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May also be written as NeXTStep or NEXTSTEP.
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[[File:PoweredByNEXTSTEP.gif|thumb]]
 +
[[File:Nextstepintel.jpg|thumb]]
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[[File:Nsversion3.jpg|thumb]]
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[[File:NeXTscreen.gif|thumb]]
 +
 
 +
May also be written as NeXTStep or NEXTSTEP. This is an operating system from [[NeXT]] originally designed for their m68k hardware.
      Line 110: Line 115:  
Otherwise, you'll need to change /etc/hostconfig, /etc/hosts, and the
 
Otherwise, you'll need to change /etc/hostconfig, /etc/hosts, and the
 
corresponding NetInfo entries.
 
corresponding NetInfo entries.
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
===Printing over AppleTalk===
 +
<pre>
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I have a Nextstation hooked into the school network here, and I would
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REALLY like to print to the local LaserWriter NTR.
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CAPer shows it, and I can print up the test page, but I can't print
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anything from Edit.app(no printer selected), and PrintManager.app is
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clueless.
 +
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What I would like is to print from the "Print..." menu over the
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Ethernet/appletalk to the printer.
 +
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Is this even possible?
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 +
 +
----
 +
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If CAPer can show it in the network chooser and print to it (guess you used
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the top 'test' button which performs a direct PAP connection and pumps over
 +
the testpage) everything should be set up to print from any app. Just follow
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the instructions (It is in the CAPer README in the Info menu):
 +
 +
1. Create a new 'dummy' printer using /NextApps/PrintManager.app, call it
 +
what you want, select the correct PPD and set it to use the serial interface
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(CAPer will change this, it is only for setup)
 +
 +
2. Start CAPer, start the Appletalk services, wait to establish network, open
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the Network Chooser, select the printer entity in your zone. A panel opens,
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on the top you will see the name of the printer entity at the bottom you will
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see the in 1. created printer name (Under Local Printers).
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3. You now have to connect the 'Entity' to you 'Queue', select the in 1.
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created printer name, press the 'connect' button to connect it. Press the
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lower 'test' button (the one under the connect button) to test your queue
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setup. If a testpage comes out everything should be fine.
 +
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4. If you queue 'hangs' for some reason, do a 'lpc restart YOUR_QUEUENAME'
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(where YOUR_QUEUENAME is your name from 1.) as root in a shell.
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
===Zip Drives and NeXT===
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The ZIP drive can do everything a normal drive can do: You can use the drive as a normal external removable disk drive. And for the adventurous, you can even build a bootable version of NEXTSTEP on a single ZIP disk and _boot_ from it!
 +
Yep, this ZIP drive'll even work with YOUR NeXT. They can be connected to just about any hardware running NEXTSTEP. This includes NeXT hardware, Intel-based hardware, Suns, Hewlett Packard machines, even the NeXT You Own. And forget about disktab and fstab entries - you won't need to add one!
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====SCSI Interfacing====
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Hooks right into your current SCSI bus, just like real hardware. ZIP drives have a pair of SCSI-1 interface ports. The ports on the rear of the unit are DB25F Macintosh-style SCSI connectors. To connect to your SCSI chain, you'll need either a DB-25 to Mini SCSI-II external cable (p/n DCA 2200, $25 from Mac Warehouse), or a standard Mac to Centronics external cable.
 +
You may set the ZIP drive to SCSI target id 5 or 6 only. Yes, you read that right - only 5 or 6. The selector switch on the back of the unit has only 2 positions; it's not a rotary or thumbwheel switch, so you have only these choices.
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 +
Yet, it does have a nice feature - external switchable termination! (given that you might otherwise need a Macintosh SCSI terminator). Would that all drive cases offered this.
 +
====Reformatting a Zip Disk====
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<pre>
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Reformatting a ZIP disk is as easy as reformatting a floppy. If you can't do that, you can't do this.
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Select the drive and click on the Workspace -> Disk -> Initialize menu entry of the workspace. You'll have the option of reformatting to Macintosh or NEXTSTEP only; Currently, DOS-formatted ZIP disks work fine under NEXTSTEP 3.3 or later, but for some reason you're not allowed to reformat a NeXT-formatted ZIP disk for the DOS filesystem. [Quite frankly, that's a FEATURE, not a bug. :) ]
 +
 +
So, what's a person to do? The following, of course! (Kindly contributed by Frederic Stark):
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Bring up a panel to insert the disk:
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% disk /dev/rsd?a (? = scsi controller #)
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Re-format the disk, brute-force style:
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% sdformat -i? -v -f (? = scsi controller #)
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Eject the disk:
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% disk -e /dev/rsd?a (? = scsi controller #)
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Re-insert the disk into the ZIP drive.
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Depending on your karma, you should now be able to
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reformat the disk as a NeXT disk.
 +
 +
What's that? You can't reformat the ZIP disk that came with your Drive? It's write protected? Sure is! Why _do_ they do that? No one seems to know, but it'd sure make for a real good "Unsolved Mysteries"... :) Anyway, one way to use this disk is to hook your ZIP up to a Macintosh, run the "special" MAC ZIP software and change it. Don't have a Mac? Of course you don't! Timothy J. Luoma writes in to remind us that if you're running on Intel, you can always invoke Alexander Wilkie's ziptool utility to remove the write protection from that stubborn Zip with finesse. For you NeXT folks, you might try some 3rd-party formatters like sdformat, but keep in mind you might end up just having to chuck the disk in frustration! Before you do, though, try the sdformat procedure described above. We'd love to hear from you if you succeed!
 +
</pre>
 +
====Building NeXTSTEP on a Zip Disk====
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The easiest way to build a bootable version of NEXTSTEP on a ZIP disk is to use BuildDisk.app in /NextAdmin. You can, of course, "roll your own." But check your state and local laws first.
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Load a ZIP boot-disk-to-be. Shove a sacrificial disk into your ZIP drive. NOT the disk that came free with your ZIP drive. You gotta buy a real one.
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Launch BuildDisk.app. Using /NextAdmin/BuildDisk.app is merely the simplest way to build your ZIP disk; other ways exist.
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Look for the "Hard Disk" moniker. The ZIP drive will show up as "Hard Disk." (You'll know you've selected the correct drive when BuildDisk shows "Removable disk, 96 MB".) Be careful. Screw this up and you'll be kissing some other unsuspecting drive good-bye.
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Install other software, but wisely! Be VERY careful when choosing extension packages to install! By default, you'll have only about 30MB free on the ZIP disk (so don't even _think_ about installing NEXTSTEP Developer! Or Webster). Seriously think about adding sdformat, SCSIInquirer, and maybe even ppp to the disk's contents. Chances are, you'll be booting standalone for some ungodly reason, and these are good friends to have with you in your time of need.
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Build the disk. Click the "Build" button. The build takes about 1/2 hour. Longer if it's your first time.
 +
 +
====Booting NeXTSTEP from a Zip Disk====
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<pre>
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Disconnect your ethernet. Go ahead and disconnect your machine from the network until such time as you have configured your new boot environment to use it.
 +
 +
    Arbitrary Rule #42: No other removable media drives may have a
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                        SCSI target id number lower than your ZIP
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        drive's target id number if you want to boot
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from your ZIP drive.
 +
     
 +
    Note: The SCSI "target id number" is the id number which is selectable
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          on the back of the ZIP unit.
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 +
Select SCSI target id 5. In light of the above, it would behoove you to set the ZIP drive to SCSI target id 5, and any CD-ROM drive you may have to SCSI target id 6. If this cannot be done, you must remove the offending CD-ROM drive from the SCSI chain (either disconnect it or power it off).
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If Arbitrary Rule #42 is violated, the NeXT's SCSI sensing firmware seems to have trouble locating the correct device, and the boot will fail immediately. On NeXT hardware, you will receive a "no SCSI device" message.
 +
 +
Determine the ZIP drive's SCSI controller number. This is the drive's logical order number. For example, If your normal boot drive is SCSI target id 1, and you have an external drive at SCSI target id 4, and the ZIP drive is SCSI target id 5, then the ZIP drive's SCSI controller number would be 2 (it's the 3rd drive in SCSI logical order; count starting at 0).
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 +
If, as in the example above, your ZIP drive's SCSI controller number is 2, enter the following command at the boot prompt:
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        NeXT> bsd(2,0,0)sdmach rootdev=sd2a rootrw=1
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In case you're looking for a slightly more canonical form of the command:
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        bsd(<>,0,0)sdmach rootdev=sd<> rootrw=1
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This has not been tried on Intel hardware (or the other platforms). You might try entering this command at the "boot:" prompt, and letting us know the results. Who knows - you may even get your name mentioned, in real print, right here on Radical's web page!
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Once the system has booted for the first time (this will take longer than you're used to), you'll be presented with a language selection panel. Choose the languages you'll be using, but don't choose too many - these can take up quite a lot of disk space when uncompressed and installed.
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The system will automatically log you in under the "me" account, as there is no password set on that account. This will become a pain in the keister when you begin to perform system tasks. So - set passwords for both root and me accounts! Double-click on /NextAdmin/UserManager.app. When the panel requesting the root password comes up, just click "Login", as there is no password yet. Click on UserManager -> User -> Open in the menu, and select the account to change. Change the passwords to something you'll remember. Write 'em down on the disk, or I can guarantee you you'll forget what they are! Log out, log back in as root, and you're ready to rock `n' roll!
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</pre>
 +
 +
====Writing dumps to Zip Disk====
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<pre>
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You're not supposed to mention it in polite company. But I'm sure we've got you wondering. "If the NeXT is such hot stuff, can't I use it to write dumps to my Zip Drive? After all, my friend's Timex Sinclair can."
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Well, it turns out that you can try to use the Unix `dump' command, as in:
 +
 +
# /etc/dump 0oOf 89 /My_Zip_Disk/MyBigDump.dump
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 +
...to dump a disk to the Zip mounted at /My_Zip_Disk, logged in as root. So, why didn't we mention it before? Are we trying to hide something? Not really. Just that it doesn't work.
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When the first volume is full and it comes time to put the second Zip disk in, `dump' and the NeXT file system automounter both go after the worm. The NeXT file system automounter wins out; `dump' craps out.
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DUMP: The ENTIRE dump is aborted.
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 +
But it's common knowledge that a dump can't be held back forever! So what's a bloke to do?
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Worry not! Don't panic! This is the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Iomega Zip after all! If we don't know it... we beg.
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To save the day, Aaron Rosenzweig writes in to remind us of Eirik Fuller's patch in the current `gnutar' that lets the automounter have its worm, and eat it too. To do a multi-volume backup of the disk mounted at /My_Big_Disk onto the Zip mounted at /My_Zip_Disk, just log in as root and let 'er rip:
 +
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# gnutar -cvf /My_Zip_Disk/ZipBackup.tar -lL 89000 -mM /My_Big_Disk
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When the first Zip disk is full, gnutar waits for you to press RETURN when you're ready with the next disk. Simply eject the current Zip disk, shove the next one into the drive (labeled the same as the first one), and press RETURN.
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And to restore the backup, just log in as root and cd to where you want the backup to be restored:
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# gnutar -xvf /My_Zip_Disk/ZipBackup.tar -lL 89000 -mM --same-owner
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Check out `gnutar --help' for more detailed info.
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</pre>
 +
 +
===How to recover from an partially formatted disk===
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<pre>
 +
Often people (mostly on Intel) complain about a formatted disk (sometimes partially) due to an installation process error of some other OS. There is a chance to recover most of the data. The following assumes you are on Intel, other hardware user have to handle things much less complicated, but the way is similar:
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Prepare a new hard drive for booting
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Don't try to repair the broken drive!
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On Intel run fdisk to repartition the drive as it was before. If you are not able to do this, you are lost. Delete all evtl. new created partitions. By repartitioning, you won't loose data on the drive.
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Run disk on the broken drive e.g. type disk -rsd1h.
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Now scan the disk for superblocks by entereing the scan command at the interactive disk command prompt.
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If your disk was partially formatted, use a higher superblock number to supply fsck with an new superblock. E.g. if a superblock was found at 3145 use fsck -b3145 -y /dev/sd1a (assuming the first partition is the broken one).
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After this run, it is most important to reboot without syncing the drives! E.g. just turn off the computer without shutting down, or use the reboot -n command.
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After rebooting the run fsck again, if it isn't done by the system itself.
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You should be able to access the drive again now. Recovered files are placed in the /lost+found directory.
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
===How to use a tape drive===
 +
<pre>
 +
Using Configure.app add the SCSITape driver to support any SCSI tape drives in the "Others" config.
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</pre>
 +
 +
===Adding fonts===
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<pre>
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Adding a font to your system is as follows:
 +
 +
-put your new font in
 +
 +
/LocalLibrary/Fonts  (for public use)
 +
 +
or in
 +
 +
~/Library/Fonts (for private use)
 +
 +
-in a terminal shell, type:
 +
 +
buildafmdir /LocalLibrary/Fonts
 +
 +
or
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buildafmdir /Users/yourname/Library/Fonts
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
===Upgrading hard disk===
 +
<pre>
 +
Well, you need a formatting in 512 byte blocks and 'Target Initiated
 +
Synchronous Negotiation' must should be disabled. (If you can't do that
 +
it won't work as a boot disk, but as a secondary one.)
 +
 +
IBMs DCAS 2G and DNES 9G Ultra SCSI drives are fine.
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A nice drive is the Seagate Medalist ST-51080N (->1.08GB)
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Flat, quiet and cool. Speed is ok.
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
   Line 233: Line 435:  
(including the pty's).  Otherwise, you're probably missing a setuid bit on  
 
(including the pty's).  Otherwise, you're probably missing a setuid bit on  
 
the OpenSesame binary itself....
 
the OpenSesame binary itself....
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
===loginwindow issues===
 +
<pre>
 +
> I've got a problem when I boot my NextCube (NS 3.0):
 +
>
 +
> At the end of the booting session, a "console" window appears, instead
 +
> of the loginwindow.
 +
> I tried to launch the loginwindow by hand, but nothing happens. I tried
 +
> also to launch the WindowServer, but I've got a Memory Fault.
 +
>
 +
> The strange thing is that I've done nothing on config files. I thought
 +
> my disk was corrupted, but fsck didn't find an error.
 +
>
 +
> Has anyone got a clue about this ? Do I need to re-install the system ??
 +
 +
 +
That's pretty strange that it just started doing that.  Control over this
 +
is in the /etc/ttys file.  The first two data lines should look like this:
 +
 +
 +
# console      "/usr/etc/getty std.9600"      NeXT            on secure
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 +
console /usr/lib/NextStep/loginwindow  NeXT            on secure window=/usr/li
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b/NextStep/WindowServer onoption="/usr/etc/getty std.9600"
 +
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(I seperated them because the second line is long)
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It's very important that the first console line be commented out.  I think
 +
uncommenting it will make that other console appear rather than the
 +
loginwindow.
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If something is wrong here and the path isn't the loginwindow or is
 +
something has happened to the loginwindow permissions-wise or if it has
 +
gotten corrupted, that could explain why it isn't launching.
 +
 +
You might want to try recopying the loginwindow from your CD if you have
 +
it.  But otherwise, a reinstall may be the easier than tracking down the
 +
real problem, which you may not be able to fix anyway.
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
===Can't read multisession CD-ROMs===
 +
<pre>
 +
Argh. Yes it's true. The original NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP drivers can't read multisession CD-ROMs. Only the first session can be used. If it is audio, CDPlayer is started if it's data it is just automounted to become accessable though Worksapce manager.
 +
Luckily there is a commercial driver out there, which enables NEXTSTEP/OPENSTEP to take advantage of multisession CD-ROMs.
 +
 +
CDXA Driver
 +
Price DM 48,- (about $US 30)
 +
Uwe Tilemann
 +
Tools GmbH
 +
Adolfstr. 5
 +
D-53111 Bonn
 +
GERMANY
 +
 +
Phone: +49 0228 98580-0
 +
Fax:  +49 0228 98580-17
 +
Email: [email protected] (NeXTmail/MIME)
 +
WWW:  http://www.Tools.DE/
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  

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