff file.
  bldfamily also builds a global list of all fonts stored in the working
  directory, writing the results out to the file Families.list.  If one
  wishes to create font aliases, these can be added to the Synonyms.list
  file by hand and bldfamily will then add them to Families.list for you.
  X11/NeWS uses Families.list to construct the font list it advertises
  to applications.
  To go from F3 to BDF, use makeafb to generate a bitmap font in .afb
  format.  Then use one of convertfont's many options to change to this
  to .bdf format and from there it should be clear.
         $ mkdir $HOME/myfonts
         $ cd $HOME/myfonts
         $ makeafb -20 -M $OPENWINHOME/lib/fonts/Bembo.f3b
         Creating Bembo20.afb
         $ convertfont -b Bembo20.afb
         Chars parameter greater than number of characters supplied.
         $ ls
         Bembo20.afb   Bembo20.fb      Synonyms.list
         $ bldfamily
         * Bembo                      ./Bembo.ff (Encoding: latin)
         cat: ./Compat.list: No such file or directory
         $ xset +fp `pwd`
         $ xset fp rehash
  If you want the server to see your new font directory every time, add
  this directory to your FONTPATH environment variable in one of your
  start-up files, e.g. .login or .profile.
Subject: 6.1.4. Converting between font formats (convertfont, etc.)
  You can also use F3 fonts with an X11 server, by converting them to a
  bitmap (X11 bdf format) first.  Your license restricts use of these
  fonts on another machine, and unless you have NeWSPrint you shouldn't
  use them for printing.  Having said all that...  you can use makeafb
  and convertfont to generate bdf files that you can compile with
  bdftosnf or bdftopcf.
  Use mftobdf (from the SeeTeX distribution) to convert TeX PK fonts to
  X11 BDF format, which you can then use with either X11 or OpenWindows.
Subject: 6.1.5. Xview/OLIT fonts at 100 dpi
  There aren't any.  More precisely, the various text fonts, such as
  Lucida Typewriter Sans, are available at 100 dpi, and in fact are
  scalable under OpenWindows.  The glyph fonts used to be bitmaps, which
  don't scale very well, but starting with OpenWindows 3.2, the OpenLook
  UI glyph fonts are provided in scalable format as well.
Subject: 6.2. Where can I order F3 fonts for NeWSprint and OpenWindows?
  600 F3 fonts are available for unlocking from Printer's Palette, a CD
  available with NeWSprint 2.0.
  In addition, F3 fonts are available from the following sources:
         Linotype AG                     Linotype Company
         Mergenthaler Allee 55-75        425 Oser Avenue
         6236 Eschborn Germany           Hauppague, NY  11788
         49/(61 96) 4031	                (800) 336-0045
         FAX 011/49/6196-982185          FAX 516-434-2055
         attn: F3 Font Production        attn: F3 Font Production
         Monotype Plc.                   Monotype Typography
         Salfords Redhill RH1 5JP        53 W. Jackson Boulevard Suite 504
         England                         Chicago, IL  60604
         44/(737) 765959                 (800) 666-6893
         FAX 011/44/737-769243           FAX (312) 939-0378
         attn: F3 Font Production        attn: F3 Font Production
         U R W                           U R W
         Harksheider Strasse 102         One Tara Boulevard Suite 210
         D2000 Hamburg Germany           Nashua, NH  03062
         49/(40) 606050                  (603) 882-7445
         49/(40) 60605148                (603) 882-7210
         attn: F3 Font Production        attn: F3 Font Production
         Bigelow & Holmes                Autologic
         P. O. Box 1299                  1050 Rancho Conejo Boulevard
         Menlo Park, CA  94026           Newbury Park, CA  91320
         415/326-8973                    (800)235-1843, or (805)498-9611 in CA
         FAX (415) 326-8065              FAX (805) 499-1167
         attn: F3 Font Production        attn: F3 Font Production
Subject: 7. NeXT Information
  If you have any suggestions for this section, please forward your
  suggestions to norm.
Subject: 7.1. Tell me about NeXTstep fonts
  NeXTstep fonts are Adobe Type 1 fonts stored in ASCII (PFA) format.
  There are several rules about how fonts must be installed before they
  I'd like to thank Henry for rewriting this section.
  Basic Format
  NeXTstep fonts live in one of three folders:
       Contains system fonts.  In general, you will not install any
       new fonts here.
       Contains fonts which are accessible to every user on a     system
       or a network.
       (where ~ is your home folder) means fonts     which are private to
       a specific user.
  A NeXTstep font is actually a folder containing various components of
  the font.  Components are:
     * the outline font file - REQUIRED
     * the font metrics (AFM) file - REQUIRED
     * one or more screen font (bitmap) files - OPTIONAL
  Font Folder and Font Filename Requirements
  The name of the folder containing a font and the name of the font file
  itself must follow strict rules - the names can NOT be any old name you
  like. For a font to work correctly, the base folder and font filename
  MUST BE THE SAME as the name of the outline font.  This is usually the
  same as the value of the FontName field in the AFM file or the value of
  the /FontName key in the actual font itself.  Suppose you have a font
  called Headhunter.  The Headhunter font must live within a folder called
  within one of the three folders mentioned above.  Within the
  Headhunter.font  folder, you must have the two files
         Headhunter       ( the outline file )
         Headhunter.afm   ( the AFM file )
  If you have a bitmap file for Headhunter, it must live in a file
         Headhunter.bepf  ( the bitmap file )
  Variations such as Bold, Italic, etc., should be their own font files
  in their own folder. So if you have a font called Headhunter-Bold, you
  need to create a folder called
  within one of the three folders mentioned above.  Within the
  Headhunter.font  folder, you must have the two files
         Headhunter-Bold       ( the outline file )
         Headhunter-Bold.afm   ( the AFM file )
  If you have a bitmap file for Headhunter, it must live in a file
         Headhunter-Bold.bepf  ( the bitmap file )
  For NeXTstep 1.0 ONLY, you also need to take the following steps:
     * If they do not already exist, create the following folders:
          * ~/Library/Fonts/outline
          * ~/Library/Fonts/afm
          * ~/Library/Fonts/bitmap
     * In each of these folders, create a symbolic link to the
       corresponding component file in each font.
  For NeXTstep 2.0 and up:
  The font description is taken from the font folder itself, so you don't
  need to do this. It may be beneficial to simply create these folders
  and put nothing in them, but I'm not sure it matters.
  Certain "old" applications which haven't upgraded to the NeXTstep 2.0
  scheme of fonts may depend on these folders being present.
  The last step is to get the system to recognize the new font(s).  You
  may have noticed the existence of three files in the Fonts folder:
  .fontdirectory, .fontlist, and .afmcache. These are files the system
  looks at to see which fonts exist.
  The easiest way to update them is to simply start up an application and
  open the font panel. It should recognize that the update time stamp on
  the Fonts folder has changed, and update the files accordingly. It is
  probably a good idea to simply delete the three above files beforehand.
  You should get a message window saying "incorporating information on
  new fonts. Please wait (this may take xx seconds)". Your new fonts
  should be available now.
  If this does not work, you can update them manually. Open up a Terminal
  shell and go to your Fonts folder. At the prompt, type two commands:
         cacheAFMData afm  (the parameter is the <afm dir>)
  The new fonts will not work if the cacheAFMData command is not run, and
  since it is an undocumented command, it is a common culprit.
  [ed: the cacheAFMData step may not be required in 3.0 OS]
  I believe this is true.  Looks like the PasteBoard Services runs
  cacheAFMData in 3.0.
  You should now be able to see and preview your fonts in the font panel.
  If you are still having problems with your font, such as the <<
  Unusable font >> message, consult NeXTAnswers. There are some useful
  suggestions for debugging faulty fonts there.  It is also always
  helpful to look at existing fonts to see how they are installed.
  One note on the NeXTAnswers. Supposedly there are only a few discrete
  values which are allowed to appear in the weight field of the font:
  "Ultra Light", "Thin", "Light", "Extra Light", "Book", "Regular",
  "Plain", "Roman", "Medium", "Demi", "Demi-Bold", "Semi-Bold", "Bold",
  "Extra Bold", "Heavy", "Heavyface", "Black", "Ultra", "UltraBlack",
  "Fat", "ExtraBlack", and "Obese". However, I have a few fonts where
  this is not the case ("standard" is a common entry) and have had no
  problems as of yet. But it would probably be wiser to be on the safe
  See below for a definitive list.
  This is Info file, produced by Makeinfo-1.55 from the
  input file FAQ.texinfo.
Subject: 7.2. Tell me more about NeXTstep fonts
  Outline files should be in PFA or hexadecimal ASCII format.  The font
  name should be taken either from the outline (font) file or the AFM
  file. In both case the name is given after the word "FontName" at the
  beginning of the file)
  As a matter of fact, fonts don't strictly HAVE to be in all hexadecimal
  ASCII format.  The eexec portion of the font can be in binary if you
  wish, and in fact some Mac->NeXTstep or PFB->NeXTstep font converters
  simply strip off the Mac/PFB storage format headers and leave the
  binary sections as binary.
  However, if you wish to send such a font across a serial channel to a
  PostScript printer, you will need some way to unpack the binary eexec
  portion to seven-bit ASCII before sending the font.
  Converted Fonts After Conversion
  After conversion they are just like any other freeware or shareware
  font that you can get in NeXTstep-format from the archives. That's just
  outline and AFM files but no bitmapped screen fonts. So small point
  size means poor resolution on screen but they most of should print OK
  if they are any good ( = usually made with Fontographer).
  About Conversion Utilities
  NeXTstep utilities
     * unfont
       You can find a package, named something like
       pcATMfont2NeXT.tar.Z, from NeXT archives (
       that converts PC fonts to NeXT format (PFB -> PFA).
       The most useful tool for me has been "unfont" which
       converts the .pfb (binary outline) font to ASCII outline
       I usually use it like this
                     $ unfont new_font.pfb >NewFont
       If the conversion was successful all I have to after that is
         maybe to rename the font correctly and move the outline file
            in the correct .font folder.
       Opener seems to be a very useful application since it can
       open several kinds file packages on NeXTstep that are
       common on other platforms. E.g. ".sit", ".hqx",          ".zoo",
       ".zip", ".z", etc.
       I haven't used it a lot but looks very promising.
     * T1utils-1.1
       This is collection of command-line programs that manipulate
        PS Type 1 fonts and one of them can also do the PFB->PFA
       conversion (t1ascii?).
                  Basic unarchiving of Mac and PC files.
  On your Unix machine:
       Converts .hqx to:
            Rename and transfer to PC (or use on NeXT?)
       Converts .zip to:
            Discard (unless it can generate a better AFM file)
      everything else
            Transfer to NeXT      On a PC:
       Converts .hqx to:
            Rename and transfer to PC (or use on NeXT?)
  extract -f ...
       Converts .cpt to:
      file with no extension
            This is usually the outline font.  Refont and transfer to
            Transfer to NeXT.
            Discard (unless it can generate a better AFM file)
            Discard if you have an AFM file.
  unsit30 -eb ...
       Converts .sit to:
      file with no extension
            This is usually the outline font.  Refont and transfer to
            Transfer to NeXT.
            Discard (unless it can generate a better AFM file)
            Discard if you have an AFM file.
       Converts outline formats from Mac to NeXT format (PFA).
       Converts .zip to:
            Discard (unless it can generate a better AFM file)
      everything else
            Transfer to NeXT      On a NeXT
       Converts archive formats (.sit, .hqx, .zip) to NeXT     format.
       Converts PFB files to NeXT format.
       Converts AFM files to NeXT format AFM files (CR/LF hackery)
  There are scripts (installfont) available that can handle the
  installation process but here is how you do it manually.
     * .font
       After all that you have to create the .font folder, move the
       outline and .afm files there and start fighting with the strangely
       formatted .afm file. The most common problems are font name
       mismatch between outline and AFM files (family name is incorrect
       or too long, etc) and missing fields (ex. no ItalicAngle entry) in
       the AFM file.
     * buildafmdir AND cacheAFMData
       buildafmdir puts its complains to Console but cacheAFMData put
       them on stdout or stderr (ie. Terminal Window).
       PARSE ERRORS ----------- "Parse error 10000011 ..." comes from
       mismatch between of CharMetrics declared in the .afm and actually
       found. I haven't been able to figure out the other strange parse
       buildafmdir in the 3.0 release has the limitation of not being
       able to install more that 255 fonts in any one font folder.  This
       is supposed to be fixed in 3.1.
     * The Dreaded <<Unusable Font>> Message
       <<Unusable Font>> appears in the font panel when you have run
       buildafmdir and it finds things it thinks are wrong with the AFM
       file.  Errors can also be generated by parsing routines inside the
       PasteBoard Services.
       <<Unusable Font>> almost NEVER has anything to do with the font
       itself, since buildafmdir doesn't actually look inside the font.
       Errors in the font due to faulty conversion will likely show up at
       the time the PostScript server actually attempts to define the
       font or render characters from the font.
       The only error I have ever seen from a converted font was the
       results of a naive Macintosh to PFA converter, which didn't
       understand that the POST resources in a Macintosh format Type 1
       font do not have to be in order, nor do the POST resources all
       have to be contiguous - they can be interspersed with other
       resources.  The results were that a comment resource ended up in
       the middle of the eexec section of the font and the PostScript
       interpreter threw out lots of errors.
       <<Unusable Font>> almost ALWAYS occurs because there is something
       wrong with the AFM file you installed.  Here is a partial list of
       problems that can occur with AFM files:
          * Carriage-return characters (^M) at ends of lines.
            This happens when you get incomplete translations from PC
            files, which use carriage-return-line-feed combinations at
            ends of lines.
            Solution: edit away the carriage returns.  Make sure the
            lines are terminated only by line-feed characters.
          * Spaces or tabs at ends of lines.
            Fixed in NeXTstep 3.1.
          * Missing fields.
            NeXTstep DEMANDS that certain fields be present in the AFM
            file.  Required fields are: FontName, FullName, FamilyName,
            Weight, EncodingScheme, and ItalicAngle.  If any of these
            fields are missing, you will get the <<Unusable Font>>
            Solution: fill in the required fields.
          * Incorrect Weight field.
            buildafmdir accepts only a certain set of values for the
            Weight field.  Acceptable values are: "Ultra Light", "Thin",
            "Light", "Extra Light", "Book", "Regular", "Plain", "Roman",
            "Medium", "Demi", "Demi-Bold", "Semi-Bold", "Bold", "Extra
            Bold", "Heavy", "Heavyface", "Black", "Ultra", "UltraBlack",
            "Fat", "ExtraBlack", and "Obese".
          * Character information count mismatches.
            AFM files contain several sets of information which are
            introduced by a "Startxxxxx nnn" line where the xxxxx is the
            name of the section (such as StartCharMetrics) and nnn is the
            purported number of lines of information of this type to
            follow.  Sad to say, many many AFM files supplied by vendors
            and others are such that the actual number of lines of data
            do not match the number stated on the Startxxxxx line.  When
            this error occurs in the AFM file, buildafmdir emits a Parse
            Error message to the console and the font will be marked
            unusable.  The parse error messages from buildafmdir is of
            the form:
                   Parse error nnnnnnnn  xx yy
            where nnnnnnnn is the error number, xx is the number of lines
            of information claimed to exist, and yy is the number of
            lines actually read.  The nnnnnnnn are are:
                   10000011  mismatch in the StartCharMetrics section
                   10000012  mismatch in the StartTrackKern section
                   10000013  mismatch in the StartKernPairs section
                   10000014  mismatch in the StartComposites section
                   10000015  mismatch in a composite character specification
            I have converted many fonts from the Berkeley Macintosh User
            Group CD ROM and fully half of the supplied AFM files are
     * Other AFM file errors.
       Parse error numbers 10000001 through 10000010 means some kinds of
       syntax errors in the AFM data file.  Any of these errors mean that
       the AFM file is truly hosed.
Subject: 7.3. Porting fonts to the NeXT
  Porting PC/Unix Type 1 Fonts
  You must have the .pfb and .afm files
  A PC Adobe font is stored in binary format, so the first step is to
  convert it to ascii.
  There are a couple of utilities out there which can do this. I think
  t1utils can do it, and there is a nice utility called pcATMfont2Next
  which has a couple of tools to do this (unfont and pfb2ps). Look for
  the file pcATMfont2Next.tar.Z; it is available on many ftp sites.
  Also, since NeXTstep run on Unix, there is the customary problem of
  converting the CRs (carriage returns) that PCs use to the LFs
  (Linefeeds) that Unix uses. The easiest way to do this is to use tr to
  delete the octal for the CR character from both the .afm and outline
  file. The command to do this is:
          tr -d '\015' < inputfile  > outputfile
  The unfont program will do this automatically when it converts the .pfb
  file, but pfb2ps does not. I'm not sure if t1utils' utility does or not.
  Once you have the outline file, you can go ahead and install it by the
  process outlined above.
  Otto J. Makela ([email protected]) posted a terrific cshell script to
  comp.fonts, which automates just about everything for you. It converts
  the .pfb to ASCII format, extracts the name from the FontName field,
  creates the font folder, copies in the component files with the correct
  name, and runs buildafmdir and cacheAFMData when done.  A newer version
  of this script is now available from the standard NeXT step archives
  (Sonata, etc.).
  Porting Mac Type 1 Fonts
  A variety of programs and scripts exist to convert Macintosh format
  Type 1 fonts to UNIX format.  Their ability to do a complete job
  varies.  Common traps which naive font converters fall into are:
     * not dealing with Macintosh POST which are out of order.
     * not dealing with Macintosh POST which are interspersed with other
     * not dealing at all with POST Type 4 resources where the font
       program starts in resource fork of the file but the remainder of
       the data is in the data fork.
       Most naive converters we've looked at have this problem.  This
       means that most Type 3 fonts won't convert at all.
     * not dealing with MacBinary headers.
Subject: 7.4. Font availability
  [ The archive site at seems to have disappeared. ]
Subject: 7.5. Why can I only install 256 fonts on my NeXT?
  Included to NS3.0 there's a new 'buildafm'-routine (for non-NeXTers:
  'buildafm' is a shell script which announces a new font to the
  computer) at /usr/bin/buildafmdir. The new one only allows to install
  about 256 fonts.  Running the new 'buildafmdir' to install a new font
  surpresses every font above this number.  Workaround: Re-install the
  'old buildafmdir' from NS2.1 at /usr/bin/buildafmdir and everything
  should be fine!
  (thanks to: Rob Parkhill and d'Art Computers/Germany d'art)
  [ed: and my thanks to Borris Balzer for sending this to me]
Subject: 8. Amiga Information
  Daniel Amor contributes the following sections:
  Font Concepts
  The Amiga is able to use two different concepts of fonts. First of all
  there are the bitmap fonts. These fonts are created by drawing a letter
   pixel for pixel onto the screen. The advantage is that they look good
  at   small sizes, but are not very good for printout. Also they don't
  look   very good when you change their size. Therefore you have to
  recreate the   font for each size. Second there are the vector fonts.
  They are created by   curves which are stored as mathematical formula.
  This has the advantage   that changing the sizes does not effect the
  output. But this only applies   for larger sizes and print-outs. Vector
  fonts also use less memory.
  Amiga Font Formats
    1. Agfa IntelliFont (suffix: .type or .lib) is the native font format
       on   the Amiga. You can use it in any application and it can be
       converted to the   standard bitmap format using the system
       utilities `IntelliFont'   (OS 3.x) or `Fountain' (OS 2.x).
    2. Postscript Type 1 fonts can be used within many applications, it
       can be   used in every word processor and DTP program. There are
       two versions of   the Type 1 format: Binary and ASCII (suffix:
       .pfb & .pfa). The Amiga   software uses the Binary format, but you
       can easily convert them with   TypeSmith or some PD software
       products (z.B. PFB2PFA) . In Addition to the   files mentioned
       above, there are the metrics files with the suffixes .afm   or
       .pfm. They contain information about the size (width) of the
       letters   and most programs expect this file to be in the same
       directory as the font   file.
    3. Postscript Type 3 fonts (suffix: .ps or nothing) are not often
       used on   the Amiga, but some applications do support this font
       format (e.g.    PageStream). There are also some download
       utilities from PD sources   available.
    4. Truetype fonts (suffix: .ttf) are not very common on the Amiga,
       there   is one word processor supporting this format (Wordworth
       3.0). Due to the   lower quality of the format, Amiga users tend
       to use higher quality for   their DTP, DTV and word processing...
       There are also two formats: Mac &   Windows available. The Amiga
       software is able to use the Windows format.
    5. DMF fonts is the privat format of PageStream (suffix: .dmf), since
        PageStream is the market leader in DTP programs on the Amiga, so
       this   format is very common!
    6. Bitmap fonts (suffix: .font and numbers in a directory by the name
       of   the font, sometimes .otag when converted from IntelliFont)
       were used in the   OS 1.x, but have been replaced by the  superior
       IntelliFont Format in OS   2.0. Under 2.0 or higher you still are
       able to use the bitmap fonts for   small sizes, but for printouts
       you should use the IntelliFont format or   any other vector font
       format mentioned above.
    7. Colour Bitmap fonts (same suffixes as Bitmap Fonts, but the
       numbers have   in addition a C, e.g. 35C) are also very common on
       the Amiga, they are   mainly used for DTV applications, like the
       Video Toaster and Scala.
  Frequently Requested Amiga Fonts
    1. First place to look for fonts is the AMINET archive. This is the
       biggest     archive of Amiga software and there you will find also
       quite a lot of     fonts. The Aminet consists of many mirrors
       around the world. Here are some     of them:
       Just log in as ftp and go to the directory
    2. Another good ftp server to look is the CICA-server:
       To this server are also some mirrors around the world available.
    3. Also a good place to look for is the following WWW server:
    4. Another good place is the Fresh Fonts I CD-ROM, there you will
       almost     certainly find some nice fonts. The CD is available from
         1. Fred Fish / Amiga Library Services ([email protected])
         2. Stefan Ossowski / Schatztruhe GmbH
       The CD is for free when buying another CD from that company.
       You can also access the HTML pages on the CD under the following
  Commercial Font Sources
  Commercial fonts can be obtained from a number of different companies,
  including the large font houses: Adobe, Font Haus, Font Company,
  Bitstream, and Monotype. At these companies, fonts cost about $40 for a
   single face, and must be purchased in packages. Adobe, Bitstream, and
   Monotype also sell pre-designated type collections for slightly lower
  There are also a lot of PD reseller who have a vast quantity of fonts,
  check out your local Amiga magazin for more information.
  Please consult the vendor list for a more complete list of vendors.
  Non-Latin fonts on the Amiga
  Due to the really bad information policy by C= there was actually no
  information about non-latin fonts. But still it is possible to use them,
   without difficulty. You just have to get yourself some additional
  files.    First of all you need the non-latin font files. There is a
  large selection   of them on the Fresh Fonts CD-ROM mentioned above. In
  order to use the   non-latin font files, you have to get yourself the
  appropriate keymap   file, this will remap the keys on the keyboard to
  the appropriate letters   of the foreign alphabet, e.g. in order to use
  a Russian font, you should   set the russian keymap file in the
  preferences (via PREFS/INPUT).
  Not only that you can write with a non-latin alphabet, you can also
  localize   your workbench. How about a Greek workbench or a Hebrew
  workbench? Have a   look into the AMINET archive (mentioned above) for
  these files!
  In addition to this you can easily use Hebrew & Arabic in any word
  processor   incl. writing from right-to-left! This can be easily done
  by setting the   kerning value to negative values (like this the cursor
  moves left and not   right) and moving the characters into the negativ
  part! You can get fonts   from me with this feature!
  Amiga Font Installation
  The installation of Postscript, DMF and Truetype fonts is described by
  the   application that use them. Please refer to the manuals of the
  software   packages.
  The installation of IntelliFonts is very easy. Just start `IntelliFont'
   (OS 3.x) or `Fountain' (OS 2.x) and follow the guidelines from within
   the program.
  In order to install bitmap fonts, either copy them to the logical device
   FONTS: or assign the directory with your bitmap fonts:
         ASSIGN Fonts: <your_directory> ADD
  Right after this you can start your application and use them. When using
   non-latin fonts, don't forget to set the appropriate keymap file!
  Amiga Font Utilities
    1. IntelliFont
       IntelliFont is the system program by OS 3.x which lets you install
       Agfa   IntelliFonts and converts them to bitmap fonts. The program
       is located in   the drawer `SYS:System/'. For more information
       read your Workbench 3.x   manual.
    2. Fountain
       Is the preceding program to IntelliFont and comes with the now
       obsolete   OS 2.x. Please read the section about Fountain in your
       Workbench 2.x   manual.
    3. PFB2PFA
       This neat little utility lets you convert Postscript Binary files
       to   Postscript ASCII files. This is needed in order to use DOS &
       Amiga   Adobe Type 1 fonts on the Mac!
    4. CacheFont
       This great program caches the fontlist for you, in order to save a
       huge   amount of time. The program looks for all fonts available
       on the system   and creates a special cache-file on disk.
    5. TypeSmith
       This is the best font converter on the Amiga, besides this
       function it is   also a full blown font editor (see below) :-).
       The program is able to   convert between:
         1. Truetype
         2. DMF
         3. Adobe (Type 1 & 3)
         4. IntelliFont
         5. Bitmap (Amiga, Adobe, DMF)
  Making Outline Fonts
  This is very, very difficult. Many people imagine that there are
  programs that will simply convert pictures into fonts for them. This is
   not the case; most fonts are painstakingly created by drawing curves
  that closely approximate the letterforms. In addition, special rules
  (which improve hinting, etc.) mandate that these curves be drawn in
  specific ways. Even designing, or merely digitizing, a simple font can
  take hundreds of hours.
  The easiest way of learning how to create fonts, is to have a look at
  existing fonts and try to change some letters.
  Given that, there are two major programs used for font design on the
  Amiga, TypeSmith 2.5 ($150) and FontDesigner ($100). These programs
  will allow you to import scanned images, and then trace them with
  drawing tools.  The programs will then generate Adobe type 1, 3,
  TrueType,   AGFA Intellifont, DMF and Bitmap fonts for either the
  Amiga, the Macintosh   or the IBM PC. They will also generate automatic
  hinting. They also open   previously constructed outline fonts,
  allowing them to be modified, or   converted into another format.
  As far as I know, there are no shareware programs that allows you to
  generate outline fonts.
  There are also two programs for creating bitmap fonts. Personal Fonts
  Maker and Calligrapher. The second one has not been updated for several
   years, but it still is a good tool to work with. The first Program was
   created by adding some features to a good bitmap paint program
  (Personal   Paint).
  There are some shareware tools to create bitmap fonts which you can
  convert to outline (vector) fonts with TypeSmith.
  Problems and Possible Solutions
    1. Pagestream does not recognize your newly installed font.
       This happens when you have two fonts with the same ID. The
       solution is   to load such a font into a font editor and enter a
       new ID for one of the   fonts. Still it might happen that you
       choose another one, that has already   been used by!
    2. Your application does not find the IntelliFont.
       This happens when you haven't set the locigal device FONTS: to
       your drawer.    You can change this by typing the following
       command into your SHELL or add   this line to your
       `S:User-Startup' file:
              ASSIGN Fonts: <your_drawer> ADD
    3. You're using a non-latin font and the wrong characters appear when
       This happens when you forget to set the appropriate keymap file.
       Enter   the Prefs directory and start the program `INPUT'. There
       you can   choose your keymap file.
  Adobe Type 1 fonts for the Amiga
  Darrell Leland contributes the following information:
  There are now three high end DTP packages for the Amiga that can
  directly or indirectly use Adobe Type 1 Fonts or AGFA Compugraphic
  fonts. The best of the lot in both my and Amiga World's opinions is
  SoftLogik's Pagestream, currently in version 2.2 but about to go to
  version 3.0.  Pagestream can take Adobe fonts in MS-DOS format directly
  with no format conversion needed. All you have to do is get them on an
  Amiga format disk, which is very easy using the new version of
  Commodore's Workbench operating system. Pagestream has import modules
  for MacWrite, Adobe Illustrator, and every other format in the universe
  (seems like). It is generally a very stable and well behaved program
  with a lot of features. I haven't had a chance to see 3.0 yet, but they
  are claiming it's going to be a real killer. We shall see. It does color
  seps, twists and rotates fonts, etc. Pagestream's job has been made
  easier with Commodore's (about time) release of their own Postscript
  printer drivers and Preferences postscript printer control tools.
  SoftLogik also sells a program called Typesmith, which is (at last!) a
  structured font maker/editor for the Amiga. Typesmith will work with
  both formats mentioned above plus SoftLogik's own font format, which I
  get the impression they are discontinuing in favor of Postscript. They
  also sell ArtExpression, a very nice structured drawing package that
  does everything I can think of. I understand SoftLogik has also been
  getting several Mac and PC font makers to make Amiga fonts for them too.
  They even have a program system that allows programs to publish to other
  programs, sort of like in Mac System 7.0. They are lisencing it out to
  any Amiga developer who pays a paltry sum to lisence it.
Subject: 9. Atari ST/TT/Falcon Information
  Erlend Nagel contributed the following information about the Atari
Subject: 9.1. SpeedoGDOS
  SpeedoGDOS is similar to ATM.
  Fonts included with SpeedoGDOS 4.x
  14 fonts are included with SpeedoGDOS 4.x.
  Bitstream Cooper Black, Dutch 801 Roman, Dutch 801 Bold, Dutch 801
  Italic, Dutch 801 Bold Italic, Monospace 821, More Wingbats SWC, Park
  Avenue, Swiss 721, Swiss 721 Bold, Swiss 721 Italic, Swiss 721 Bols
  Italic, Symbol Monospaced, and VAG Rounded
  Fonts included with SpeedoGDOS 5.x
  24 fonts are included with SpeedoGDOS 5.x.  All fonts included with
  SpeedoGDOS 4.x plus the following:
  American Garamond Roman, American Garamond Bold, American Garamond
  Italic, American Garamond Bold Italic, AD LIB Regular, Allegro Regular,
  Amelia Regular, and Cataneo Bold
Subject: 9.2. Atari File Formats
  Atari Font formats
  The standard Atari OS in ROM does not support any type of fonts. To use
  different fonts in applications, either the application has to have
  built-in support for some font format, or an add-on program is needed.
  This add-on program is called a GDOS, a Graphical Device Operating
  System. There are many different versions of GDOS.
  The earliest versions of GDOS supported only GEM bitmap fonts (*.FNT).
  These versions include GDOS, AMC-GDOS (Atari), G-plus (Codehead) and
  Font-GDOS (Atari again). Font-GDOS (available for free) added caching
  to the font-manager, so not all fonts need to reside in memory at the
  same time.
  FontGDOS and FSM-GDOS were develloped in parallel and are both
  successors of Atari-GDOS (1.x).  The FSM stands for Font Scaling
  Manager and allowed vector fonts to be used.  FSM-GDOS was only
  included with Wordflair II and G-Man. FSM-GDOS also still supported GEM
  bitmap fonts.  The font format is the QMS/Imagen format.
  After FSM-GDOS, Atari introduced SpeedoGDOS 4.0, using Speedo font
  scaling technology licensed from Bitstream. 14 fonts are included with
  this version (see 1.15). SpeedoGDOS 4.0 and 4.1 can use GEM bitmap,
  Atari encrypted and commercially encrypted Speedo fonts. As of version
  4.2 also the publicly available X11 Speedo fonts can be used.
  SpeedoGDOS offers improved speed and reliability over FSM-GDOS, as well
  as track- and pair-kerning.
  Recently Compo Software introduced SpeedoGDOS 5.x which supports GEM
  bitmap, Speedo, Truetype and Type 1 fonts. Included are 22 Speedo fonts
  (see 1.15).
  For more information about the GDOS format, consult the GDOS FAQ:  The "??" is the
  version number; as of 01 Mar 95, the versions are: 24 in English and 25
  in German.  A LaTeX version of the German edition is also available.
  Also recently introduced was NVDI 3.0 by Behne & Behne, which supports
  GEM bitmap, Speedo and Truetype fonts. The biggest difference when
  compared to SpeedoGDOS 5.x is the improved speed, because NVDI is
  written in Assembler instead of C. Only 2 fonts are included with NVDI
  These fonts are transparent to programs. There are a few other options
  that require support by the program using the fonts. Two major font
  formats are supported in this way on the Atari, namely
  Signum!2/Signum!3 fonts and Calamus fonts.
  The Signum!2 font format is a bitmapped font format supported by many
  wordprocessors and some drawing packages. Amazing print quality on
  9-needle printers. Many high quality designs are available in Signum!2
  and Signum!3 format (Mostly German), especially for some special
  languages like Polish. There are also many PD fonts available in this
  The Calamus (*.CFN) format was introduced by DMC, in their Calamus DTP
  program that uses soft-RIPping. The Calamus font format has no hinting
  since it is meant to be used on very  high resolution type setting
  machines. Also supported by Digital Art's (DA's) software.  Many
  professional designs are available in this format, as well as a lot of
  PD fonts.
  Atari Font Format Extensions
  File formats specific to the Atari platform:
     * .E24
       Bitmapped Signum!2 screen font.
     * .L30
       Bitmapped Signum!2 printer font for Laser and Deskjet printers.
     * .OTL
       Vector font table used by FSM-GDOS.
     * .P9
       Bitmapped Signum!2 printer font for Hi-Res 9-needle printers
       (214*196 dpi).
     * .P24
       Bitmapped Signum!2 printer font for 24-needle printers.
     * .QFM
       Vector font used by FSM-GDOS.
Subject: 9.3. Frequently Requested Atari Fonts
  Some fonts, including a few Speedo fonts are available from various
  archives. The most important Atari archive is
  Most fonts can be had from PD/Shareware distributors around the world...
Subject: 10. X11 Information
  This section needs a lot of work.  At the time of this release, I'm not
  in a position to write it so I'm leaving it basically blank.  Even if
  you don't have time to write it, if you know what should be in this
  section, please forward it to norm.
Subject: 10.1. Getting X11
  The standard location for X software is
Subject: 10.2. Historical Notes about X11
  The X Window System has been in widespread use through releases 3, 4,
  and now 5 of X Version 11.
  Fonts weren't really treated by the X Consortium very well until X11
  release 5 (X11R5).  In X11R3 and X11R4, the default format used by the X
  servers was called SNF (server normal format). Basically the font was
  formatted on disk in such a way that the X server could quickly read and
  use it (it was basically a memory-dump).  The important element of the
  SNF format is that it was not a portable format: it depended on the
  architecture of the machine running the server (little endian vs. big
  endian, for example) and as a consequence you needed different directory
  structures for different systems on your network.  On top of that,
  several systems vendors implemented their own font format, making font
  portability even more difficult.
  With X11R5, two things changed: the font service protocol was defined as
  a standard and interoperable way for an X server to obtain fonts
  (independent of their format, origin, or current location on disk) and
  the default format for storing fonts was changed from SNF to PCF
  (Portable Compiled Font).  PCF is a format originally developed by DEC.
  Its primary advantage is that it is not architecture dependent.  That
  is, if you compile a font to PCF format on different systems, then you
  may end up having two different PCF files, but each system will be able
  to read the other's file correctly.
Subject: 10.3. X11 Font Formats
  There are many different font formats that can play a role in an X11
  system configuration.  The following table summarizes some of the
  common formats:
     * BDF
       The Bitmap Distribution Format (BDF) is the standard format for
       distribution of fonts. It is an ASCII format so it can easily be
       edited it with your favourite editor or E-mailed to other users.
       As the name suggests, it stores bitmap fonts only.
       Another virtue of the BDF format is that most font format
       converters convert to or from this format. Means if you want to go
       from format A to format B, neither of which is BDF, then you are
       likely to convert A to BDF, then BDF to B.
       The BDF format is defined by Adobe.  A document describing the
       format is available by ftp from Adobe's file server at
       "[email protected]".  It is also available in the standard X
       distribution.  Look under ../X11R4(5)/mit/hardcopy/BDF.  This
       document is also reproduced in any text describing the X standard.
     * SNF
       The Server Normal Format (SNF) is an older format for bitmap
       fonts. The format is X Server and host dependent.  This means that
       if you have two SNF files, their actual format may be different.
       Also, if you have an "snftobdf" utility, it may not be able to
       read font files from other systems.  Convert to BDF format before
       you move it off the host system.
       Snftobdf is one utility that can generate a BDF file from a SNF
       file.  It was part of the X11R4 contrib release.  To compile under
       X11R5, you need some of the X11R4 snf include files.
     * PCF
       The Portable Compiled Font (PCF) format is a binary format for
       bitmap fonts.  The binary contains sufficient information to be
       readable by other systems.
     * PHIGS
       These fonts are only applicable in PEX environments.  PHIGS fonts
       don't really have any relationship to the normal X font mechanism.
     * DWF
       The DECWindows Fonts (DWF) are bitmap fonts.
     * Intellifont
       These are HP scalable fonts.
     * PFA/PFB
       These are Adobe Type 1 PostScript fonts.
       They can be used in X11R5 based X servers and font servers because
       IBM has donated a renderer for this format to the X Consortium.
       The renderer can be found on the X11R5 contrib, and on
     * Speedo
       This is a format from Bitstream, Inc. Bitstream has also donated a
       font renderer to the X Consortium, and a couple of fonts.
       I have been told that in order to use commercial fonts from
       BitStream, you must patch the renderer somewhat to make it use the
       right decryption code for the font.
     * FB
       These are Sun X11/NeWS format bitmap fonts used by the Sun
       OpenWindows system.
       You can use "convertfont" which comes with OpenWindows to convert
       to/from BDF.
     * F3/F3B
       This is the scalable Sun Folio format, also used by OpenWindows.
       You can use "convertfont" to convert to (not from) BDF.
Subject: 10.4. X11 Font Server
  X11 Release 5
  With X11 Release 5, the X Consortium has created a network-based
  standard font protocol. As a user of the X Window System, you have an X
  server on your desktop, which does the interface between the hardware
  (screen, mouse, keyboard), and the X network protocol. This X server
  needs fonts.  Before X11R5, the only way it could get to those fonts
  was to make font directories readable for the X server on that host,
  either by NFS-mounting or by copying.
  With the X Font Service protocol, you just tell your X server that it
  must use the services of a font server, which is a daemon process
  sitting on a host on your network. The font server is a program which
  talks a standardized protocol on the network, and which is capable of
  reading several font formats.
  The font server sources are modular, such that it is easy to add a
  renderer for an additional font format to the existing code. This is
  obviously also the intention: the X Consortium provides the core
  technology, and supposes that all systems vendors will add font
  renderers for their proprietary formats to the code, and then ship that
  to their customers.
  If you have a multi-vendor environment, then you are supposed to run a
  font server on every host that carries the font files. Then all of the
  X servers on your network can put all the fonts they need in their font
  path. Automatically, IBM fonts will be requested from the font server
  on an IBM host, DEC fonts from a DEC host, etc.
  Other benefits of using font server technology include the ability of
  the font server to implement caching, provide for fault-tolerant setup,
  A final example of the good use of the font server is the combination
  of a font server with a Type 1 font renderer. As mentioned above, IBM
  donated a Type 1 font renderer which can easily be built into the X
  font server. As the Type 1 font format, and the ATM format are the same,
  it is perfectly possible to use commercial ATM fonts with the X Window
  System.  See also /contrib/fonts/lib/font/Type1/ in the X11
  X11 Release 6
  The X11R6 font server is very similar to the X11R5 server described
  above.  Under X11R6, the font server has been renamed to xfs and the
  Type 1 rendering engine is now incorporated into the base
  distribution--it is no longer a contributed package.
Subject: 10.5. Fonts and utilities for X11
  Here's a quick list of possible steps to get from "what you got" to X:
     * Mac format bitmaps:
       No idea.  If you know how to read a Mac format bitmap file on some
       other platform, please tell norm.
     * PC format bitmaps:
       Conversion to BDF is possible from TeX PK format and LaserJet
       softfont format.  Other conversions are also within the realm of
       possibility.  Feel free to ask norm for more information if you
       have a specific conversion in mind.
     * TeX PK format bitmaps:
       PKtoBDF gets us directly to BDF format from here.
     * Mac format postscript:
       Under MS-DOS, conversion to PC format postscript allows the font to
       be accessed with PS2PK (under *nix or MS-DOS).  See above for TeX
       PK to X conversions.
     * PC/Unix format PostScript
       Conversion to TeX PK with PS2PK allows you to get to BDF
     * XtoBDF, getbdf, FStoBDF
       XtoBDF and getbdf are two public-domain applications which are
       capable of asking an X server to give them all it knows about a
       given font. They then print the BDF representation of that font on
       You can use these if you have an X server that can read some font
       file, but nothing else can.
       FStoBDF is distributed with X11R5.
       If you use one of these programs, you may actually be converting a
       scalable font into a bitmap font, but converting a bitmap font to a
       scalable one is not currently possible.
Subject: 11. Utilities Information
  I have just started collecting information about font utilities.  I
  will gladly add any information that you can pass my way.  Please send
  your submissions to norm.
  I would appreciate it if you could include a paragraph or so of
  description and the appropriate site/filename for retrieval.
Subject: 11.1. How do I convert AFM files to PFM files
  You can get afm2pfm and pfm2afm files from
Subject: 11.2. PS2PK
  PS2PK is a utility for converting Type1 postscript fonts into TeX PK
  files.  The source code is distributed and it has been compiled for
  both *nix boxes and MS-DOS based machines.
  Here is the original announcement:
                            Ps2pk-1.2 available
                                 (June 1992)
       Version 1.2 of ps2pk is now available on: (address:
       directory:    /pub/tex
       files:        ps2pk12.README         (  1k)    This file
                     ps2pk12.tar.Z          (391k)    Sources
                      (232k)    MSDOS executables
                     utopia.tar.Z           (342k)    Adobe Utopia font family
                     courier.tar.Z          (207k)    IBM Courier font family
       For people having difficulties in handling UNIX `.tar.Z' format I
       have made some UNIX tools (only executables) available in:
       directories:  /pub/unixtools/dos
       See the system specific TARZ file for some help.
      can not handle E-mail requests. But sites are free
       to put the ps2pk12 stuff on any server that can.
  When do you need ps2pk?
  Ps2pk is a tool that converts a PostScript type1 font into a corres-
  ponding TeX PK font.  The tool is especially interesting if you want to
  use fully hinted type1 fonts in your DVI previewer (instead of the
  unhinted type1 fonts currently used in GhostScript) or on a printer
  that has no PostScript interpreter.
  In order to use the ps2pk generated fonts your driver and previewer need
  to support virtual fonts.  The reason is that PostScript fonts and TeX
  fonts do have a different font encoding and handle ligatures in a
  different way.  With virtual fonts the PostScript world (encoding +
  ligatures) can be mapped to the old style TeX world on which the current
  plain macro packages still are based (despite the fact that TeX3.0 can
  handle 8bits).
  It is also possible to use the ps2pk generated PK fonts directly
Subject: 11.3. TeX Utilities
  There are many TeX font utilities.  For TeX related questions, I direct
  you to comp.text.tex or the Info-TeX mailing list.  I will happily list
  any utilities here that the comp.fonts public feels should be present.
  I am listing MetaFont because it is the obvious font-specific component
  of TeX and PKtoSFP because it allows anyone to use PS2PK to create
  LaserJet softfonts.
  Liam R. E. Quin is the original author of the MetaFont section.  It has
  been hacked at a bit by norm to make it fit the tone of the comp.fonts
  FAQ.  Assume that norm is responsible for any errors, not Liam.
  About MetaFont:
  Metafont is a programming language for describing fonts.  It was
  written by Donald Knuth and is documented in
         Computers & Typesetting/C: The METAFONTbook
         Knuth, Donald E.
         Addison Wesley, 1986
         ISBN 0-201-13445-4, or 0-201-13444-6 (soft cover)
         Library access: Z250.8.M46K58, or 686.2'24, or 85-28675.
  A font written in MetaFont is actually a computer program which, when
  run, will generate a bitmap (`raster') for a given typeface at a given
  size, for some particular device.
  What do you need in order to use the fonts:
  You cannot print the MetaFont fonts directly (unless you want a listing
  of the program, that is).  Instead, you must generate a bitmap font and
  use that to print something.
  If you are using TeX, the sequence of steps is something like this:
  MF to MetaFont to GF
       Convert a MetaFont program into a bitmapped font.  Also produces a
          TFM file.
  MF to MetaFont to TFM
       Covnert a MetaFont program into a TFM file.  Also produces     a
       GF bitmapped font.
  GF to GFtoPK to PK
       Convert a GF bitmapped font into a compressed PK font.
  TEX + TFM to TeX to DVI
       Produce a device independent output file.
  DVI + PK to dvi driver to output format
       Produce a device-specific output file (or preview).
  The above steps are idealized.  In reality, you have to make sure that
  the fonts get installed in the correct places and you may have to
  adjust description files, etc.  The friendly folks on comp.text.tex can
  probably get it staightened out for you if you can't find a local guru.
  If you are not using TeX, it's almost impossible to predict.  At some
  point in the above sequence, you'll insert some other conversion
  program and proceed differently.  Here, for example, is how you might
  use TeX fonts with WordPerfect and a LaserJet printer.
  PK to PKtoSFP to SFP
       Convert a TeX PK file into an HP LaserJet softfont.
  SFP to SFP2Auto to TFM
       Make HP AutoFont Tagged Font Metric file.
  SFP + HP AutoFont TFM to PTR to Installed in WP
       Install the new font in WordPerfect.
  Use WordPerfect as you normally would.
Subject: 11.4. MFPic
  MFpic is a macro package for including pictures in TeX documents.  The
  idea behind this package is to have Metafont do the actual drawing, and
  store the pictures in a font that TeX can include in the document.  The
  macros have been designed so that the user should never have to learn
  Metafont to use these macros--the TeX macros actually write the
  Metafont file for you.
Subject: 11.5. fig2MF
  Briefly, fig2MF uses the mfpic macros to create formatted, commented MF
  code from the fig graphics language. This means that programs like xfig
  can be used as interactive font creation tools. I wrote fig2MF so that
  I could portably illustrate TeX documents, but I suppose one could use
  it to design letterforms as well.
  The package consists of a single C source code file, modified mfpic
  macros, documentation, and sample fig files.  It is available at the
  shsu archives.
Subject: 11.6. GNU Font Utilities
  Here is a brief description of the programs included:
     * imageto extracts a bitmap font from an image in PBM or IMG format,
       or   converts the image to Encapsulated PostScript.
     * xbfe is a hand-editor for bitmap fonts which runs under X11.
     * charspace adds side bearings to a bitmap font.
     * limn fits outlines to bitmap characters.
     * bzrto converts a generic outline font to Metafont or PostScript.
     * gsrenderfont renders a PostScript outline font at a particular
       point   size and resolution, yielding a bitmap font.
     * fontconvert can rearrange or delete characters in a bitmap font,
       filter them, split them into pieces, combine them, etc., etc.
     * imgrotate rotates or flips an IMG file.
  We need volunteers to help create fonts for the GNU project.  You do not
  need to be an expert type designer to help, but you do need to know
  enough about TeX and/or PostScript to be able to install and test new
  fonts.  Example: if you know neither (1) the purpose of TeX utility
  program `gftopk' nor (2) what the PostScript `scalefont' command does,
  you probably need more experience before you can help.
  If you can volunteer, the first step is to compile the font utilities.
  After that, contact me [ed: Karl Berry] ([email protected]).  I will
  get you a scanned type specimen image.  The manual explains how to use
  these utilities to turn that into a font you can use in TeX or
  You can get the source by ftp from any GNU archive site.
  You can also order tapes with GNU software from the Free Software
  Foundation (thereby supporting the GNU project); send mail to
  [email protected] for the latest prices and ordering information, or
  retrieve the file DISTRIB from a GNU archive.
  This is Info file, produced by Makeinfo-1.55 from the
  input file FAQ.texinfo.
Subject: 11.7. Font Editors
     * Editors for BDF fonts
       There is a bdf font editor that comes with HP/Apollo workstations.
       It's called 'edfont'.  It's not the best but it works.
       Gary reports:
       The standard X distribution for X11R5 contains "xfed", which
       allows you to play with BDF fonts.  "xfedor" has a more elaborate
       user interface, and is available on most contrib directories.
       The last time I tried:
       "xfedor" couldn't handle BDF files with more than 256 characters.
       "xfed" aborts if the BDF file contains a COMMENT line with no other
       text.  The workaround is to edit the BDF file, to put text after
       the word COMMENT.  A single blank space is sufficient.  For some
       reason, the standard BDF files included in the X release contain
       blank spaces on the otherwise empty COMMENT lines.  It was
       probably easier to add the space to the COMMENT lines of every BDF
       file than it was to fix the lex code for xfed.  :-)
     * Editors for PK fonts
       The GNU font utilities include an X-based editor called Xbfe which
       edits bitmapped fonts under X.
       Eberhard Mattes' emTeX includes PKedit.
Subject: 11.8. The T1 Utilities
  This is a snippet from the README file for I. Lee Hetherington's
  t1utils package:
  t1utils is a collection of simple type-1 font manipulation programs.
  Together, they allow you to convert between PFA (ASCII) and PFB
  (binary) formats, disassemble PFA or PFB files into human-readable
  form, reassemble them into PFA or PFB format.  Additionally you can
  extract font resources from a Macintosh font file (ATM/Laserwriter).
Subject: 11.9. Where to get bitmap versions of the fonts
  There are archives containing the bitmaps of many of these fonts at
  various sizes and resolutions.  The fonts must have been generated for
  the correct print engine: e.g. write-white or write-black.  The
  archives generally hold only the sizes used by TeX.  These are
  `magstep' sizes, and are not exact point sizes.  It is probably better
  to generate them from the Metafont sources yourself if you can.
  The best place to look for raster fonts was almost certainly:
  but it isn't any more, the fonts have all gone.  Let me know if you
  find them elsewhere.  Most people seem to have moved to using
  PostScript fonts or Bitstream ones instead now.
  Some other sites are:
  The occasional posting of ftp sites to comp.misc and comp.archives
  lists these and several other sites.
Subject: 11.10. Converting between font formats
  Conversions to and from pbm and pk format were posted to comp.text.tex
  and to alt.sources on the 9th of August, 1990 by Angus Duggan.  The
  program is pbmtopk, and there are also at least two patches.
  Chris Lewis' psroff package includes a program to go from pk both to
  the HP LaserJet and to PostScript.
  John McClain <[email protected]> has some conversion programs for
  various graphics formats to/and from pk files.
  A PC program, CAPTURE, turns HPGL files into PK format, US$130 from
  Micro Programs Inc., 251 Jackson Ave., Syosset, NY 11791 U.S.A.
  Metaplot can take pen-plotter files and prouce metafont files.  Note:
  Pat Wilcox is no longer at Ohio State.
  Kinch Computer Company sell .pk fonts derived from PostScript fonts.
  Kinch Computer Co., 501 S. Meadow St.Ithaca, NY 14850 U.S.A.
  telephone: +1 607 273 0222; fax: +1 607 273 0484
Subject: 11.11. Getting fonts by FTP and Mail
  If you are using ftp, you will need either the name of the host or the
  Internet number.  For example, to connect to, listed as
  ftp: [] you will need to type something like
  If that doesn't work, try using the number:
  If that doesn't work, on Unix systems you can use nslookup (it's
  usually /usr/etc/nslookup) to find the host number - it might have
  changed.  Type the entire host name, and after a few seconds nslookup
  will give you the address.  Of course, if you have nslookup installed,
  the first form will probably work...
  Once you have connected, you will need to go to the appropriate
  directory, lists its contents, and retrieve the files.
  Most of the machines listed here run Unix, and you use "ls" and "cd" to
  list files and to change directories.  On machines that run VMS, you
  will have to put square brackets around directory names, like [this].
  Remember that although Metafont sources are text files, pk fonts are
  not ASCII, and you will have to use binary mode for them.  In general,
  use text mode for README files and *.mf files, and binary mode for
  other font files.  Files ending in .Z are compressed binary files - you
  will need to use binary mode, and then uncompress the files when you
  get them.
  There is an ftp-by-mail BITNET service, BITFTP, for BITNET users.
  Before getting large files by mail, please remember to get permission
  from all intervening sites.  Ask your site administrator, who can send
  mail to Postmaster at each site on the way if necessary.
Subject: 11.12. MetaFont to PostScript Conversion
  There are (I believe) three programs that perform this task.  At least
  one of them is called "mf2ps".  If you have any more information about
  these tools, please let me know.
  Chang Jin-woong reports that he found the "mf2ps" package with Archie.
  It is written by Shimon Yanai <[email protected]> and Daniel M.
  Berry <[email protected]>. The source programs are written in
  MetaFog, a commercial conveter by Richard Kinch, is available on request
  to TrueTeX owners.
Subject: 11.13. How to use Metafont fonts with Troff
  If, when you run troff, you get the message `typesetter busy', you have
  the original Ossanna-troff, also called otroff.  Chris Lewis has a
  package which will let you use TeX fonts with troff - it's called
  psroff, and comes with documentation.
         ftp: ( pub/misc/psroff-3.0
         ftp: [] pub/psroff-3.0/*
  If, when you run troff, you get something like this:
         x T 300
         x res 300 1 1
  you have ditroff.  This is sometimes called titroff or psroff.  In this
  case, you will probably need to do the following:
    1. convert the font to your printer's format
    2. generate a width table for the font
    3. add the font to the DESC file for the appropriate device
    4. arrange for troff to download the font
    5. tell troff about the font by running `makedev DESC' in the
       right place.
  If, when you run troff, you get something like this:
         X hp(SCM)(CM)(AF)(AD) 300 1 1
         Y P default letter 2550 3300 0 0 90 90 2460 3210
  you have sqtroff:
    1. convert the font to your printer's format
    2. generate a width table for the font
    3. add the font to the DESC file for the appropriate device
    4. put the font in the appropriate raster directory
    5. tell sqtroff about the font by running `sqmakedev DESC' or
  In each case, you should be able to get help from your vendor.
  Note that Chris Lewis' psroff package has software to make width tables
  for troff from pk files.
Subject: 11.14. PKtoBDF / MFtoBDF
  From the SeeTeX distribution, programs to help previewers under X11.
  They convert TeX PK files into X11 BDF fonts (which can be further
  converted into one or more server native formats).
Subject: 11.15. PKtoPS
  Included in the psroff distribution, this utility converts PK fonts
  into PostScript fonts (bitmaps, I presume).  If you have any more
  information about these tools, please let me know.
Subject: 11.16. PKtoSFP / SFPtoPK
  Convert fonts from TeX PK format to HP LaserJet softfont (bitmap)
Subject: 11.17. PostScript to MetaFont
  ps2mf started out as a way of creating bitmaps via MF for TeX. Only,
  when I had just finished it, Piet Tutelaers came with ps2pk. This was a
  far superior way runtime-wise. He uses the IBM X11-R5 fontutilities
  library, which is extremely ugly code. But, it works. So, to generate
  bitmaps, I suggest everyone use ps2pk.
  To generate a MF outline description, ps2mf is *the* tool. Yannis
  Haralambous has just started a project where he wants to create
  meta-ized fonts for MF from Postscript descriptions. ps2mf does the
  basic conversion. This project wants to revive the use of MF for it is
  a truly beautiful program with enormous possiblities.
  The following information comes from the README file for ps2mf:
  This is pfb2mf. It is a copyleft program. See the file COPYING for more
  details. I suggest that for the translation of Type-One to readable
  PostScript you use I. Lee Hetherington's Type-1-Utils. You can find
  these somewhere on in pub/erikjan.
  If you find any bugs, please do report.
  If you have any complaints, please do report.
  Now for some info about the different stages. This package contains
  four programs:
     * pfb2pfa
     * pfa2chr
     * chr2ps
     * ps2mf
  pfb2pfa will decompress an IBM (!) Postscript type 1 fontfile into
  readable           and downloadable hexadecimal data.
  The resulting file still contains two layers of encryption:
     * eexec encryption
     * charstring encryption
  pfa2chr will do an eexec-decryption of a readable hexadecimal font file
  to a   fontfile with encrypted charstrings.
  chr2ps will perform a charstring-decryption of a font file with
  encrypted   charstrings to fontfile with postscript commands for type 1
  With a "-" as filename, these programs will read from <stdin> and write
  to <stdout>. This way you can pipe the results, as in:
         pfb2pfa garmnd - | pfa2chr - - | chr2ps - garmnd
  This will create a from garmnd.pfb without explicitely
  creating the intermediate files.
  These previous stages can be replaced by (when using Lee Hetherington's
  t1disasm garmnd.pfb
  This last stage will convert to a MetaFont program with the use of the
  corresponding .afm file and a mapping configuration file. It can
  convert   to an ordinary form with Bezier controlpoints. It can also
  generate a curl   specification. For this last option specifify -C.
Subject: 11.18. Mac Bitmaps to BDF Format
  I [ed: who?] have posted a program which I hacked together for
  extracting all NFNT and FONT resources from a MacBinary form of a
  standard Mac file and dumping the fonts as Adobe BDF files.  It has only
  been compiled and tested on a Sun system to date.  It can be fetched
  from METIS.COM, /pub/mac2bdf.c.
  I wrote this tool to be able to use Mac Bitmaps under X Windows and
  OpenWindows (which take Adobe BDF format files).
Subject: 12. Vendor Information
  Type/Font Vendors
  The following list is based on information from Masumi Abe, Norm Walsh
  and many others. I (Don Hosek) have been calling vendors and attempting
  to make sure information is up to date. I have removed a number of
  vendors who do not sell fonts. Fonts bundled with applications (e.g.,
  the bitmap fonts which are part of Quicken) are not considered enough
  to merit inclusion in the list. Also, a number of the vendors on the
  list actually were selling various printing software but no fonts per
  se and were likewise removed.  Finally, some companies seem to have
  disappeared, most likely gone out of business. I've indicated the
  verification date of any information which appears on the list. I would
  appreciate aid in contacting those companies which are listed as
  unverified (particularly companies outside the US). Please send updates
  and corrections to me at [email protected]
       Achtung Entertainment           TrueType (shareware) for Macs, 300+
       508 N. College Ave. #215        fonts. HyperCard demo disk $3.00
       Bloomington, IN 47404           (refundable/order)
       no phone number
       ADH Software                    (Mac)
       P.O. Box 67129
       Los Angeles, CA 90067
       Adobe Systems Incorporated      : Type 1 (Mac, PC)
       1585 Charleston Rd.             : Originals, designs licensed from
       P.O. Box 7900                   : Linotype, Monotype, Berthold, and
       Mountain View, CA 94039-7900    : others
       (415) 961-4400
       (800) 344-8335
       Verified: 16 Feb 1994
       Agfa Division, Miles Inc.       : Type 1 Truetype, (PC, Mac),
       90 Industrial Way               : Intellifont (PC), Compugraphic
       Wilmington, MA 01887            : typesetter fonts. Originals,
       (800) 424-TYPE                  : fonts licensed from Adobe.
       (508) 657-0232
       FAX: (508) 657-8568
       Verified: 17 Feb 1994
       Allotype Typographics           : Downloadable Fonts (Mac)
       1600 Packard Rd. Suite #5         Kadmos (Greek)
       Ann Arbor, MI 48104               Czasy & Szwajcarskie
       (313) 663-1989                    Demotiki
       Alphabets, Inc.                 : Type 1, TrueType (PC, Mac)
       P.O. Box 5448                   : New and licensed designs
       Evanston, IL 60204-5448
       (800) 326-8973
       (708) 328-2733
       Verified: 9 Feb 1994
       Alphatype Corp.
       220 Campus Dr., Suite 103
       Arlington Heights, IL 60004
       (708) 259-6800
       Altsys Corporation,         : FONTastic Fonts,
       269 West Renner Road,       : Fontographer Fonts (Mac)
       Texas 75080.
       (214) 680-2060.
       Artworx Software Co.            (Mac)
       1844 Penfield Rd.                 Hebrew Typefaces
       Penfield, NY 14526
       (716) 385-6120
       (800) 828-6573
       Architext, Inc.                 (HP/IBM)
       121 Interpark Blvd. Suite 1101
       San Antonio, TX 78216
       (512) 490-2240
       Asiagraphics Technology Ltd.    (Mac)
       9A GreatMany Centre               Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai
       109 Queen's Road East
       Wanchai, Hong Kong
       (5) 8655-225
       Fax: (5) 8655-250
       Modem: (5) 865-4816
       Autologic, Inc.                 (Mac)
       1050 Rancho Conejo Blvd.
       Newbury Park, CA 91320
       (805) 498-9611
       Azalea Software, Inc.
       PO Box 16745
       Seattle WA  98116-0745  USA
       800 48-ASOFT  206 932.4030  206 937.5919 FAX
       [email protected]
       Bear Rock Technologies,
       4140 Mother Lode,
       Shingle Springs,
       California 95682-8038.
       (916) 672-0244
       Berthold of North America
       7711 N. Merrimac Avenue
       Niles, IL 60648
       (708) 965-8800
       Bitstream, Inc.
       Athenaeum House
       215 First St.
       Cambridge, MA 02142
       (617) 497-6222
       (800) 237-3335
  A representative of Bitstream sent the following correction to me.
  Bitstream offers:
  **1100 PostScript Type 1 fonts for the Mac & PC. (These can
  be ordered direct from Bitstream or thru several resellers.)
  ** Bitstream Type Treasury - the Bitstream Type Library for
  the Mac (Type 1 format) on CD ROM.
  ** Bitstream Type Essentials-a series of 4 Typeface           Packages
  for PC & Mac that were selected to work well for           different
  jobs (Letters, Memos & Faxes; Newsletters,           Brochures &
  Announcements; Spreadsheets, Graphs &           Presentations;
  **Bitstream Typeface Packages for the PC - 52 packages           (most
  with 4 faces each) that include a total of over 200           faces,
  with mutiple font formats in each package (Bitstream           Speedo,
  Type 1, Bitstream Fontware)
  ** Bitstream TrueType Font Packs 1 & 2 for Microsoft Windows
  ** Bitstream PostScript Font Packs 1 & 2 for the PC           **
  Bitstream FaceLift for Windows           ** Bitstream FaceLift for
  WordPerfect              - both are font scaling/font management
  ** Bitstream MakeUp for Windows - a type manipulation/
  special effects program.
  ** Bitstream Li'l Bits - a new product line of novelty           fonts
  in TrueType format for Windows 3.1. The first release           began
  shipping last week and includes The Star Trek Font           Pack, The
  Flintstones Font Pack and The Winter Holiday Font           Pack.
  We offer OEM customers an extensive range of non-latin type
  (as you have noted in the current listing), but these faces
  are not currently available to individual end-users.
  We also offer font-scaling and rasterizing technology to           OEM
       Blaha Software/Janus Associates : Big Foot (Mac) (HP/IBM)
       991 Massachusetts Ave.
       Cambridge, MA 02138
       (617) 354-1999
       Blue Sky Research               : Type 1 (Mac)
       534 SW Third Avenue, #816       : Computer Modern in PostScript
       Portland, OR  97204
       (800) 622-8398
       Carter & Cone
       Casady & Greene, Inc.           : Fluent Fonts, Fluent Laser Fonts (Mac)
       26080 Carmel Rancho Blvd. #202    Russian/Ukranian/Bulgarian/Serbian
       P.O. Box 223779                   Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Kana, Polish
       Carmel, CA 93922                  Glasnost
       (408) 484-9228
       (800) 331-4321 -------------no longer valid
       (800) 851-1986 (California)-no longer valid
       Caseys' Page Mill               (Mac)
       6528 S. Oneida Court
       Englewood, CO 80111
       (303) 220-1463
       Castle Systems                  : (Truetype, Type1) (Mac, IBM)
       1306 Lincoln Avenue             : Revivals of art deco faces,
       San Ragael, CA 94901-2165       : calligraphy, variations of
       (415) 459-6495                  : existing designs
       Century Software (MacTography)  font developer for MacTographyc
       702 Twinbrook Parkway           : LaserFonts (Mac)
       Rockville, MD 20851
       (301) 424-1357
       P.O. Box 224891
       Dallas, TX 75222
       (214) 504-8808
       Coda Music Software
       1401 E. 79th St.
       Mineapolis, MN 55425-1126
       (612) 854-1288
       (800) 843-1337
       Compugraphic Corporation        (Mac) (HP/IBM)
       Type Division
       90 Industrial Way
       Wilmington, MA 01887
       (800) 622-8973 (U.S.)
       (800) 533-9795 (Canada)
       Computer EdiType Systems        (HP/IBM)
       509 Cathedral Parkway, Ste. 10A
       New York, NY 10025
       (212) 222-8148
       Computer Peripherals, Inc.      : JetWare (HP/IBM)
       2635  Lavery Ct. #5
       Newbury Park, CA 91320
       (805) 499-5751
       Computer Prod. Unlimited        (Mac)
       78 Bridge St.
       Newburgh, NY 12550
       (914) 565-6262
       Coniglio Communications
       124 Woodside Green #2B
       Stamford, CT 06905-4918
       (203) 975-8111
       [email protected]; [email protected]
       Conographic Corp.               (Mac) (HP/IBM)
       17841 Fitch
       Irvine, CA 92714
       (714) 474-1188
       Corel Systems Corp.             (HP/IBM)
       1600 Carling Ave.
       Ottawa, Ontario, CANADA KIZ 7M4
       (613) 728-8200
       Data Transforms                 (HP/IBM)
       616 Washington St.
       Denver, CO 80203
       (303) 832-1501
       Devonian International software Co.     (Mac)
       P.O. Box 2351                             Cyrillic
       Montclair, CA 91763
       (714) 621-0973
       Digi-Fonts                      (HP/IBM)
       528 Commons Drive                Greek, Cyrillic
       Golden, Colorado 80401
       (303) 526-9435
       Fax: (303) 526-9501
       Digital Type Systems (DTS)      (HP/IBM)
       38 Profile Circle
       Nashua, NH 03063
       (603) 880-7541
       Dubl-Click Software, Inc.       : World Class Fonts (Mac)
       9316 Deering Ave.
       Chatsworth, CA 91311
       (818) 700-9525
       Ecological Linguistics          (Mac)
       P.O. Box 15156                  Cyrillic, Greek
       Washington, DC 20003
       (202) 546-5862
       The Electric Typographer        : Type 1 and TrueType (Mac & PC)
       2216 Cliff Dr.                  : Original designs
       Santa Barbara, CA 93109
       (805) 966-7563
       Verified: 9 Feb 1994
       EmDash                          : EmDash Fonts (Mac)
       P.O. Box 8256
       Northfield, IL 60093
       (312) 441-6699
       The Font Company
       12629 N. Tatum Boulevard
       Suite 210
       Phoenix, AZ  85032
       (602) 996-6606
       The Font Factory                (HP/IBM)
       2400 Central Parkway
       Ste. J-2
       Houston, TX 77092
       FontCenter                      (HP/IBM)
       509 Marin St., #121
       Thousand Oaks, CA 91360
       (805) 373-1919
       Font FunHouse CD-ROM            (PC/Mac)
       PO Box 807
       Grand Rapids, Minnesota 55744
       (800) 735-7321
       FontHaus North America          (United States)
       1375 King's Hwy East
       Fairfield, CT 06430
       (800) 942-9110 or (203) 367-1993
       (203) 367-1860 Fax
       FontHaus UK (Faces Ltd.)
       349 Yorktown Road
       College Town, Camberley
       Surrey GU15 4PX
       FontHaus Australia (Lasermaster Aus. Pty. Ltd.)
       #31 Rosina Drive
       Melton, Victoria 3337
       FontHaus France (Signum Art)
       Fax: 33-1-48-89-6045
       94 avenue Victor Hugo
       94100 Saint Maur des Fosses
       FontHaus Germany (Elsner & Flake)
       Friedensallee 44
       22765 Hamburg
       FontHaus Sweden (FontBolaget)
       Tulegatan 15 A
       113 53 Stockholm
       FontHaus is a manufacturer of typefaces and a licensed reseller for
       Adobe, Monotype, Bitstream, Elsner+Flake, Giampa Textware,
       Treacyfaces, Panache Graphics, and others around the world.
       FontHaus discounts most Adobe fonts up to 40% off list price, and
       have CD-ROM discs available so you can buy individual fonts instead
       of entire families. All their fonts are available in Macintosh Type
       1; most are also available in PC format; and a growing number are in
       TrueType format. In addition, some type manufacturers support other
       platforms through thier CD-ROM font libraries (i.e. Monotype for Mac,
       PC, or NeXT). Contact them regarding availability for the fonts and
       formats you want.
       FontHaus ships internationally and also has several agents overseas,
       although these agents may not have everything available as the main
       office here in the US.
               Rhyscon Systems                 (Canada)
               PO Box 245 Clarkson PO
               Mississauga Ontario L51 3Y1
               416 278 2600
               416 278 3298 Fax
               TypoGabor                       (France)
               5, rue de 8 Mai 1945
               92586 Clichy (Paris)
               33 1 4739 6600
               33 1 4739 0638 Fax
               Elsner+Flake Fontinform GmbH    (German)
               Friedensallee 44
               D-22765 Hamburg
               49 40 3988 3988
               Signus Limited                  (Britain)
               South Bank TechnoPark
               90 London Road
               London SE1 6LN
               71 922 8805
               71 261 0411 Fax
               Font Bolajet                    (Sweden, Finland, Norway)
               Kungstengaten 18
               113 57 Stockholm
       Font World                      (Mac)
       2021 Scottsville Rd.            Cyrillic, Hebrew
       Rochester, NY 14623-2021
       (716) 235-6861
       Genny Software R&D              (Mac)
       P.O. Box 5909
       Beaumont, TX 77706
       (409) 860-5817
       Gradco Systems Inc.
       7 Morgan
       Irvine, CA 92718
       (714) 770-1223
       Handcraftedfonts Co.
       Box 14013
       Philadelphia, PA 19122-0013
       Tel/Fax: 215-634-0634
  Our fonts are licensed to Monotype Typography, ITC DesignPalette,
  International TypeFounders, Precision Type and Phil's Fonts.
       Hewlett-Packard                 (HP/IBM)
       P.O. Box 15
       Boise, ID 83707
       (208) 323-6000
       ICOM Simulations, Inc.
       648 S. Wheeling Rd.
       Wheeling, IL 60090
       (312) 520-4440
       (880) 877-4266
       Image Club Graphics, Inc.       : (Mac & PC)
       729-24th Ave. SE
       Calgary, AB
       T2G 5K8
       (800) 661-9410
       (403) 262-8008 (Canada)
       Image Processing Systems        :Turbofonts (HP/IBM)
       6409 Appalachian Way, Box 5016
       Madison, WI 53705
       (608) 233-5033
       Invincible Software             (Mac)
       9534 Burwick
       San Antonio, TX 78230
       (512) 344-4228
       Kabbalah Software
       8 Price Drive
       Edison, NJ 08817
       (908) 572-0891
       (908) 572-0869 Fax
       Hebrew fonts for PC and Mac. While I am part owner, so I am biased,
       we have been reviewed in the October 27 1992 issue of PC Mag as
       having high-quality fonts.
       Keller Software                 (HP/IBM)
       1825 Westcliff Dr.
       Newport Beach, CA 92600
       (714) 854-8211
       Kensington Microware Ltd.       (Mac)
       251 Park Ave. S
       New York, NY 10010
       (212) 475-5200
       Kingsley/ATF Type Corp.         (Mac)
       200 Elmora Ave.
       Elizabeth, NJ 07202
       (201) 353-1000
       (800) 289-TYPE
       Laser Technologies International        : Lenord Storch Soft Fonts
       15403 East Alondra Blvd.                        (HP/IBM)
       La Mirada, CA 90638
       (714) 739-2478
       LaserMaster Corp.               : LM Fonts (HP/IBM)
       7156 Shady Oak Rd.
       Eden Prairie, MN 55344
       (612) 944-9330
       (800) LMC-PLOT
       Fax: (612) 944-0522
       LeBaugh Software Corp           : LeFont (HP/IBM)
       2720 Greene Ave.
       Onaha, NE 68147
       (800) 532-2844
       Letraset USA                    : LetraFont (Mac)
       40 Eissenhower Dr.
       Paramus, NJ 07653
       (201) 845-6100
       (800) 634-3463
       Linguists' Software, Inc.       (Bitmap, Type 1, Truetype) (Mac, IBM)
       P.O.Box 580                     Fonts for numerous alphabets. Not all
       Edmonds, WA 98020-0580          fonts available in all languages.
       (206) 775-1130                  They support ~50 languages.
       Fax: (206) 771-5911
       Verified: 16 Feb 1994
       Linotype Company                (Mac)
       425 Oser Ave.
       Hauppauge, NY 11788
       (800) 842-9721 (US)
       (516) 434-2706 (FAX)
       326-D North Stonestreet Ave.
       Rockville, MD 20850
       (301) 424-3942
       Megatherium Enterprises         : Mac The Linguist 2 (Mac)
       P.O. Box 7000-417
       Redondo Beach, CA 90277
       (310) 545-5913
       Metro Software, Inc.            (HP/IBM)
       2509 N. Cambell Ave., Ste. 214
       Tucson, AZ 85719
       (602) 299-7313
       819 Devon Court
       San Diego, CA 92109
       619-488-3087 fax
       email: Tom Wright <[email protected]>
  Provides fonts for resale to (mostly Unix & MS-DOS) software companies
  & hardware comapnies in its own portable file format together with
  portable C font rendering code. Pricing plans include royalty-free
  option & end-user site licenses. Standard Type-1 & TrueType formats
  also supplied. Font files from your artwork available too.
       Modern Graphics                 :Organic Fonts (Mac)
       P.O. Box 21366
       Indianapolis, IL 46221
       (317) 253-4316
       Monotype Typography Inc.
       Suite 504-53 West Jackson Blvd.
       Chicago, IL 60604
       (312) 855-1444
       (800) MONOTYPE
       Network Technology Corp.        : LaserTEX Font Library (HP/IBM)
       6825 Lamp Post Lane
       Alexandria, VA 22306
       (703) 765-4506
       Nippon Information Science Ltd. (NIS)   (Mac)
       Sumire Bldg. 4F
       5-4-4 Koishikawa
       Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112
       (03) 945-5955
       Olduvai Corporation             : Art Fonts (Mac)
       7520 Red Road, Suite A
       South Miami, FL 33143
       (305) 665-4665
       (800) 822-0772 (FL)
       Page Studio Graphics            : PIXymbols (Mac)
       3175 N. Price Rd. #1050
       Chandler, AZ 85224
       (602) 839-2763
       Paperback Software              : KeyCap Fonts
       2830 9th St.
       Berkeley, CA 94710
       (415) 644-2116
       PenUltimate Fonts               : Vernacular type for Mac and PC
       14101 Walters Rd. #805          : Custom font design
       Houston, TX 77014
       Houston, TX 77014
       E-Mail: [email protected]        Send $2 for catalog
       Prosoft                         (HP/IBM)
       7248 Bellair Ave., P.O. Box 560
       North Hollywood, CA 91605
       (818) 764 3131
       Qume Corp.                      (HP/IBM)
       2350 Qume Dr.
       San Jose, CA 95131
       (800) 223-2479
       Ragnarok                        Font Line: Scriptorium Font Library
       POB 140333                      120+ original calligraphic, display
       Austin, TX  78714               and art font designs.  SASE for catalog.
       (512) 472-6535                  $15 for 12 font sampler disk.  Specify
                                       Macintosh or PC preference when ordering.
       R.M.C.                          : PrintR fonts (HP/IBM)
       12046 Willowood Dr.
       Woodbridge, VA 22192
       (703) 494-2633
       Richard Beatty Designs          : Type 1 and TrueType (PC, Mac)
       2312 Laurel Park Highway        : 45 fonts decorative elements
       Hendersonville, NC 28739        : 270 alphabets, 50 original
       (704) 696-8316                  : rest translated from lead and
       Verified: 9 Feb 1994            : phototype. Goudy a specialty
       S. Anthony Studios              : Fonts Vol. 1
       889 DeHaro Street
       San Francisco, CA  94107
       Scholar's Press                 : (Mac)
       P.O. Box 15399                  : 2 Greek fonts
       Atlanta, GA 30333-0399
       (404) 727-2320
       FAX: (404) 727-2348
       Verified: 9 Feb 1994
       Scriptorium Font Library
       (See Ragnarok)
       SoftCraft, Inc.
       16 North Carrol St., Suite 220
       Madison, WI 53703
       (608) 257-3300
       FAX: (608) 257-6733
       Verified: 9 Feb 1994
       Software Complement             : (TrueType, Type 1) (Mac, IBM, Next)
       8 Penn Ave.                     : Designer of fonts for Cassidy & Greene
       Metamoras, PA 18336             : Custom logos and signatures.
       (717) 491-2492
       FAX: (717) 491-2443
       Applelink: SOFTCOMP
       CompuServe: 70244,3214
       Verified: 16 Feb 1994
       Straightforward                 : ZFont (HP/IBM)
       15000 Halldale Ave.
       Gardena, CA 90249
       (310) 324-8827
       SWFTE International             (HP/IBM)
       Box 5773
       Wilmington, DE 19808
       (800) 237-9383
       SystemSoft America, Inc.         : Kanji
       P.O. Box 4260
       Vero Beach, FL 32964
       Typographics Ltd.               : Typo
       46, Hehalutz St.
       Jerusalem 96222
       U-Design, Inc.                  : TrueType, Type1 (Mac & PC)
       270 Farmington Avenue           : Originals, licensed designs clones
       Hartford, CT 06105
       (203) 278-3648
       BBS: (203) 525-5117
       FAX: (203) 278-3003
       Verified: 9 Feb 1994
       The Underground Phont Archive   (TrueType,Shareware)
       395 Kaymar Dr.
       Amherst, NY 14228
       Varityper, Inc.                 : (Mac)
       11 Mt. Pleasant Ave.
       East Hanover, NJ 07936
       (800) 631-8134 (US except NJ)
       (201) 887-8000 ext. 999 (NJ)
       VS Software                     : HP Bitmaps (PC)
       P.O. Box 6158                   : CG, ITC and original fonts
       Little Rock, AR 72216
       (501) 376-2083
       Verified: 9 Feb 1994
       Weaver Graphics                 : HP Bitmaps (PC only),
       5165 S. Hwy A1A                 : Adobe Type 1, Truetype (PC and Mac)
       Melbourne Beach, FL 32951       : Mostly clone fonts, some originals
       (407) 728-4000
       Fax: (407) 728-5978
       Verified: 9 Feb 1994
       Wu Corp.                        : FeiMa (Mac) Chinese wordprocessor
       46 West Avon Rd.
       Avon, CT 06001
       (203) 673-4796
       Y&Y, Inc.                       : Type 1 format, Mac, PC, Unix
       45 Walden Street                : Computer Modern, Lucida Bright
       Concord, MA 01742               : AMS, LaTeX/SliTeX, MathTime
       (800) 742-4059                  : Lucida Sans Typewriter etc
       (508) 371-3286
       Fax: (508) 371-2004
       [email protected]
       ZSoft Corp.                     : Soft Type
       450 Franklin Rd. Suite 100
       Marietta, GA 30067
       (404) 428-0008
       Fax: (404) 427-1150
  Clip Art Vendors
  This section was submitted by Dmitry S. Simanenkov in Aug, 1993.
  Although not directly related to type, a list of clip art vendors seems
  to compliment the list of type/font vendors.
       3G Graphics, Inc.                  eps borders, simbols for MAC
       114 Second Ave.South, Suite 104
       Edmonds, WA 98020
       (206) 774-3518
       (206) 771-8975
       ArtBytes                           Hi-Fi  Borders for security
       Ozerkova 51-2-13                   paper, stock, certificate etc.
       Peterburg                          bitmap & eps, CorelDraw
       198903                             IBM & MAC
       [email protected]
       San Bernardino, CA, 92406
       (800) 444-9392
       (714) 881-1200
       Best Impression
       3844 W. Channel Islands Blvd.
       Suite. 234
       Oxnard, CA 93035
       (805) 984-9748
       Dynamic Graphics, Inc.
       Designers Club, Creative Art
       6000 N. Forest Park Dr.
       Peoria, IL 61656-1901
       (800) 255-8800
       (309) 688-8800
       (309) 688-5873
       FM Waves
       70 Derby Alley
       San Francisco, CA 94102
       (800) 487-1234
       (415) 474-7464
       Grafx Associates                    Borders
       Tucson, AZ 85732-2811
       (800) 628-2149
       Kinetic Presentation, Inc.
       250 Distillery Commons
       Louisville, KY 40206
       (502) 583-1679
       Metro Image Base, Inc.
       18623 Ventura Blvd
       Suite 210
       Tarzana, CA 91356
       (800) 525-1552
       (818) 881-1997
       Micrografx, Inc.
       1303 Arapaho Rd.
       Richardson, TX 75081
       (800) 733-3729
       (214) 234-1769
       Migraph, Inc.
       200 S.333 Rd. Suite 220
       Federal Way, WA 98003
       (800) 223-3729
       (206) 838-4677
       Multi-Ad Service, Inc.
       1720 W. Detweiller Dr.
       Peoria, IL 61615
       (800) 447-1950
       (309) 692-1530
       Qualitas Trading Co.
       6907 Norfolk Rd.
       Berkley, CA 94705
       (510) 848-8080
       RT Computer Graphics
       2257 Calle Cacique
       Santa Fe, NM 87505
       Stephen & Associates
       8681 N. Magnolia Ave Suite E
       Santee, CA 92071-4456
       (619) 562-5803
       Studio Advertising Art
       Las Vegas, NV 89116
       (800) 453-1860
       (702) 641-7041
       Sun Shine                             CD-ROM, Visual Delights
       Austin, TX 78765
       (512) 453-2334