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Learning Unix

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Learning Unix
By PP
[email protected] me mail about this file and any additions that you can think of--

this file will tell you most of what you need to do to get on,  and navigate around a unix system...

GET THESE-
Better Telnet-a telnet app-shareware.com/boffomac on hotline
------------------
Blacknight-a terminal dialer...lets you dial into other systems-shareware.com
------------------
As many other Text Files as you can
------------------
READING LIST
------------------
unix
~~~~~~
Hacking Unix
Basic Unix
------------------
Hacking
~~~~~~
a few of the regualr newbie guides
2600faq
Hackers Handbook
LOD guide
ALL OF THE HACKADDICTS
A few of the phracks
------------------
CONTENTS
1-Connecting to the other system
2-Unix Commands
3-Unix default logins
4-getting the pw's
5-sending anonymous email
------------------

1-Connecting to the other system

-Through Telnet  (better telnet) or  A Terminal Dialer (Blacknight or Zterm)-

Connecting is simple-  go to the file menu and goto open connection...try some the domain name of   your isp's net address (ie Maclink.net is the maclink address)-  if it connects you (a window opens),  it will give you a login prompt if it's unix:

login:

type your login that you use to connect to your isp...then it will give you a password prompt:

password:

if it lets you on,  it will then give you a whole bunch of crap welcoming you,  then it will tell you you have mail,  and a prompt $:

you have mail
$

the $ is your commands prompt.  If that all happened as it should have,  you are now free to play on a unix system.  On your isp's system,  you are free to do what you like...this is where you learn...

___________
2-UNIX COMMANDS
___________
have fun with these...
I took most of them out of other files cuz i'm too  lazy to type my own
___________
      Command                           Description
      ~~~~~~~                           ~~~~~~~~~~~

        awk             Search for a pattern within a file. Includes
                        a built-in programming language.

       bdiff            Compares two large files.

        bfs             Scans a large file.

        cal             Displays a calendar.

        cat             Concatenates and prints files.

        cc              C  compiler.

        cd              Change directory.

      chgrp             Changes a file's group ownership.

      chmod             Changes a file's access permissions.

      chown             Changes the individual ownership of a file.

       cmp              Compares two files; diplays the location (line
                        and byte) of the 1st difference between these.

      comm              Compares two files so as to determine which
                        lines are common to both.

       cp               Copies a file to another location.

       cu               Calls another UNIX system.

      date              Returns the date and time.

       df               Displays free space in the file system.

      diff              Displays the differences between two files
                        or directories.

      diff3             Displays the differences between three files
                        or directories.

       du               Reports on file system usage.

      echo              Displays its argument.

       ed               Text editor.

       ex               Text editor.

      expr              Evaluates its argument which is generally
                        a mathematical formula.

       f77              FORTRAN compiler.

      find              Locates the files w/ specified characteristics.

      format            Initializes a floppy disk.

      grep              Searches for a pattern within a file. (see awk)

      help              Salvation.

      kill              Ends a process.

       ln               Used to link files.

       lpr              Copies the file to the line printer.

       ls               Displays info. about one or more files.

       mail             Used to receive or deliver e-mail.

      mkdir             Creates a new directory.

       more             Displays a long file so that the user
                        can scroll through it.

        mv              Used to move or rename files.

        nroff           Used to format text.

        ps              Display a process's status.

        pwd             Display the name of the working directory.

        rm              Removes one or more files.

        rmdir           Deletes one or more directories.

        sleep           Causes a process to become inactive for a
                        specified length of time.

        sort            Sort and merge one or more files.

        spell           Finds spelling errors in a file.

        split           Divides a file.

        stty            Display or set terminal parameters.

        tail            Displays the end of a file.

        troff           Outputs formatted output to a typesetter.

        tset            Sets the terminal type.

        umask           Allows the user to specify a new creation
                        mask. 

        uniq            Compares 2 files. Finds and displays lines
                        in one file that are unique.

        uucp            UNIX-to-UNIX execute.

         vi             Full screen editor.

         wc             Displays details in the file size.

        who             Info. on who else be online.

        write           Used to send a message to another user.
_______________________________________________________________________________
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

   awk program filenames
   awk -f programfilenames filenames
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   The [awk] utility can be used to find any lines in a file which 
   match a certain pattern; once found, these lines can be processed.
   In the first configuration, the program that [awk] is to
   execute is specified in the command line. In the second,
   the program is stored as the file given in programfilename.
   The -f option instructs [awk] to read this file.


   [bdiff] is used to compare files too large for [diff]. See
   [diff] for the format.


   bfs filename
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~
   [bfs] is used to scan a large file to determine where to split
   it into smaller files.


   cal 01-12 (month) 0-9999 (year)
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   [cal] utility can be used to display a calendar of any year
   from 0 to 9999 AD, and any or all of the twelve months.


   cat filename
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~
   [cat] can be used to examine a short file. See [more] for 
   lengthier files.


   number[cc]
   ~~~~~~~~~~
   The [cc] command changes the entire current line, or a group
   of lines starting with the current line. [number] represents
   the number of old lines to be deleted.


   cd directory name
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   The [cd] command causes the current working directory to be
   changed. The [directory name] can be either a full or partial
   path name.


   chgrp groupname filename
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   This command changes the group ownership of a file.


   chmod {ugoa} {+-} {rwx}
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   The [chmod] utility changes a file's access permissions. [u]
   specifies the user or owner's login name, [g] specifies a group
   and [o] indicates all others. [a] indicates the user, group,
   and all others; c'est the default. [+] adds permission; [-]
   deletes it. [r] indicates read, [w] write, and [x] execute.


   chown individualname filename
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   [chown] changes the individual ownership of a file (see chgrp).


   cmp filename1 filename2
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   [cmp] is one of the four principle UNIX file comparison utilities.
   It compares 2 files, and returns the positions where they differ.


   comm -options filename1 filename2
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   The [comm] utility, in comparing two files, produces three
   columns of output. The first contains lines unique to the
   first file, the second, lines unique to the second, and the
   third column, lines common to both files. By placing the
   numbers [1], [2], and/or [3] in the [options] position, any
   one (or more) of these columns can be suppressed.


   cp sendingfile receivingfile
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   The [cp] command copies a file. [sendingfile] is the file to be
   copied, [receivingfile] is the file to which it is copied.


   diff [options] filename1 filename2
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   Again, a file comparison utility. However, with [diff], the 
   differences are displayed as instructions that can be used
   to edit the files so that they are identical.


   diff3 filename1 filename2 filename3
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   Similar to [diff], [diff3] is unique in that it can compare
   three files. Gee.


   ed filename
   ~~~~~~~~~~~
   One of the UNIX's three editing utilities, [ed] is a basic line
   editor. I'm sure there are other files that will explain how
   to use [ed]. Thus, I'll confine myself to a rough outline:
   e filename ........... edit a different file
   f filename ........... changes the currently specified file.
   h .................... provides explanation of errors.
   I
   text ................. inserts text before the current line.
   line,linel ........... lists the specified lines.
   line,linen ........... displays specified lines, preceded by
                          their line numbers.
   q .................... exit from [ed]
   w .................... writes buffer to current filename.
   + or - ............... +number of lines closer to end
                          -number of lines closer to beginning.


   expr formula
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~
   Utility which evaluates an expression.


   find directory searchcriteria parameter actioncriteria parameter
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   The [find] utility can be very useful indeed, especially when
   confronted by a UNIX with countless files. Basically, this 
   command finds files which meet certain criteria, and then
   performs an operation (such as printing the files). Search
   criteria consists of the following:


   Criteria     Parameter       Description
   ~~~~~~~~     ~~~~~~~~~       ~~~~~~~~~~~
   -name       filename        Files whose names match [filename]
                               will meet this criteria.
   -type       filetype        Files whose type matches that specified
            [b] block special                      will meet criteria.
            [c] character spec. file
            [d] directory file
            [f] plain file
   -links      +/- x           Files with # of links indicated by
                               + or - x meet this criteria.
   -user       login name      Files belonging to user with given
            or user ID #       login name or ID # meet criteria.
   -group      group name      Files belonging to group with given
            or group ID #      group name or ID # meet this criteria.
   -size       + or - x        Files greater than +x bytes or less
                               than -x bytes meet this criteria.
   -atime      + or - x        Files not accessed within +x days,
                               accessed within -x days, or acc-
                               essed x days ago meet criteria.
   -mtime      + or - x        Files NOT modified within +x days,
                               modified within -x days, or modified
                               x days ago will meet this criteria.
   -newer      filename        Files modified more recently than
                               [filename] meet this criteria.
  Action Criteria   "                    "
  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~   ~                    ~
   -print           -          When search criteria are met, path
                               name of the file is displayed.
   -exec       command{ }\;    Executes given command when search
                               criteria are met. { } indicates file-
                               name, [\;] ends the command.
   -ok         command{ }\;    Exactly like -exec, except user is
                               prompted [y] or [n] before command.


   grep -options searchstring filenames
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   Another search command, this for a particular string of chars.


   ln original new
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   [ln] establishes a file link. For this utility, [original] repre-
   sents the filename to be linked, [new] the filename of the new
   link to the original.


   [ls] provides directory information.  [ls -l/] displays a more
   complete version of the info. list.


   mail username username
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   This utility allows e-mail to be sent to other system users. 

   mail
   ~~~~
   Simply typing [mail] checks the user's own mailbox.
   When sending mail, several items must be set:
   ~s text ............ sets the subject field
   ~c user names ...... sends other users carbon copies of mail
   m user names ....... activates the compose mode, with the
                        specified users as the message's recipients.
   ~h ................. displays and allows editing of all headers.
   ^D ................. ends message editing; sends mail.
   ~r filename ........ places file in body of message (keen command)

   Reading One's Own Mail:
   h number or range ....... causes specified headers to be displayed
   p message # ............. displays entire message
   d number or range ....... deletes specified messages
   u number or range ....... undelete specified mail during SAME
                             mail session (messages removed after q)
   q ....................... leave the post office


   mkdir directoryname
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   [mkdir] allows creation of a subdirectory, for your dining 
   enjoyment.


   more filename
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   For longer files, [more] is a convenient utility. It will display
   the first screen of file data and then stop, allowing the user 
   to control scrolling henceforth.


   mv oldfilename newfilename
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   The [mv] utility can be used simply to rename a file, or...


   mv filea fileb... directory
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   [mv] can also be used to move files to a new directory, provided
   the directory exists, and you have write access to it.


   ps -options
   ~~~~~~~~~~~
   The [ps] command, by itself, displays the status of each active
   process controlled by your terminal. This status report includes
   the Process Identification Number (PID), the terminal (TTY), the
   time the process has been executing (TIME), and the command line
   used to execute the process (CMD).
   [ps]'s three options include -a (displays info. on active processes
   controlled by any terminal), -x (info. on ALL active processes), and
   -l (an extensive status report on all active processes).


   pwd
   ~~~
   [pwd] command displays the present working directory.


   rm filename
   ~~~~~~~~~~~
   [rm] removes a file. More than one file can be specified.


   rmdir directoryname
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   This utility removes a directory, an EMPTY directory (save the
   hidden files). 


   sleep seconds
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   The [sleep] utility causes a process to become inactive for a
   certain period of time. Max. seconds is 65,536 (about 18 hrs).


   sort -options filenames
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   [sort] merges and sorts files. Without options, [sort] orders
   files by the ASCII codes of the characters at the beginning
   of each line. Options include -b (leading blanks ignored), -d
   (only letters, digs, and blanks considered; "dictionary sort"),
   -f (case ignored), -n (numerical sort [for numerical data]), and
   -r (a reverse sort).


   split -size original resulting
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   [split] divides a large file into smaller ones. [size] refers to
   the number of lines the resulting files contain, [original] is
   the name of the orig. file, and [resulting] represents the 
   prefix name assigned to the newly created files.


   umask ugo
   ~~~~~~~~~
   [umask] changes the file CREATION mask (see [chmod] for already
   existing files). Here, [u] represents the owner's access 
   permission, [g] the group's a.p., and [o] the a.p. for all others.


   [uucp] (UNIX to UNIX copy) can be used to send files to a 
   remote UNIX, or retrieve files from the remote system.
   Other UNIX comm commands include [cu] (which establishes contact
   with another system), and [uux] (UNIX to UNIX execute; allows
   commands to be executed on a remote system).


   wc -options filenames
   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   The [wc] utility displays file-size information. This includes
   the number of lines, words, and characters. By chosing the 
   -l, -w, or -c options, the information can be limited to only
   line, word, or character number.


   who
   ~~~
   A very useful command (which some systems respond to even before 
   a user is actually logged on), [who] displays a list of users
   currently online. This list includes the user's name, terminal
   device # (tty), and the log-in time.  [who am i] displays info.
   only on the user who executed the command.    
_____________________________________________
    Common default logins
   --------------------------

   login;       Password:

   root         root,system,etc..
   sys          sys,system
   daemon       daemon
   uucp         uucp
   tty          tty
   test         test
   unix         unix
   bin          bin
   adm          adm
   who          who
   learn        learn
   uuhost       uuhost
   nuucp        nuucp
	guest					unpassworded

------------------
getting the pw's
------------------

One of the first things done on the system is print up or capture (in a
buffer) the file containing all user names and accounts.  This can be done by
doing the following command:



cat /etc/passwd



  If you are successful you will a list of all accounts on the system.  It
should look like this:

root:hvnsdcf:0:0:root dir:/:
joe:majdnfd:1:1:Joe Cool:/bin:/bin/joe
hal::1:2:Hal Smith:/bin:/bin/hal

  The "root" line tells the following info :

login name=root
hvnsdcf   = encrypted password
0         = user group number
0         = user number
root dir  = name of user
/         = root directory

  In the Joe login, the last part "/bin/joe " tells us which directory is his
home directory (joe) is.

  In the "hal" example the login name is followed by 2 colons, that means that
there is no password needed to get in using his name.

---------------
A way to send anonymous email
---------------
get to the normal unix shell...type telnet.  that should bring this up:

telnet>

type "connect localhost 25"...it should bring up a whole bunch of garbage,  then type "mail"...more garbage...type "send to:[email protected] (whoever you want to send to)" type "rcpt to:[email protected] (whoever you want to be)"...type the message,  and end it with a "." on a new line....

it will fool the average user,  but will cause suspition with sysops,  etc...

-this has been a production of PP enterprises ©1998