Which Personality Type Are You

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                       Which Personality Type Are You?

                                 by KUBARK
              -------------------------------------------------

              Tired of the same old personality
              classifications:  Is  she  a  Cancer?  Is  he  a
              Sagitarius? Well, do we have a solution for you,
              courtesy   of   the   US's   very  own   Central
              Intelligence Agency,  who had  its psychologists
              draw up  thumbnail sketches  of nine personality
              types  its  agents   might  encounter  in  their
              counterintelligence interrogations.

              These  types  are  based  on  "the  fact that  a
              person's  past  is   always  reflected,  however
              dimly, in his  present ethics  and behavior. Old
              dogs can  learn new tricks  but not  new ways of
              learning  them.  People   do  change,  but  what
              appears to be new behavior or a new
              psychological pattern is  usually just a variant
              on an old theme."

              The descriptions are  hard-core. They bite. They
              draw blood. None of this "I'm okay, you're okay"
              nonsense.  And, of  course,  you  are  not okay.
              You're under interrogation, remember?

              Here  they   are,   direct  from   the  (mostly)
              declassified      KUBARK     Counterintelligence
              Investigation manual.
              -------------------------------------------------

                           Personality Categories

              The number  of systems  devised for categorizing
              human beings is  large, and most  of them are of
              dubious  validity.  Various categorical  schemes
              are outlined in  treatises on interrogation. The
              two  typologies  most  frequently advocated  are
              psychologic-emotional  and  geographic-cultural.
              Those who urge  the former  argue that the basic
              emotional-psychological  patterns  do  not  vary
              significantly with time,  place, or culture. The
              latter  school  maintains  the  existence  of  a
              national character  and sub-national categories,
              and interrogation guides based on this principle
              recommend  approaches  tailored to  geographical
              cultures.

              It is plainly true that the interrogation source
              cannot be understood in  a vacuum, isolated from
              social context. It is  equally true that some of
              the most glaring  blunders in interrogation (and
              other operational processes)  have resulted from
              ignoring  the   source's  background.  Moreover,
              emotional-psychological          schematizations
              sometimes present atypical  extremes rather than
              the  kinds  of  people  commonly encountered  by
              interrogators.   Such   typologies  also   cause
              disagreement even among professional
              psychiatrists  and psychologists.  Interrogators
              who adopt them  and who  note in an interrogatee
              one or  two of  the characteristics  of "Type A"
              may mistakenly assign  the source  to Category A
              and assume the remaining traits.

              On the other hand, there are valid objections to
              the adoption  of  cultural-geographic categories
              for interrogation  purposes (however  valid they
              may  be as  KUCAGE  concepts).  The  pitfalls of
              ignorance  of  the  distinctive  culture of  the
              source  have   "[approx.  12   lines  deleted]".

              The  ideal  solution  would   be  to  avoid  all
              categorizing.   Basically,   all   schemes   for
              labelling  people  are  wrong  per  se;  applied
              arbitrarily,  they  always produce  distortions.
              Every interrogator knows that a real
              understanding  of the  individual  is  worth far
              more than a  thorough knowledge  of this or that
              pigeon-hole to which he  has been consigned. And
              for interrogation purposes the  ways in which he
              differs  from  the  abstract  type  may be  more
              significant than the ways  in which he conforms.

              But  KUBARK does  not  dispose  of  the  time or
              personnel to probe  the depths  of each source's
              individuality.   In   the   opening  phases   of
              interrogation, or  in a  quick interrogation, we
              are compelled to make  some use of the shorthand
              of categorizing, despite distortions. Like other
              interrogation aides,  a scheme  of categories is
              useful only  if recognized for  what it  is -- a
              set of labels  that facilitate communication but
              are not the  same as  the persons thus labelled.
              If  an   interrogatee   lies   persistently,  an
              interrogator may  report  and dismiss  him  as a
              "pathological  liar."   Yet  such   persons  may
              possess    counterintelligence     (or    other)
              information quite equal in value to that held by
              other sources, and the interrogator likeliest to
              get at  it is  the man  who is  not content with
              labelling  but  is  as  interested  in  why  the
              subject  lies   as  in   what  he   lies  about.

              With all of  these reservations,  then, and with
              the  further  observation  that  those who  find
              these     psychological-emotional     categories
              pragmatically valuable should use them and those
              who do not should  let them alone, the following
              nine  types are  described.  The  categories are
              based upon  the  fact  that a  person's  past is
              always reflected, however dimily, in his present
              ethics  and behavior.  Old  dogs  can  learn new
              tricks but not new ways of learning them. People
              do change, but  what appears  to be new behavior
              or a new psychological pattern is usually just a
              variant on the old theme.

              It is not claimed that the classification system
              presented here  is complete;  some interrogatees
              will not fit into  any one of the groupings. And
              like all other typologies, the system is plagued
              by overlap, so that some interrogatees will show
              characteristics of  more  than one  group. Above
              all, the interrogator must remember that finding
              some of  the characteristics  of the  group in a
              single  source  does  not  warrant an  immediate
              conclusion  that  the  source  "belongs to"  the
              group, and  that even  correct labelling  is not
              the  equivalent  of   understanding  people  but
              merely an aid to understanding.

              The nine major groups within the
              psychological-emotional  category   adopted  for
              this handbook are the following.

              1. The  orderly-obstinate  character.  People in
              this  category  are  characteristically  frugal,
              orderly,  and cold;  frequently  they  are quite
              intellectual.   They   are   not  impulsive   in
              behavior.  They  tend  to  think things  through
              logically and  to  act deliberately.  They often
              reach decisions very  slowly. They  are far less
              likely to  make real  personal sacrifices  for a
              cause than to  use them as  a temporary means of
              obtaining a  permanent  personal gain.  They are
              secretive and  disinclined to  confide in anyone
              else  their plans  and  plots,  which frequently
              concern the overthrow of some form of authority.
              They  are  also   stubborn,  although  they  may
              pretend cooperation  or  even believe  that they
              are cooperating. They nurse grudges.

              The   orderly-obstinate    character   considers
              himself superior to  other people. Sometimes his
              sense of superiority  is interwoven  with a kind
              of magical thinking  that includes  all sorts of
              superstitions  and  fantasies about  controlling
              his environment.  He may  even have  a system of
              morality  that  is  all  his  own. He  sometimes
              gratifies his  feeling of  secret superiority by
              provoking  unjust  treatment.   He  also  tries,
              characteristically,  to  keep  open  a  line  of
              escape  by  avoiding   any  real  commitment  to
              anything.  He  is  --  and  always  has been  --
              intensely   concerned    about    his   personal
              possessions. He is usually  a tightwad who saves
              everything, has a strong sense of propriety, and
              is  punctual  and  tidy.  His  money  and  other
              possessions have for him a personalized quality;
              they  are parts  of  himself.  He  often carries
              around shiny coins, keepsakes,  a bunch of keys,
              and other objects  having for  himself an actual
              or symbolic value.

              Usually the  orderly-obstinate  character  has a
              history  of active  rebellion  in  childhood, of
              persistently doing the exact opposite of what he
              is told to  do. As an adult  he may have learned
              to cloak his resistance and become
              passive-aggressive, but his determination to get
              his own way is  unaltered. He has merely learned
              how  to  proceed  indirectly  if necessary.  The
              profound   fear   and   hatred   of   authority,
              persisting since childhood, is often
              well-concealed in adulthood, For example, such a
              person  may  confess  easily  and quickly  under
              interrogation,  even to  acts  that  he  did not
              commit, in order  to throw  the interrogator off
              the trail of  a significant  discovery (or, more
              rarely,   because   of   feelings   of   guilt).

              The  interrogator   who   is  dealing   with  an
              orderly-obstinate  character  should  avoid  the
              role   of   hostile   authority.   Threats   and
              threatening  gestures, table-pounding,  pouncing
              on   evasions  or   lies,   and   any  similarly
              authoritative tactics will only awaken in such a
              subject his  old anxieties  and habitual defense
              mechanisms. To attain  rapport, the interrogator
              should  be  friendly.  It  will  probably  prove
              rewarding if the room  and the interrogator look
              exceptionally       neat.      Orderly-obstinate
              interrogatees  often  collect   coins  or  other
              objects as a hobby;  time spent in sharing their
              interests may thaw some of the ice. Establishing
              rapport is extremely important when dealing with
              this type.[approx 3 lines deleted]

              2. The optimistic character. This kind of source
              is almost  constantly happy-go-lucky, impulsive,
              inconsistent,  and  undependable.  He  seems  to
              enjoy a continuing  state of  well-being. He may
              be generous to  a fault, giving  to others as he
              wants to be given to. He may become an alcoholic
              or drug addict. He is not able to withstand very
              much pressure; he  reacts to  a challenge not by
              increasing  his efforts  but  rather  by running
              away  to avoid  conflict.  His  convictions that
              "something will turn  up", that "everything will
              work out  all right",  is based  on his  need to
              avoid  his  own  responsibility  for events  and
              depend upon a kindly fate.

              Such a  person has usually  had a  great deal of
              over-indulgence in  early life.  He is sometimes
              the youngest member of a large family, the child
              of a middle-aged woman (a so-called
              "change-of-life  baby"). If  he  has  met severe
              frustrations  in  later  childhood,  he  may  be
              petulant,  vengeful,  and constantly  demanding.

              As interrogation  sources, optimistic characters
              respond best to a  kindly, parental approach. If
              withholding,   they   can   often   be   handled
              effectively  by   the   Mutt-and-Jeff  technique
              discussed later in  this paper. Pressure tactics
              or  hostility  will  make  them  retreat  inside
              themselves, whereas reassurance  will bring them
              out. They  tend  to seek  promises, to  cast the
              interrogator  in  the   role  of  protector  and
              problem-solver;  and it  is  important  that the
              interrogator avoid making  any specific promises
              that cannot  be fulfilled,  because the optimist
              turned vengeful is  likely to prove troublesome.

              3. The greedy, demanding character. This kind of
              person affixes  himself to  others like  a leech
              and  clings   obsessively.   Although  extremely
              dependent  and  passive,  he constantly  demands
              that others  take  care of  him and  gratify his
              wishes. If he considers himself wronged, he does
              not seek  redress  through his  own  efforts but
              tries to persuade another to take up the cudgels
              in his behalf --  "let's you and him fight." His
              loyalties are likely to  shift whenever he feels
              that the sponsor whom  he has chosen has let him
              down.  Defectors  of  this  type feel  aggrieved
              because  their  desires  were  not satisfied  in
              their countries  of origin,  but they  soon feel
              equally  deprived  in  a  second  land and  turn
              against its government or representatives in the
              same way. The greedy  and demanding character is
              subject to  rather frequent  depressions. He may
              direct  a   desire  for   revenge  inward,  upon
              himself; in  extreme  cases suicide  may result.

              The greedy,  demanding character  often suffered
              from  very  early  deprivation  of affection  or
              security.  As  an  adult  he  continues to  seek
              substitute parents who will  care for him as his
              own, he feels, did not.

              The   interrogator   dealing   with  a   greedy,
              demanding  character  must  be  careful  not  to
              rebuff him; otherwise rapport will be destroyed.
              On the  other  hand, the  interrogator  must not
              accede to demands which  cannot or should not be
              met.  Adopting  the  tone  of  an  understanding
              father or  big  brother  is likely  to  make the
              subject  responsive.  If   he  makes  exorbitant
              requests,  an unimportant  favor  may  provide a
              satisfactory  substitute   because   the  demand
              arises  not  from  a  specific  need  but as  an
              expression of  the subject's  need for security.
              He is likely to find reassuring any
              manifestation  of  concern  for his  well-being.

              In  dealing   with  this   type  --   and  to  a
              considerable extent in  dealing with  any of the
              types herein listed --  the interrogator must be
              aware of  the  limits and  pitfalls  of rational
              persuasion. If he seeks to induce cooperation by
              an appeal  to logic,  he should  first determine
              whether  the  source's  resistance  is based  on
              logic. The appeal  will glance off ineffectually
              if  the   resistance   is  totally   or  chiefly
              emotional   rather   than  rational.   Emotional
              resistance can  be dissipated  only by emotional
              manipulation.

              4.   The   anxious,   self-centered   character.
              Although this person  is fearful,  he is engaged
              in a constant struggle  to conceal his fears. He
              is frequently  a  daredevil who  compensates for
              his anxiety by pretending  that there is no such
              thing as  danger.  He may  be a  stunt  flier or
              circus  performer  who  "proves" himself  before
              crowds. He may  also be a Don  Juan. He tends to
              brag and often lies  through hunger for approval
              or praise. As  a soldier or  officer he may have
              been  decorated  for  bravery;  but  if so,  his
              comrades may suspect  that his exploits resulted
              from a  pleasure in  exposing himself  to danger
              and  the   anticipated   delights   of  rewards,
              approval, and applause. The anxious,
              self-centered  character  is  usually  intensely
              vain and equally sensitive.

              People  who   show  these   characteristics  are
              actually  unusually   fearful.  The   causes  of
              intense concealed  anxiety  are too  complex and
              subtle to  permit discussion  of the  subject in
              this paper.

              Of greater  importance to  the interrogator than
              the  causes  is   the  opportunity  provided  by
              concealed anxiety for successful manipulation of
              the source. His  desire to  impress will usually
              be quickly evident. He  is likely to be voluble.
              Ignoring or ridiculing  his bragging, or cutting
              him short  with  a demand  that he  get  down to
              cases, is  likely to  make him  resentful and to
              stop  the   flow.   Playing  upon   his  vanity,
              especially by praising his courage, will usually
              be a  successful tactic  if employed skillfully.
              Anxious,  self-centered  interrogatees  who  are
              withholding significant  facts, such  as contact
              with a hostile service,  are likelier to divulge
              if made to feel  that the truth will not be used
              to  harm  them  and  if  the  interrogator  also
              stresses the  callousness  and stupidity  of the
              adversary in sending so valiant a person upon so
              ill-prepared a  mission. There  is little  to be
              gained  and much  to  be  lost  by  exposing the
              nonrelevant lies of  this kind  of source. Gross
              lies about deeds  of daring,  sexual prowess, or
              other "proofs" of courage and manliness are best
              met   with   silence   or   with  friendly   but
              noncommittal  replies  unless  they  consume  an
              inordinate amount of time. If operational use is
              contemplated,  recruitment   may   sometimes  be
              effected through such  queries as,  "I wonder if
              you would  be willing  to undertake  a dangerous
              mission."

              5.  The  guilt-ridden  character.  This kind  of
              person   has   a   strong   cruel,   unrealistic
              conscience.  His  whole  life  seems devoted  to
              reliving  his feelings  of  guilt.  Sometimes he
              seems determined  to  atone; at  other  times he
              insists that whatever went wrong is the fault of
              somebody  else.   In   either  event   he  seeks
              constantly  some  proof  or external  indication
              that the  guilt  of others  is greater  than his
              own. He is often caught up completely in efforts
              to prove that  he has  been treated unjustly. In
              fact, he may  provoke unjust  treatment in order
              to assuage  his  conscience  through punishment.
              Compulsive gamblers who find no real pleasure in
              winning but do  find relief  in losing belong to
              this class. So do persons who falsely confess to
              crimes. Sometimes  such  people  actually commit
              crimes  in order  to  confess  and  be punished.
              Masochists  also   belong   in   this  category.

              The causes of  most guilt  complexes are real or
              fancied wrongs  done to  parents or  others whom
              the subject felt he  ought to love and honor. As
              children such  people  may have  been frequently
              scolded  or  punished.  Or  they  may have  been
              "model"  children  who   repressed  all  natural
              hostilities.

              The   guilt-ridden   character    is   hard   to
              interrogate.  He   may   "confess"   to  hostile
              clandestine activity, or  other acts of interest
              to  KUBARK,  in  which   he  was  not  involved.
              Accusations levelled at  him by the interrogator
              are likely to trigger such false confessions. Or
              he may remain silent  when accused, enjoying the
              "punishment."   He  is   a   poor   subject  for
              LCFLUTTER.  The  complexities  of  dealing  with
              conscience-ridden interrogatees  vary  so widely
              from case to  case that  it is almost impossible
              to list  sound  general principles.  Perhaps the
              best  advice  is  that  the  interrogator,  once
              alerted  by   information  from   the  screening
              process  (see  Part  VI)  or  by  the  subject's
              excessive preoccupation  with  moral judgements,
              should  treat  as  suspect  and  subjective  any
              information provided  by the  interrogatee about
              any matter  that  is  of moral  concern  to him.
              Persons with  intense  guilt feelings  may cease
              resistance  and cooperate  if  punished  in some
              way,  because of  the  gratification  induced by
              punishment.

              6. The character  wrecked by  success is closely
              related to the guilt-ridden character. This sort
              of  person  cannot  tolerate  success  and  goes
              through life failing  at critical  points. He is
              often accident-prone.  Typically  he has  a long
              history  of   being  promising   and  of  almost
              completing   a    significant    assignment   or
              achievement  but   not  bringing   it  off.  The
              character who  cannot  stand success  enjoys his
              ambitions as long  as they  remain fantasies but
              somehow ensures that they  will not be fulfilled
              in reality.  Acquaintances  often feel  that his
              success is just around the corner, but something
              always intervenes.  In actuality  this something
              is  a sense  of  guilt,  of  the  kind described
              above.  The  person  who  avoids  success has  a
              conscience  which   forbids  the   pleasures  of
              accomplishment  and  recognition. He  frequently
              projects his guilt  feelings and  feels that all
              of his  failures were  someone else's  fault. He
              may have  a strong need  to suffer  and may seek
              danger or injury.

              As interrogatees these  people who "cannot stand
              prosperity" pose  no special  problem unless the
              interrogation impinges  upon  their  feelings of
              guilt or  the reasons  for their  past failures.
              Then  subjective  distortions,  not facts,  will
              result. The successful interrogator will isolate
              this area of unreliability.

              7. The schizoid or  strange character lives in a
              world of fantasy much  of the time. Sometimes he
              seems  unable to  distinguish  reality  from the
              realm of his own  creating. The real world seems
              to him empty  and meaningless,  in contrast with
              the mysteriously  significant world  that he has
              made.  He   is   extremely  intolerant   of  any
              frustration that occurs  in the  outer world and
              deals with  it by  withdrawal into  the interior
              realm.

              He has no  real attachments  to others, although
              he may attach  symbolic and  private meanings or
              values to other people.

              Children  reared in  homes  lacking  in ordinary
              affection  and  attention  or  in orphanages  or
              state-run communes may  become adults who belong
              to this category.  Rebuffed in  early efforts to
              attach  themselves   to  another,   they  become
              distrustful of attachments  and turn inward. Any
              link to a group  or country will be undependable
              and, as a rule, transitory. At the same time the
              schizoid  character   needs  external  approval.
              Though he  retreats  from reality,  he  does not
              want to feel abandoned.

              As  an interrogatee  the  schizoid  character is
              likely to lie  readily to  win approval. He will
              tell  the   interrogator  what   he  thinks  the
              interrogator wants to  hear in  order to win the
              award of  seeing a  smile on  the interrogator's
              face.  Because  he  is  not  always  capable  of
              distinguishing between fact  and fantasy, he may
              be unaware  of  lying. The  desire  for approval
              provides the interrogator with a handle. Whereas
              accusations  of lying  or  other  indications of
              disesteem  will  provoke   withdrawal  from  the
              situation, teasing the truth out of the schizoid
              subject  may  not  prove   difficult  if  he  is
              convinced that he  will not  incur favor through
              misstatements or  disfavor  through  telling the
              truth.

              Like the  guilt-ridden  character,  the schizoid
              character  may  be  an  unreliable  subject  for
              testing by LCFLUTTER  because his internal needs
              lead him to confuse  fact with fancy. He is also
              likely to  make an  unreliable agent  because of
              his incapacity  to deal  with facts  and to form
              real relationships.

              8. The  exception believes  that the  world owes
              him a  great deal. He  feels that  he suffered a
              gross  injustice,  usually  early  in life,  and
              should be  repaid.  Sometimes the  injustice was
              meted out impersonally,  by fate,  as a physical
              deformity,  an  extremely   painful  illness  or
              operation in childhood, or the early loss of one
              parent or  both. Feeling  that these misfortunes
              were undeserved,  the exceptions  regard them as
              injustices  that   someone  or   something  must
              rectify.  Therefore they  claim  as  their right
              privileges not permitted  others. When the claim
              is  ignored  or  denied,  the exceptions  become
              rebellious, as  adolescents  often do.  They are
              convinced that the justice of the claim is plain
              for all to see  and that any refusal to grant it
              is willfully malignant.

              When interrogated, the  exceptions are likely to
              make demands  for  money, resettlement  aid, and
              other favors -- demands  that are completely out
              of proportion to the value of their
              contributions.  Any  ambiguous  replies to  such
              demands will be  interpreted as acquiescence. Of
              all the types considered  here, the exception is
              likeliest to  carry  an alleged  injustice dealt
              him by KUBARK  to the  newspapers or the courts.

              The  best general  line  to  follow  in handling
              those who believe that they are exceptions is to
              listen     attentively    (within     reasonable
              timelimits) to their  grievances and  to make no
              commitments  that  cannot  be discharged  fully.
              Defectors  from  hostile intelligence  services,
              doubles, provocateurs,  and others  who have had
              more  than passing  contact  with  a Sino-Soviet
              service may,  if they  belong to  this category,
              prove unusually  responsive to  suggestions from
              the  interrogator that  they  have  been treated
              unfairly  by  the  other  service.  Any  planned
              operational use of such persons should take into
              account the  fact  that  they have  no  sense of
              loyalty to a common cause and are likely to turn
              aggrievedly against superiors.

              9. The  average  or  normal character  is  not a
              person wholly lacking  in the characteristics of
              the other types.  He may,  in fact, exhibit most
              or all of them from  time to time. But no one of
              them is persistently dominant; the average man's
              qualities  of  obstinacy, unrealistic  optimism,
              anxiety,  and the  rest  are  not  overriding or
              imperious except for relatively short intervals.
              Moreover, his reactions to  the world around him
              are more dependent upon events in that world and
              less the  product of  rigid, subjective patterns
              than  is  true  of  the  other types  discussed.

              -------------------------------------------------

              For further  reading,  see the  complete  KUBARK
              Counterintelligence Interrogation Manual.

                                   -30-

               from The Laissez Faire City Times, Vol. 2, No.
                              36, Nov. 2, 1998


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