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How to Build a Flying Saucer

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                                 October 16, 1990


                           How to Build a Flying Saucer
                                   After So Many
                                    Have Failed

                        An essay in Speculative Engineering

                                 by T. B. Pawlicki


            At the  end  of  the nineteenth century, the most distinguished
       scientists and engineers  declared  that  no  known  combination  of
       materials and locomotion could be assembled into a  practical flying
       machine.  Fifty years  later  another  generation  of  distinguished
       scientists and engineers  declared   that   it  was  technologically
       infeasible for a  rocket ship to reach the moon.  Nevertheless,  men
       were getting off  the  ground  and  out  into space even while these
       words were uttered.

            In the last half of the twentieth  century,  when technology is
       advancing faster than   reports  can  reach  the   public,   it   is
       fashionable to hold  the  pronouncements  of  yesterday's experts to
       ridicule.  But there is something  anomalous  about  the consistency
       with which eminent  authorities  fail  to  recognize   technological
       advances even while they are being made.  You must bear in mind that
       these men are  not  given  to making public pronouncements in haste;
       their conclusions are  reached  after  exhaustive  calculations  and
       proofs, and they are better informed about their subject than anyone
       else alive.  But by and large, revolutionary advances  in technology
       do not contribute  to  the advantage of established experts, so they
       tend to believe that the challenge cannot possibly be realized.

            The UFO  phenomenon  is  a   perversity   in   the   annals  of
       revolutionary engineering.  On the one hand, public authorities deny
       the existence of  flying  saucers and prove their  existence  to  be
       impossible.  This is  just  as  we  should  expect  from established
       experts.  But on the other hand,  people  who  believe  that  flying
       saucers exist have produced findings that only tend to prove that
       UFOs are technologically  infeasible  by  any known  combination  of
       materials and locomotion.

            There is  reason  to suspect that the people who believe in the
       existence of UFOs do not want to discover  the technology because it
       is not in the true believer's self interest that a flying saucer be

                                      Page 1

       within the capability of human engineering.  The true believer wants
       to believe that  UFOs  are  of extraterrestrial origin because he is
       seeking some kind of relief from debt  and taxes by an alliance with
       superhuman powers.

            If anyone with mechanical ability really wanted  to  know how a
       saucer flies, he  would  study  the  testimonies to learn the flight
       characteristics of this craft, and  then  ask,  "How  can we do this
       saucer thing?"  This is probably what Werner Von Braun  said when he
       decided that it  was  in his self-interest to launch man into space:
       "How can we get this bird off the ground, and keep it off?"

            Well, what is a flying saucer?  It is a disc-shaped craft about
       thirty feet in diameter with a dome  in the center accommodating the
       crew and, presumably, the operating machinery.  And  it  flies.   So
       let us begin  by  building  a disc-shaped airfoil, mount the cockpit
       and the engine under a central canopy,  and  see  if  we can make it
       fly.  As a  matter  of fact, during World War II the  United  States
       actually constructed a number of experimental aircraft conforming to
       these specifications, and  photographs  of  the  craft are published
       from time to time in popular magazines about science and flight.  It
       is highly likely  that some of the  UFO  reports  before  1950  were
       sightings of these test flights.  See how easy it is when you 'want'
       to find answers to a mystery?

            The mythical saucer also flies at incredible speeds.  Well, the
       speeds believed possible  depend  upon  the time and  place  of  the
       observer.  As stated earlier, a hundred years ago, twenty-five miles
       per hour was  legally  prohibited in the belief that such a terrific
       velocity would endanger human life.  So replace the propeller of the
       experimental disc airfoil with a modern  aerojet  engine.  Is mach 3
       fast enough for believers?

            But the true saucer not only flies, it also hovers.   You  mean
       like a Hovercraft?   One  professional engineer translated Ezekiel's
       description of heavenly ships as a helicopter-cum-hovercraft.

            But what of the anomalous electromagnetic  effects  manifest in
       the space surrounding   a   flying  saucer?   Well,   Nikola   Tesla
       demonstrated a prototype of an electronic device that was eventually
       developed into the  electron  microscope,  the television screen, an
       aerospace engine called the Ion  Drive.   Since  World  War  II, the
       engineering of the Ion Drive has been advanced as the most promising
       solution to the propulsion of interplanetary spaceships.   The drive
       operates by charging   atomic  particles  and  directing  them  with
       electro-magnetic force as a jet to  the  rear,  generating a forward
       thrust in reaction.   The advantage of the Ion Drive  over  chemical
       rockets is that  a spaceship can sweep in the ions it needs from its
       flight path, like  an aerojet sucks  in  air  through  its  engines.
       Therefore, the ship  must carry only the fuel it needs  to  generate
       the power for its chargers; there is no need to carry dead weight in
       the form of  rocket  exhaust.   There  is  another  advantage  to be
       derived from ion rocketry: The top  speed  of  a  reaction engine is
       limited by the  ejection velocity of its exhaust.   An  ion  jet  is
       close to the  speed  of  light.   If  space  travel  is  ever  to be
       practical, transport will have to  achieve  a  large fraction of the
       speed of light.

            In 1972 the French journal Science et Avenir reported Franco-

                                      Page 2

       American research into  a  method  of ionizing the airstream flowing
       over the wings to eliminate sonic  boom,  a serious objection to the
       commercial success of  the  Concorde.  Four years  later  a  picture
       appeared in an  American  tabloid  of  a  model aircraft showing the
       current state of development.  The  photograph  shows  a disc-shaped
       craft, but not so thin as a saucer; it looks more like a flying
       curling stone.  In silent flight, the ionized air flowing around the
       craft glows as  a proper ufo should.  The last word  comes  from  an
       engineering professor at   the   local   university;  he  has  begun
       construction of a flying saucer in his backyard.

            To the true believer, the flying  saucer  has no jet.  It seems
       to fly by some kind of antigravity.  As antigravity  is not known to
       exist in physical  theory  or  experimental fact in popular science,
       the saucer is  clearly alien and beyond  human  comprehension.   But
       antigravity depends upon what you conceive gravity  to  be,  doesn't

            For all  practical purposes, you do not have to understand what
       Newton and Einstien mean by gravity.   Gravity  is  an  acceleration
       downward, to the center of the earth.  Therefore, antigravity  is an
       acceleration upward.  As  far as practical engineering is concerned,
       any means to achieve a gain in altitude  is  an  antigravity engine.
       An airplane; a balloon; a rocket; a stepladder; all  are antigravity
       engines.  See how easy it is to invent an antigravity engine?

            There are three basic kinds of locomotive engines.  The primary
       principle is traction.  The foot and the wheel are traction engines.
       The traction engines  depend  upon  friction  against  a surrounding
       medium to generate movement, and locomotion  can proceed only as far
       and as speedily  as  the  surrounding  friction will  provide.   The
       second principle is  displacement.   The  balloon  and the submarine
       rise by displacing a denser medium;  they descend by displacing less
       that their weight.   The  tertiary  drive is the rocket  engine.   A
       rocket is driven  by  reaction  from the mass of material it ejects.
       Although a rocket  is  most  efficient   when   not   impeded  by  a
       surrounding medium, it must carry not only it's fuel  but  also  the
       mass it must  eject.   As  a  consequence, the rocket is impractical
       where powerful acceleration is required  for  extended  drives.   In
       chemical rocketry, ten minutes is a long burn for powered flight.
       What is needed  for  practical antigravity locomotion  is  a  fourth
       principle which does   not  depend  upon  a  surrounding  medium  or
       ejection of mass.

            You must take notice that none  of the principles of locomotion
       required any new discovery.  they have all been around for thousands
       of years, and  engineering  only  implemented  the   principle  with
       increasing efficiency.  A  fourth  principle  of locomotion has also
       been around for  thousands  of  years:   It  is  centrifugal  force.
       Centrifugal force is  the principle of the military  sling  and  the
       medieval catapult.

            Everyone knows that centrifugal force can overcome gravity.  If
       directed upward, centrifugal   force   can   be  used  to  drive  an
       antigravity engine.  The problem engineers have been unable to solve
       is that centrifugal force is generated  in  all  directions  on  the
       plane of the  centrifuge.   It won't provide locomotion  unless  the
       force can be  concentrated  in  one  direction.  The solution of the
       sling, of releasing the wheeling at the instant the centrifugal

                                      Page 3

       force is directed  along  the  ballistic  trajectory,  has  all  the
       inefficiencies of a cannon.  The  difficulty  of  the problem is not
       real, however.  There  is  a  mental  block preventing  people  from
       perceiving a centrifuge as anything other than a flywheel.

            A bicycle wheel is a flywheel.  If you remove the rim and tire,
       leaving only the  spokes  sticking  out of the hub, you still have a
       flywheel.  In fact, spokes alone make a more efficient flywheel than
       the complete wheel; this is because  momentum  only  goes up only in
       proportion to mass but with the square of speed.  Spokes are made of
       drawn steel with  extreme  tensile  strength,  so spokes  alone  can
       generate the highest  level  of centrifugal force long after the rim
       and tire have  disintegrated.   But   spokes  alone  still  generate
       centrifugal force equally  in  all  directions  from  the  plane  of
       rotation.  All you  have  to  do to concentrate centrifugal force in
       one direction is remove all the  spokes  but  one.   That  one spoke
       still functions as a flywheel, even though it is  not  a  wheel  any

            See how  easy  it is once you accept an attitude of solving one
       problem at a time as you come to it?   You  can even add a weight to
       the end of the spoke to increase the centrifugal force.

            But our   centrifuge   still  generates  a  centrifugal   force
       acceleration in all  directions  around  the  plane of rotation even
       though it doesn't generate acceleration equally in all directions at
       the same time.  All we have managed  to do is make the whole ball of
       wire wobble around the common center of mass between  the  axle  and
       free end of the spoke.  To solve this problem, now that we have come
       to it, we need merely to  accelerate the spoke through a few degrees
       of arc and  then  let  it  complete  the cycle of revolution without
       power.  As long as it is accelerated  during  the  same  arc at each
       cycle, the locomotive   will   lurch   in   one  direction,   albeit
       intermittently.  But don't forget that the piston engine also drives
       intermittently.  The regular centrifugal pulses can be evened out by
       mounting several centrifuges  on  the same axle so that a pulse from
       another flywheel takes over as soon  as  one  pulse of power is past
       it's arc.

            The next problem facing us is that the momentum imparted to the
       centrifugal spoke is  carries  it all around the cycle  with  little
       loss of velocity.   The  amount  of  concentrated  centrifugal force
       carrying the engine  in the desired  direction  is  too  low  to  be
       practical.  Momentum is  half  the  product  of mass  multiplied  by
       velocity squared.  Therefore,  what  we  need  is a spoke that has a
       tremendous velocity with minimal mass.   They don't make spokes like
       that for bicycle wheels.  A search through the engineers' catalog
       however, turns up just the kind of centrifuge we need.   An electron
       has no mass  at  rest  (you  cannot find a smaller minimum mass than
       that); all it's mass is inherent  in  its  velocity.  So we build an
       electron raceway in  the  shape  of  a  doughnut  in  which  we  can
       accelerate an electron  to  a  speed close to that of light.  As the
       speed of light  is  approached,   the   energy  of  acceleration  is
       converted to a  momentum approaching infinity.  As  it  happens,  an
       electron accelerator answering   our   need  was  developed  by  the
       University of California during the  last years of World War II.  It
       is called a betatron, and the doughnut is small enough to be carried
       comfortably in a man's hands.

                                      Page 4

            We can visualize the operation of the Mark I from what is known
       about particle accelerators.   To  begin with, high energy electrons
       ionize the air surrounding them.   This causes the betatrons to glow
       like an annular neon tube.

            Therefore, around the rim of the saucer a ring  of  lights will
       glow like a  string  of  shining beads at night.  The power required
       for flight will ionize enough of the surrounding atmosphere to short
       out all electrical wiring in the  vicinity  unless  it  is specially
       shielded.  In theory, the top speed of the Mark I  is  close  to the
       speed of light;  in  practice  there  are  many  more problems to be
       solved before relativistic speeds can be approached.

            The peculiar  property  of  microwaves   heating  all  material
       containing the water molecule means that any animal  luckless enough
       to be nearby  may  be cooked from the inside out; vegetation will be
       scorched where a saucer lands; and  any  rocks  containing  water of
       crystallization will be blasted.  Every housewife with  a  microwave
       knows all this;  only  hard-headed  scientists  and soft-headed true
       believers are completely dumbfounded.   The UFOnauts would be cooked
       by their own  engines,  too,  if they left the flight  deck  without
       shielding.  This probably  explains  why  a  pair  of UFOnauts, in a
       widely published photograph,  wear   reflective  plastic  jumpsuits.
       Mounting the betatrons outboard on a disc is an efficient way to get
       them away from the crew's compartment, and the plating  of  the hull
       shields the interior.   At high accelerations, increasing amounts of
       power are transformed into radiation,  making  the centrifugal drive
       inefficient in strong  gravitational  fields.   The  most  practical
       employment of this   engineering  is  for  large  spacecraft,  never
       intended to land.   The  flying  saucers  we  see  are  very  likely
       scouting craft sent  from mother ships moored in orbit.   For  brief
       periods of operation,  the  heavy fuel consumption of the Mark I can
       be tolerated, along with radiation  leakage  -  especially  when the
       planet being scouted is not your own.

            When you  compare  the  known  operating features  of  particle
       centrifuges with the eyewitness testimony, it is fairly evident that
       any expert claiming  flying  saucers  to be utterly beyond any human
       explanation is not doing his homework,  and  he should be reexamined
       for his professional license.

            For dramatic purpose, I have classified the development  of the
       flying saucer through five stages:

            Mark I    - Electronic centrifuges mounted around a fixed disc,
            Mark II  - Electronic centrifuges  mounted  outboard  around  a
                       rotating disc.
            Mark III  -  Electronic centrifuges mounted outboard  around  a
                       rotating disc,  period  of cycles tuned to harmonize
                       with ley lines, for jet assist.
            Mark IV  - Particle centrifuge tuned to modify time coordinates
                       by faster than light travel.
            Mark V    -  No centrifuge.   Solid  state  coils  and  crystal
                       harmonics transforms  ambient  field   directly  for
                       dematerialization and      rematerialization      at
                       destinations in time and space.

            Now that the UFO phenomenon has been demystified and reduced to

                                      Page 5

       human ken, we  can  proceed  to prove the theory.  If your resources
       are like those of the PLO, you can  go  ahead  and  build  your  own
       flying saucer without any further information from  me,  but  I have
       nothing to work with except the junk I can find around the house.

            I found  an  old  electric motor that had burned out, but still
       had a few turns left in it.  I drilled  a  hole  through the driving
       axle so that  an eight inch bar would slide freely  through  it.   I
       mounted the motor  on  a  chassis so that the bar would rotate on an
       eccentric cam.  In this way in end of the bar was always extended in
       the same direction while the other  end  was always pressed into the
       driving axle.  As  both ends had the same angular  velocity  at  all
       times, the end  extending  out  from  the  axle  would always have a
       higher angular momentum.   This   resulted  in  a  concentration  of
       centrifugal acceleration in one direction.  when  I  plugged  the in
       the motor, the  sight  of my brainchild lurching ahead - unsteadily,
       but in a constant direction, - gave  me  a  bigger  thrill  than  my
       baptism of sex - lasted longer, too.  But not much  longer.  In less
       than twenty seconds the burned-out motor gasped its last and died in
       a puff of smoke; the test run was broadcast on radio microphone but
       the spectacle was lost without television.  Because my prototype did
       not survive long  enough  to  run in two directions I had to declare
       the test inconclusive because of mechanical breakdown.  So, what the
       hell, the Wright brothers didn't  get  far  off the ground the first
       time they tried either.  Now that I know the critter  will  move, it
       is worthwhile to  put  a  few  bucks  in  to  a new motor, install a
       clutch, and gear the transmission  down.   One  problem at a time is
       the way it goes.

            A rectified centrifuge small enough to hold  in  one  hand  and
       powered by solar  cells,  based  on my design, could be manufactured
       for about fifty dollars (depending  on  production  and  competitive
       bids).  Installed on  Skylab,  it would be sufficient  to  keep  the
       craft in orbit  indefinitely.   A larger Hyperspace Drive (as I call
       this particular design)  will   provide   a   small   but   constant
       acceleration for interplanetary  spacecraft  that  would  accumulate
       practical velocities over runs of several days.

            It is  rumored  that  a  gentleman by the name of Dean invented
       another kind of antigravity engine  sometime  during  the past fifty
       years, but I  have  been  unable to track down any more  information
       except that its   design   consists  of  wheels  within  wheels.   A
       gentleman in Florida, Hans, Schnebel,  sent  me  a  description of a
       machine he built and tested that is similar in principle to the Dean
       drive.  Essentially, a large rotating disk has a smaller rotating
       disc on one  side  of  the main driving axle.  The  two  wheels  are
       geared together so  that  a weight mounted on the rim of the smaller
       wheel is always at the outside of  the  larger wheel during the same
       length of arc of each revolution, and always next to  the  main axle
       during the opposite  arc.   What happens is that the velocity of the
       weight is amplified by harmonic coincidence  with  the  large  rotor
       during one half of its period of revolution, and diminished during
       the other half  cycle.   This  concentrates  momentum  in  the  same
       quarter continually, to  rectify  the  centrifuge.   The  result  is
       identical to my Hyperspace Drive, but has the beauty of continuously
       rotating motion.  Now, if the Dean  drive  is  made with a huge main
       rotor, - like about thirty feet in diameter - there  is  enough room
       to mount a series of smaller wheels around the rim, set in gimbals

                                      Page 6

       for attitude control,  an  Mr.  Dean  himself  has himself a model T
       Flying Saucer requiring no license from the AEC.

            In 1975, Professor Eric Laithwaite,  Head  of the Department of
       Electrical Engineering at  the  Imperial  College   of  Science  and
       Technology in London,   England,   invented   another   approach  to
       harnessing the centrifugal  force   of   a  gyroscope  to  power  an
       antigravity engine - well, he almost invented it,  but  he  did  not
       have the sense to hold onto success when he grasped it.  Professor
       Laithwaite is world-renowned  for his most creative solutions to the
       problems of magnetic-levitation-propulsion systems, and the fruit of
       his brain is  operating today in  Germany  and  Japan,  his  railway
       trains float in the air while traveling at over three  hundred miles
       per hour.  If  anyone  can  present  the  world  with  a proven anti
       gravity engine, it must be the professor.

            Laithwaite satisfied  himself   that   the  precessional  force
       causing a gyroscope  to wobble had no reaction.   This  is  a  clear
       violation of Newton's  Third Law of Motion as 'generally conceived'.
       Laithwaite figured that  if  he   could   engage   the  precessional
       acceleration while the  gyroscope  wobbled  in  one   direction  and
       release the precession while it wobble in other directions, he would
       be able to demonstrate to a forum of colleagues and critics at the
       college a rectified  centrifuge  that worked as a proper antigravity
       engine.  His insight was sound but  he  did  not  work it out right.
       All he succeeded in demonstrating was a 'separation  between  action
       and reaction,' and  his  engine did nothing but oscillate violently.
       Unfortunately, neither Laithwaite  or his critics were looking for a
       temporal separation between action and reaction, so  the loophole he
       proved in Newton's  Third Law was not noticed.  Everyone was looking
       for action without  reaction,  so   no  one  saw  anything  at  all.
       Innumerable other inventors  have  constructed  engines  essentially
       identical to Laithwaite's, including a young high school dropout who
       lives across the street from me.

            Another invention  described  is  U.S. Patent disclosure number
       3,653,269, granted to Richard Foster, a retired chemical engineer in
       Louisiana.  Foster mounted his gyroscopes  around the rim of a large
       rotor disc, like a two cylinder flying saucer.  Every time the rotor
       turns a half cycle, the precessional twist of the gyros  in reaction
       generates a powerful  force.   During  the  half cycle when Foster's
       gyros were twisting in the other direction,  his  clutch grabbed and
       transmitted the power to the driving wheels.  During  the other half
       cycle, the gyros twisted freely.  Foster claims his machine traveled
       four miles per hour until it flew to pieces from centrifugal forces.
       After examining the  patents,  I agreed that it looked like it would
       work, and it  certainly would fly  to  pieces  because  the  bearing
       mounts were not  nearly  strong  enough  to  contain   the  powerful
       twisting forces his  machine  generated.   Foster's design, however,
       cannot be included among antigravity  engines  because  it would not
       operate off the  ground.   He  never  claimed it would,  and  Foster
       always described his  invention  truthfully  as nothing more than an
       implementation of the fourth principle of locomotion.

            What Laithwaite needed was another  rotary  component, like the
       Dean drive, geared to his engine's oscillations so  that  they would
       always be turned  to drive in the same direction.  As it happens, an
       Italian by the name of Todeschini recently secured a patent on this

                                      Page 7

       idea, and his working model is said to be attracting the interest of
       European engineers.

            When the  final  rectifying  device  is  added to the essential
       Laithwaite design, all the moving  parts  generate  the vectors of a
       vortex, and the  velocity  generated  is  the axial  thrust  of  the
       vortex.  Therefore I call inventions based on this design the Vortex

            By replacing the Hyperspace modules of the Mark I Flying Saucer
       with Vortex modules,  still  retaining the essential betatron as the
       centrifuge, performance is improved for the Mark II.  To begin with,
       drive is generated only when the  main  rotor  is  revolving, so the
       saucer can be  parked with the motor running.  This  eliminates  the
       agonizing doubt we all suffered when the Lunar Landers were about to
       blast off to  rejoin  the  command  capsule:  Will the engine start?
       This would explain why the ring of lights around the rim of a saucer
       is said to  begin  to revolve immediately  prior  to  lift  off.   A
       precessional drive affords  a  wider  range  of  control,   and  the
       responses are more  stable  than  a direct centrifuge.  But the most
       interesting improvement is the result  of  the  'structure'  of  the
       electromagnetic field generated by the Vortex drive.   By amplifying
       and diminishing certain  vectors  harmonically,  the Mark III flying
       saucer can ride  the  electromagnetic   current   of   the   Earth's
       electromagnetic field like the jet stream.  And this is just what we
       see UFO's doing,  don't  we,  as  they  are reported  running  their
       regular flight corridors   during   the   biennial  tourist  season.
       Professor Laithwaite got all this  together when he conceived of his
       antigravity engine as  a  practical  application of  his  theory  of
       "rivers of energy  running  through space"; he just could not get it
       off the drawing board the first time.

            The flying saucer consumes  fuel  at  a  rate  that  cannot  be
       supplied by all the wells in Arabia.  Therefore we  have  to  assume
       that UFO engineers  must  have  developed  a practical atomic fusion
       reactor.  But once the Mark III is  perfected,  another  fuel supply
       becomes attainable, and no other is so practical for  flying saucer.
       The Moray Valve  converts  the Mark III into a Mark IV Flying Saucer
       by extending its operational capabilities  through 'time' as well as
       space.  The Moray  Valve,  you  see,  functions  by   changing   the
       direction of flow of energy in the Sun's gravitational field.  It is
       the velocity of energy that determines motion, and motion determines
       the flow of  time.   We  shall  continue  the  engineering of flying
       saucers in the following essays.

            My investigation  into antigravity  engineering  brought  me  a
       technical report while  this  typescript  was  in preparation.   Dr.
       Mason Rose, President   of   the  University  for  Social  Research,
       published a paper describing the  discoveries  of  Dr.  Paul  Alfred
       Biefeld, astronomer and  physicist at the California  Institute  for
       Advanced Studies, and   his  assistant,  Townsend  Brown.   In  1923
       Biefeld discovered that a heavily charged electrical condensor moved
       toward its positive pole when suspended  in  a  gravitational field.
       He assigned Brown  to  study  the effect as a research  project.   A
       series of experiments showed Brown that the most efficient shape for
       a field propelled condensor was a disc with a central dome.  In 1926
       Townsend published his   paper   describing   all  the  construction
       features and flight characteristics  of  a flying saucer, conforming
       to the testimony of the first flight witnessed over Mount Rainer

                                      Page 8

       twenty-one years later  and  corroborated  by thousands of witnesses
       since. (The Biefeld-Brown Effect explains  why  a Mark III rides the
       electromagnetic jet stream.)

            We may speculate that flying saucers spotted from  time to time
       may not only  include  visitors  from  other  planets  and travelers
       through time, but also fledglings from an unknown number of cuckoo's
       nests in secret experimental plants  all  over the world.  The space
       program at Cape Canaveral may be nothing more than  a  supercolossal
       theatre orchestrated by  Cecil B. Demille to reassure Americans that
       they are still 'numero uno' after  Russia  beat  our  atomic  ace by
       putting Sputnik into  orbit.   We  need  not doubt that  the  Apollo
       spaceships got to  the Moon, but we may wonder if Neil Armstrong was
       the first man to land there.  The  real  space program may have been
       conducted in secret as a spin-off from the Manhattan  Project  since
       the end of  World War II, and Apollo 13 may have been picked up by a
       sag wagon to make sure our team scored  a  home  run every time they
       went to bat.   The  exploration  of  space  is  the  most  dangerous
       enterprise ever taken on by a living species.  Don't you ever wonder
       why the Russians  are  losing  men  in  space  like  a  safari being
       decimated in headhunter country, while  nothing  ever happens to our
       boys except accidents during ground training?

                                                           -T.B. Pawlicki

       Well, I hope  you  enjoyed  that.   Coming  soon in  our  series  of
       informational speculations:
                           Build your own Time Machine,
                        Build your own Pyramid or Megalith,
                               Turn lead into gold,
                    Create a worldwide communications network,
                             and my personal favorite,
                           How to build an atomic bomb.

       Now if someone  knows  how  we  can  clone  a person using household
       materials, that would be the topper  of the toppers.  Keep your mind
       open, but not so open that your brains fall out...


                    This file courteously supplied to KeelyNet
                          by the Darkside (Ken Geest) at

       -The Rev.

        Transcendental Communications...
                                          Conspiracies & Cover-Ups!
                                                             New Age!

                     [][][][][][][][][][][][][][][][][][]        \/
                     []                                []      _______
             ^       []       BBS# (714)599-6270       []     (_______)
            / \      []                                []  ../ o o o o \..
           /   \     []       FAX# (714)599-5045       [] (_______________)
          / (o) \    []                                []     ~~~~~~~~~
         /       \   [][][][][][][][][][][][][][][][][][]  .............
                                      Page 9

       Vangard Notes

       I had the  pleasure  of  meeting  Tom  at  the  1987 Global Sciences
       Congress in Denver.  He is as fascinating  in person as his writings
       indicate.  Tom has also written 2 excellent books,  "How  to Build a
       Flying Saucer" and  "Hyper-Space".   We  have  kept in contact since
       that time by mail.

               You may write Tom at :  T. B. Pawlicki
                                       843 Fort Street
                                       Victoria, B.C.
                                       V8W 1H6


       If you have comments or other information relating to such topics as
       this paper covers,  please upload to KeelyNet or send to the Vangard
       Sciences address as listed on the  first  page.   Thank you for your
       consideration, interest and support.

           Jerry W. Decker.........Ron Barker...........Chuck Henderson
                             Vangard Sciences/KeelyNet
                     If we can be of service, you may contact
                 Jerry at (214) 324-8741 or Ron at (214) 242-9346

                (word processor parameters LM=8, RM=75, TM=2, BM=2)
                      Taken from KeelyNet BBS (214) 324-3501
                           Sponsored by Vangard Sciences
                                    PO BOX 1031
                                Mesquite, TX 75150

                                 October 15, 1990

                          listed on KeelyNet as UFO6.ZIP


            The following article was published as a two part series in the
       February and March   issues  of  "The  UFO  Enigma".   This  is  the
       newsletter of the UFO Study Group  of  Greater St. Louis, Inc.  This
       article could be  placed  under  more  than one catagory.   Comments

                                                               KEN HANKE


                                   NIKOLA TESLA
                               MAN AHEAD OF HIS TIME
                              (or How To Build a UFO)

                                   By Bill Jones

           Nikola Tesla,  inventor  of  alternating current motors, did the
       basic research for constructing electromagnetic field lift-and-drive
       aircraft/space craft.  From 1891 to  1893, he gave a set of lectures
       and demonstrations to groups of electrical engineers.   As  part  of
       each show, Tesla  stood  in the middle of the stage, using his 6' 6"
       height, with an assistant on either  side,  each 7 feet away.  All 3
       men wore thick cork or rubber shoe soles to avoid being electrically
       grounded.  Each assistant held a wire, part of a high  voltage,  low
       current circuit.  When  Tesla  raised  his arms to each side, violet
       colored electricity jumped harmlessly  across  the  gaps between the
       men.  At high voltage and frequency in this arrangement, electricity
       flows over a surface, even the skin, rather than into it.  This is a
       basic circuit which could be used by aircraft / spacecraft.

            The hull  is  best  made double, of thin, machinable,  slightly
       flexible ceramic.  This  becomes a good electrical insulator, has no
       fire danger, resists any damaging  effects  of severe heat and cold,
       and has the  hardness  of  armor,  besides being easy  for  magnetic
       fields to pass through.

            The inner  hull is covered on it's outside by wedge shaped thin
       metal sheets of copper or aluminum,  bonded  to  the  ceramic.  Each
       sheet is 3  to 4 feet wide at the horizontal rim  of  the  hull  and
       tapers to a  few  inches wide at the top of the hull for the top set
       of metal sheets, or at the bottom  for  the  bottom  set  of sheets.
       Each sheet is separated on either side from the next sheet by 1 or 2
       inches of uncovered ceramic hull.  The top set of sheets  and bottom
       set of sheets  are  separated by about 6 inches of uncovered ceramic
       hull around the horizontal rim of the hull.

                                      Page 1

            The outer hull protects these sheets from being short-circuited
       by wind blown  metal  foil  (Air Force radar confusing chaff), heavy
       rain or concentrations   of  gasoline   or   kerosene   fumes.    If
       unshielded, fuel fumes could be electrostatically attracted  to  the
       hull sheets, burn  and  form  carbon  deposits across the insulating
       gaps between the sheets, causing  a  short-circuit.   The space, the
       outer hull with  a  slight negative charge, would absorb  hits  from
       micro-meteorites and cosmic  rays  (protons moving at near the speed
       of light).  Any danger of this type  that  doesn't  already  have  a
       negative electric charge would get a negative charge  in hitting the
       outer hull, and  be repelled by the metal sheets before it could hit
       the inner hull.  This wouldn't work  well  on  a  very big meteor, I
       might add.

            The hull can be made in a variety of shapes; sphere,  football,
       disc, or streamlined  rectangle  or triangle, as long as these metal
       sheets, "are of  considerable  area   and   arranged   along   ideal
       enveloping surfaces of very large radii of curvature,"  p.  85.  "My
       Inventions" , by Nikola Tesla.

            The power  plant  for  this machine can be a nuclear fission or
       fusion reactor for long range and  long-term  use  to  run  a  steam
       engine which turns the generators.  A short range machine  can use a
       hydrogenoxygen fuel cell  to  run  a  low-voltage  motor to turn the
       generators, occasionally recharging by hovering next to high voltage
       power lines and using antennas mounted  on the outer hull to take in
       the electricity.  The short-range machine can also  have electricity
       beamed to it  from  a  generating  plan  on  a long-range aircraft /
       spacecraft or on the ground.

       (St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Nov. 24, 1987, Vol 109, No. 328,
       "The Forever Plane" by Geoffrey Rowan, p.D1, D7.)

       ("Popular Science", Vol 232, No. 1,  Jan. 1988, "Secret of Perpetual
       Flight?  Beam Power Plane," by Arthur Fisher, p. 62-65, 106)

            One standard for the generators is to have the  same  number of
       magnets as field  coils.   Tesla's  preferred design was a thin disc
       holding 480 magnets with 480 field coils wired in series surrounding
       it in close tolerance.  At 50 revolutions  per  minute,  it produces
       19,400 cycles per second.

            The electricity is fed into a number of large  capacitors,  one
       for each metal  sheet.  An automatic switch, adjustable in timing by
       the pilot, closes, and as the electricity  jumps  across the switch,
       back and forth,  it raises it's own frequency; a switch  being  used
       for each capacitor.

            The electricity  goes  into  a  Tesla  transformer;  again, one
       transformer for each capacitor.   In  an  oil  tank  to insulate the
       windings and for  cooling,  and  supported internally  by  wood,  or
       plastic, pipe and  fittings,  each  Tesla  transformer  looks like a
       short wider pipe that is moved along  a  longer, narrower pipe by an
       insulated non-electric cable handle.  The short pipe,  the  primary,
       is 6 to  10 windings (loops) of wire connected in series to the long
       pipe.  The secondary is 460 to 600  windings, at the low voltage and
       frequency end.

            The insulated non-electric cable handle is used through a set

                                      Page 2

       of automatic controls  to move the primary coil to various places on
       the secondary coil.  This is the frequency  control.   The secondary
       coil has a low frequency and voltage end and a maximum  voltage  and
       frequency end.  The  greater the frequency the electricity, the more
       it pushes against  the  earth's  electrostatic  and  electromagnetic

            The electricity  comes  out  of  the transformer  at  the  high
       voltage end and  goes  by  wire through the ceramic hull to the wide
       end of the metal sheet.  The electricity jumps out on and flows over
       the metal sheet,  giving off a very  strong  electromagnetic  field,
       controlled by the  transformer.   At  the narrow end  of  the  metal
       sheet, most of  the  high-voltage  push  having  been given off, the
       electricity goes back by wire through  the hull to a circuit breaker
       box (emergency shut off), then to the other side of the generators.

            In bright  sunlight,  the  aircraft  /  spacecraft   may   seem
       surrounded by hot  air,  a  slight magnetic distortion of the light.
       In semi-darkness and night, the metal  sheets glow, even through the
       thin ceramic outer hull, with different colors.  The  visible  light
       is a by-product  of  the  electricity flowing over the metal sheets,
       according to the frequencies used.

            Descending, landing or just starting  to  lift from the ground,
       the transformer primaries  are  near  the secondary  weak  ends  and
       therefore, the bottom  set of sheets glow a misty red.  Red may also
       appear at the front of the machine  when  it is moving forward fast,
       lessening resistance up  front.   Orange  appears  for  slow  speed.
       Orange-yellow are for  airplane-type speeds.  Green and blue are for
       higher speeds.  With a capacitor addition,  making  it oversized for
       the circuit, the blue becomes bright white, like a searchlight, with
       possible risk of  damaging the metal sheets involved.   The  highest
       visible frequency is violet, like Tesla's stage demonstrations, used
       for the highest  speed  along with the bright white.  The colors are
       nearly coherent, of a single frequency, like a laser.

            A machine built with a set of  super  conducting  magnets would
       simplify and reduce  electricity needs from a vehicle's  transformer
       circuits to the  point of flying along efficiently and hovering with
       little electricity.

            When Tesla was developing arc  lights  to  run  on  alternating
       current, there was  a  bothersome  high-pitched whine,  whistle,  or
       buzz, due to  the electrodes rapidly heating and cooling.  Tesla put
       this noise in  the ultrasonic range  with  the  special  transformer
       already mentioned.  The aircraft / spacecraft gives  off such noises
       when working at low frequencies.

            Timing is  important  in  the  operation  of this machine.  For
       every 3 metal sheets, when the middle one is briefly turned off, the
       sheet on either side is energized,  giving  off  the magnetic field.
       The next instant, the middle sheet is energized, while  the sheet on
       either side is  briefly  turned  off.   There is a time delay in the
       capacitors recharging themselves,  so  at  any time, half of all the
       metal sheets are  energized  and  the  other  half  are  recharging,
       alternating all around  the  inner hull.  This balances the machine,
       giving it very good stability.  This balance is less when fewer of
       the circuits are in use.

                                      Page 3

            Fairly close,  the  aircraft  /  spacecraft produces heating of
       persons and objects on the ground;  but  by hovering over an area at
       low altitude for maybe 5 or 10 minutes, the machine  also produces a
       column of very  cold  air  down to the ground.  As air molecules get
       into the strong magnetic fields that  the  machine  is  transmitting
       out, the air molecules become polarized and from lines,  or strings,
       of air molecules.   The  normal  movement of the air is stopped, and
       there is suddenly a lot more room for air molecules in this area, so
       more air pours in.  This expansion and the lack of normal air motion
       make the area intensely cold.

            This is also the reason that  the aircraft / spacecraft can fly
       at supersonic speeds without making sonic booms.  As  air flows over
       the hull, top  and  bottom,  the air molecules form lines as they go
       through the magnetic fields of the metal sheet circuits.  As the air
       molecules are left behind, they keep  their  line arrangements for a
       short time,long enough to cancel out the sonic boom shock waves.

            Outside the  earth's magnetic field, another propulsion  system
       must be used,  which  relies  on  the  first.   You may have read of
       particle accelerators, or cyclotrons,  or atom smashers.  A particle
       accelerator is a  circular  loop of pipe that, in cross-section,  is
       oval.  In a physics laboratory, most of the air in it is pumped out.
       The pipe loop  is  given a static electric charge, a small amount of
       hydrogen or other  gas is given the  same  electric  charge  so  the
       particles won't stick  to  the  pipe.   A set of electromagnets  all
       around the pipe  loop  turn on and off, one after the other, pushing
       with one magnetic pole and pulling  with  the  next, until those gas
       particles are racing  around the pipe loop at nearly  the  speed  of
       light.  Centrifugal force  makes  the  particles speed closer to the
       outside edge of the pipe loop, still within the pipe.  The particles
       break down into electrons, or light  and  other wavelengths, protons
       or cosmic rays, and neutrons if more than hydrogen  is  put  in  the

            At least 2 particle accelerators are used to balance each other
       and counter each   other's   tendency   to   make  the  craft  spin.
       Otherwise, the machine  would  tend   to  want  to  start  spinning,
       following the direction of the force being applied to the particles.
       The accelerators push in opposite directions.

            As the  pilot  and crew travel in space, outside  the  magnetic
       field of a  world,  water from a tank is electrically separated into
       oxygen and hydrogen.  Waste carbon  dioxide  that isn't used for the
       onboard garden, and  hydrogen  (helium  if the machine  is  using  a
       fusion reactor) is  slowly, constantly fed into the inside curves of
       both accelerators.

            The high speed particles go  out  through  straight  lengths of
       pipe, charged like the loops and in speeding out  into  space,  push
       the machine along.   Doors  control  which  pips the particles leave
       from.  This allows   very  long   range   acceleration   and   later
       deceleration at normal  (earth)  gravity.   This avoids  the  severe
       problems of weightlessness,  including lowered physical abilities of
       the crew.

            It is possible to use straight-line particle accelerators, even
       as few as one per machine, but these  don't  seem as able to get the
       best machine speed for the least amount of particles pushed out.

                                      Page 4

            Using a  constant  acceleration  of  32.2  feet  per second per
       second provides earth  normal gravity  in  deep  space  and  only  2
       gravities of stress in leaving the earth's gravity field.  It takes,
       not counting air resistance, 18 minutes, 58.9521636 seconds to reach
       the 25,000 miles per hour speed to leave the earth's  gravity field.
       It takes about 354 days, 12 hours, 53 minutes and 40 seconds (about)
       to reach the  speed  of  light  -  672,487,072.7 miles per hour.  It
       takes the same distance to decelerate  as  it  does to speed up, but
       this cuts down  the time delay that one would have  in  conventional
       chemical rocketry enormously, for a long journey.

            A set of superconducting magnets can be charged by metal sheet
       circuits, within limits,  to  whatever  frequency is needed and will
       continue to transmit   that   magnetic    field   frequency   almost

            A shortwave  radio  can  be used to find the exact  frequencies
       that an aircraft  /  spacecraft  is using, for each of the colors it
       may show whole a color television  can  show  the same overall color
       frequency that the nearby, but not extremely close,  craft  is using
       This is limited,  as  a  machine  traveling  at  the  speed of a jet
       airliner may broadcast in a frequency  range  usually used for radar

            The craft  circuits  override  lower frequency,  lower  voltage
       electric circuits within and near their electromagnetic fields.  One
       source briefly mentioned  a  1941  incident, where a shortwave radio
       was used to override automobile  ignition  systems,  up  to  3 miles
       away.  When the shortwave radio was turned off, the  cars could work
       again.  How many   UFO   encounters  have  been  reported  in  which
       automobile ignition systems have suddenly stopped?

            I figure that things would not  be  at all pleasant for drivers
       of modern cars with computer controlled engine and ignition systems.
       Computer circuitry is sensitive to small changes  in  voltage  and a
       temporary wrong-way voltage  surge may wipe the computer memory out.
       It could mean that a number of drivers  would  suddenly  be stranded
       with their cars not working should such a craft fly  low over a busy
       highway.  Only diesel   engines,  already  warmed  up,  and  Stanley
       Steamer type steam engine cares are  able  to  continue working in a
       strong electromagnetic field.   In May, 1988, it was  reported  that
       the U.S. Army had lost 5 Blackhawk helicopters and 22 crewmen in
       crashes caused by  ordinary commercial radio broadcasting overriding
       the computer control  circuits  of  those  helicopters.   Certainly,
       computer circuits for for this aircraft / spacecraft can and must be
       designed to overcome this weakness.

            One construction  arrangement  for  this craft  to  avoid  such
       interference is for  the  metal  sheet  circuits  to be more sharply
       tuned.  Quartz or other crystals  can  be  used  in capacitors; in a
       very large number of low-powered, single frequency  circuits,  or as
       part of a frequency control for the metal sheet circuits.