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PC SECURITY (AND HOW TO GET BY IT)

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DISCLAIMER: The author of  this  text  disclaims  all  liability
whatsoever  regarding  the use and/or misuse of  the  techniques
outlined  here  or any damages incurred directly  or  indirectly
thereof.


Table of Contents
 ***********************
 X. Introduction 
 1. Hardware and Firmware
    a. The BIOS
        Passwords
        Resetting the CMOS
    b. Floppy Locks
        Picking Them
        Buying them
    c. Last Resorts
        Hard Disk Extraction
 2. DOS, Windows, and Netware
    a. Getting access to DOS
        Boot from a floppy disk
        Bypass startup files
        Bypass DriveSpace
        Break out of Autoexec.bat
     b. Getting to DOS from Windows
         Password Protection
         Windows Login
         Third-Party Passwords
         Screensavers
         Windows-Based Security
         DOS Through OLE
         DOS Using Write
         DOS Using Word
         DOS through MODE
         DOS through Windows Login
     c. Getting Past Netware
         Common Account Names
         Resetting Netware
3. Building a SECURE system
    a. Understanding the Issues
        Potential "Hackers"
        Physical Security
        Software Security
        Passwords

**********************************************************-

X. Introduction
                                                                  
This TXT describes how to break-in to a PC
from the outside in, and how to bypass some common software-based
security measures. The last section details how to secure your
PC against most of such attacks.

Thanks:
TdK would like to thank...
DemoCow: for being the stupidest person I have ever known
Eternal: for getting me into this shit
RaT: letting me into §X

Special Thanks to those really cool Netware Hackers! [Part 2c
is based on parts of the Netware Hacking FAQ]
                                                            
Why did I write this? Because their are to many dumbshits that
claim they know shit and don't. So sit down read this, print it out.
Worship this document, hehe. THEN you can say you know some shit

Many of these solutions assume you have physical access to the
PC. For example, you can't extract the hard disk or reset the
CMOS over a network, but you can do it if you have access to the
computer.

This TXT was NOT written to help computer thieves, but rather to
increase awareness of backdoors and inefficiencies in security
programs. Another thing is 'the doofus factor': If you should
accidentally lock yourself out of your computer, you might find
this TXT to be a great help. I do *not* condone screwing up other
people's computers.


If you have any questions or comments, feel free to contact me.

        Have Phun,

        The dark Knight, [email protected]
        
*******************************************-

1. Hardware and Firmware

1a. The BIOS

Passwords
*******************
The BIOS, short for Basic Input/Output System, is the control
program of the PC. It is responsible for starting up your computer,
transferring control of the system to the operating system, and
for handling other low-level functions, such as disk access.

NOTE that the BIOS is not a software program, insofar as it is
not purged from memory when you turn off the computer. It's
firmware, meaning it is permanently and unchangeably stored in
the machine. FLASH BIOS Systems, such as those from Phoenix and
AMI, allow you update the BIOS through software, but that's
another TXT.

A convenient little feature that most BIOS manufacturers include
is a startup password. This prevents access to the system until
you enter the correct password.

If you can get access to the system after the password has been
entered, then there are software-based BIOS password extractors.

 
Resetting the CMOS
*************************
There is only one other way to get past the BIOS password.
It involves discharging the static memory (CMOS) used to store the
password and other system information. Once it is discharged,
however, you have to reset all the system settings by hand.

****Follow these steps:

         1. Start up the computer
                a. If the system allows it, enter the Setup Screen
                        (Usually by pressing F1, DEL or INS during
                        the memory check)
                b. Record all the Setup Information. Double Check.
         2. Turn off the computer
         3. Remove the casing, and put the computer on the ground in
                such a way that you can see and access the side of
                the motherboard with the processor on it.
         4. Look at the motherboard            
                a. If you can see a round, disc-like battery, then
                        remove it, and let the computer sit without
                        the battery for 15-30 minutes. Put the battery
                        back in.
                b. If you have access to the circuit diagrams for the
                        motherboard, look in there for the password or
                        CMOS jumper. Flip it on and off.
                c. Look for a blue, soldered-in battery with a jumper
                        running off of it. This jumper is for connecting
                        an external battery. Pull it out for 15-30 min.
                        to reset the CMOS.
         5. Replace the computer casing.
         6. Enter the Setup Screen, and set the Setup Information
                back to the original values that you (hopefully)
                recorded.

If you were unable to record the setup info, then you'll just have
to set it up manually. Some newer Plug & Play BIOSes have an
autodetect feature that automatically sets-up the hard disk and
other items.                                          
 
Again, I would like to mention that there are numerous password
extractors available for free off the internet and on BBSes. Try
those first: they are much cleaner and easier-to-use.

**********************************-

1b. Floppy Locks

Floppy Locks are generally cheap plastic inserts that hook on
to the inside of the drive and lock it, thereby preventing you from
using the floppy drive. The locks used are usually those little
swivel locks used in computer casings to lock the keyboard.

There ARE some very secure locks, with *unique* keys. Such locks
are not sold at your local computer store, and must be obtained
directly from a factory in Nice, France (didn't get the name,
though.). There is a distributor in Canada by the name of "Kappa
Micro".
                                               
If the lock is of the swivel type, you can either pick it, or
buy a key (they're all the same).

To pick it, you'll need a *thin* flathead screwdriver
or a paperclip. To pick the lock, take the paperclip and insert it
into the little notch on the inside of the swivel lock. Now, pull to
the opposite side of the lock until the swivel is in the unlocked
position.

If you choose to buy a key, you can:

        A. Go to your local computer service center, and buy
                one of these keys. (Very cheap. Often less than
                $0.75)
        B. Buy the same brand of floppy lock, and use the key
                that comes with it.

*************************************

1c. Last Resorts                            
 
If you are *REALLY* desperate to access this PC, then the following
*might* work:

        1. Remove the PC Casing
        2. Extract the hard disk (By unscrewing and disconnecting)
        3. Transfer it to another computer. (Make sure that it is
                NOT set as the boot drive.)
        4. Start up this computer, and access the
                hard disk from there.

This will probably not work if an encrypted file system is in
use. The only way to access such disks is to enter the password,
or figure out a way to decrypt it, so if you forget your password,
you're fucked. :(

*********************************

2. DOS, Windows, and Netware
                                   
2a. Getting access to DOS

Some systems, are set up to boot directly to some sort of
shell/security program, like Windows, or Windows 95. If you
want to get access to a DOS prompt, you have some choices:

        A. Boot from a floppy disk
        B. Bypass startup files
        C. Bypassing DriveSpace
        D. Break out of Autoexec.bat

***Booting from a floppy requires you to create a system disk.
You can do this using the DOS command FORMAT A: /S which will
format a disk and place system files on it. Also, the Windows
format (In File Manager or Explorer) has an option allowing you
to create a system floppy.

Before you create a system disk, you must determine which
floppy drive is used to boot. If the system has both a
1.2MB (5.25") Floppy Drive and a 1.44MB (3.5") Drive, it is likely  
that the boot drive is the 1.2 MB floppy drive. If the computer
has only one floppy drive, it is quite safe to assume that it is
the boot drive.

*Note: I added the old 5.25" drives because they are still around
           on some older computers.

However, if you are unsure as to which drive is the boot drive,
you can either find out by entering System Setup (as described
in section 1) or by observing which floppy drive is read right
before the operating system loads.

If the system is set to boot only from the hard disk, then you
can refer to Section 1 on how to reset the CMOS.

Once you have a system disk, you place it in the floppy drive,
and turn on or reset the computer. If you have done everything
right, the computer will boot from the floppy drive and you will
have access to a DOS prompt.

This technique, of course, can be prevented through the use of a
floppy lock, and by setting the BIOS to boot only from the hard
disk.                                                       
                                                                   

***Bypassing startup files is quite simple, but only works on
versions of DOS 6.0 or better and Windows 95. When you turn on
the computer and you see the text:

        Starting MS-DOS ...

or
        Starting PC-DOS ...

or
        Starting Windows 95 ...

Press and hold the SHIFT or F5 key IMMEDIATELY. This will bypass
the startup files (CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT) as long as the
system administrator has not disabled this feature.

Additionally, you can press and hold F8 when the startup
text shows to enter the Boot menu. This lets you selectively
disable certain commands, or bypass the startup files totally,  
among other things.

***Bypassing DriveSpace works if compression software such as
DriveSpace or DoubleSpace has been installed. If so, when
the startup text displays, press and hold Ctrl+F5 or Ctrl+F8.
This will load the system without loading the compression
driver, which means you can't access the files on disk.

HOWEVER, you *can* decompress the disk (DriveSpace only), as
long as you have sufficien Select "NO CONVERSION"
        4. Select Save As...
        5. Save it as C:\WINDOWS\WINHELP.EXE            
        6. If it asks if you want to overwrite WINHELP.EXE, choose
                YES
        7. Press F1. Normally, this loads Windows Help, but now it
                will create a DOS prompt window.





DOS through Word
****************************
Microsoft Word versions 6.0 and above have a built-in macro
language called WordBasic. This example works by instructing
Wors Menu, select Macro.
        3. Type in a Macro name, and click "Create"
        4. When the Macro window comes up, type in one of the
                following depending on which Windows you are using:

                  For Windows 3.1: Shell Environ$("COMSPEC")
                  For Windows  95: Shell Environ$("COMMAND")
                  For Windows  NT: Shell Environ$("CMD")

                If all else fails: Shell "C:\COMMAND.COM"

        5. Run the macro by pressing the little play button on the
                macro toolbar. This will launch a DOS prompt.





DOS through MODE
*****************************                        

When Windows 95 Shuts Down and shows that dumb graphic, it's
really just sitting on top of DOS. You can actually issue DOS
commands (although the graphic will cover them) on the system
after shutdown!!!

A simple way to do this is to type:

        CLS

After the shutdown graphic shows. However, the text will be in
40-column mode, which is hard to read, and incompatible with
some programs.

If you want to get a nice, clean DOS prompt, you can type:

        MODE CO80

This will reset the screen display to the normal (80-column,
16 color) DOS display mode.
                                    
*MOST* Windows Security programs are based on a VxD (Virtual Device),
which gives them unprecented power over the system while Windows
is running. After shutdown, all Windows-based programs will be
unloaded, leaving you free to explore using DOS.

For some unknown reason, this doesn't seem to work on some systems.




DOS through Windows Login
***********************************
When Windows 95 Starts up, some systems are set up to show
a Windows/Network Login dialog box. You can press either

        Ctrl+Alt+Del

Which will let you Shut down the system (and apply the DOS
THROUGH MODE technique), End any running tasks, etc. Or:
                                                        
        Ctrl+Esc

Which, since the taskbar hasn't loaded, will launch Task
Manager. From this window you can end tasks, run programs,
and shutdown the system (again, the DOS THROUGH MODE technique
is applicable here). *All* programs are accessible from the run
menu, so you can run C:\COMMAND.COM to get access to DOS.

************************************



2c. Getting past NetWare

This section is based on excerpts from the Netware Hacking FAQ.
Although Netware has met a general decline in use over the years,
I still thought it would be proper to include this.

Common Account Names
****************************                           
Novell Netware has the following default accounts: SUPERVISOR, GUEST,
and Netware 4.x has ADMIN and USER_TEMPLATE as well. All of these have
no password set. Don't be a dummy, password protect SUPERVISOR and
ADMIN immediately. Below is a listing of common default and built-in
accounts that might be in your best interest to secure.

Account         Purpose
*********       ***************************************
POST            Attaching to a second server for email
MAIL

PRINT           Attaching to a second server for printing
LASER
HPLASER
PRINTER
LASERWRITER

ROUTER          Attaching an email router to the server

BACKUP          May have password/station restrictions (see below),
WANGTEK         used for backing up the server to a tape unit
                attached to the workstation. For complete backups,
                Supervisor equivalence is required.

TEST            A test user account for temp use

ARCHIVIST       Palindrome default account for backup

CHEY_ARCHSVR    An account for Arcserve to login to the server from
                from the console for tape backup. Version 5.01g's
                password was WONDERLAND.

GATEWAY         Attaching a gateway machine to the server
GATE

FAX             Attaching a dedicated fax modem unit to the network
FAXUSER
FAXWORKS

WINDOWS_PASSTHRU Although not required, per the Microsoft Win95 
                Resource Kit, Ch. 9 pg. 292 and Ch. 11 pg. 401 you
                need this for resource sharing without a password.



Resetting Netware
*************************
When NetWare is first installed, the account SUPERVISOR and GUEST
are left unprotected, that is, with no password. SUPERVISNetware 3.x, you 
can change all occurences of
   the bindery files and it should still work okay])
                                                         
6. You found the directory and you are ready to change it. Instead of
   deleting the files, you'll be renaming them. This will avoid problems
   with the directory structure (like lost FAT chains). Just type "OLD"
   over the existing "SYS" or "NDS" extension. Be extremely careful and
   don't change anything else.

7. Select "Tools" and then "Find again". Since Netware store the
   directory information in two different places, you have to find the
   other copy and change it the same way. This will again prevent
   directory structure problems.

8. Exit Norton Disk Edit and boot the server again. If you're running
   Netware 2 or 3, your server would be already accessible. Just go to
   any station and log in  as user Supervisor. No password will be asked.
   If you're running Netware 4, there is one last step.

9. Load Netware 4 install utility (just type LOAD INSTALL at the console
   prompt) and select the options to install the Directory Services. You
   be prompted for the Admin password while doing this. After that, you
   may go to any station and log in as user Admin, using the password   
   that you have selected.

**NOTE: If Disk Edit is unavailable, any Disk Editing utility with
 searching capabilities will suffice.

***********************************


3. Building a SECURE System

3a. Understanding the Issues

Potential "Hackers"
************************
After reading this TXT, you've probably revised your idea of a
secure PC quite a bit. Truth be told, Microsoft didn't design the Personal
Computer with security in mind. Back in 1980, their main objective was
to get  something to market before Apple gobbled up all the market
share.

After awhile, security programs started to emerge that attempted
to bridge this gap. These were quite popular, and were put into use
by many companies to prevent 'curious' employees from messing with
the computers.

However, ways to bypass these security programs were quickly found.
As long as computers are designed for convenience, and with humans
in mind, this will almost always happen.

So, who are potential "Hackers"? The answer is: Anyone. Experienced
users especially, but even newbies sometimes find weak spots. This
is not to say that everyone *is* a "hacker". (Note that I use quotes
because I don't believe in the popular usage of the term "Hacker".
The media is out of control: their usage of the word has conflated
Computer Gurus with Criminals in the minds of the people.)

As always, prevention is the best medicine. The following sections
deal with how to secure your system, both through physical and
software-based means.
                                                       
            
 

Physical Security
*********************
In the old days, back when computers filled multiple rooms, the
security of a system was basically all physical: Locks, security
guards, etc. Now the emphasis has shifted away from physical security,
and is leaning more towards software-based methods. However,
in some cases, a certain degree of physical security is in order.

***If you want to prevent people from resetting your CMOS and
accessing the floppy drives, etc. you have to secure the system
itself. This can be done by having the computer in a locked room,
leaving only the screen and keyboard accessible. There are many
products which let you extend the reach of screen and keyboard cables.
Even some that let you control many different computers using one
screen.

***There are also security devices available made by companies such as
Anchor Pad, Lucasey, and others that completely enclose the PC. 
These are devices such as lockdown pads, cables for monitors, and
metal boxes. There are also devices that cover and lock the floppy
and CD-ROM slots.

***Computer locks which bind your computer to a desk are good for
discouraging theft.

***To protect your hard disk data, I would suggest investing in a
removable media system that lets you "hot-swap" and lock hard disks.
The hard disk could then be easily removed (with the *unique* key)
and stored in a safe to prevent theft of data. Drives such as
the Zip (100MB), Jaz (1-2GB), and ORB (30GB) are removable as well,
but do not lock.

Make sure that you test the computer immediately after these
lockdown devices are installed. In some instances the stress induced
on the casing by the devices can cause certain parts to malfunction.

***You can buy devices that prevent the PC electrical cord from
being unplugged or turned on without a key.       
 
***Investing in a UPS (Uninterruptable Power Supply) System is worth
the cost. These protect against power fluxes which can damage your
system. In the case of a power out (or if someone trips over the cord),
UPS systems give you 5 minutes of rechargeable battery power to save
work and perform an emergency shutdown.

***As one last measure of security, it's always nice to invest in
some insurance for your computer. It won't get your data back,
but it *will* give you some peace of mind.



Software-Based Security
***************************
Below is a list of measures you can take to secure your system using
software/firmware based methods. They are listed in order of
increasing security, so minimum security would be only implementing
option #1, maximum security would be implementing #1-8. Keep in
mind that implementing any of these without implementing every item  
below it leaves possible entry points open.

        1. Set up a BIOS password for both the Setup screen *and*
           access to the system.
                a. Make sure the password is not easily guessable
                        (i.e., birthdate, name backwards, etc. are
                         easily guessed) See next section.
                b. Make sure that the password is the maximum possible
                        number of characters supported by the BIOS.
        2. Disable floppy booting from within the BIOS
        3. Disable Bypass of startup files
                a. This is done by adding the line:
                        SWITCHES=/F /N
                   to the CONFIG.SYS file.
                b. Additionally, you might want to precede
                        all statements in the Autoexec.bat
                        with CTTY NUL, and then have CTTY CON
                        as the last line. This prevents breaking
                        out of autoexec.bat
                c. If you use DriveSpace compression, add the 
                        following line to your DRVSPACE.INI file:
                        SWITCHES=/F /N
                d. Add the line:
                        BREAK OFF
                   This reduces the number of chances you have to
                   break out of AUTOEXEC.BAT, all though it doesn't
                   switch it off entirely
        4. Set up a DOS-based Security TSR
                a. Make sure you cannot access the floppy drive
                        without a password, and that it allows
                        for write-protection.
                b. Make sure it allows for password protection.
        5. Set up a Windows-Based Security program
                a. Make sure you can control which features of
                        Windows you can limit or disable.
                b. Make sure it allows for password protection.
        6. Instate Windows Security Policies using Policy Editor
                (Described Later)
        7. Install an encrypted filesystem program. (i.e., CryptDisk)
                a. This will prevent access to the computer and
                        files on the hard disk unless the password
                        is entered. It will render your data
                        unaccessible even if the hard disk is
                        extracted from the system.
        8. Download a firewall, I recomend a program called ZoneAlarm
            you can download it for free from http://www.zonealarm.com
        9. Delete the following DOS programs (or move them to
            a floppy):
                FORMAT
                DELTREE
                SUBST
                JOIN
                BACKUP
                RESTORE
                ATTRIB
                MODE


Passwords
****************
Passwords are generally the weakest link in the security chain.
When choosing a password, remember these tips:               
 
Do NOT choose something obvious: Swear words, your birthdate,
topics pertaining to what you do and/or your interests are are
examples of BAD passwords.

A Good Password is one that is totally random. To pick a password,
try this: Grab a dictionary. Close your eyes, and flip to a
random page. With your eyes still closed, put your finger on a
random spot on this page. Remember the word, and do this again.
Combine the two words, and append a three-digit number to the end.
You also might want to intersperse non-alphanumeric characters
into the password in random ways, such as an odd dash or
apostrophe here and there. Or you can always do what I do and 
just make some combonation of letters and numbers.

Also, NEVER write your password down. Always keep it in your head.
A simple Post-It note on your monitor can bring down all the
security that you so meticulously set up!

A good password system hides the passwords from everyone,
including the system administrators. This means that the sys   
admins cannot tell if the users are putting in weak passwords.

One final note: When designing a security system, be sure to take
the user into account. If a system is of such high-grade security
that it is a nuisance to use, people will always find the lazy
way to do it. (Post-it Notes...)

thats all for this text-file
if you didn't get anything I said, email me
 [email protected]
     _____________________________________________________________________
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