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[[File:Mmxcpu1.jpg|thumb]]
 
[[File:Mmxcpu1.jpg|thumb]]
 
[[File:Mmxcpu2.jpg|thumb]]
 
[[File:Mmxcpu2.jpg|thumb]]
 +
[[File:Pentiumbox.jpg|thumb]]
 +
[[File:Pentiumpin.jpg|thumb]]
    
First models of the Pentium line clocked in at 60/66MHz. Most CPUs will run a clock speed between 75-233MHz.
 
First models of the Pentium line clocked in at 60/66MHz. Most CPUs will run a clock speed between 75-233MHz.
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microprocessor that executed 3 to 4 million instructions per
 
microprocessor that executed 3 to 4 million instructions per
 
second (MIPS). Available in speeds ranging from 16 MHz up to 33
 
second (MIPS). Available in speeds ranging from 16 MHz up to 33
MHz, the 80386 addresses up to 4 gigabytes of physical memory,
+
MHz, the [[Intel 80386]] addresses up to 4 gigabytes of physical memory,
 
and up to 64 terabytes of "virtual memory" (a technology
 
and up to 64 terabytes of "virtual memory" (a technology
 
borrowed from mainframe computers that allows systems to work
 
borrowed from mainframe computers that allows systems to work
 
with programs and data larger than their actual physical memory.)
 
with programs and data larger than their actual physical memory.)
   −
The 80386 provided for true, robust multitasking and the ability
+
The [[Intel 80386]] provided for true, robust multitasking and the ability
 
to create "virtual 8086" systems, each running securely in its
 
to create "virtual 8086" systems, each running securely in its
 
own 1-megabyte address space. Like its predecessors, the i386 DX
 
own 1-megabyte address space. Like its predecessors, the i386 DX
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cache memory, and cache controller--a total of 1.2 million
 
cache memory, and cache controller--a total of 1.2 million
 
transistors--all on a single chip. Operating at an initial speed
 
transistors--all on a single chip. Operating at an initial speed
of 25MHz, the Intel486 DX CPU processed up to 20 MIPS. At its
+
of 25MHz, the [[Intel 80486]] DX CPU processed up to 20 MIPS. At its
 
current peak speed of 50 MHz, the Intel486 DX CPU processes up
 
current peak speed of 50 MHz, the Intel486 DX CPU processes up
to 41 MIPS. By incorporating RISC principles in its CPU core
+
to 41 MIPS. By incorporating [[RISC]] principles in its CPU core
(specifically, instruction pipelining), the Intel486 DX CPU is
+
(specifically, instruction pipelining), the [[Intel 80486]] DX CPU is
 
able to execute most instructions in a single clock cycle. In
 
able to execute most instructions in a single clock cycle. In
 
spite of these powerful new features, the Intel486 DX
 
spite of these powerful new features, the Intel486 DX
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generation circuitry, and interface to the data cache.
 
generation circuitry, and interface to the data cache.
   −
While the Intel486 microprocessor incorporated a single 8 Kbyte
+
While the [[Intel 80486]] microprocessor incorporated a single 8 Kbyte
 
cache, the Pentium processor features two 8K caches, one for
 
cache, the Pentium processor features two 8K caches, one for
 
instructions and one for data. These caches act as temporary
 
instructions and one for data. These caches act as temporary
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high-performance features.
 
high-performance features.
    +
=Pentium Q&A=
 +
<pre>
 +
General
 +
 +
Q1.  Which markets will be the first to employ Pentium
 +
    processor-based systems?
 +
 +
A1.  We expect that initial customers for Pentium processor-
 +
    based systems will be traditional early adopters who
 +
    require increased performance to meet their needs.  The
 +
    Pentium processor will power advanced personal
 +
    computers, workstations and super servers.
 +
 +
Q2.  I just bought an Intel486TM CPU-based system; is the
 +
    Pentium processor going to obsolete it?
 +
 +
A2.  No.  The Intel486TM CPU remains the mainstream processor.
 +
    The Pentium processor will have limited availability in
 +
    '93 and will be targeted at high-end applications, such
 +
    as servers.  As we have seen with the Intel486 CPU,
 +
    the Pentium processor will evolve downward in the
 +
    market and one day become the volume mainstream
 +
    processor .
 +
 +
Speed/Performance
 +
 +
Q3.  What is the performance of the Pentium processor in
 +
    comparison to an Intel486 CPU?
 +
 +
A3.  The Pentium processor runs applications up to five
 +
    times as fast as the popular, desktop-standard 33-MHz
 +
    Intel486 DX CPU.  The 66-MHz Pentium processor operates
 +
    at 112 million instuctions per second Dhrystone (MIPS),
 +
    it has a SPECint92 rating of 64.5 and SPECfp92 rating
 +
    of 56.9 and an Intel iCOMPTM Index rating of 567.  The
 +
    performance delta between the 66- and 60-MHz version of
 +
    the Pentium processor is about 10 percent.
 +
 +
Q4.  What is the performance of the Pentium processor in
 +
    comparison to RISC machines?
 +
 +
A4.  The Pentium processor has equal or greater integer
 +
    performance (SPECint92) than all current volume
 +
    shipping RISC-based systems.  In addition, the Pentium
 +
    processor has demonstrated workstation-class floating-
 +
    point performance.
 +
    The RISC processors available today are designed to be
 +
    a very high-end processors.  In the mainstream volume
 +
    workstation and PC marketplace, it is important to be
 +
    able to ship millions of processors, not just
 +
    thousands.
 +
 +
Q5.  What is the iCOMPTM Index?
 +
 +
A5.  The iCOMPTM Index was created by Intel as an easy-to-use
 +
    index to give PC buyers useful processor performance
 +
    information when selecting an Intel-based PC.  This
 +
    tool reflects the performance of the microprocessor and
 +
    should not be used as a measurement of overall system
 +
    performance.
 +
    For example, the Intel486 SX CPU at 25-MHz has an iCOMP
 +
    rating of 100, the Intel486 DX2 CPU at 66-MHz has an
 +
    iCOMP rating of 297 and the Pentium processor at 66-MHz
 +
    has an iCOMP rating of 567.
 +
 +
Naming
 +
 +
Q6.  Why did you name it the Pentium processor?
 +
 +
A6.  The purpose of naming it the Pentium processor is to
 +
    help users recognize the genuine Intel processor.
 +
    Imitators sell products using the "386" and "486"
 +
    designation when the products are not on par with
 +
    Intel's.  We want to ensure that the PC user knows
 +
    which processor is the genuine Intel chip.  The Pentium
 +
    name will designate that:  no one else can legally use
 +
    that name.
 +
 +
Upgradability
 +
 +
Q7.  I have heard people refer to Pentium Ready or OverDriveTM
 +
    Pentium systems.  What are they and when will they be
 +
    available?
 +
 +
A7.  Many Intel486 DX2 CPU-based systems will be upgradable
 +
    to Pentium processor technology.  Whether systems are
 +
    upgradable is based on system design considerations.
 +
    The Pentium processor-based OverDriveTM Processor will be
 +
    introduced in 1994.
 +
 +
Software
 +
 +
Q8.  What applications are best suited for Pentium processor-
 +
    based machines?
 +
 +
A8.  The Pentium processor will enable high-performance
 +
    servers at a lower cost than currently available. The
 +
    Pentium processor is capable of running all major
 +
    network operating systems with scalability from the
 +
    desktop to the data center.
 +
 +
    Performance-intensive desktop and technical
 +
    applications, such as imaging, real-time video and
 +
    voice recognition will benefit from the increased
 +
    performance available from the Pentium processor.  In
 +
    addition, it will expand the acceptance of Intel
 +
    processor-based systems into applications such as
 +
    scientific modeling, computer-aided design/engineering
 +
    (CAD/CAE), large-scale financial analysis and high-
 +
    throughput client/server applications.
 +
 +
Q9.  Will software written for 286/386/486 CPU-based systems
 +
    run on the Pentium processor? What will be the
 +
    difference?
 +
 +
A9.  Yes, Intel has always been committed to compatibility
 +
    across processor generations and that will continue.
 +
    To achieve the highest possible software application
 +
    performance from Pentium processor and Intel486 CPU-
 +
    based systems, software can be optimized.
 +
 +
Q10. What is software optimization?
 +
 +
A10. Optimization is the process by which operating systems
 +
    and application software are developed or recompiled to
 +
    take full advantage of the Intel architecture.  Results
 +
    are most dramatic on the Intel486 and Pentium processor-
 +
    based systems.
 +
 +
Q11. How much faster can the Pentium processor run today's
 +
    software than the Intel486 DX2 CPU?
 +
 +
A11. About 40-70% faster than the 66-MHz Intel486 DX2 CPU
 +
    running existing software.
 +
 +
Q12. Which software developers have committed to optimizing
 +
    their applications for the Intel architecture?
 +
 +
A12. Currently, Andersen Consulting*, Adobe*, Aldus*,
 +
    Autodesk*, Cadre*, Calera*, ComputerVision*, Dragon*,
 +
    EDS*, Frame Technology*, Gain Technology*, Gupta*,
 +
    Hypercube*, IBM*, Ithaca*, Interleaf*, Knowledgeware*,
 +
    Kurzweil*, Lotus*, Microsoft*, Novell*, NCR*, Oracle*,
 +
    Pixar*, Reuters*, SAS*, SCO*, Set Technology*, Sigma
 +
    Design*, SunSoft*, Sybase*, Univel*, Viewlogic*,
 +
    Ventura* Software, and Wolfram* have all committed that
 +
    one or more of their applications will be optimized for
 +
    the Intel architecture. More software companies are
 +
    committing every week.
 +
 +
Q13. Which operating system suppliers are committed to
 +
    supporting Pentium processor? When?
 +
 +
A13. IBM*, Microsoft*, NeXT*, Novell*, SCO*, SunSoft*,
 +
    Univel* and USL*. You will need to check with them on
 +
    announcement plans or ship schedules.
 +
 +
Q14. Which compiler and tools companies are supplying
 +
    optimized tools and compilers?
 +
 +
A14. Absoft*, Borland*, IBM*, Liant*, MetaWare*, Micro
 +
    Focus*, Microsoft*, NeXT*, SCO*, USL*, and WATCOM*.
 +
 +
Q15. If Pentium processor performance is so great, why would
 +
    I want or need to optimize my software?
 +
 +
A15. While the Pentium processor is significantly more
 +
    powerful than its predecessors, performance can be
 +
    enhanced when software is optimized for the Intel
 +
    architecture. Intel has been working with its software
 +
    partners for over a year to ensure that full advantage
 +
    of the Pentium processor and Intel486 microprocessor
 +
    performance can be taken by tools, compilers, operating
 +
    systems and application software.
 +
 +
Q16. How much incremental performance can I expect from an
 +
    optimized application running on a Pentium processor-
 +
    based system?
 +
 +
A16. Performance enhancements will vary, but early
 +
    optimization projects have yielded up to 30%
 +
    performance enhancement over the enhancement provided
 +
    by the chip alone.
 +
 +
Technical Details
 +
 +
Q17. How does the Pentium processor differ from the Intel486
 +
    CPU?  What are new features of the Pentium processor?
 +
 +
A17. The Pentium processor  includes both new architectural
 +
    features as well as enhancements to the Intel486 CPU.
 +
    New architectural features are superscalar
 +
    architecture, a totally redesigned Floating Point Unit
 +
    (FPU), branch prediction, separate code and data
 +
    caches, a write back cache with MESI  (Mutual Exclusive
 +
    Shared Invalid) protocol, multiprocessor support and
 +
    built-in data integrity for increased reliability.
 +
    Other enhancements to the architecture include
 +
    hardwired instructions, enhanced microcode, increased
 +
    page size, 64-bit data bus and pipelining.
 +
 +
Q18. What is superscalar?
 +
 +
A18. Superscalar is new to the Pentium processor  and is a
 +
    microarchitecture design technique that allows multiple
 +
    instructions to be executed simultaneously on chip.
 +
    (An anology: superscalar is like adding another lane to
 +
    a single lane highway; more cars (instructions) can go
 +
    to the same place at the same time).
 +
 +
Q19. What is branch prediction?
 +
 +
A19. Branch prediction is new to the Pentium processor and
 +
    is another performance improvement technique.  Since
 +
    software execution incurs substantial delays on
 +
    branches, points in the software instruction stream
 +
    require a branch to a new, non-contiguous location in
 +
    system memory to fetch the next instruction.  This
 +
    Intel-developed technology will predict where the
 +
    program is going next and can actually begin working on
 +
    the next instruction before it is actually called upon.
 +
 +
Q20. Why do you have separate data and instruction (code)
 +
    caches?
 +
 +
A20. Having the two separate caches allows the CPU to fetch
 +
    data and code in parallel, doubling the available cache
 +
    bandwidth. In addition, the Pentium processor has  very
 +
    large on-chip data paths, some as large as 256 bits.
 +
    The data cache is dual access, meaning two instructions
 +
    can read and write data in parallel.  This complements
 +
    the superscalar design (dual pipeline).
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
=Documentation=
 +
* [[Mobile Pentium Processor with MMX Technology]] - datasheet
 +
* [[Intel Pentium Processor 75/90/100/120/133/150/166/200]] - datasheet
 +
* [[Voltage Guidelines for Pentium Processors with MMX Technology]]
    
=See Also=
 
=See Also=
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[[Category:Computing]]
   
[[Category:Processors]]
 
[[Category:Processors]]
 +
[[Category:Pentium]]

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