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PC/MS-DOS - The Essentials

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                                     PC/MS-DOS
            
                                   THE ESSENTIALS
            
            
                              A Brief Guide for Users
            
                                         by
            
                                  George Campbell
                                 Computer Services
                                   (805) 528-1759


                                       Page 2

                                          
                                    INTRODUCTION
            
            
            In order for you to use your computer effectively, there are
            a few basic commands from PC/MS-DOS you need to learn. In
            addition, you need to understand your computer's disk drives
            and the proper care and handling of floppy disks.
            
            This brief manual, designed for new computer users, will
            help you get the most from your computer.  It is organized
            according to the most frequently used commands.  An index at
            the back of the manual will help you find the sections you
            need.
            
            For each command, I have provided an explanation of the
            command, plus information on how to use the command in
            several situations.  The examples should help you perform
            the operations you will use every day.
            
            There are a few conventions used in this manual which you
            need to know:
            
            1. When you see a word surrounded by <>, that means to press
            the key marked with that word.  For example, if you see
            this:  <Enter>,  press the Enter (<__|) key.
            
            2. In some cases, spaces are important to a command. In
            those cases, you will see this: (sp).  When following an
            example, press the spacebar when you see (sp).
            
            3. Otherwise, type the command as it is written in the
            example.

                                       Page 3


                            DISK DRIVES AND FLOPPY DISKS
            
            There a two basic types of disk drives you are likely to
            encounter:
            
            1. Floppy disk drives.
            2. Hard disk drives.
            
            Your computer will have at least one floppy disk drive.  It
            may well have two.  These drives have names.  The left or
            top drive is usually called Drive A:.   The right or lower
            disk drive (on two-drive systems) is usually called Drive
            B:.
            
            Depending on your system, you may also have one or more hard
            disk drives.  If you have one hard disk, it will probably be
            named Drive C:
            
            All DOS commands refer to these drive names.  In order for a
            command to act on a drive, you must specify the correct
            drive name.  For example, the command  Format b:  acts on
            Drive B:.  If you supply the wrong drive name, you may
            destroy data on a drive.
            
            IMPORTANT: If you give a command without specifying a drive
            name, the computer assumes you are referring to the drive
            name specified at the system prompt.  That prompt looks like
            this:
            A>
            Any command you give while this prompt is on the screen will
            act on Drive A:.  This can lead to problems.  If you enter
            the command FORMAT while you are using Drive C:, you may
            destroy all the files on Drive C:.  Get into the habit of
            ALWAYS specifying the drive name when entering a command.
            
            
            NOTE: All DOS commands must be given while the system prompt
            (A> or C>) are on the screen. If you make an error when
            entering a command, use the backspace key to delete
            characters, not the left arrow key on the number pad.
            
            
            
            FLOPPY DISKS
            
            Floppy disks are the most common method of storing programs
            and data for your computer.  There are three basic types:
            
            1. 5 1/4" double-sided/double-density floppy disks.
            2. 5 1/4" double-sided/high-density floppy disks.
            3. 3 1/2" floppy disks.
            

                                       Page 4


            The typical computer uses the first type.  It can store 360
            Kbytes of data, or about 150 pages of double-spaced type.
            Most often, these disks are marked DS/DD 48tpi.
            
            The second type, used only on IBM PC/AT or compatible
            computers, can store 4 times as much data.  They are marked
            DS/HD 96tpi.
            
            The third type of floppy disk is used primarily on portable
            computers.  It can store 720 Kbytes of data, twice as much
            as the first type of disk.
            
            If you have an AT-type computer, its disk drives can read
            data written on the first type of disk.  However, disks
            written on the High-density drives cannot be read by other
            PC-compatible computers.
            
            Many times, AT-type computers use a 360 Kbyte disk drive as
            drive B:.  If this is the case, record all files to be read
            on other computers on drive B:.
            
            INSERTING A FLOPPY DISK
            
            Hold the disk with its label up, then insert it into the
            disk drive.  When it is fully inserted, close the drive door
            with the lever, or push the drive button.
            
            Some computers have their drives in a vertical position.
            When inserting a disk into this type of drive, the label
            should face left.
            
            CARE FOR FLOPPY DISKS
            
            Floppy disks are a very reliable storage device, but they
            require some care.  Here a some simple rules:
            
            1. Never touch the disk surface in the exposed windows.
            2. Store disks in cool, dry places.  Disk storage boxes are
            ideal.
            3. Keep floppy disks away from magnetic fields, such as
            motors, telephones, and other electrical devices.
            4. Handle disks with care.  Avoid bending them.
            5. When writing on disk labels, use a felt-tip pen when the
            labels are attached to the disk.  Avoid excess pen pressure.
            6. Keep floppy disks in their protective sleeves whenever
            they are not in the disk drive.
            7. Store backup copies of important disks away from your
            work space.  If problems occur, your programs and data will
            be in another location, and can be retrieved.
            8. Avoid spilling anything on a floppy disk.  Keep coffee
            and other beverages away from your computer and work areas.
            9. Never remove a disk from its drive while the drive light
            is on.  This can cause you to lose all data on the disk.


                                       Page 5


            10. Avoid subjecting floppy disks to static electricity.
            Ground yourself by touching a grounded object if you have
            been walking on carpets or if there is static in the air.


                                       Page 6


            
            HARD DISK DRIVES
            
            Hard disk drives, on the other hand, are more permanent.
            You do not remove the disk; it remains in the drive at all
            times.
            
            A typical hard disk drive holds from 10 to 40 megabytes of
            data. This allows you to store the equivalent of up to 100
            floppy disks or more on a single hard disk drive.
            
            Hard disk drives are typically named C: or D:.  Your
            computer probably starts up with from the hard disk drive if
            no disks are in drive A: or drive B:
            
            Hard disks pretty much take care of themselves, with one
            exception.  If your hard disk does not have an automatic
            head parking feature (see the owner's manual), you should
            use the program supplied with the drive to park the head
            whenever you turn off your computer.  The owner's manual
            which came with your drive will provide this information,
            along with the name of the parking program.


                                       Page 7


            
                                FILES AND FILENAMES
            
            
            Every program on your computer, and your data, is stored in
            files on your disk drives.  There are a few things you need
            to know about files.
            
            Each file must have its own, unique filename.  You may
            already be familiar with the structure of filenames, but
            here is a rundown.
            
            Each filename is made up of two parts: 1. File Name  2.
            Extension.  Let's look at a typical file:
            
                                    COMMAND.COM
                                      /      \
                             File Name        Extension
            
            The File Name may be up to 8 characters long, and may
            contain letters and numbers.  It is separated from the
            Extension by a period or decimal point.
            
            The Extension, which can be up to 3 characters, can also be
            made up of both letters and numbers.
            
            Combined, the two parts of the filename can help you
            identify a particular file.  Choose a filename for each file
            carefully, to help you find that file later.
            
            Certain extensions are reserved by DOS for specific types of
            files.  .COM, .EXE, .BAS, and .BAT are reserved extensions,
            and should not be used for ordinary files.
            
            Certain punctuation characters can be used in filenames,
            while others cannot.  For simplicity's sake, avoid the use
            of punctuation characters in your filenames.
            
                                    DOS COMMANDS
            
            Before going on to discuss individual DOS commands, here are
            a few facts about command structure:
            
            There are two basic types of DOS commands:
            
            1. Internal commands.
            
            These commands, like COPY, DEL, and TYPE, are stored in your
            computer's memory and can be used anytime you see the system
            prompt.  Many of the most-used commands fall into this
            category.

                                       Page 8


            
            2. External commands.
            
            This group of commands are stored on your disk.  To use
            them, either insert the DOS floppy disk, or change to the
            directory on your hard disk which contains DOS external
            commands.  See the directory section of this manual for more
            details. Examples of external commands include FORMAT,
            DISKCOPY, and CHKDSK.
            
            The section of this manual devoted to each command will tell
            you whether the command is internal or external.
            
            Some commands can take several forms.  These separate forms
            are used by including various parameters with the command.
            Parameters, which will be discussed with each command, are
            indicate by a / mark.  Here is an example of a command with
            an attached parameter:
            
                                       DIR/W
            
            All DOS commands must be activated by pressing the <Enter>
            key after typing the command.
            
            NOTE: You can type all DOS commands in either upper or lower
            case letters.
            
            The rest of this manual will present DOS commands in
            alphabetical order.  Only the most common commands are
            included.  For information on other commands, see your DOS
            manual.

                                       Page 9


                                       CHDIR
            
            CHDIR is an internal command.
            
            If your computer has a hard disk drive, some of the programs
            and data on that drive may be stored in sub-directories.  If
            so, they will be marked as subdirectories.  To check this,
            type DIR at the C> or D> prompt. Sub-directories will be
            shown like a filename, but with <DIR> in the place of an
            extension.
            
            The CHDIR command allows you to change to any of the sub-
            directories.  You need to do this to use the programs in any
            sub-directory.
            
            EXAMPLE:
            
            To change to a sub-directory called WP, type the command as
            shown below:
            
            CHDIR(sp)\WP<Enter>
            
            The command can be abbreviated to CD:
            CD(sp)\WP<Enter>
            
            After executing this command, you will be in the WP
            directory.  To go back to the main directory, type the
            following command:
            
            CHDIR(sp)..<Enter> or CHDIR\<Enter>
                  -or-
            CD(sp)..<Enter> or CD\<Enter>
            
            Commands given while in a sub-directory act on that
            directory only.
            
            
                                       CHKDSK
                                          
            CHKDSK is an external command.
            
            The CHKDSK command allows you to check any disk on your
            computer.  It looks for bad sectors on the disk and also
            tells you how much memory is available on your computer.
            
            Use this command from time to time to check important floppy
            disks and to check your hard disk drive for problems.  If
            you begin to see bad sectors on your hard disk drive, and
            the number of bad sectors starts to increase, the hard disk
            drive may be developing problems.  Remember: most hard disk
            drives have some bad sectors, so watch for increases.


                                       Page 10


            
            Example:
            
            To check the disk in drive A:, use the following command:
            
            CHKDSK(sp)A:<Enter>
            
            To check your hard disk:
            
            CHKDSK(sp)C:<Enter>
            
            You can substitute any drive name.
            
            NOTE: Since this is an external command, you must insert
            your DOS disk in drive A: or CHDIR to the directory which
            contains DOS external commands on your hard disk.
            
            
                                        CLS
            
            
            CLS is an internal command.
            
            The CLS command clears your computer's screen and moves the
            system prompt to the top of the screen.
            
            Example:
            
            To clear the screen, type the following command:
            
            CLS<Enter>
            
            
                                        COPY
            
            COPY is an internal command.
            
            The principal use of the COPY command is to copy files from
            one disk or directory to another.  It's use is very simple.
            
            Example:
            
            To copy the file LETTER.DOC from drive A: to drive B:, enter
            the following command:
            
            COPY(sp)A:LETTER.DOC(sp)B:<Enter>
            
            To copy LETTER.DOC to Drive B: and change its name on drive
            B: to LETTER1.DOC, type the following:
            
            COPY(sp)A:LETTER.DOC(sp)B:LETTER1.DOC<Enter>

                                       Page 11


            
            To copy LETTER.DOC from the WP sub-directory on drive C: to
            drive B:, use this format:
            
            COPY(sp)C:\WP\LETTER.DOC(sp)B:<Enter>
            
            Wildcards
            
            DOS also allows you to copy more than one file at once.  Two
            symbols, called wildcards, allow you to specify groups of
            files.  Here are the wildcards:
            
            * indicates any group of characters.
            ? indicates a single character.
            
            Examples:
            
            To copy all the files with the extension .DOC from drive A:
            to drive B:, use this command:
            
            COPY(sp)A:*.DOC(sp)B:<Enter>
            
            To copy ALL files from drive A: to drive B:
            
            COPY(sp)A:*.*(sp)B:<Enter>
            
            NOTE: Wildcards will not copy files within subdirectories,
            unless you are in that subdirectory or have a path statement
            including the subdirectory.
            
            To copy LETTER1.DOC, LETTER2.DOC, etc. from drive A: to
            drive B:
            
            COPY(sp)A:LETTER?.DOC(sp)B:<Enter>
            
            NOTE: If you are copying to a blank diskette, you must
            FORMAT the diskette first.(See the FORMAT command)
            
            The COPY command, along with most other DOS commands can be
            used with PATH statements to copy files into subdirectories.
            See the section on the PATH command for more information.
            
            
                                    DEL or ERASE
            
            DEL and ERASE are internal commands.
            
            These commands are identical, and can be used
            interchangeably. The delete files from a disk, so use them
            carefully.
            
            Examples:
            
            To delete LETTER.DOC from drive B:


                                       Page 12


            
            DEL(sp)B:LETTER.DOC<Enter>
            
            Similarly, to delete LETTER.DOC from the directory WP on
            drive C:
            
            DEL(sp)C:\WP\LETTER.DOC<Enter>
            
            You can use wildcard characters with DEL and ERASE, in the
            same way you did with the COPY command.
            
            Example:
            
            To delete all files with the extension .DOC from drive B:
            
            DEL(sp)B:*.DOC<Enter>
            
            To delete ALL files from drive B:
            
            DEL(sp)B:*.*<Enter>
            
            Any time you use the *.* wildcard to delete files, the
            computer will ask you:
            
            Are you sure Y/N?
            
            Check what you are doing, then, if you are sure you want to
            delete all files from that disk, type Y, then press the
            Enter key.
            
            As with the COPY command, path information can be added to
            the drive specification, if needed.
            
            CAUTION: Use extreme care when using wildcards with the DEL
            or ERASE command.  Pay special attention to the drive name
            you have designated.  It is possible to inadvertently delete
            all files on your hard disk with a single keystroke.  BE
            CAREFUL!
            
            
                                        DIR
            
            DIR is an internal command.
            
            The DIR command allows you to see a list of the files stored
            on any disk.  Along with the filenames, it also provides
            other information about the files.
            
            Examples:
            
            To see a list of files on drive A:
            
            DIR(sp)A:<Enter>
            
                                       Page 13


            You will see a list of files, along with the size of each
            file in bytes, and the date and time that data was last
            entered in that file.  In addition, the amount of space left
            on the disk will be displayed.
            
            Sometimes, a disk will have more files than can be displayed
            on the screen.  Using the DIR command will cause the files
            to scroll off the top of the screen faster than you can read
            them.  To avoid this, add the parameter /P.  Here is an
            example:
            
            DIR(sp)B:/P<Enter>
            
            DOS will fill the screen with file information, then print
            at the bottom of the screen:
            
            Press a key to continue:
            
            After you press ANY key, another screenfull of data will be
            displayed.  This continues until the entire directory has
            been presented.
            
            There is another option with DIR. To see a list of files on
            disk A:, arranged in multiple columns, but without file size
            and other information:
            
            DIR(sp)A:/W<Enter>
            
            
            NOTE: Use the DIR command frequently to check on the files
            on your disks and to keep track of the amount of disk space
            available.
            
            
                                      DISKCOPY
            
            DISKCOPY is an external command.
            
            Use DISKCOPY to make exact duplicates of floppy disks.  You
            can only use this command on floppy disk drives, typically
            drive A: and drive B:
            
            To copy a disk on a single drive computer:
            
            DISKCOPY<Enter>
            
            The computer will ask you to:
            
            Place the SOURCE diskette in Drive A: then press Enter.
            
            After pressing the Enter key, the computer will read all the
            data on the disk, then ask you to:
            
            Place the TARGET diskette in Drive A: and press Enter:

                                       Page 14


            
            Remove the original disk, and replace it with a blank disk.
            After you press Enter, the data will be copied onto the
            blank disk.
            
            On a computer with two floppy disk drives:
            
            DISKCOPY(sp)A:(sp)B:<Enter>
            
            You will see the following:
            
            Place SOURCE diskette in Drive A:
            Place TARGET diskette in Drive B:
            Strike a key when ready:
            
            Place the original disk in drive A: and the blank disk in
            drive B:.  Press a key, and the computer will make a copy
            for you.
            
            When the process is complete, you will see:
            
            Make another copy? Y/N?
            
            Enter a Y to start the process again, or N to return to the
            system prompt.
            
            Note:  If the new disk is not formatted, DISKCOPY will
            automatically format it before copying.
            
            CAUTION: Make sure the second disk does not contain data,
            since the DISKCOPY command will destroy any data on the
            disk.
            
            You cannot use the DISKCOPY command with drives other than
            A: or B:.
            
            
                                       FORMAT
                                          
            FORMAT is an external command.
            
            Before you can write data onto a floppy disk, it must be
            formatted to hold the data.  DOS has a command which does
            this automatically.
            
            To format a disk in Drive A:
            
            FORMAT(sp)A:<Enter>
            
            You will see on the screen:
            
            Insert a new diskette for Drive A:
            Press ENTER when ready.
            

                                       Page 15


            Place an unformatted disk in Drive A: and press the Enter
            key.  DOS will format the disk and make it ready to accept
            data.  When the process is complete, you will see:
            
            Format Complete: Format another? Y/N?
            
            If you want to format more diskettes, press Y, and the
            process will repeat. If not, press N and you will return to
            the system prompt.
            
            CAUTION: Like DISKCOPY, FORMAT destroys all data on the
            disk.  Use caution when formatting disks.
            
            WARNING!!!!  In some versions of DOS, FORMAT can act on
            Drive C: or other hard disk drives.  If it does, all data on
            your hard disk will be destroyed.  Because of this, ALWAYS
            indicate the drive to be formatted.  Check your typing
            carefully when using this command.
            
            
                                       MKDIR
            
            
            MKDIR is an internal command
            
            The MKDIR command allows you to create new sub-directories.
            
            Examples:
            
            To create a new subdirectory, called CHAPTER1 on drive C:
            
            MKDIR(sp)C:\CHAPTER1<Enter>
            
            To create a subdirectory within a subdirectory, for example
            to create the subdirectory CHAPTER1 in the directory NOVEL
            on drive C:
            
            MKDIR(sp)C:\NOVEL\CHAPTER1<Enter>
            
            If you are already in the directory in which you want to
            place a subdirectory, you do not need the \ character.  For
            example, If you had used the CHDIR or CD command to move to
            the NOVEL subdirectory, create the CHAPTER1 subdirectory
            like this:
            
            MKDIR(sp)CHAPTER1<Enter>
            
            Note: You can abbreviate the MKDIR command to MD.
            
            Example:
            
            MD(sp)CHAPTER1<Enter>
            

                                       Page 16


            CAUTION: Be certain you know which directory you are in
            before using the simplified form of this command.  Otherwise
            you may create a subdirectory in an unwanted place.  To
            avoid confusion, use the full format, including drive name,
            as in the first and second examples.
            
            
                                        PATH
            
            PATH is an internal command.
            
            If your computer has a hard disk drive, many of the programs
            you use, along with data files, will be stored in
            subdirectories.  Normally, you have to change directories
            with the CHDIR (CD) command to get access to files.
            
            DOS provides another method with the PATH command.  This
            command allows you to tell DOS where to look for your files.
            You can instruct the computer to look in several places for
            any file you name in another command, or from a program.
            
            Examples:
            
            To tell DOS to look for your wordprocessing programs and
            files for the NOVEL subdirectory, as used as an example in
            other parts of this manual:
            
            PATH(sp)\WP\NOVEL<Enter>
            
            Using this format, DOS will automatically search the \WP
            directory and the \NOVEL subdirectory for files when you
            give a command from any other directory.
            
            Now, suppose you have a number of programs you use
            frequently.  They are in different subdirectories with the
            following names: \DB   \WP   \123   \MAIL   &  \SALES.
            
            In addition, there are further subdirectories, such as
            \NOVEL in the \WP directory and \BUSINESS and \PERSONAL in
            the \MAIL directory.
            
            The following command will allow you access to all the
            programs listed above:
            
            PATH(sp)\DB;\WP\NOVEL;\123;\MAIL\BUSINESS\PERSONAL;\SALES<Enter>
            
            Notice that the main directories are separated with semi-
            colons, while subdirectories of these directories are
            specified with the backslash (\) character.
            
            NOTE: If a path you specify does not exist, DOS will give
            the following message:
            
            No Path

                                       Page 17


            
            If DOS cannot find the file you specify in any of the
            subdirectories, this message will appear:
            
            Bad command or filename
            
            In either case, check your path command to make certain it
            is correct.  If you type PATH<Enter> without any other
            information, DOS will display your current path designation.
            
            NOTE: Along with the directory names, you can also include
            drive names in a PATH command.  Use this feature to make DOS
            look on your floppy drives for files.
            
            
                                        REN
            
            
            REN is an internal command.
            
            Use the REN command to change the name of a file.
            
            Example:
            
            To change the file LETTER.DOC to LETTER2.DOC:
            
            REN(sp)LETTER.DOC(sp)LETTER2.DOC<Enter>
            
            
                                       RMDIR
            
            
            RMDIR is an internal command.
            
            RMDIR, or its abbreviated form RD, removes a subdirectory
            from a disk.  Before removing the directory, however, all
            files in that directory must be deleted with the DEL or
            ERASE commands.
            
            Example:
            
            To remove the \WP directory from your hard disk:
            
            Enter the following series of commands.
            
            CD(sp)\WP<Enter>
            
            DEL(sp)*.*<Enter>
            
            CD(sp)..<Enter>
            
            RMDIR(sp)\WP<Enter>
            

                                       Page 18


            CAUTION: Be certain that you really want to delete all the
            files in that directory.  If there are files you wish to
            save, COPY them to another directory, or to a floppy disk
            before deleting them.
            
            
                                        TYPE
            
            
            TYPE is an internal command.
            
            Use the TYPE command to view the contents of a file on your
            monitor.  This command is useful only on ASCII files,
            meaning files which contain only text.  This excludes all
            program files, as well as most files created by your word
            processing program.
            
            Example:
            
            To see the file AUTOEXEC.BAT on drive A:
            
            TYPE(sp)A:AUTOEXEC.BAT<Enter>
            
            You can also specify a path for this command.  To see the
            file LETTER.DOC in the \WP directory on drive C:
            
            TYPE(sp)C:\WP\LETTER.DOC<Enter>
            
            NOTE:This command will scroll the file on the screen, too
            fast for you to read.  Special utility programs are
            available which will let you see the file one screen at a
            time.  Most of these files are Public Domain programs and
            are available without charge from Public Domain software
            suppliers.

                                       Page 19


                                   ERROR MESSAGES
            
            
            When you make a mistake when entering a command, or if
            another type of problem occurs, DOS will place an error
            message on the screen.  The following are the most common
            messages you will see.  Suggestions for correcting the error
            are provided following the message.
            
            
            Bad command or file name
            
            DOS cannot find the file or command you entered.  Check your
            typing and the PATH you have specified for errors.
            
            
            Disk Drive Error: Abort, Ignore, Retry?
            
            DOS has detected an error on a disk drive.  Most often, this
            message appears when you have forgotten to insert a floppy
            disk into the drive, or have failed to close the door.
            Correct the problem, then press R for retry.  Pressing A
            returns you to the system prompt.
            
            If this message should appear when you are trying to access
            your hard disk drive...STOP.  Get help from someone who
            knows the system well.
            
            
            File cannot be copied onto itself
            
            You have tried to copy a file to the same filename on the
            same drive.  Check your command.
            
            
            File not found
            
            DOS can't find the file you specified.  Check your typing
            and make sure you have given the correct path.
            
            
            Format failure
            
            An error has occured when using the FORMAT command.  DOS
            will provide an explanation with this error message.  Take
            the appropriate corrective measures.
            
            
            Insufficient disk space
            
            The disk you are working with does not have enough space to
            hold the data.  Replace with a new, formatted disk and
            repeat the operation.
            
                                       Page 20

            
            Insufficient memory
            
            Your computer does not have enough memory for the operation
            you have named.  Consider expanding your system's memory
            size.  Memory expansion is relatively inexpensive.
            
            
            Invalid Disk Drive
            
            The drive name you specified does not exist on your
            computer. Check your typing.
            
            
            Invalid number of parameters
            
            You have mis-typed the command or specified information not
            acceptable to DOS.  Check the command for errors.
            
            
            There are many other error messages you may see on your
            screen.  For information on these errors, consult your DOS
            manual.

                                       Page 21

            
                             WHEN YOUR COMPUTER CRASHES
                                          
            No matter how careful you are, there will be times when your
            computer gets confused.  Usually, when this happens, the
            keyboard will lock up and nothing you type will have any
            effect.  Other problems sometimes occur, including a drive
            that won't stop running.
            
            When using commercial software, these problems are
            infrequent, but do happen from time to time.  Most often,
            you will lock your system up when experimenting with public
            domain software, which is less bug-free than most commercial
            programs.
            
            There are four ways to get out of a locked system.  Try
            these in the order shown below.
            
            1. Hold down the <Ctrl> key while you press the <Scroll
            Lock/Break> key.  This will often get you out of the program
            and return you to the system prompt.  If it does, you're
            back in business.
            
            2. Press the <Ctrl>, <Alt>, and <Del> keys at the same time.
            Hold each key down as you press the others. This is called a
            "warm boot."  It usually does the trick, but wipes out
            whatever information is stored in your computer's memory.
            
            3. Press the <Reset> switch, if your computer has one. This
            will reboot the computer, wiping out all data in current
            memory.
            
            4. Finally, if none of the other methods work, turn off the
            computer, wait a few seconds, then turn it back on.  As
            before, data stored in memory will be lost.  This last
            method is absolutely guaranteed, however, to restart your
            system.


                                          
                                       INDEX
                                          
                 SUBJECT                                       PAGE
                                          
                 ASCII...........................................17
                 CARE FOR FLOPPY DISKS............................4
                 CHDIR............................................8
                 CHKDSK..........................................8
                 CLS..............................................9
                 COPY.............................................9
                 DEL or ERASE....................................10
                 DIR.............................................11
                 DISK DRIVES AND FLOPPY DISKS.....................3
                 DISKCOPY........................................13
                 DOS COMMANDS.....................................6
                 ERROR MESSAGES..................................19
                 EXTERNAL COMMANDS................................7
                 FILES AND FILENAMES..............................6
                 FLOPPY DISKS.....................................3
                 FORMAT..........................................13
                 HARD DISK DRIVES.................................5
                 INSERTING A FLOPPY DISK..........................4
                 INTERNAL COMMANDS................................6
                 INTRODUCTION.....................................2
                 MKDIR...........................................14
                 PATH............................................15
                 REN.............................................16
                 RMDIR...........................................16
                 TYPE............................................17
                 WHEN YOUR SYSTEM CRASHES........................20
                 WILDCARDS.......................................10