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Surfing the INTERNET: an Introduction

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Surfing the INTERNET: an Introduction Version 2.0.2 
December 15, 1992

c. 1992 Jean Armour Polly.  Material quoted from other authors was 
compiled from public Internet posts by those authors. No copyright claims 
are made for those compiled quotes.  Permission to reprint is granted for 
nonprofit educational purposes. Please let me know if you find this 
compilation useful. This first (much shorter) version of this appeared in the 
June, 1992 Wilson Library Bulletin. Please include this entire 
copyright/copy notice if you duplicate this document. Updates may be ftp'd 
from ( /pub/resources/guides. Please choose the 
most current version of surfing.the.internet.

Please send updates and corrections to: [email protected]

Today I'll travel to Minnesota, Texas, California, Cleveland, New Zealand, 
Sweden, and England. I'm not frantically packing, and I won't pick up any 
frequent flyer mileage. In fact, I'm sipping cocoa at my Macintosh. My 
trips will be electronic, using the computer on my desk, communications 
software, a modem, and a standard phone line.

I'll be using the Internet, the global network of computers and their 
interconnections, which lets me skip like a stone across oceans and 
continents and control computers at remote sites. I haven't "visited" 
Antarctica yet, but it is only a matter of time before a host computer 
becomes available there!

This short, non-technical article is an introduction to Internet 
communications and how librarians and libraries can benefit from net 
connectivity. Following will be descriptions of electronic mail, discussion 
lists, electronic journals and texts, and resources available to those willing 
to explore. Historical details about the building of the Internet and technical 
details regarding network speed and bandwidth are outside the scope of this 

What's Out There Anyway?

Until you use a radio receiver, you are unaware of the wealth of 
programming, music, and information otherwise invisible to you. Computer 
networks are much the same. About one million people worldwide use the 
Internet daily. Information packet traffic rises by 12% each month.

About 727,000 host computers are connected, according to a January, 1992 
report (Network Working Group  Request for Comments: 1296) by Mark 
K. Lottor. So, what's all the excitement about? What's zipping around in 
that fiber and cable and ether, anyway?

On my electronic adventure I browsed the online catalog at the University 
Library in Liverpool England, leaving some "hi there from Liverpool New 
York" mail for the librarian.

I downloaded some new Macintosh anti-virus software from Stanford's 
SUMEX archive.

Then I checked a few databases for information needed for this article, and 
scanned today's news stories.

I looked at the weather forecast for here in the East and for the San 
Francisco Bay area, forwarding that information to a friend in San Jose 
who would read it when he woke up. The Internet never closes!

After that I read some electronic mail from other librarians in Israel, Korea, 
England, Australia and all over the U.S. We're exchanging information 
about how to keep viruses off public computers, how to network CD 
ROMS, and how to reink inkjet printer cartridges, among other things.

I monitor about twelve discussion groups. Mail sent to the group address is 
distributed to all other "subscribers". It's similar to a round-robin 
discussion.  These are known variously as mailing lists, discussion groups, 
reflectors, aliases, or listservs, depending on what type they are and how 
they are driven.  Subscriptions are free.

One of these groups allows children and young adults all over the world to 
communicate with each other.  Kids from Cupertino to Moscow are talking 
about their lives, pets, families, hope and dreams. It's interesting to see that 
Nintendo is a universal language!

Teachers exchange lesson plans and bibliographies in another group, and 
schools participate in projects like the global market basket survey. For this 
project, students researched what foods a typical family of four would buy 
and prepare over one week's time. Their results were posted to the global 
project area, where they could be compared with reports from kids all over 
North and South America, India, Scandinavia, and Asia. It opened up 
discussions of dietary laws, staple foods, and cultural differences.

Other lists explore the worlds of library administration, reference, mystery 
readers, romance readers, bird-watcher hotlines, cat enthusiasts, X-Soviet 
Union watchers, packet radio techies, and thousands more. There is even a 
list to announce the creation of new lists!

The Power of the Net

A net connection in a school is like having multiple foreign exchange 
students in the classroom all the time. It promotes active, participatory 
learning. Participating in a discussion group is like being at an ongoing 
library conference. All the experts are Out There, waiting to be asked.

Want to buy a CD ROM drive? Send one query and "ask" the 3,000 folks 
on PACS-L (Public Access Computer Systems list) for advice. In a few 
hours you'll have personal testimonies on the pros and cons of various 
hardware configurations.

Want to see if any libraries are doing anything with Total Quality 
Management?  Ask the members of LIBADMIN and you'll have offers of 
reports, studies, personal experiences and more. How do you cope with 
budget cuts: personnel layoffs or materials? Again, LIBADMIN use allows 
shared advice.

Here is one story about the power of the net. At Christmas, an electronic 
plea came from Ireland. "My daughter believes in Santa Claus," it began.  
"And although the 'My Little Pony Megan & Sundance' set has not been 
made in three years, she believes Santa will prevail and she will find one 
under her tree." Mom, a university professor, had called the manufacturer 
in the US, but none were available. "Check around," they said, "maybe 
some yet stand on store shelves." So Mom sent the call out to the net.

Many readers began a global search for the wily Pony as part of their own 
holiday shopping forays.

Soon, another message came from Dublin. It seemed that a reader of the 
original message had a father who was a high-ranking executive in the toy 
company, and he had managed to acquire said pony where others had 

It was duly shipped in time to save Santa's reputation.

Part of the library's mission is to help remove barriers to accessing 
information, and part of this is removing barriers between people. One of 
the most interesting things about telecommunications is that it is the Great 
Equalizer. It lets all kinds of computers and humans talk to each other.  The 
old barriers of sexism, ageism, and racism are not present, since you can't 
see the person to whom you're "speaking". You get to know the person 
without preconceived notions about what you THINK he is going to say, 
based on visual prejudices you may have, no matter how innocent.

Well, almost without visual prejudice. Electronic mail is not always an 
harmonic convergence of like souls adrift in the cyberspace cosmos: there 
are arguments and tirades (called "flames"). Sometimes you get so used to 
seeing a frequent poster's electronic signature that you know what he's 
going to say before he says it!


One problem with written communication is that remarks meant to be 
humorous are often lost. Without the visual body-language clues, some 
messages may be misinterpreted. So a visual shorthand known as "smileys" 
has been developed.  There are a hundred or more variations on this theme-
:-) That's a little smiley face. Look at it sideways.  (more Smiley info may 
be found via anonymous ftp at  many places, including the following: /pub/misc/funnies/smiley.txt). FTP is introduced later in the 

What a range of emotions you can show using only keyboard characters. 
Besides the smiley face above, you can have :-( if you're sad, or :-<  if 
you're REALLY upset!  ;-) is one way of showing a wink.  Folks wearing 
glasses might look like this online: %^).

But for the most part, the electronic community is willing to help others.  
Telecommunications helps us overcome what has been called the tyranny 
of distance. We DO have a global village.

Electronic Newsletters and Serials

Subscribing to lists with reckless abandon can clog your mailbox and 
provide a convenient black hole to vacuum up all your spare time. You 
may be more interested in free subscriptions to compiled documents known 
as electronic journals. These journals are automatically delivered to your 
electronic door.

There are a growing number of these. Some of the best for librarians are 
listed below. To subscribe to these journals you must know how to send an 
interactive message to another computer. This information is well-
documented in the resources listed at the end of this article. Telnet and ftp 
are introduced further along in this article.

(Association for Library Collections and Technical Services) 
Various ALA news, net news, other items of interest to librarians. Send the 
following message to [email protected] 
SUBSCRIBE ALCTS First Name Last Name.

Current Cites 
Bibliography of current journal articles relating to computers, networks, 
information issues, and technology. Distributed on PACS-L, or connect 
remotely via TELNET to MELVYL.UCOP.EDU (; Enter 
command at the prompt: SHOW CURRENT CITES. 
Further information: David F. W. Robison, [email protected]

EFFector Online 
The online newsletter of the Electronic Frontier Foundation. All the hot net 
issues are covered here: privacy, freedom, first amendment rights.  Join 
EFF to be added to the mailing list or ftp the files yourself from 
( They are in the /pub/eff and subsequent directories.

Hot Off the Tree (HOTT) 
(Excerpts and Abstracts of Articles about Information Technology) 
TELNET MELVYL.UCOP.EDU (; Enter command: 
SHOW HOTT. Further information: Susan Jurist, [email protected]

Network News 
An irreverent compendium of tidbits, resources, and net factoids that is a 
must for true Internet surfers. To subscribe, send the following message to 
[email protected] 
SUBSCRIBE NNEWS First Name Last Name.  
For more information: Dana Noonan at [email protected]

Public-Access Computer Systems News and The Public-Access Computer 
Systems Review 
Sent automatically to PACS-L subscribers.  See above. For a list of back 
issue files, send the following message to 
[email protected]: 

To obtain a comprehensive list of electronic serials on all topics, send the 
following commands to [email protected] 
For further information, contact Michael Strangelove: 
[email protected]

Remote Login to Internet Resources: TELNET

One step beyond electronic mail is the ability to control a remote computer 
using TELNET. This feature lets you virtually teleport anywhere on the 
network and use resources located physically at that host. Further, some 
hosts have gateways to other hosts, which have further gateways to still 
more hosts. How can you be in two places at once? It sounds more 
confusing than it is. What resources are available? Here is a sampling of 
some of the fare awaiting you at several sites:

Cleveland Free-net Freenets 
are the progeny of Tom Grundner, Director, 
Community Telecomputing Laboratory
Case Western Reserve University
303 Wickenden Building
Cleveland, OH 44106 
216/368-2733  FAX: 216/368-5436 
Internet: [email protected] 
BITNET: aa001%[email protected] 
and the folks at National Public Telecomputing Network (NPTN)
Box 1987
Cleveland, OH 44106 
216/368-2733  FAX: 216/368-5436 
Internet: [email protected]

Free-nets are built around a city metaphor, complete with schools, 
hospitals, libraries, courthouses, and other public services.

Academy One recently held an online global simulation of a series of major 
space achievements. 16 schools (from five states and four nations) 
participated. Here are several of the descriptions of their projects:

Valkeala, Finland ([email protected]) 
Acting as Space Shuttle Discovery taking the Hubble Telescope into space.  
These Finnish students will be in communication with students in Estonia, 
relaying their reports."

([email protected], [email protected]) 
Dr. Howard School (25 students in 3rd/4th grade) will be simulating the 
Challenger 2 launch.  They are being assisted by the National Center for 
Supercomputing Applications."

([email protected])
Simulating a NASA Tracking Station in Florida.  They will be posting 
hourly weather reports about the conditions in Florida around Cape 
Kennedy.  This information is vital to the recovery of the Friendship 7 
capsule and crew. Students have taken an interest in Space Junk and will be 
posting additional reports on the various probes which were used to test the 
surface of the moon and how all of that junk is now becoming a hazard to 
current and future space exploration."

Another Free-net resource is Project Hermes.  This service provides copies 
of Supreme Court opinions in electronic form to as wide an audience as 
possible, almost as soon as they are announced.

The Court's opinions can be sent directly to you or you may download the 
files directly from any NPTN community computer system.

The Free-nets also provide weather, news, and gateways to other resources. 
To access the Cleveland Free-Net (where all this is being held) simply 
telnet to: 
or and select "visitor" at the login menu.

The University of California 
Catalog Division of Library Automation 
University of California 
Office of the President  
300 Lakeside Drive, 8th floor, 
Oakland, California 94612-3550 
415/987-0555 (MELVYL Catalog Helpline) 
E-mail: [email protected]

The MELVYL catalog is the union catalog of monographs and serials 
(periodicals) held by the nine University of California campuses and 
affiliated libraries. It represents nearly 11 million holdings at UC, the 
California State Library, and the Center for Research Libraries.

The MELVYL catalog also provides access to MEDLINE and Current 
Contents as well as a gateway to many other systems. Access to some 
databases is restricted under a license agreement to the University of 
California faculty, staff, and students. Telnet MELVYL.UCOP.EDU 

Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries 
777 Grant
Suite 306 
Denver CO 80203-3580 
E-mail: [email protected]

CARL offers access to the following groups of databases: Academic and 
public library online catalogs, current article indexes such as UnCover and 
Magazine Index, databases such as the Academic American Encyclopedia 
and Internet Resource Guide, and a gateway to other library systems. 
Access to some items is limited. Telnet or telnet

This is how Barry Kort (aka 'Moulton'), Visiting Scientist at Educational 
Technology Research, BBN Labs, Cambridge, MA describes MicroMuse at 

"MUDs (Multi-User Dimensions) or MUSEs (Multi-User Simulation 
Environments) are virtual realities which offer a rich environment for 
synergy, community, collaboration, and exploratory discovery."

"Players connect to the host computer, adopt a character and personality of 
their choosing, and enter into the synthetic world, consisting of a web of 
connected rooms and movable props."

"Everything (rooms, movable objects, connecting passageways, and 
players) has a description (typically a few lines of text) which are displayed 
when a player looks at it."

"Actions such as picking up or dropping an object, and exiting to an 
adjacent room also generate a short message appropriate to the action."

"At MIT's AI Lab, MicroMuse features explorations, adventures, and 
puzzles with redeeming social, cultural, and educational content. The 
MicroMuse Science Center offers an Exploratorium and Mathematica 
Exhibit complete with interactive exhibits drawn from experience with 
Science Museums around the country.  The Mission to Mars includes an 
elaborate tour of the red planet with accurate descriptions rivaling those 
found in National Geographic."

"Elsewhere on MicroMuse, one can find an outstanding adventure based on 
the children's classic Narnia; a recreation of the Wizard of Oz adventure 
built by a gifted 8-year old; a challenging Logic Quest; and a living model 
of the science fiction genre 'The DragonRiders of Pern' by author Anne 

If you would like to explore MicroMuse, you may connect as follows from 
your local host computer: 
telnet [] 
login: guest [no password required] 
tt [TinyTalk client program] 
connect guest [Connect to MicroMuse]

Telnet to BBS.OIT.UNC.EDU or 
Type launch at the login message.  
It's a must. Not only can you read Usenet Newsfeeds, but you can use 
LibTel, a scripted telnet gateway to access both US and international 
libraries plus such things as Data Research Associates Library of Congress 
catalog, the Ham Radio Call Book, the National Science Foundation, the 
Weather Server, Webster's dictionary and thesaurus, and more.

Remote Access to Files (FTP)

FTP or File Transfer Protocol is what to use to retrieve a text file, software, 
or other item from a remote host. Normal practice is to ftp to the host you 
want and login as "anonymous". Some sites use the password "guest" while 
others require that you put in your network address as the password. Some 
popular ftp sites follow:

This archive at Stanford ( or houses a 
plethora of Macintosh applications, utilities, graphics and sound files.

( or at the White Sands Missile Range in 
New Mexico contains a similar archive software for MS-DOS computers.

An FTP visit to the Network Service Center at ( 
is a gold mine of documents and training materials on net use. See further 
information on this in the "Resources for Learning More" section of this 

Project Gutenberg 
The primary goal of Project Gutenberg is to encourage the creation and 
distribution of electronic text.  They hope to have a trillion etexts in 
distribution by the end of 2001.

Some of the many texts available now include Alice in Wonderland, Peter 
Pan, Shakespeare, Paradise Lost and other texts in the public domain. 
Many of these texts are available from: 
ftp ( /pub/etext92 [for 1992 releases] 
or /pub/etext/etext91 [for 1991 releases] 
/pub/etext/articles [for Project Gutenberg articles and newsletters].  
They are also available from (; /pub/etext, 
and from many other sites.

For more info: 
Michael S. Hart, Director
Project Gutenberg 
National Clearinghouse for Machine Readable Texts 
Illinois Benedictine College
5700 College Road
Lisle, Illinois 60532-0900 
BITNET: [email protected]  
INTERNET: [email protected]

Travel Agents: Archie, Gopher, Veronica, WAIS, Worldwide Web and 

There is so much information on the net, it's impossible to know where 
everything is, or even how to begin looking. Fortunately, some 
computerized "agents" are in development to help sort through the massive 
data libraries on the net.

Peter Deutsch, of McGill's Computing Centre, describes the archie server 
concept, which allows users to ask a question once yet search many 
different hosts for files of interest.

"The archie service is a collection of resource discovery tools that together 
provide an electronic directory service for locating information in an 
Internet environment. Originally created to track the contents of 
anonymous ftp archive sites, the archie service is now being expanded to 
include a variety of other online directories and resource listings."

"Currently, archie tracks the contents of over 800 anonymous FTP archive 
sites containing some 1,000,000 files throughout the Internet. Collectively, 
these files represent well over 50 Gigabytes (50,000,000,000 bytes) of 
information, with additional information being added daily. Anonymous ftp 
archive sites offer software, data and other information which can be 
copied and used without charge by anyone with connection to the Internet."

"The archie server automatically updates the listing information from each 
site about once a month, ensuring users that the information they receive is 
reasonably timely, without imposing an undue load on the archive sites or 
network bandwidth."

Unfortunately the archie server at McGill is currently out of service. Other 
sites are: (USA [NY]) (USA [NJ]) (USA [MD]) (Finland/Mainland Europe) (Australia/New Zealand) (Great 

Info from: UNIX Support Group
Computing Centre
McGill University
Room 200
Burnside Hall
805 Sherbrooke Street West
Montreal, Quebec CANADA H3A 2K6 
[email protected]

Internet  Gopher 
A gopher (or go-fer) is someone who fetches necessary items from many 

Login as gopher after you telnet to and enjoy 
having a computer do all the work for you. Almost. Gopher is still in 
experimental mode at many gopherized sites. Still, it is one of the best 
ways to locate information on and in the Internet.

Besides archie, the gopher at includes fun and 
games, humor, libraries (including reference books such as the Hacker's 
Dictionary, Roget's 1911 Thesaurus, and the CIA World Fact Book), 
gateways to other US and foreign gophers, news, and gateways to other 

VERONICA: Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized 

Very new on the scene is VERONICA. Here is some information from 
Steve Foster about it.

"Veronica offers a keyword search of most gopher-server menus in the 
entire gopher web.  As Archie is to ftp archives, Veronica is to 
gopherspace. Unlike Archie, the search results can connect you directly to 
the data source. Imagine an Archie search that lets you select the data, not 
just the host sites, directly from a menu.  Because Veronica is accessed 
through a gopher client, it is easy to use, and gives access to all types of 
data supported by the gopher protocol."

"Veronica was designed as a response to the problem of resource discovery 
in the rapidly-expanding gopher web. Frustrated comments in the net news-
groups have recently reflected the need for such a service. Additional 
motivation came from the comments of naive gopher users, several of 
whom assumed that a simple-touse service would provide a means to find 
resources 'without having to know where they are.'"

"The result of a Veronica search is an automatically-generated gopher 
menu, customized according to the user's keyword specification. Items on 
this menu may be drawn from many gopher servers.  These are functional 
gopher items, immediately accessible via the gopher client É just double-
click to open directories, read files, or perform other searches -- across 
hundreds of gopher servers. You need never know which server is actually 
involved in filling your request for information. Items that are appear 
particularly interesting can be saved in the user's bookmark list."

"Notice that these are NOT full-text searches of data at gopher-server sites, 
just as Archie does not index the contents of ftp sites, but only the names of 
files at those sites.  Veronica indexes the TITLES on all levels of the 
menus, for most gopher sites in the Internet.  258 gophers are indexed by 
Veronica on Nov. 17, 1992;  we have discovered over 500 servers and will 
index the full set in the near future. We hope that Veronica will encourage 
gopher administrators to use very descriptive titles on their menus."

"To try Veronica, select it from the 'Other Gophers' menu on Minnesota's 
gopher server (, or point your gopher at: 
Name=Veronica (search menu items in most of GopherSpace) 

"Veronica is an experimental service, developed by Steve Foster and Fred 
Barrie at University of Nevada.  As we expect that the load will soon 
outgrow our hardware, we will distribute the Veronica service across other 
sites in the near future."

"Please address comments to:   [email protected]"

Is this the new world order of automated librarianship?

Wide Area Information Servers (pronounced ways) allows users to get 
information from a variety of hosts by means of a "client". The user tells 
the client, in plain English, what to look for out in dataspace. The client 
then searches various WAIS servers around the globe. The user tells the 
client how relevant each hit is, and the client can be sent out on the same 
quest again and again to find new documents. Client software is available 
for many different types of computers.

WAIStation is an easy to use Macintosh implementation of a WAIS client. 
It can be downloaded from as well as a self-running 
MediaTracks demo of WAIStation in action. Kahle also moderates a 
thoughtful WAIS newsletter and discussion group, often speculating about 
the future of libraries and librarians.

Info from: Brewster Kahle, Project Leader 
Wide Area Information Servers 
Thinking Machines Corporation 
1010 El Camino Real
Menlo Park, CA 94025 
415/329-9300 x228 
[email protected]

Tim Berners-Lee describes the Web this way: "The WWW project merges 
the techniques of information retrieval and hypertext to make an easy but 
powerful global information system. The WWW world consists of 
documents, and links.  Indexes are special documents which, rather than 
being read, may be searched.  The result of such a search is another 
('virtual') document containing links to the documents found.  The Web 
contains documents in many formats. Those documents which are 
hypertext, (real or virtual) contain links to other documents, or places 
within documents. All documents, whether real, virtual or indexes, look 
similar to the reader and are contained within the same addressing scheme. 
To follow a link, a reader clicks with a mouse (or types in a number if he or 
she has no mouse). To search and index, a reader gives keywords (or other 
search criteria). These are the only operations necessary to access the entire 
world of data."

Info from: Tim Berners-Lee 
WorldWideWeb project
1211 Geneva 23,
Tel: +41(22)767 3755  FAX:+41(22)767 7155 
email:[email protected]

Peter Scott, the creator of HYTELNET, sends this recent update: 
"HYTELNET version 6.3, the utility which gives an IBM-PC user instant-
access to all Internetaccessible library catalogs, FREE-NETS, CWISs, 
BBSs, Gophers, WAIS, etc. is now available. You can get it via anonymous 
ftp from: in the pub/hytelnet/pc subdirectory. It is listed as 

"Version 6.3 is a major upgrade. Much redundant information has been 
deleted, and errors have been corrected. New subdirectories have been 
added, which has meant that many files now have a more meaningful 
home. Also all the new/updated files created since Version 6.2 have been 

"Note: the UNZIPPED files total over 1.2 mbÉbut remember, you can 
always edit out any information you do not need, in order to save space. 
Information from Roy Tennant follows, slightly edited, describing how to 
obtain HYTELNET 6.3 from the ftp site (thanks Roy)::"

At your system prompt, enter: ftp or ftp When 
you receive the Name prompt, enter:    anonymous When you receive the 
password prompt, enter your Internet address.  When you are at the ftp> 
prompt, enter: binary At the next ftp> prompt, enter:  cd pub/hytelnet/pc 
Then enter: get After the transfer has occurred, either proceed 
with the instructions below to retrieve the UNZIP utility (which you need 
unless you already have it) or enter:   quit

The Hytelnet program is archived using a ZIP utility. To unarchive it, you 
must be able to "unzip" the file.  If you have the file PKUNZIP.EXE, it will 
unarchive the HYTELN63.ZIP file (see below for instructions). If you do 
not have it, you may retrieve it by following these instructions:

Use the above instructions for connecting to At the ftp> 
prompt, enter: binary Then enter: cd pub/hytelnet/pc Then enter: get 
pkunzip.exe After the transfer has occurred, enter:  quit

Because of the plethora of PC communications programs, I will not attempt 
to give step-by-step instructions here.  You should check the instructions 
for your software for downloading a *binary* file from your Internet 
account to your PC.

Make a new directory on your hard disk (e.g., mkdir hytelnet) Copy 
PKUNZIP.EXE and HYTELN63.ZIP into the new directory Make sure you 
are in that directory, then enter: pkunzip HYTELN63 It will then unarchive 
HYTELN63.ZIP, which contains the following files: HYTELNET.ZIP 
READNOW The file READNOW. gives full instructions for un-archiving 
HYTELNET.ZIP.  Simply put, you **MUST** unZIP the file with the -d 
parameter  so that all the subdirectories will be recursed.

To use HYTELNET, you should refer to the instructions in the release 
announcement by Peter Scott, or to the README file included with the 

"PLEASE NOTE that I offer the above instructions as a service for those 
who are unfamiliar with the steps required to download and use files from 
network sources.  I cannot be responsible for any local variations in these 
procedures which may exist.  Please contact your local computer support 
staff if you have difficulty performing these tasks."

"The UNIX/VMS version, created by Earl Fogel, is available for browsing 
by telnet to   login with   hytelnet (lower case). For more 
information on this version contact Earl at: [email protected]"

How to Get Connected

Now that you're interested in what resources are available, how does one go 
about getting connected? Time was that you needed a standard, dedicated 
connection to the Internet. Then you needed a robust computer system and 
a couple of zany gurus to keep it all running. And once a year you could 
expect an invoice in the $30,000 range to keep the data flowing.

These days, anyone can connect, from small libraries and non-profits to 
individuals. And the prices are affordable.

There is a NSFNet acceptable-use policy you must agree to adhere to if 
your traffic passes through NSFNet. It is available from the NSF Network 
Service Center.

Contact your regional network first to see what services might be available 
to you.  A list of regional nets can be obtained from the NSF Network 
Service Center (address below), or check with a local college or 
university's academic computing center. A university may be able to give 
you a guest account on its system for educational purposes.

Access to electronic mail alone is roughly $20 a month at this writing. 
Additional capabilities, including telnet and ftp, cost more, and it will cost 
$2,000 or more per year if you want to operate your own host system. The 
good news is that the costs are spiraling downwards. Here are a few other 
methods of connecting to the net. Many more are listed in the "must-have" 
books at the end of this article.

The California Education and Research Federation (CERFnet) has 
announced DIAL N' CERF USA. It allows educators, scientists, 
corporations, and individuals access to the Internet from anywhere in the 
continental US.

A toll-free number, 1-800/7CERFNET, provides subscribers with the 
capability to log in to remote machines, transfer files, and send and receive 
electronic mail, as if they had a standard, dedicated connection. The cost of 
this toll-free connection is $20 a month with a $10 per hour usage fee and 
free installation.  There is an installation charge of $50.  
California Education and Research Federation
c/o San Diego Supercomputer Center
P. O. Box 85608
San Diego, CA 92186-9784 
800/876-CERF or 619/534-5087
[email protected]

Performance Systems International 
PSI offers several permutations of network connectivity, including low-end 
email- only accounts, dial-up host connectivity on demand, and dedicated 
connections. Costs are competitive and performance is reliable. PSI has 
POPs (points of presence) in over forty U.S. cities.

PSILink, email and delayed ftp, is $19 a month for 2400 baud service or 
below, $29 per month for 9600 baud service.

GDS (Global Dialup Service) includes telnet, rlogins at $39 a month, 2400 
baud, 24  hour access.

Host DCS (Dialup Connection Service), at about $2000 per year, includes a 
full suite of internet activities (mail, news, ftp, telnet). 
Performance Systems International, Inc. 
11800 Sunrise Valley Dr. Suite 1100
Reston, VA 22091 
800/82PSI82 or 703/620-6651 FAX: 703/620-4586 
[email protected] [email protected] generates an automatic reply response 
containing summaries of various PSI products.

Software Tool & Die 
Software Tool & Die offers The World, a public access Unix system: The 
basic rates are $2 per hour and a $5 monthly account fee. Services offered 
by The World include internet electronic mail, USENET news, ClariNet - 
UPI, AP, and satellite news services, real-time chat, Unix Software, Archie, 
the Online Book Initiative (a publicly accessible repository for freely 
redistributable collections of textual information, a net-worker's library.) 
AlterNet Access - Users have access to AlterNet via ftp/telnet. The World 
can also be accessed over the Compuserve Packet Network. You do not 
have to be a Compuserve subscriber to use this network, but you will be 
billed for its use.  
Software Tool & Die
1330 Beacon Street
Brookline, MA  02146 

Daniel Dern also provides the following definitive information file on how 
to get connected: 
Daniel Dern's Short Answer to "How do I get a list of Internet 
Service/Access Providers for Individual Accounts":

For a list of Internet Service Providers contact:

NSF Network Service Center (NNSC) 
BBN Laboratories Inc.  
10 Moulton St.  
Cambridge, MA 02238 
[email protected]

The NNSC info-server utility can also automatically e-mail you a copy of 
this list and other documents.  Simply send an e-mail message to: info-
[email protected] with the following text in the body: 
request: nsfnet 
topic: <topic-here> 
topic: <topic-here> 
request: end

You don't need to put anything in the subject line.

"referral-list" gets you the NNSC's referral list of Internet Service Providers 
based in the U.S. (possibly providing international service).   This is 
generally agreed to be the most comprehensive and least-biased list.

"limited-referral" gets you the NNSC's referral list of Internet providers for 
"limited service," which includes Dial-Up IP, Internet E-mail.

"help" (recommended) gets you the Help document for the info- server 

For a list of dial-up-accessible Public-Access Internet Hosts (Unix BBSs 
that can do telnet, ftp, etc., that can you can access by calling from your PC 
and modem), see the PDIAL list, maintained by Peter Kaminski.  Kaminski 
periodically posts an updated version to the usenet groups alt.bbs.lists and 
alt.bbs.internet; also, the most recent edition may be obtained by sending e-
mail to [email protected] with the 'Send PDIAL' in the subject.  To 
be placed on a list to receive future editions automatically, send e-mail to 
[email protected] with 'Subscribe PDIAL' in the subject.

The 'nixpub' list is a frequently updated list of Public-Access unix Systems 
-Unix-based BBSs usually carrying usenet news, supporting e-mail 
connectivity to the Internet, and with some mix of local archives, multi-
user games, etc.  The full list is long (over 1,000 lines).  To get a current 
copy of 'nixpub' as an automatic e-mail reply, Send a message to 
'[email protected]' (no subject or message text needed), or to archive-
[email protected] with message body of one of these:

send nixpub long 
send nixpub short 
send nixpub long short 
index nixpub

The nixpub and nixpub.short lists are regularly reposted to the USENET 
comp.misc and alt.bbs groups

Info from: Daniel P. Dern Free-lance technology writer 
P.O. Box 309  
Newton Centre, MA 02159 
617/969-7947  FAX: 617/969-7949 
[email protected]"

Resources for Learning More

CERFnet Network Information Center (NIC) 
This is a repository for many eclectic internet guides and RFC (Requests 
For Comments) from many sources, including the famous, if technical 
"Hitchhiker's Guide to the Internet". These may be obtained via anonymous 
ftp to ( Call the CERFnet Hotline at 800-876-
CERF for assistance.  California Education and Research Federation
c/o San Diego Supercomputer Center
P. O. Box 85608
San Diego, CA 92186- 9784 
800/876-CERF or 619/534-5087
[email protected]

CICNet Resource Guide 
Over 200 pages of Internet resources, published June, 1992. Copies are 
$27.00 from CICNet, Inc. 
Attn Kim Schaffer
2901 Hubbard Pod A
Ann Arbor, MI 48109. 
313/998-6103  FAX 313/998-6105
[email protected]  

"The December Lists"  
"Information Sources:  the Internet and Computer-Mediated 
Communication"  Compiled by John December ([email protected]) 
Here is part of his information file on this excellent resource:

"This document or updates are available via anonymous ftp.  Host:, file: /pub/communications/internet-cmc.

PURPOSE:  to list pointers to information describing the Internet, 
computer networks, and issues related to computer- mediated 
communication (CMC).  Topics of interest include the technical, social, 
cognitive, and psychological aspects of CMC.

AUDIENCE:  this file is useful for those getting started in understanding 
the Internet and CMC; it compactly summarizes sources of information for 
those who are already exploring these issues.

ASSUMPTIONS:  to access many information sources listed here you must 
have access to and know how to use anonymous ftp, email, or  USENET 
newsgroups.  Some files are in TeX or PostScript format.

Section -4- NEWSGROUPS 

"Emily Postnews Answers Your Questions on Netiquette"  
Brad Templeton's ([email protected]) satirical and hilarious piece on 
how NOT to behave on the net. Emily Postnews, foremost authority on 
proper net behaviour, gives her advice.There are many places to ftp this 
file, and it is appearing on many gophers. One place to get the file is by ftp 
to ( Location: /pub/docs/words- l/Funnies. The 
file is called emily.postnews. Here is a sample: 

"Dear Miss Postnews: 
How long should my signature be?  
-- [email protected]

A: Dear Verbose: 
Please try and make your signature as long as you can.  It's much more 
important than your article, of course, so try to have more lines of signature 
than actual text.  Try to include a large graphic made of ASCII characters, 
plus lots of cute quotes and slogans.  People will never tire of reading these 
pearls of wisdom again and again, and you will soon become personally 
associated with the joy each reader feels at seeing yet another delightful 
repeat of your signature. Be sure as well to include a complete map of 
USENET with each signature, to show how anybody can get mail to you 
from any site in the world.  Be sure to include Internet gateways as well. 
Also tell people on your own site how to mail to you.  Give independent 
addresses for Internet, UUCP, and BITNET, even if they're all the same."

"Incomplete Guide to the Internet"  
The "Incomplete Guide É" was compiled by the NCSA Education Group, 
dated September, 1992. It is also available for anonymous FTP at: in the /misc directory. This excellent manual is a must. It 
even covers SLIP connections and use of Eudora.

Here are some comments about it from [email protected] (Chuck 
Farmer): "The first half of the text is devoted to the mechanics of 
telecommunications, how to connect, what to do once you are connected, 
etc. The second half of the manual is devoted to current 
telecommunications projects, past successful projects, and resources. The 
resources include FTP sites, open BBS's and networks, Free-Nets, 
subscription services, and where to get more information on each resource. 
This resource was complied by the Living Lab program (NSF funded) at 
NCSA as an attempt to encourage the proliferation of HPCC use in the K-
12 classroom. We welcome your comments and suggestions.

For further information: National Center for Supercomputing Applications
605 E Springfield Ave. 
Champaign, IL 61820  

"Library Resources on the Internet: Strategies for Selection and Use"  1992.  
RASD Occasional Paper no. 12, selling for $18 to members, $20 for 
nonmembers. It can be ordered from ALA Order Services
50 E. Huron
Chicago, IL 60611, 

Electronic versions available via FTP 
ASCII file from: 
host DLA.UCOP.EDU (, directory /pub/internet/Libcat-
host FTP.UNT.EDU (, directory /pub/library/libcat-guide.  
WordPerfect 5.1 file from: 
host HYDRA.UWO.CA (, directory libsoft/

Merit's Cruise of the Internet 
This attractive overview looks great on a Macintosh. I have not seen the 
Windows version.

From the README text: "Merit's 'Cruise of the Internet' is a computer-
based tutorial for new as well as experienced Internet 'navigators.' The 
Cruise will introduce you to Internet resources as diverse as 
supercomputing, minorities, multimedia, and even cooking. It will also 
provide information about the tools needed to access those resources."

ftp to NIC.MERIT.EDU /internet/resources. There are Macintosh and 
Windows versions, and README text files to explain installation 

A Cruise of the Internet 
Version 2.01 for Apple Macintosh computers 
December 1, 1992

This tutorial will run on any color Macintosh which is capable of 
displaying 256 colors. 

To run the Cruise tutorial you will need:

- A Macintosh II, LC or Quadra series computer 
- 8-bit color and any color monitor  (12" minimum) 
- System 6.05 or 7.x 
- Approximately 3 MB of disk space
- 4 MB RAM is recommended 
- Internet connectivity and software that does file transfers via FTP.

A Cruise of the Internet 
Version 2.0 for IBM-DOS and DOS compatibles running Windows 
October 28, 1992

This tutorial will run on any IBM-DOS or DOS-compatible computer 
which is equipped to display 256 colors at an aspect ratio of 640 x 480. 

To run the Cruise tutorial you will need:

    - An IBM-DOS or DOS-compatible computer 
- XGA- or XGA-compatible adapter set to display 256 colors at 640 x 480 
- Microsoft Windows(TM) version 3.1 
- Approximately 1.5 MB of disk space 
- 2 MB RAM minimum 
- Internet connectivity and software that does file transfers via FTP.

"Mining the Internet"  
The Net as mine metaphor is a popular theme. Tunneling through the 
network matrix in search of gems and ore is not far from fact. Sometimes it 
is hard work, and a lot of it is working in the dark.

There is a guidebook called "Mining the Internet", available from 
University of California at Davis. Here is how the Gold Country Mining 
Instructions begin: 
"Jist durn tuckered o' workin' eight t' five for a salary. ain't you? An' you 
wanna set out for parts unknown. You're hankerin' for an a'venture. Come'n 
then go 'Mining the Internet'  with me, father of Clementine (that's my 
darlin'), and I'll tell you some old timey tales and introduce you to a new 
resource for students, faculty, and staff called wide area networkingÉ 
'Taint goin' to hurt you any, and the prospect looks good for a lucky strike." 

"Mining the Internet" and "Using the Internet A&B" available from 
Computing Services
University of California
Davis, CA 95616-8563
Or electronically by anonymous ftp from ( 
directory /ucd.netdocs/mining.

NSF Network Service Center (NNSC) 
NSF Internet Tour HyperCard Stack--borrow a Macintosh long enough to 
view this, worth the effort! Includes net history, net maps, net poetry and 
lore. Free.

They also publish a very complete Internet Resource Guide ($15). Many 
items, including the HyperCard Tour to the Internet, freely available by 
anonymous ftp from
Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. 
10 Moulton Street, Cambridge, MA  02138 
[email protected]

New User's Guide to Unique and Interesting Resources on the Internet 2.2. 
Available from NYSERNet (New York State Education and Research 
Network).  It is over 145 pages and lists some 50 sources. OPACS, 
databases, information resources, and more. The New User's Guide is 
available in hard copy at the cost of $25.00. (NYSERNet Members: 
It is available electronically at ( in the directory 
/pub/resources/guides. It is called the
For more information: NYSERNet, Inc.
111 College Pl.
 Syracuse, NY 13244-4100
315/443-4120  FAX 315/425-7518  
[email protected]

NorthWestNet User Services Internet Resource Guide 
NorthWestNet has released a 300-page guide to the Internet, covering 
electronic mail, file transfer, remote login, discussion groups, online library 
catalogues, and supercomputer access.

Copies may be purchased for $20.00 from NorthWestNet. It is also 
available via anonymous ftp: in the directory 

15400 SE 30th Place, Suite 202,
Bellevue, WA  98007 
206/562-3000 FAX: 206/562-4822

"There's Gold in Them Thar Networks! or Searching for Gold in all the 
Wrong Places" written by Jerry Martin at Ohio State University. This 
document is available via Internet message to [email protected] 
Once inside the message area, give the following commands to retrieve the 

"The Yanoff Lists"  
"Special Internet Connections"  Compiled by Scott Yanoff. This is an 
indispensable weekly list of network resources available using telnet and 

It includes a few Online Public Access Catalogs, chat lines, weather 
servers, Campus Wide Information Systems, and reference resources. 
Send e-mail to the list manager (Scott Yanoff) at: 
[email protected] or ftp to The filename is 

How to Find out More About Discussion Lists

Thousands of discussion groups, LISTSERVs, and mail reflectors exist on 
the Internet. Here are several ways to find lists of interest to you.

LISTSERVs available from hosts over 20 lists, including folk_music and PUBLIB for 
public librarians. Send a LIST GLOBAL command in an interactive 
message to our host.  For example: To: [email protected] 

The SRI NIC Maintained Interest-Groups List of Lists 
This is available by FTP from  ( in the 
directory /netinfo/interest-groups.

The SRI NIC list-of-lists is also available via electronic mail. Send a 
message to [email protected] with the following line in the 
message body: 
Send netinfo/interest-groups 
To: [email protected] 
Message: Send netinfo/interest-groups

The List of Lists 
A comprehensive list-of-lists can be obtained from some larger host 
computers running LISTSERV software, by sending a LIST GLOBAL 
command in an interactive message. This will return a "one line per list" 
list of all lists known to that host as of that date.  
For example: 
To: [email protected] VM1.NoDak.EDU mail 

The global list can also be searched online.  For details send LISTSERV 
the command INFO DATABASE .

Network Accessible Database Server 
Only available on the LISTSERV at VM1.NoDak.EDU is a searchable 
interest groups database.  For example, to search of the databases for lists 
on "cats" you would send the following statements (copy them exactly into 
your mail message to the LISTSERV):

//DBlook   JOB   Echo=No 
Database Search DD=Rules 
//Rules DD * 
Select cats in lists 
Select cats in intgroup 
Select cats in new-list 

These statements search the global LISTSERV list of lists ("in lists"), and 
the local copy of the SRI-NIC Interest Groups ("in intgroup"), and the 
archives of the "new-list" list ("in new-list").  Send LISTSERV the 
command INFO DATABASE for more information.

The 5th Revision of the Directory of Scholarly Electronic Conferences 
This resource is available at [email protected] or 
[email protected] and via anonymous FTP to in the library directory. This announcement is extracted 

"This directory contains descriptions of 805 electronic conferences 
(econferences) on topics of interest to scholars.  E- conference is the 
umbrella term that includes discussion lists, interest groups, e-journals, e-
newsletters, Usenet newsgroups, forums, etc.  We have used our own 
judgment in deciding what is of scholarly interest -- and accept any advice 
or argument about our decisions.  We have placed the entries into 
categories by deciding what the *dominant* academic subject area of the 
electronic conference is."

"The 5th Revision involves an attempt to make it easier to feed the 
Directory into HyperCard(TM), dBase(TM) and other database programs. 
The first step in this effort has been to use field labels for each part of each 
record.  We've also reduced the size of each record by trying to keep topic 
information between 25-50 words (some are still bigger). Advice on this 
topic will be gratefully accepted at [email protected]"

"In addition, information about editorial policy and archive availability and 
frequency have also been included in each record.  Where possible the 
information in each record has been checked for currency and accuracy by 
checking the LISTSERV header in the case of LISTSERV based e-
conferences and contacting the moderators of other kinds of e-

"The field labels are as follows: LN: (e-conference name) TI: (topic 
information) SU: (subscription information) ED: (edited? Yes or No) AR: 
(archived?  if Yes, frequency, private=subscribers only) MO: (moderator, 
editor, listowner, manager, coordinator, etc.) IA: ('official' institutional 

"Topic descriptions are taken in whole or part from the descriptions 
provided by each listowner, editor, moderator or coordinator to the New-
List, the List of Lists, and the Internet Interest Groups file."

"Any errors are the responsibility of the compiler of the Electronic 
Conferences for Academics Files.  If you can provide corrections or 
additional information about any of these electronic conferences, please 

Diane Kovacs (Bitnet)  [email protected] (Internet) 
[email protected]

These files are available on the Directory of Scholarly E-Conferences: 
ACADLIST README  (explanatory notes for the Directory) 
ACADSTCK HQX  (binhexed, self-decompressing, HyperCard Stack of 
entire Directory - Keyword searchable) 
ACADLIST FILE1 (Anthropology- Education) 
ACADLIST FILE2 (Geography-Library and Information Science) 
ACADLIST FILE3 (Linguistics-Political Science) 
ACADLIST FILE4 (Psychology-Writing) 
ACADLIST FILE5  (Biological sciences) 
ACADLIST FILE6 (Physical sciences -now includes Academic Computing 
and Computer Science) 
ACADLIST FILE7 (business, Academia, news) 
ACADWHOL HQX (binhexed self-decompressing Macintosh M.S. Word 
4.0 document of all 7 directories) 
ACADLIST.CHANGES (Major additions and deletions)

How to retrieve the abovefiles via mail 
1. Send an e-mail message addressed to [email protected] or 
[email protected]  
2. Leave the subject and other info lines blank.  
3. The message must read: GET Filename Filetype 
(e.g.,filename=ACADLIST filetype=FILE1 or HQX or whatever) 
4. The files will be sent to you and you must receive them.  
5. If you need assistance receiving, etc. contact your local Computer 
Services people.

How to retrieve the files via anonymous FTP (File Transfer Protocol) 
1. when prompted for 'USERID,' type   ANONYMOUS.  
2. Your password will be your actual userid on your local machine.  
3. Type:  cd library 
4. Type:  GET Filename.Filetype (e.g., filename=ACADLIST 
filetype=FILE1 or HQX or whatever) 
5. The files will be transferred directly into the directory you ftp'ed from at 
your site.

New Lists and List Changes 
New lists are being started every day, and old ones fade away. To find out 
about these changes, join the NEW-LIST mailing. Here is part of their 
welcome message:

"The 'NEW-LIST' list has been established as a central address to post 
announcements of new public mailing lists. In addition, 'NEW-LIST' might 
be used as a final verification before establishing a list (to check for 
existing lists on the same topic, etc.). However, be sure to check sources 
such as the Internet List-of-Lists (SIGLIST or INTEREST-GROUPS list), 
LISTSERV GROUPS, and the LISTS database on the major LISTSERVs 
(we have the LISTS database on NDSUVM1)."

"We will gladly rebroadcast New List announcements, final list proposals 
(to avoid conflicts or redundancy), or emergency announcements about the 
availability of some list.

List Review Service 
These folks subscribe to and monitor a list for awhile and then report on it 
to everyone else. It's a great idea and a useful way to "sample" a list. Here 
is the subscription information.  Email its author to be added to the List 
Review Service list, BITNET ADDRESS: [email protected]

LIST REVIEW SERVICE         ISSN: 1060-8192 Published bi-weekly, 
when school is in session, by The University of Missouri, St. Louis 
Raleigh C. Muns, editor.  
For more information: Thomas Jefferson Library
University of Missouri St. Louis 
8001 Natural Bridge Road
St. Louis, MO 63121 

Internet Library Guides

Three different Internet library guides are available to help both beginning 
and experienced OPAC users.

Art St. George's Internet-Accessible Library Catalogs and Databases 
includes directions for Internet libraries and Campus Wide Information 
Systems as well as dialup libraries and bulletin boards in the United States. 

Billy Barron's Accessing On-line Bibliographic Databases contains a 
number of useful features such as guides to local OPAC escape sequences 
and commands.  FTP to (  

Dana Noonan's A Guide to Internet/Bitnet comes in two parts. Part two is 
about Internet Libraries. It is an easy to use guide to many national and 
international OPACS and their login and use instructions. (available via 
anonymous ftp from then CD NNEWS  (although nnews 
may not show up on the directory menu, it works.)  A printed version is 
available for $10 from Metronet.  For more information: 
226 Metro Square Building
Seventh and Robert Streets 
St. Paul, Minnesota 55101 
612/224-4801 FAX 612/224-4827

Must-have Books for the Internet Surfer

Kehoe, Brendan. (1993). Zen and the Art of the Internet: a Beginner's 
Guide (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.  The first edition is 
available for free from many FTP sites (see below) This version has about 
30 pages of new material and corrects various minor errors in the first 
edition. Includes the story of the Coke Machine on the Internet. For much 
of late 1991 and the first half of 1992, this was the document of choice for 
learning about the Internet.  ISBN 0-13-010778-6. Index. $22.00

To ftp Zen 1.0 in a PostScript version: [] directory /inet/doc [] directory /pub/zen [] directory /pub/zen as zen-1.0.tar.Z, 
zen-1.0.dvi, and zen-1.0.PS [] directory /pub/nic as zen-1.0.PS 
It is also available to read on many Gopher servers.

Krol, Ed. (1992). The Whole Internet User's Guide & Catalog. Sebastopol, 
CA: O'Reilly & Associates.  Comprehensive guide to how the network 
works, the domain name system, acceptable use, security, and other issues. 
Chapters on telnet/remote login, File Transfer Protocol, and electronic mail 
explain error messages, special situations, and other arcana. Archie, 
Gopher, Net News, WAIS, WWW, and troubleshooting each enjoy a 
chapter in this well-written book.  Appendices contain info on how to get 
connected in addition to a glossary. ISBN 1-56592-025-2. $24.95

LaQuey, Tracey, & Ryer, J. C. (1993). The Internet Companion: a 
Beginner's Guide to Global Networking.. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.  
Beginning with a forewordby Vice-President Elect Al Gore, this book 
provides an often-humorous explanation of the origins of the Internet, 
acceptable use, basics of electronic mail, netiquette, online resources, 
transferring information, and finding email addresses.  The In the Know 
guide provides background on Internet legends (Elvis sightings is one), 
organizations, security issues, and how to get connected. Bibliography.  
Index. ISBN 0-201-62224-6 $10.95

Marine, April. (1992). INTERNET: Getting Started.. Menlo Park, CA: SRI 
International.  This book has an international overview, and includes things 
the others don't, such as an index to all the RFC's (Request for Comments), 
Internet organizations, source information for the TCP/IP CD ROM, and 
the answer to "who is in charge of the Internet?" (No one is. The Internet is 
a cooperating group of independently administered networks. Some groups 
set basic policy though.) ISBN 0-944604-15-3 $39.00
333 Ravenswood Ave.
Menlo Park, CA 94025 

Tennant, Roy, Ober, J., & Lipow, A. G. (1993). Crossing the Internet 
Threshold: An Instructional Handbook. Berkeley, CA: Library Solutions 
Press.  A cookbook to run your own Internet training sessions. Real- world 
examples. Foreword by Cliff Lynch. ISBN: 1-882208-01-3 $45.00
Library Solutions Institute and Press 
2137 Oregon Street Berkeley, CA 94705 
510/841-2636  FAX: 510/841-2926 


Matrix News, the monthly newsletter edited by John S. Quarterman. 
Subscriptions are $30 per year. for a paper edition, $25/yr for an online 
edition. Matrix News, Matrix Information & Directory Services, Inc. 
1106 Clayton La.
Suite 500 W
Austin, TX 78746 
512/329-1087 FAX: 512/327-1274 
[email protected]


CNI Coalition for Networked Information 
1527 New Hampshire Ave., NW 
Washington, DC  20036 
202/232-2466  FAX: 202/462-7849 
[email protected]

CPSR  Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility 
PO Box 717 
Palo Alto, CA 94302
 415/322-3778 FAX: 415/322-3798 
CPSR Newsletter, annual Computers, Freedom and Privacy Conference, 
poster ("Technology is driving the future-- it's time to find out who's 
steering.") [email protected]

EFF The Electronic Frontier Foundation, Inc.  
155 Second St.
Cambridge, MA 02141 
617/864-1550 FAX: 617/864-0866 
Publishes the EFFector in online and print editions. T-shirts, bumper 
stickers ("I'd rather be telecommuting"; "ISDN: Make it so."; 
[email protected]

Internet Society 
1895 Preston White Drive
Suite 100 
Reston, VA 22091 
703/620-8990, FAX 703/620-0913 
Annual conference, quarterly Internet Society News.  
[email protected]

For more information about this article:
Jean Armour Polly
Manager of Network Development and User Training
NYSERNet, Inc.
111 College Place
Syracuse, NY 13244-4100
FAX: 315/425-7518
[email protected]