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Chronology of Events in the History of Microcomputers

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                          Chronology of Events
                                 in the
                        History of Microcomputers

                    Copyright (C) 1995-96 Ken Polsson
                   internet e-mail: [email protected]

The following is an ongoing history of microcomputers.  It can always
be considered a work-in-progress.  I am slowly going through magazines,
newspapers, and Internet web sites to expand it.

The numbers in the square brackets give the reference number (listed at
the end of this document), and the page number.

If you would like to volunteer information, please feel free to, and also
give me the published source that it came from, where possible.

Trademarks of companies appear for identification purposes only and are
the property of their respective holders.  A list of trademarks used in
this document appears at the end, following the "Sources" section.

Last updated: 1996 SEP 30.

1947 DEC - Three scientists at Bell Telephone Laboratories, William
           Shockley, Walter Brattain, and John Bardeen demonstrate their
           new invention of the point-contact transistor amplifier.
           [185.84] [202.131] [266.9]
1948 ??? - John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Schockley of Bell
           Labs file for a patent on the first transistor.  [9]
1952 ??? - G. W. Dummer, a radar expert from Britain's Royal Radar
           Establishment presents a paper proposing that a solid block
           of materials be used to connect electronic components, with
           no connecting wires. [185.86]
1954 MAY - Texas Instruments announces the start of commercial production
           on silicon transistors. [110]
1955 ??? - William Shockley founds Shockley Semiconductor in Palo Alto,
           California. [266.xiv] [346.58]
1956 ??? - The Nobel Prize in physics is awarded to John Bardeen, Walter
           Brattain, and William Shockley for their work on the
           transistor. [266.xiv]
1957 ??? - A group of eight engineers leave William Shockley's company to
           form Fairchild Semiconductors. [202.160] [266.xiv] (1958
           [185.88])
1958 ??? - Texas Instruments demonstrates the first integrated circuit.
           [110] (1959 [9])
1959 JUL - Fairchild Semiconductor files a patent application for the
           planar process for manufacturing transistors.  The process
           makes commercial production of transistors possible and leads
           to Fairchild's introduction, in two years, of the first
           integrated circuit.
     ??? - Texas Instruments and Fairchild Semiconductor both announce
           the integrated circuit. [185.91]
1960 ??? - IBM develops the first automatic mass-production facility for
           transistors, in New York. [202.136]
1962 JUN - Teletype ships its Model 33 keyboard and punched-tape
           terminal, used for input and output on many early
           microcomputers.
     ??? - Ivan Sutherland creates a graphics system called Sketchpad.
           [30]
1964 ??? - John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz develop the BASIC programming
           language at Dartmouth College. [9] [132] [266.140]
     ??? - Texas Instruments receives a patent on the integrated circuit.
           [110]
1966 MAY - Steven Gray founds the Amateur Computer Society, and begins
           publishing the ACS Newsletter. Some consider this to be the
           birthdate of personal computing. [208.64]
1967 JUN - The first Consumer Electronics Show is held in New York
           City.
     ??? - IBM builds the first floppy disk. [444.80]
1968 ??? - Douglas C. Engelbart, of the Stanford Research Institute,
           demonstrates his system of keyboard, keypad, mouse, and
           windows at the Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco's
           Civic Center. He demonstrates use of a word processor, a
           hypertext system, and remote collaborative work with
           colleagues. [180.42] [185.98]
     ??? - Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore leave Fairchild Semiconductors.
           [202.160] [266.xiv] [346.58]
     ??? - Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore found Intel Corporation.
           [346.58]
     ??? - Ed Roberts and Forest Mims found Micro Instrumentation
           Telemetry Systems (MITS). [266.28] [346.19]
1969 MAY - Advanced Micro Devices Incorporated is founded. [141]
     OCT - Engineers from Japan's ETI company meet with Intel to inspect
           work on their calculator IC project.  They accept the Intel
           design for a chip set, and sign an exclusive contract for the
           chips. [266.13] (Busicom company [208.67])
     ??? - (early) Intel receives a request from Japan's ETI company to
           develop integrated circuits for a line of calculators.
           [266.11] (Busicom company [106.103])
     ??? - Intel's Marcian Hoff designs an integrated circuit chip that
           could receive instructions, and perform simple functions on
           data.  The design becomes the 4004 microprocessor. [266.12]
     ??? - Intel announces a 1 KB RAM chip, which has a significantly
           larger capacity than any previously produced memory chip.
           [9]
     ??? - Bill Gates and Paul Allen, calling themselves the "Lakeside
           Programming Group" sign an agreement with Computer Center
           Corporation to report bugs in PDP-10 software, in exchange
           for computer time. [346.7]
     ??? - Xerox opens the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). [203.59]
           (1970 [266.267]) (founded by Kay Power in 1972 [343.41])
     ??? - Digital Equipment hires David Ahl as a marketing consultant.
           [266.18]
1970 DEC - Gilbert Hyatt files a patent application entitled "Single Chip
           Integrated Circuit Computer Architecture", the first basic
           patent on the microprocessor. [162] [185.193]
         - Information Sciences contacts Bill Gates and Paul Allen,
           offering them PDP-10 computer time in exchange for their
           programming expertise. [346.9]
     ??? - (spring) Work begins at Intel on the layout of the circuit for
           what would be the 4004 microprocessor. Federico Faggin
           directs the work. [266.13]
     ??? - Intel creates the first 4004 microprocessor. [106.104]
     ??? - Intel creates the 1103 chip, the first generally available
           DRAM memory chip. [176.74] [202.163]
1971 NOV - Intel introduces its 4-bit bus, 108-KHz 4004 chip - the first
           microprocessor. Initial price is US$200.  Speed is 60,000
           operations per second. It uses 2300 transistors.  It can
           address 640 bytes. Documentation manuals were written by Adam
           Osborne. [9] [176.74] [202.165] [296] [393.6] (1972
           [339.86])
         - Intel announces the first microcomputer, the MCS-4 system.  It
           uses the 4004 microprocessor, 4001 ROM chip, 4002 RAM chip,
           and 4003 shift register chip. [393.6]
     ??? - (summer) Steve Wozniak and Bill Fernandez build a computer
           with lights and switches, from parts rejected by local
           companies. They call it the Cream Soda Computer. [266.205]
     ??? - (fall) Electronic News publishes an ad from Intel promoting
           the 4004 chip. [266.14]
     ??? - Intel renegotiates its contract with ETI, gaining Intel the
           right to market the 4004 microprocessor openly. [266.14]
     ??? - The National Radio Institute introduces the first computer
           kit, for US$503. [208.66]
     ??? - The Kenback Corporation introduces the Kenback-1 computer, for
           US$750.  It uses a 1KB MOS memory made by Intel. [208.66]
     ??? - Niklaus Wirth invents the Pascal programming language. [132]
           (1969 [447.385])
     ??? - IBM introduces the "memory disk", or "floppy disk", an 8-inch
           floppy plastic disk coated with iron oxide. [202.170] (1965
           [363.46])
     ??? - Wang Laboratories introduces the Wang 1200 word processor
           system. [202.185]
     ??? - Intel introduces the 1101 chip, a 256-bit programmable memory,
           and the 1701 chip, a 256-byte erasable read-only memory
           (EROM). [208.70]
1972 AUG - Scelbi Computer Consulting Company begins design work on what
           would be the Scelbi-8H processor. [208.71]
     OCT - The first issue of People's Computer Company is released.
           [353.172]
     NOV - Intel releases its 108-KHz 8008 chip, the first 8-bit
           microprocessor. It accesses 16KB of memory. The processor was
           originally developed for Computer Terminal Corporation (later
           called DataPoint). It uses 3500 transistors. [9] [106.104]
           [208.66] [266.13] (1971 [208.70] [266.xiv]) (APR [296])
         - Atari is founded by Nolan Bushnell, and ships Pong, the first
           commercial video game. [9] [30]
     ??? - National Semiconductor introduces the IMP-16 microprocessor.
           [208.70]
     ??? - Gary Kildall implements PL/I on the Intel 4004 processor.
           [266.xiv]
     ??? - The People's Computer Company is founded. [266.xiv]
     ??? - Bill Gates and Paul Allen form the Traf-O-Data company. They
           had developed an 8008-based computer hardware/software system
           for recording automobile traffic flow on a highway. [266.xiv]
           [346.12]
     ??? - 5.25 inch diskettes first appear. [346.28]
     ??? - Xerox decides to build a personal computer to be used for
           research.  The result is the Alto computer. [263.58]
           [266.267]
1973 MAY - Design work is completed on the Micral, the first non-kit
           computer based on a microprocessor (the Intel 8008).  Built
           in France, the Micral is advertised in the U.S., but is not
           successful there.
     JUN - The term "microcomputer" first appears in print, in reference
           to the Micral.
     ??? - (late) Gary Kildall writes a simple operating system in his
           PL/M language.  He calls it CP/M (Control Program/Monitor).
           [266.138] (Control Program for Microcomputer [346.50]) (1974
           [443.433])
     ??? - Stephen Wozniak joins Hewlett-Packard. [266.xiv]
     ??? - Gary Kildall creates PL/M for the Intel 8008, based on PL/I.
           [266.137]
     ??? - IBM develops a cheap disk and drive. [444.110]
     ??? - IBM introduces the IBM 3340 hard disk unit, known as the
           Winchester, IBM's internal development code name. The
           recording head rides on a layer of air 18 millionths of an
           inch thick. [202.170]
     ??? - David Ahl protests Digital Equipment cutbacks of educational
           products, and is fired.  He is soon rehired. [266.19]
     ??? - Gary Kildall begins consulting work at Intel. [266.137]
     ??? - Scelbi Computer Consulting Company offers the first computer
           kit in the U.S. using a microprocessor, the Intel 8008-based
           Scelbi-8H, for US$565, with 1KB programmable memory. An
           additional 15KB is available for US$2760. [9] [208.66]
     ??? - Bob Metcalfe invents the Ethernet connectivity system. [156]
     ??? - The Alto workstation computer is built at Xerox' Palo Alto
           Research Center.  It uses the advanced Smalltalk language, a
           mouse input device, and the Ethernet technique of linking
           Alto computers to each other.  Less than 2000 are built in
           total. [203.59] (completed in 1974 [266.267])
1974 APR - Intel releases its 2-MHz 8080 chip, an 8-bit microprocessor. 
           It can access 64KB of memory.  It uses 6000 transistors. [9]
           [41] [108] [176.74] [266.30] [296] [346.19] (1973 [208.70])
     JUL - Radio Electronics magazine publishes an article on building a
           Mark-8 microcomputer, designed by Jonathan Titus, using the
           Intel 8008. [208.67]
     AUG - Motorola introduces its 6800 chip, an early 8-bit
           microprocessor used in microcomputers and industrial and
           automotive control devices.
     SEP - Creative Computing, the first magazine for home computerists,
           is founded. [9]
         - Hal Singer starts the Micro-8 Newsletter for enthusiasts of
           the Mark-8. [208.67]
         - Bravo is developed for the Xerox Alto computer.  It is the
           first WYSIWYG program for a personal computer. [477.158]
         - Despite being US$300,000 in debt, Ed Roberts is able to borrow
           an additional US$65,000 from the bank to complete work on
           what would be the Altair. [266.33]
     NOV - Hal Chamberlin and others begin publishing The Computer
           Hobbyist magazine. [208.67]
     DEC - Scelbi sells its last Scelbi-8H, discontinuing hardware to
           concentrate on software. [208.71]
         - Popular Electronics publishes an article by MITS announcing
           the Altair 8800 computer for US$439 in kit form.  It uses the
           Intel 8080 processor. The Altair pictured on the cover of the
           magazine is actually a mock-up, as an actual computer was not
           available. [9] [106.104] [123] [185.109] [192.3] [208.67]
           [218] [205.18] (US$397 [266.35] [346.19] [353.190]
           [415.15])
         - Les Solomon, publisher of Popular Electronics, receives Altair
           number 0001. [266.35]
     ??? - (spring) In a desperate act to save his failing calculator
           company, MITS company owner Ed Roberts begins building a
           small computer based on Intel's new 8080 chip, with plans to
           sell it for the unheardof price of US$500. [185.109]
           [266.31]
     ??? - Southwest Technical Products Company introduces the TVT-11 kit
           for US$180, and ASCII keyboard kit for US$40. [208.67]
     ??? - Texas Instruments introduces the TMS1000 one-chip
           microcomputer. [110]
     ??? - Gary Kildall, of Microcomputer Applications Associates,
           develops the CP/M operating system for Intel 8080-based
           systems. [9] [176.64] [258.224]
     ??? - Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie develop the C programming
           language. [9] (1972 [176.121]) (1975 [132])
     ??? - The RCA 1802, running at a blazing 6.4 MHz appears, considered
           one of the first RISC chips. [32]
     ??? - Engineer David Ahl suggests Digital Equipment produce an
           inexpensive version of its PDP-8 minicomputer, for US$5000. 
           Top management call the idea foolish. [203.10]
     ??? - Xerox releases the Alto computer. [266.xv]
     ??? - Gary Kildall and John Torode begin selling a disk operating
           system for microcomputers. [266.xv]
     ??? - The first copy of CP/M is sold. [266.xv]
     ??? - Lauren Solomon, 12 year old daughter of Les Solomon, publisher
           of Popular Electronics, suggests the name "Altair" for Ed
           Robert's new microcomputer. Altair was the name of where Star
           Trek's Enterprise was going that night on TV. [266.34]
           [353.190]
     ??? - Railway Express loses Ed Robert's only prototype Altair
           computer, en route to New York for review and photography for
           publishing by Popular Electronics. [266.34] [353.190]
1975 JAN - Harry Garland and Roger Melen receive Altair number 0002. 
           They had proposed in December to attach their Cyclops camera
           to the Altair, for use as a security camera. [266.38]
     FEB - Paul Allen meets with Ed Roberts to demonstrate the newly
           written BASIC interpreter for the Altair.  Despite never
           having touched an Altair before, the BASIC works flawlessly.
           [346.24] [346.257]
         - Bill Gates and Paul Allen license their newly written BASIC to
           MITS, their first customer.  This is the first computer
           language program written for a personal computer. [123]
           [176.122] [389.28]
     MAR - Fred Moore and Gordon French hold the first meeting of a new
           microcomputer hobbyist's club in French's garage, in Menlo
           Park, California. 32 people meet, including Bob Albrect,
           Steve Dompier, Lee Felsenstein, Bob Marsh, Tom Pittman, Marty
           Spergel, Alan Baum, and Steven Wozniak.  Bob Albrect shows
           off an Altair, and Steve Dompier reports on MITS, and how
           they had 4000 orders for the Altair. [185.110] [266.104]
           [301.55] [346.18] [353.200] [346.257] (APR [208.67] 266.39)
         - Ed Roberts hires Paul Allen as director of software at MITS.
           [266.40] (MAY [346.25])
     APR - The 3rd meeting of the Homebrew Computer Club is held.
           [353.208]
         - Bill Gates and Paul Allen found Micro-Soft (the hyphen is
           later dropped). [41] (JUL [346.26]) (AUG [346.257])
         - MITS delivers the first generally-available Altair 8800, sold
           for US$375 with 1KB memory. [208.67] (256 bytes [266.38])
         - Bob Marsh and Gary Ingram found Processor Technology. [266.45]
           [353.208]
     MAY - The Amateur Computer Group of New Jersey is formed. [208.67]
           [266.xv]
     JUN - MOS Technology announces the MC6501 at US$20 and the MC6502 at
           US$25.  At this point, the Intel 8080 costs about US$150. [9]
           [261.304]
         - Bob Marsh delivers the first Processor Technology 4KB memory
           boards for the Altair. [266.110] [353.210]
         - The Southern California Computer Society is formed.
           [266.184]
         - The National Computer Conference is held in Anaheim,
           California. [266.188]
         - Paul Terrell signs a deal with MITS in which Terrell would
           receive a 5% commission on every Altair sold in Northern
           California, for promoting and selling the Altair. [266.188]
     JUL - Bill Gates and Paul Allen sign a licensing agreement with
           MITS, for their implementation of the BASIC language.
           [299.8]
         - Bill Gates and Paul Allen ship 4K and 8K version of BASIC
           v2.0. [123]
         - Dick Heiser opens Arrow Head Computer Company, subtitled "The
           Computer Store", in Los Angeles, selling assembled Altairs,
           boards, peripherals, and magazines. [266.185]
     SEP - IBM's Entry Level Systems unit unveils "Project Mercury", the
           IBM 5100 Portable Computer.  It is a briefcase-size
           minicomputer with BASIC, 16KB RAM, tape storage, and built-in
           5-inch screen. Price: US$9000.  Weight: 55 pounds. [9]
           [197.xi] (Price over US$10,000 [203.10])
         - The first issue of Byte magazine is published. [9] [266.159]
     OCT - MITS releases a version of MicroSoft BASIC 2.0 for its Altair
           8800, in 4K and 8K editions. [9] [123] [208.67] [346.257]
     DEC - Paul Terrell opens the Byte Shop, in Mountain View,
           California, one of the first computer stores in the US. [34]
           [266.189]
         - IMSAI hires Ed Faber as Director of Sales. [266.193] (1976 JAN
           [266.64])
         - Lee Felsenstein and Bob Marsh begin work on a complete
           computer, 8080-based with a keyboard and color video display
           capabilities built-in. [353.240]
     ??? - (summer) IMSAI announces the IMSAI 8080 microcomputer.
           [346.32]
     ??? - The second meeting of Fred Moore/Gordon French's computer
           hobbyists group is held at the Stanford AI lab.  40 attend. 
           The name for the group is chosen: Bay Area Amateur Computer
           Users Group - Homebrew Computer Club. [353.203]
     ??? - The 4th meeting of the Homebrew Computer Club is held at the
           Peninsula School in Menlo Park.  Steve Dompier plays the
           music "Fool on the Hill" and "Daisy" using the Altair and a
           radio. [353.203]
     ??? - Wavemate releases the Jupiter II computer kit. [218]
     ??? - Southwest Technical Products releases the M6800 computer kit.
           [218] [208.67]
     ??? - Microcomputer Associates releases the JOLT computer kit.
           [218]
     ??? - Gates' and Allen's Traf-O-Data company is renamed Micro-Soft.
           [266.40]
     ??? - IBM's John Cocke begins work on project "801", to develop a
           scalable chip design that could be used in small computers as
           well as large. [205.103]
     ??? - IMSAI begins working on the IMSAI 8080. [266.63]
     ??? - Zilog is founded. [233.194]
     ??? - MITS begins work on a Motorola 6800-based Altair. [266.47]
     ??? - Sphere Corporation introduces its Sphere I computer kit,
           featuring a Motorola 6800 CPU, 4KB RAM, ROM monitor,
           keyboard, and video interface, for US$650. [9.200] [16.371]
     ??? - Cromemco is founded, by Harry Garland and Roger Melen.  The
           company is named after the Crowthers Memorial dorm at
           Stanford. [266.xv] [353.207]
1976 JAN - David Jackson founds Altos Computer Systems. [163.58]
         - Paul Terrell begins signing dealership agreements, allowing
           Byte Shop franchises to open elsewhere in the US. [266.189]
     FEB - Bill Gates write software routines for BASIC on the Altair to
           use diskettes for storage. [346.28]
         - Lee Felsenstein and Bob Marsh deliver the first Processor
           Technology Sol computer to Popular Electronics magazine
           publisher Les Solomon. [353.242]
         - David Bunnell publishes an open letter from Bill Gates to the
           microcomputer hobbyists, complaining of software piracy.
           [346.30] [389.28]
     MAR - Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs finish work on a computer circuit
           board, that they call the Apple I computer. [46]
         - The First World Altair Computer Convention is held in
           Albuquerque, New Mexico. [123] [266.46] [346.31]
         - Paul Terrell incorporates Byte, Inc. [266.189]
     APR - Bill Gates writes a second open letter to computer hobbyists,
           condemning software piracy. [346.32]
         - Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak form the Apple Computer Company,
           on April Fool's Day. [9] [46] [140] [218]
         - The National Semiconductor SC/MP 8-bit microprocessor appears,
           providing early advanced multiprocessing. [32]
     MAY - Digital Research copyrights CP/M, its industry-standard
           microcomputer operating system, created by company founder
           Gary Kildall. [41]
         - The Trenton Computer Festival is held, in New Jersey.
           [266.180]
     JUN - The Western Digital MCP-1600 3-chip CPU appears. [32]
         - The Texas Instruments TMS 9900, one of the first true 16-bit
           microprocessors, appears. [32]
         - The Midwest Area Computer Club conference is held. [266.181]
         - Processor Technology unveils the Sol-20 to the public at PC
           '76 at the Shelbourne Hotel in Atlantic City.  It is sold in
           kit form, using the Intel 8080 CPU. [205.20] [266.116]
           [353.242]
     JUL - The Apple I computer board is sold in kit form, and delivered
           to stores by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.  Price: US$666.66.
           [46] [218]
         - Paul Terrell orders 50 Apple computers from Steve Jobs, for
           his Byte Shop. [266.213]
         - Zilog releases the Z-80, an 8-bit microprocessor whose
           instruction set is a superset of the Intel 8080. [32]
           [202.168] (early 1975 [9]) (1975 DEC [346.257])
     AUG - Paul Terrell receives his order for 50 Apple computers.
           [266.213]
         - iCOM advertises their "Frugal Floppy" in BYTE magazine, an
           8-inch floppy drive, selling for US$1200. [9]
         - Several computer hobbyist clubs hold their first convention at
           the Personal Computing Festival, in Atlantic City, New
           Jersey. [185.111] [266.181]
         - Steve Wozniak begins work on the Apple II. [266.218]
     SEP - Computer Shack is incorporated. The name is later changed to
           ComputerLand, due to objections from Radio Shack. [266.xv]
     OCT - Commodore International buys MOS Technology. [261.304]
           [266.49]
         - Mike Markkula, ex-marketing wizard at Intel, visits Steve
           Jobs' garage, to see the Apple computers. [266.215]
         - Steve Wozniak decides to remain at Hewlett-Packard, but is
           soon convinced that he should leave and join Apple Computer
           permanently. [266.218]
     NOV - The tradename "Microsoft" is registered. [123] [389.28]
         - ComputerLand opens a pilot store in Heyward, California, as a
           retail outlet and a training facility for franchise owners.
           [266.194] (Hayward [346.258])
         - Paul Allen resigns from MITS. [266.50] [346.35]
     DEC - Bill Gates drops out of Harvard. [346.35]
         - Michael Shrayer completes writing Electric Pencil, the first
           popular word-processing program for microcomputers. [9]
           [266.148] [346.258]
         - Shugart announces its 5.25 inch "minifloppy" disk drive for
           US$390. [9] [346.29] [363.46] [264.50] [346.258]
         - Dick Wilcox demonstrates his Alpha Micro, a multi-user CPU
           board, at a meeting of the Homebrew Computer Club.
           [266.116]
         - Don French and Steve Leininger are given official blessings to
           develop a microcomputer for Radio Shack. [266.197]
         - Steve Wozniak and Randy Wigginton demonstrate the first
           prototype Apple II at a Homebrew Computer Club meeting.
           [353.254]
     ??? - (early) Hewlett-Packard begins Project Capricorn, to build a
           computer-like calculator. [266.264]
     ??? - Advanced Micro Devices and Intel sign a patent cross-license
           agreement. [141]
     ??? - Fairchild introduces the Channel F, the first programmable
           (via plug-in cartridges) home video game system. Price:
           US$170. [292]
     ??? - Processor Technology releases VDM, a video display module. It
           works on the Altair, IMSAI, Sol, Polymorphic computers, and
           any other with an S-100 bus. [266.133]
     ??? - Gary Kildall founds Intergalactic Digital Research. [266.xv]
           [346.51] [346.280]
     ??? - Kentucky Fried Computers is founded. [266.xv]
     ??? - Tom Snyder's "Tomorrow" TV show features the Sol computer,
           playing a game called "Target". [353.243]
     ??? - U.S. Robotics is founded, in Skokie, Illinois. [235]
     ??? - MOS Technology Inc. announces the KIM-1 Microcomputer System,
           with 1-MHz 6502 CPU, 1KB RAM, 2KB ROM monitor, 23-key keypad,
           LED readout, cassette and serial interfaces, for US$245.
           [193.14] [261.304] (1975 [9])
     ??? - MITS unveils the Altair 680, based on the Motorola 6800
           microprocessor. [192.42]
     ??? - Steve Wozniak proposes that Hewlett-Packard create a personal
           computer.  Steve Jobs proposes the same to Atari.  Both are
           rejected. [9]
     ??? - Warner Communications buys Atari from Nolan Bushnell for US$26
           million. [30] [357.6] [482.D8] (US$28 million [355.14])
     ??? - Lore Harp and Carole Ely form Vector Graphic Incorporated,
           selling memory boards for S-100 bus systems. [202.201]
     ??? - George Morrow founds MicroStuf. [266.xv]
     ??? - The first issue of Dr. Dobbs is published. [266.xv]
     ??? - IMSAI begins shipping the IMSAI 8080. [266.48]
     ??? - Polymorphic Systems introduces the Poly-88. [266.48]
     ??? - Stephen Wozniak demonstrates the Apple I at the Homebrew
           Computer Club. [266.xv]
     ??? - The bus of the Altair is named (or renamed) the S-100 bus.
           [266.48]
1977 JAN - The Apple Computer Company is incorporated. [46] (MAR
           [353.259])
         - Apple employees move into an office on Steven Creek Boulevard
           in Cupertino, California. [353.259]
         - A working model of the first Radio Shack computer is
           demonstrated to company president, Charles Tandy. [266.197]
         - Commodore's Chuck Peddle shows the first PET to Radio Shack,
           hoping to have Radio Shack sell it. [445.256]
         - Xerox puts David Liddle in charge of developing the Alto
           computer into a marketable product.
     FEB - The first ComputerLand franchise is opened in Morristown, New
           Jersey, under the name Computer Shack. [9] [266.194] (Tandy
           franchise [346.258])
         - Apple Computer moves from Jobs' garage to an office in
           Cupertino. [266.219]
         - Bill Gates and Paul Allen sign a partnership agreement to
           officially create the Microsoft company. [123]
     APR - The First West Coast Computer Faire is held, in San
           Francisco's Brooks Civic Auditorium. Nearly 13,000 attended
           the weekend event. [203.7] [266.145] [353.265]
         - Commodore Business Machines Inc. unveils its PET computer at
           the West Coast Computer Faire.  The PET includes a 6502 CPU,
           4KB RAM, 14KB ROM, keyboard, display, and tape drive, for
           US$600. [9] [266.182] [346.46] [445.256] (US$800 [176.54]
           [190.81]) (MAR [41])
         - Apple Computer introduces the Apple II at the West Coast
           Computer Faire.  The computer features a 6502 CPU, 4KB RAM,
           16KB ROM, keyboard, 8-slot motherboard, game paddles,
           graphics/text interface to color display, and built-in BASIC,
           for US$1300. It is the first personal computer with color
           graphics. [9] [41] [46] [120] [140] [176.54] [203.7]
           [266.182] [346.47] (MAR [185.114])
         - Apple Computer delivers its first Apple II system. [196.20]
           (MAY [528.352])
     MAY - 10 months after its introduction, 175 Apple I kits have sold.
           [218]
         - Pertec buys MITS and the Altair line for US$6 million in
           stock. [233.194] [266.51] [346.44]
     JUN - Camp Retupmoc, the first week-long computer camp, is held in
           Terre Haute, Indiana. [9]
         - Apple II computers are shipped to Europe by independent
           distributor Eurapple. [46]
     JUL - Microsoft ships "Microsoft FORTRAN" for CP/M-based computers.
           [123] [346.49]
     AUG - Radio Shack (a division of Tandy Corp.) announces the TRS-80
           microcomputer, with Z80 CPU, 4KB RAM, 4KB ROM, keyboard, 
           black-and-white video display, and tape cassette for US$600.
           [9] [195.49] [202.198] [319.43] (US$300 [266.198]) (JUN [41])
           (1978 [205.24])
     SEP - One month after launching the TRS-80, 10,000 are sold, despite
           sales projections of only 3,000 per year. [266.198]
     OCT - Radio Shack opens its first all-computer store, in Fort Worth,
           Texas. [266.198]
     NOV - Apple Computer releases Applesoft, a version of BASIC with
           floating-point capabilities.  It is licenced from Microsoft.
           [218]
         - Paul Terrell sells his chain of 74 Byte Shops, valued at US$4
           million. [266.190]
     DEC - At an executive board meeting at Apple Computer, president
           Mike Markkula lists the floppy disk drive as the company's
           top goal. [218] [266.225]
         - Microsoft wins a legal battle with Pertec, on ownership of the
           BASIC Gates and Allen wrote and licensed to MITS. [346.45]
     ??? - (fall) Microsoft grants Apple Computer a license to
           Microsoft's BASIC. [346.48]
     ??? - Vector Graphic Inc. introduces the Vector Graphic I system.
           [202.203]
     ??? - The first issue of Personal Computing is published, by David
           Bunnell. [266.xv]
     ??? - Compu-Serv changes its name to CompuServe Incorporated.
           [218]
     ??? - Bally completes designs of a home computer. [267.48]
     ??? - Dan Bricklin conseives the idea for the VisiCalc spreadsheet
           program. [346.101]
     ??? - Heath Company introduces the H-8 personal computer kit, based
           on the Intel 8080. [246.81]
     ??? - IMSAI licences use of CP/M for its microcomputers for
           US$25,000. [266.139]
     ??? - Atari introduces the Atari Video Computer System, later
           renamed the Atari 2600. [292]
1978 JAN - Apple Computer demonstrates its first working prototype Apple
           II disk drive at the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas.
           [218]
         - Ward Christianson and Randy Suess begin building the
           Computerized Bulletin Board System, in Chicago, Illinois.
           [229.150]
     FEB - The first major microcomputer bulletin board, run by Ward
           Christensen and Randy Seuss, goes online, in Chicago,
           Illinois, USA. [9] [165.37] [229.150] [373.15]
     MAR - The Second West Coast Computer Faire is held, in San Jose,
           California. [208.16] [266.183]
     MAY - Intel begins production of the 8086 microprocessor. [231.8]
     JUN - Intel introduces the 4.77-MHz 8086 microprocessor.  It uses
           16-bit registers, a 16-bit data bus, and 29,000 transistors.
           Price is US$360.  It can access 1 MB of memory. [108]
           [176.74] [177.102] [216.22] [296] [447.144] [465.25]
           [477.124] [540.64] (APR [346.61]) (1979 [120])
         - Microsoft ships Microsoft COBOL. [346.259]
         - Apple Computer introduces the Disk II, a 5.25 inch floppy disk
           drive linked to the Apple II by cable. Price: US$495,
           including controller card. [46] [203.46] [231.218] [266.227]
           [346.48] (JUL [218])
         - The National Computer Conference is held in Anaheim,
           California.  Attendance is 57,240. [224.10]
         - Pertec ceases production of the Altair. [233.194]
     AUG - MicroPro introduces WordMaster. [346.259]
         - Digital Equipment opens a retail store in a shopping mall, for
           selling small computer systems priced below US$10,000.
           [233.194]
         - Paul Terrell demonstrates the Z80-based Exidy Sorcerer at the
           Personal Computing Show in Philadelphia. [268.112]
     OCT - The first Personal Computer Expo is held, in New York City.
           [194.178]
         - The first issue of SoftSide is published, for TRS-80
           enthusiasts. [269.216]
     DEC - Epson announces the MX-80 dot matrix printer, which
           established a new standard in high performance with low price
           for printers. [9]
         - Atari announces the Atari 400 and 800 personal computers,
           using the 6502 microprocessor. The Atari 800 was code-named
           "Colleen". [9] [231.83] [252.50]
         - Microsoft's sales for the year reach US$1 million. [123]
     ??? - (spring) Dennis Hayes begins Hayes Microcomputer Products.
           [451.A1]
     ??? - (summer) Apple Computer hires Chuck Peddle, designer of the
           6502 microprocessor and Commodore's PET. [266.231]
     ??? - (fall) Microsoft begins developing BASIC for the Intel 8086
           processor. [346.62]
     ??? - (late) Apple Computer begins work on an enhanced Apple II with
           custom chips, code-named Annie. [266.231]
     ??? - (late) Apple Computer begins work on a supercomputer with a
           bit-sliced architecture, code-named Lisa. [266.231]
     ??? - (end) Chuck Peddle quits Apple Computer and returns to
           Commodore. [266.231]
     ??? - Taito develops the Space Invaders arcade game in Japan.
           [267.46]
     ??? - Taito releases the Space Invaders game to arcade centers.
           [367.34]
     ??? - Exidy Systems introduces the Sorcerer Microcomputer.
           [280.53]
     ??? - Bally begins shipping its Bally Professional Arcade game.
           [267.50] [292]
     ??? - Texas Instruments introduces the TMS-4164, a single 5V 64KB
           programmable memory chip. Initial price is US$125.
           [230.209]
     ??? - Cinematronics releases Space Wars to arcades. [338.68]
     ??? - Tandy opens its first dedicated computer center. [34]
     ??? - Intel unveils its 8085 CPU chip. [120]
     ??? - Apple Computer begins research and development on what would
           become the Lisa. [266.xv]
     ??? - APF Electronics introduces the MP-1000 video game unit.
           [275.38]
     ??? - Seymour Rubenstein forms MicroPro International. [266.152]
           [346.124]
     ??? - Scott Adams founds Adventure International. [266.135]
     ??? - Christopher Curry founds Acorn Computer Ltd. in England.
           [277.24]
     ??? - Bob Frankston and Dan Bricklin found Software Arts.
           [266.230]
     ??? - Xerox donates 50 Alto computers to Stanford, Carnegie-Mellon,
           and MIT. [263.58]
     ??? - Magnavox releases the Odyssey2 cartridge-based console game
           system. [292]
     ??? - Hermann Hauser founds Acorn Computers, in England. [347.59]
1979 JAN - Microsoft moves its offices from Albuquerque, New Mexico to
           Bellevue, Washington. [123] [346.60] [415.43]
     FEB - Apple Computer releases DOS 3.2. [218]
     MAR - Zilog ships samples of the 16-bit Z-8000 processor.
           [234.118]
     APR - Microsoft 8080 BASIC wins the ICP Million Dollar Award, the
           first microprocessor product to do so. [123]
         - Taito first shows the Space Invaders game, in Japan.
           [276.258]
     MAY - Software Arts demonstrates VisiCalc at the 4th West Coast
           Computer Faire. Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston wrote it
           during 1978-79, under the company name Software Arts, under
           contract to Personal Software. [9.202] [80.126] [176.64]
           [203.9] [218] [266.xv] [346.102] (JUN [41])
         - Seattle Computer Products makes the first prototype of its
           8086 microprocessor card for the S-100 bus. [2]
         - Microsoft tries out its 8086 BASIC on Seattle Computer
           Products' 8086 processor card for the first time. [346.63]
         - Processor Technology closes. [266.124]
         - Tandy/Radio Shack announces the TRS-80 Model II. [266.198]
     JUN - The Source telecommunications service goes online. [9]
         - Apple Computer introduces the Apple II Plus, with 48KB memory,
           for US$1195. [46] [200.1] [218]
         - Apple Computer introduces its first printer, the Apple
           Silentype, for US$600. It is a Trendcom Model 200, released
           under the Apple name. [46] [218]
         - Intel introduces the 8088 microprocessor.  It was created as a
           stepping stone to the 8086, as it operates on 16 bits
           internally, but supports an 8-bit data bus, to use existing
           8-bit device-controlling chips.  It contains 29,000
           transistors, and can address 1MB of memory. [296] [477.124]
           [536.502] [540.64] [203.12] (FEB [177.102]) (1981 [120])
         - Texas Instruments introduces the TI-99/4 personal computer,
           for an initial price of US$1500. It uses the TI 9940 16-bit
           microprocessor. [9] [202.209] (US$1150 [246.81])
         - MicroPro releases the WordStar word processor, written by Rob
           Barnaby. [266.153] [346.259] (written by Seymour Rubenstein
           [176.64])
         - Microsoft announces Microsoft BASIC 8086 at the National
           Computer Conference. [123] [346.259] [389.28]
     JUL - Apple Computer releases DOS 3.2.1. [218]
         - CompuServe begins a service to computer hobbyists called
           MicroNET, offering bulletin boards, databases, and games.
           [218]
     AUG - Microsoft releases its Assembler language for 8080/Z80
           microprocessors. [346.260]
         - Wayne Ratliff develops the Vulcan database program (Ashton-
           Tate later markets it as dBASE II). [9] [346.259]
     SEP - Motorola's 68000 16-bit microprocessor appears.  It uses
           68,000 transistors, giving it its name. [176.75] [423.136]
           (1980 [120])
         - IMSAI closes. [266.77]
         - Apple Computer sells 35,000 Apple II computers for the fiscal
           year. [266.231]
     OCT - 2.5 years after the introduction of the Apple II, 50,000 units
           have been sold. [218]
         - Personal Software releases VisiCalc for the Apple II. [46]
           [140] [218] [266.230] [346.102] (NOV [120])
         - Atari begins shipping the Atari 400 and Atari 800 personal
           computers.  The 400 comes with 8KB, selling for US$550.  The
           800 sells for US$1000. [249.110]
         - Radio Shack begins shipping the TRS-80 Model II to users.
           [250.116]
         - Mattel announces a keyboard unit for the Intellivision. 
           Estimated retail price: US$700. [289.132]
     NOV - Texas Instruments begins shipping the TI 99/4. [249.110]
         - ComputerLand grows to include 100 franchises. [266.195]
     DEC - The first Comdex show is held in Las Vegas.
         - A group of Apple Computer engineers is given a demo of Xerox
           Palo Alto Research Center's Alto computer system, in exchange
           for Xerox buying 100,000 Apple Computer shares for US$1
           million. [180.77] [266.xv] [346.146]
         - Sears begins selling Atari home computers. [269.14]
     ??? - (spring) Atari develops the Asteroids computer game.
           [281.78]
     ??? - (spring) Microsoft completes work on BASIC for the Intel 8086
           processor. [346.62]
     ??? - (fall) Atari produces the first coin-operated Asteroids game
           machine. [281.78]
     ??? - (fall) Microsoft begins developing an 8086 version of FORTRAN.
           [346.72]
     ??? - (end) Mattel Electronics releases the Intellivision video game
           system. [292]
     ??? - Seagate Technologies (hard disk maker) is founded, in Scotts
           Valley, California. [227]
     ??? - Shugart Associates publishes the Shugart Associates Systems
           Interface (SASI). [543]
     ??? - The National Computer Conference is held in New York.
           [346.63]
     ??? - Tim Patterson of Seattle Computer Products demonstrates his
           8086 card with Microsoft at the LifeBoat Associates booth at
           the National Computer Conference. [346.63]
     ??? - Apple Computer begins work on "Sara", the code name for what
           will be the Apple III. [203.49] (1978 [266.232])
     ??? - Apple Computer releases the word processing program
           AppleWriter 1.0. [218]
     ??? - Michael Shane founds Leading Edge Products. [203.24]
     ??? - Vector Graphic Inc. introduces the Vector Graphic System B
           system. [202.203]
     ??? - Schlumberger Ltd. sells Heath Company to Zenith Radio Corp.
           for US$64.5 million. [246.81]
     ??? - Niklaus Wirth invents the Modula-1 programming language.
           [132]
     ??? - NEC releases its NEC PC 8001 microcomputer in Japan, the first
           for that country. [346.55]
     ??? - Atari founder Nolan Bushnell leaves the company, to manage
           Pizza Time Theatre. [335.8]
     ??? - IMSAI declares bankruptcy. Its assets are purchased by
           Fischer-Freitas. [251.174] [266.xv]
     ??? - Bob Metcalfe founds 3Com Corporation. [156]
     ??? - IBM introduces the IBM 3800 laser printer, capable of printing
           20,000 lines per minute. [202.171]
     ??? - Hayes Microcomputer Products introduces the 110/300 baud
           Micromodem II for the Apple II, for US$380. [218]
1980 JAN - Mike Harvey begins the Nibble magazine for Apple Computer
           products. [218]
         - Universal Data Systems announces the 103LP 300 bps modem,
           connecting directly into the phone line, requiring no
           additional power.  Price: US$195. [252.44]
         - Morrow Designs advertises the 26 MB DISCUS M26 hard drive
           system for US$5000. [248.69]
         - The first issue of S-Eighty is published, for TRS-80
           enthusiasts. [269.216]
         - The first issue of Computer Shopper is published. [269.216]
         - Hewlett-Packard completes work on the Capricorn project,
           producing the HP-85.  With a 32-character wide CRT display,
           small built-in printer, cassette tape recorder, and keyboard,
           it sold for US$3250. [266.265]
     FEB - Microsoft begins development on an 8086 version of AT&T's UNIX
           operating system. [346.74]
         - Sinclair Research announces the ZX80 computer in the North
           American market. It uses a 3.25-MHz NEC Technologies 780-1
           8-bit microprocessor, and comes with 1KB RAM and 4KB ROM. [9]
           [185.117] [198.vii] [201.vi] [255.94]
         - Mattel begins shipping the game component of the
           Intellivision. [268.48]
     MAR - Atari ad: "Atari promises to be the most popular Personal
           Computer System of the 1980's!". [249.124]
         - Microsoft Corp. announces its first hardware product, the Z-80
           SoftCard for the Apple II.  This card gives the Apple II CP/M
           capability, contributing greatly to Apple Computer's success.
           The card includes CP/M and Microsoft's Disk BASIC, all for
           US$349. The announcement is made at the West Coast Computer
           Faire in San Francisco.  Tim Patterson of Seattle Computer
           Products had built several prototypes before Microsoft's Don
           Burdis took over the project. In its first year of release,
           25,000 units are sold. [9] [252.47] [266.269] [346.65] (APR
           [123]) (AUG [346.260])
         - Satellite Software International ships WordPerfect 1.0 for
           Data General minicomputers. [330.108]
         - At the West Coast Computer Faire, Adam Osborne approaches Les
           Felsenstein with the idea of starting a computer company.
           [266.261]
     APR - Tim Patterson begins writing an operating system for use with
           Seattle Computer Products' 8086-based computer. [346.75]
         - Data General announces the Eclipse MV/8000.  Code name during
           development was Gallifrey Eagle. [352.289]
         - Seattle Computer Products decides to make their own disk
           operating system (DOS), due to delays by Digital Research in
           releasing a CP/M-86 operating system. [2]
     MAY - Apple Computer introduces the Apple III at the National
           Computer Conference, in Anaheim, California. The Apple III
           uses a 2-MHz 6502A microprocessor, and includes a 5.25-inch
           floppy drive. Price ranges from US$4500 to US$8000. [9]
           [176.145] [252.50] [258.208] [266.234] (1980 SEP [120]
           [203.58])
         - Universal Data Systems announces the 202LP 1200 bps modem,
           connecting directly into the phone line, requiring no
           additional power.  [252.44]
     JUN - Seagate Technologies announces the first Winchester 5.25-inch
           hard disk drive. [346.260]
         - Steve Ballmer joins Microsoft. [346.65]
         - Shugart begins selling Winchester hard-disk drives. [9]
     JUL - Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Model III. It uses the Zilog
           Z80 CPU, and is priced from US$700 to US$2500. [9] [253.172]
           [266.199] (AUG [256.30])
         - Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Color Computer. It uses the
           Motorola 6809E CPU, comes with 4KB RAM, and sells for US$400.
           [9] [253.172] [266.199] (AUG [256.30])
         - Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Pocket Computer. It features
           a 24 character display, with 1.9KB of programmable memory.
           Price is US$230. [253.172] [266.198] (AUG [256.30])
         - Radio Shack introduces the Daisy Wheel Printer II for US$1960.
           [256.30]
         - The last issue of S-Eighty is published. [269.216]
         - IBM representatives meet with Microsoft's Bill Gates and Steve
           Ballmer to talk about Microsoft products, and home computers.
           [266.271] [346.70]
         - IBM asks Bill Gates to write the operating system for their
           upcoming PC. [185.125] (AUG [266.272])
     AUG - IBM meets with Microsoft again, and shows plans for Project
           Chess, a personal computer.  The code name for the computer
           is "Acorn". Bill Gates argues that IBM should use the 16-bit
           8086, rather than the 8-bit 8080 processor. [266.271]
           [346.71]
         - QDOS 0.10 (Quick and Dirty Operating System) is shipped by
           Seattle Computer Products.  Even though it had been created
           in only two man-months, the DOS worked surprisingly well.  A
           week later, the EDLIN line editor was created.  EDLIN was
           supposed to last only six months, before being replaced. [2]
           (SCP-DOS [266.272])
         - Hal Lashlee and George Tate form Software Plus.  The company
           later changes its name to Ashton-Tate. [346.260]
         - Microsoft announces the Microsoft XENIX OS, a portable and
           commercial version of the UNIX operating system for the Intel
           8086, Zilog Z8000, Motorola M68000, and Digital Equipment
           PDP-11. [123] [258.252] [259.6] [369.24]
         - Apple Computer releases DOS 3.3. [218]
     SEP - Microsoft decides to propose to IBM that they provide the
           operating system for IBM's microcomputer. [346.75]
         - The "Dirty Dozen" is formed, the 12 engineers assembled to
           design and build the IBM PC, in Boca Raton, Florida.  The
           PC's code name is Acorn. [41]
         - Apple Computer sells over 78,000 Apple II computers during the
           fiscal year. [266.234]
         - The first issue of Softalk magazine for Apple Computer
           products appears. [218] [353.310]
         - Tim Patterson shows Microsoft his 86-DOS, written for the 8086
           chip. [346.260]
         - Software Publishing ships the pfs:File database program.
           [346.261]
         - IBM meets with Microsoft again, to formalize plans to work
           together in creating a new microcomputer. [346.73]
     OCT - Microsoft's Paul Allen contacts Seattle Computer Products' Tim
           Patterson, asking for the rights to sell SCP's DOS to an
           unnamed client (IBM).  Microsoft pays less than US$100,000
           for the right. [346.76]
         - Bill Gates, Paul Allen, and Steve Ballmer meet with IBM in
           Boca Raton, Florida, to deliver a report to IBM.  They
           propose that Microsoft be put in charge of the entire
           software development process for IBM's new microcomputer,
           including converting Seattle Computer Products' SCP-DOS to
           run on the computer. [346.76] (SEP [266.272])
         - Sol Libes quote in Byte magazine's ByteLines: "The 32-bit
           machine would be 'overkill' for a personal computer.".
           [253.188]
     NOV - Microsoft and IBM sign a contract for Microsoft to develop
           certain software products for IBM's microcomputer. [41]
           [266.273] [346.77]
         - Atari sponsers the First National (US) Space Invaders
           Competition, in New York.  Bill Heineman of Whittier,
           California scores 165,200 to win an Asteroids Table Top Video
           Game. [267.44]
     DEC - The archetypical fantasy adventure game, Zork, is brought from
           a mainframe at M.I.T. into the world of microcomputers by
           Infocom, which was founded for the purpose.
         - IBM delivers the first PC prototype to Microsoft, so they can
           begin developing BASIC and the machine's operating system.
           [41] (NOV [346.78])
         - Apple Computer becomes a publicly held company, selling 4.6
           million shares at US$22 per share. More than 40 Apple
           employees and investors become instant millionaires. [46]
           [185.116] [202.191] [256.212] [266.240]
         - Seattle Computer Products renames QDOS to 86-DOS, releasing it
           as version 0.3.  Microsoft then bought non-exclusive rights
           to market 86-DOS. [2]
     ??? - (fall) Apple Computer ships the first Apple III units in
           limited quantity. [266.234] (1981 JAN [258.208])
     ??? - Exidy Systems introduces the Computer System 80. [280.53]
     ??? - Microsoft begins work on its first microcomputer application,
           a spreadsheet program initially called Electronic Paper.
           [346.104]
     ??? - Hewlett-Packard releases the HP-85. [266.xv]
     ??? - Sinclair Research ships the ZX80 in North America, for US$200.
           [255.94]
     ??? - IBM assembles the members of "Project Chess", whose purpose is
           to create a microcomputer. [346.69]
     ??? - Apple Computer begins project "Diana", which would become the
           Apple IIe. [218]
     ??? - Ken and Roberta Williams start On-Line Systems, developing
           software for the Apple II. [353.282]
     ??? - IBM contacts Digital Research about using CP/M-86 for IBM's
           upcoming microcomputer.  Gary Kildall is not interested, for
           a variety of reasons. [346.74]
     ??? - Digital Research releases CP/M-86 for Intel 8086- and
           8088-based systems. [255.200]
     ??? - Intel announces the iAPX-432 32-bit microprocessor.  Intel
           later builds the 80286 as a step between the 8086 and the
           432. [32] [256.212]
     ??? - The term RISC (reduced instruction set computer) is coined by
           Professor David Patterson of the University of California in
           Berkeley. [154]
     ??? - Bally sells its Consumer Products Division to Astrovision.
           [267.50]
     ??? - Intel introduces the 8087 math coprocessor. [511.309]
     ??? - CompuServe merges with H&R Block, and renames MicroNET to
           CompuServe Information Service. [218]
     ??? - Alan Ashton and Bruce Bastian found Satellite Software
           International. [330.102] (1979 [346.133])
     ??? - Apollo introduces a line of workstations using the Motorola
           68000. [203.90]
     ??? - Sony Electronics introduces the 3.5 inch floppy disk and
           drive, double-sided, double-density, holding up to 875KB
           unformatted. [257.8] [420.126c]
     ??? - Panasonic and Quasar unveil hand-held computers, made by
           Matsushita.  The unit uses a 1-MHz 6502 CPU, and weighs just
           14 ounces (397 grams). [255.34]
     ??? - Onyx introduces the Onyx C8002 microcomputer.  It features a
           Zilog Z8000 microprocessor, 256KB RAM, tape backup, hard
           disk, serial ports for eight users, and running Unix, for
           US$20,000.  It is the first microcomputer featuring an
           implementation of Unix. [461.140]
1981 JAN - Radio Shack ceases production of the TRS-80 Model I, and
           recalls units from the US market, due to failure to meet new
           FCC radio-frequency interference regulations. [255.202]
           [258.208] (1980 NOV [268.188])
         - Osborne Computer Corporation is incorporated. [266.263]
         - The International Winter Consumer Electronics Show is held in
           Las Vegas, Nevada. [267.52]
         - Casio demonstrates the FX-9000P, with a 5 inch CRT, keyboard,
           keypad, removable memory modules, and 256x128 graphics.
           [267.53]
         - Commodore announces the VIC-20, with full-size 61-key plus
           four function key keyboard, 5KB RAM expandable to 32KB, 6502A
           CPU, 22 character by 23 line text display, and color
           graphics, for US$300. During its life, production peaks at
           9,000 units per day. [254.214] [190.81] [267.54] [268]
           [275.43] (1980 JUN [9])
     FEB - Steve Wozniak's private plane crashes, leaving him with a
           temporary loss of short-term memory, lasting for over a
           month. [218] [266.236]
         - Intel introduces the iAPX432 at the International Solid State
           Circuits Conference. [270.164]
         - MS-DOS runs for the first time on IBM's prototype
           microcomputer. [346.81]
         - Intel begins shipping evaluation sets of the iAPX432
           microprocessor.  Performance is claimed as 2 MIPS.
           [258.210]
         - Curt and Kathy Preston open the Byte Shop in Milwaukee,
           Wisconsin. [267.138]
         - Mattel test-markets the keyboard component of the
           Intellivision in Fresno, California. [268.48]
     MAR - Sinclair unveils the ZX81, based on the Z80A microprocessor,
           for under US$200. [198.vii]
         - Mike Markkula takes over as president and chief executive
           officer at Apple Computer. Steve Jobs remains as chairman of
           the board. [202.211] [203.63]
     APR - Tim Patterson quits Seattle Computer Products, and joins
           Microsoft. [346.83]
         - The sixth West Coast Computer Faire is held, in San Francisco,
           California. [267.6] [273.104]
         - Adam Osborne, of Osborne Computer Corporation, introduces the
           Osborne 1 Personal Business Computer at the West Coast
           Computer Faire. It features a Z80A CPU, 5-inch display, 64KB
           RAM, keyboard, keypad, modem, and two 5.25-inch 100KB disk
           drives for US$1795. Weight: 24 pounds. It also includes
           US$1500 worth of software, including CP/M, BASIC, WordStar,
           and SuperCalc. Osborne anticipated selling 10,000 in total,
           but sales quickly reached 10,000 in a single month. [9]
           [257.8] [203.22] [273.104] (JUL [41] [346.99]) (nearly
           US$2000 worth of software [266.263])
     MAY - The National Computer Conference is held in Chicago, with
           attendance of 73,000. [263.36]
         - Xerox unveils the Star 8010, at the National Computer
           Conference. Many features that were developed on the Alto are
           incorported. At a starting price of US$16-17,000, the
           computer is not a commercial success. [185.121] [203.60]
           [263.6] [274.28] [275.11] [275.56] [346.261] [444.492] (cost
           US$50,000 [9]) (APR [394.242] [477.158]) (JUN [266.268]) 
         - Atari announces the 8KB Atari 400 is being discontinued.
           [273.206]
     JUN - Microsoft reorganizes into Microsoft Incorporated, with Bill
           Gates as President and Chairman, and Paul Allen as Executive
           Vice President. [123] (JUL [346.261]) (Gates as executive
           vice president [346.262])
         - Microsoft persuades IBM to introduce its microcompute with a
           minimum of 64KB RAM.  IBM had planned to only include 16KB.
           [346.84]
     JUL - Xerox announces the Xerox 820. During its development, it was
           code-named The Worm.  It uses the Z80 CPU, CP/M, and BASIC.
           The price with a dual disk drive and display is US$3000.
           [266.268] [274.6] [275.54] (JUN [275.11])
         - Microsoft buys all rights to DOS from Seattle Computer
           Products, and the name MS-DOS is adopted. [2] [31] [146]
         - IBM introduces its first desktop computer, the Datamaster. It
           uses a 16-bit 8086, and is a dedicated data processing
           machine. [41]
         - The first IBM PCs roll off the assembly lines. [203.16]
         - Mike Scott resigns from Apple Computer. [266.237]
     AUG - IBM announces the IBM 5150 PC Personal Computer, featuring a
           4.77-MHz Intel 8088 CPU, 64KB RAM, 40KB ROM, one 5.25-inch
           floppy drive, and PC-DOS 1.0 (Microsoft's MS-DOS), for
           US$3000.  A fully loaded version with color graphics cost
           US$6000. The plunge of IBM into the microcomputer market
           legitimized the industry for the rest of the world. This also
           established the preeminence of the Intel 8086-family and the
           Microsoft MS-DOS operating system. [9] [35] [41] [108] [120]
           [123] [146] [202.205] [205.28] [266.276] [277.14] [288.192]
           [346.86] [389.28] [415.48] [443.50]
         - IBM announces the CGA graphics card for the PC, giving 640x200
           resolution with 16 colors. [117] [120]
         - Quote from Tandy president John Roach, regarding IBM's entry
           into the microcomputer field: "I don't think it's that
           significant". [346.87]
         - Apple Computer runs a full-page ad in the Wall Street Journal
           with a headline that reads "Welcome IBM. Seriously.". [46]
           [346.87]
         - Vector Graphic makes its first public stock offering of US$13
           million. [202.212]
     SEP - Microsoft begins work on a graphical user interface for
           MS-DOS, initially called Interface Manager, because it would
           effectively hide the interface between programs and devices
           like printers and video cards. [346.175]
         - Osborne Computer Company has its first US$1 million sales
           month. [266.263]
         - Apple Computer introduces its first hard drive, the 5MB
           ProFile, for US$3500. [46] (1983 [205.36])
         - IBM begins shipping the IBM PC, ahead of schedule, something
           unheard of in the microcomputer industry. [264.296]
         - The Fourth Personal Computer World Show is held, in London
           England. [278.118]
         - Sinclair Research and W H Smith sign an agreement for W H
           Smith to sell the ZX-81 in its retail stores in England, for
           a trial 1-year period. [285.93]
         - Acorn Computer Ltd. introduces the BBC Microcomputer System. 
           It features a 6502A CPU, up to 48 KB RAM, 73-key keyboard,
           and 16 color graphics. [278.120]
     OCT - The ZX81 is introduced to the American market, for US$150.
           [201.vi]
     NOV - Ashton-Tate ships dBASE II, the early industry-standard
           database program. [41] (JAN [346.261])
         - Microsoft, Incorporated becomes Microsoft Corporation.
           [346.262]
     DEC - Intel ships the 8087 math coprocessor. [446.504]
         - Sinclair Research reports that it has shipped 250,000 ZX81
           personal computers. [394.418]
         - National Semiconductor announces the 32000 chip, the first
           commercial 32-bit microprocessor.  The 32000 family includes
           CPUs and peripheral chips.
     ??? - (late fall) Apple Computer officially reintroduces the Apple
           III, with improved software and a hard disk. [266.239]
     ??? - Bally licenses Commodore to manufacture its arcade games into
           cartridges for the VIC-20. [279.6]
     ??? - Toshiba demonstrates its T200 and T250 systems. [274.30]
     ??? - Rockwell International ceases production of bubble-memory
           products for the microcomputer market. [261.306]
     ??? - W.H. Sim founds Creative Technology in Singapore. [221]
     ??? - Hayes Microcomputer Products advertises the Smartmodem 300,
           which becomes the industry standard. [9] [176.75]
     ??? - Astrovision releases the Bally Computer System. [292]
     ??? - College professor James Clark found Silicon Graphics,
           Incorporated. [159] (1982 [470.9])
     ??? - Hayes Microcomputers Products' employee, Dale Heatherington,
           develops the +++ escape sequence for modems. [164.14]
     ??? - APF introduces the Imagination Machine II at the 1981 Winter
           Consumer Electronics Show.  It features a 6800 CPU, 27KB RAM,
           two 5.25 inch disk drives, built-in cassette drive, 53-key
           keyboard, and 32x16 character display caability for US$1600.
           [275.38]
     ??? - Vector Graphic Inc. unveils the first personal computer with a
           built-in hard disk drive, for US$7950. [258.208]
     ??? - Tandy Corporation sues Personal Microcomputers Inc. for
           copyright infringement on the design of the TRS-80.
           [258.208]
     ??? - At COMDEX, Tecmar introduces 20 add-on peripherals for the IBM
           PC, the first such third-party developer. [203.19]
     ??? - Texas Instruments announces that it is getting out of the
           magnetic bubble memory market. [263.358]
     ??? - Apple Computer prohibits mail-order sales of Apple computers,
           claiming there is no provision for customer education or
           services. [340.9]
     ??? - NCR and Shugart Associates develop the Shugart Associates
           system interface (SASI). [542.114] (developed by Shugart,
           1979-81 [543])
     ??? - The ANSI X3T9 standards committee adopts SASI as a working
           document for an ANSI interface standard.  It is finalized in
           1986, and named SCSI. [542.114] (NCR and Shugart request
           committee be formed; committee X3T9.2 formed in 1982 [543])
1982 JAN - The US Justice Department throws out the antitrust lawsuit
           filed against IBM 13 years ago. [346.98]
         - The 1982 Winter Consumer Electronics Show is held in Las
           Vegas, Nevada. [285.64] [395.106]
         - Commodore introduces the Commodore Ultimax, for US$150.
           [285.64]
         - Kazuhiko Nishi, Mocrosoft's representative in Japan, shows
           Bill Gates a drawing of a prototype for a portable computer,
           using a new liquid crystal display developed by Hitachi. 
           Gates and Nishi begin designing the detais of the computer,
           which Kyocera Corporation in Japan had agreed to manufactur.
           [346.56]
         - Commodore announces the Commodore 64 (6510, 64KB RAM, 20KB ROM
           with Microsoft BASIC, custom sound, color graphics, for
           US$600) for US$595. During 1983, the price drops to US$200.
           It becomes the best selling computer of all time, with
           estimated sales of 17-22 million units.  It is the first
           personal computer with an integrated sound synthesizer chip.
           [9] [190.81] [285.64] (JUN [405.61])
         - Commodore introduces the 16K SuperVIC. [285.66]
         - Commodore introduces the VIC Modem, a 300 baud cartridge modem
           for US$110. [285.66]
         - Texas Instruments introduces a peripheral expansion unit for
           the TI-99/4, for US$250. [285.66]
         - Astrovision introduces the ZGrass-32 personal computer add-on
           to the Astro Professional Arcade, for US$600.  It uses a Z-80
           CPU. [285.66]
         - Toshiba America previews its firest personal computer, the
           Model T-100. It uses a Z-80A, a flat panel LCD display, and
           supports up to 32KB RAM and 32KB ROM in cartridges.
           [285.67]
         - In the first 10 months of sale, 250,000 Sinclair ZX81
           microcomputers have been delivered. [281.6]
         - Sharp introduces the Sharp PC-1500 Hand Held Personal
           Computer.  It comes with 16KB ROM, and 3.5KB RAM.  Price for
           computer is US$300. Price for tiny color graphics printer
           that attaches to the side, US$250. [285.67]
         - Atari begins shipping all Atari 800 units with GTIA graphics
           chips, allowing three more graphics modes than previously.
           [286.200]
         - Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Model 16.  It uses a 16-bit
           Motorola MC68000 microprocessor, a Z-80 microprocessor,
           8-inch floppy drives, and optional 8-MB hard drive. [286.216]
           [393.40]
         - Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Pocket Computer, Model PC-2,
           for US$280.  It uses a 1.3-MHz 8-bit microprocessor, and has
           a 26-character display, with upper and lower case characters.
            It comes with 16KB ROM, and 2.6KB RAM, expandable to 16KB. 
           An optional 4-color printer attaches to the side. [286.216]
           [393.41]
         - Davong Systems Incorporated is formed. [287.11]
         - Casio introduces the FX-9000P microcomputer.  It uses a
           2.75-MHz processor, 12KB ROM, 4KB RAM (expandable to 32KB),
           built-in 32x16 character (256x128 graphics) monochrome
           monitor, for US$1200. [395.106]
         - The Tabor company is established, for creating disk drives.
           [444.74]
         - Epson introduces the KX-1 desktop computer in Japan.
           [395.120]
         - Microsoft signs an agreement with Apple Computer, for
           Microsoft to develop applications for the Macintosh.
           [477.157]
     FEB - IBM splits its Personal Computer development team into three
           groups: one to work on the PC XT, one to develop the PCjr,
           and one to start work on the PC AT. [41]
         - Compaq Computer Corporation is founded by Rod Canion, Jim
           Harris, and Bill Murto, all former senior managers of Texas
           Instruments. [47] [113] [203.22] (1981 JAN [307.85])
         - Intel introduces the 6-MHz 80286 microprocessor.  It uses a
           16-bit data bus, 134,000 transistors, and offers protected
           mode operation. Initial price is US$360 each, in quantities
           of 100. It can access 16 MB of memory. [177.102] [296]
           [540.64] (130,000 transistors [447.144] [477.124]) (JUN
           [405.60]) (JUL [9] [346.263])
         - Sun Microsystems is founded. [241]
     MAR - Microsoft releases FORTRAN for MS-DOS. [346.262]
         - Coprocessors Inc. introduces the 88-Card, a plug-in card for
           the Apple II, with 64KB RAM and an Intel 8088 microprocessor.
           [396.14]
         - Non-Linear Systems introduces the Kaycomp II for US$1800.  It
           features dual 5.25-inch floppy drives, Z-80 processor, CP/M,
           and a 9-inch 80-column monochrome screen. [396.16]
         - Xebec introduces a 5MB hard disk and controller kit for Apple
           or CP/M computers, for US$1300. [396.16]
         - Xedex Corp. introduces the Baby Blue card (a Z80B processor on
           a plug-in card), allowing the IBM PC to run standard CP/M
           programs. Price: US$600. [346.92] [396.10] (APR [9]) (Vendex
           [346.93])
     APR - Mitch Kapor founds Lotus Development Corporation. [217]
           [346.262]
         - Microsoft establishes a subsidiary company in England.
           [346.262]
         - Eight months after the introduction of the IBM PC, 50,000
           units have been sold. [218]
         - Kazuhiko Nishi shows a prototype portable computer to
           Tandy/Radio Shack.  Tandy makes a committment to market the
           computer. [346.56]
         - IBM first offers CP/M-86 for the IBM PC. [346.90]
     MAY - Future Computing Inc. quote: "CP/M 2.2 is extremely important,
           and the Z80 chip will live forever because of it." [9]
         - Eagle Computer is incorporated. [481.31]
         - Vector Graphic hires Frederick Snow as new president and CEO.
           [202.213]
         - Microsoft releases MS-DOS 1.1 to IBM, for the IBM PC.  It
           supports 320KB double-sided floppy disk drives.  Microsoft
           also releases MS-DOS 1.25, similar to 1.1 but for
           IBM-compatible computers. [146] [346.251] (JUN [346.263])
         - Digital Research releases the MP/M II v2.1 operating system.
           [444.194]
         - Timex Computer Corp. and Sinclair Research Ltd. announce an
           agreement for Timex to market a 2KB version of the ZX-81 as
           the Timex/Sinclair 1000. [201.vi] (APR [288.10])
     JUN - The National Computer Conference is held in Houston, Texas.
           [339.22] [405.58]
         - Epson shows a working prototype computer called the "Rising
           Star". It is later introduced as the QX-10. [339.22]
         - Coleco announces the ColecoVision video game system. [292]
         - Sony Electronics demonstrates its 3.5 inch microfloppy disk
           system. [189.174]
         - The first IBM PC clone, the MPC, is released by Columbia Data
           Products. [9] [346.263]
         - Olivetti introduces the M20 microcomputer, with Z8001
           processor. [405.60]
         - Epson America, Inc. announces the HX-20 (HC-20 in Japan), a
           notebook-sized computer. It weighs only 3 pounds, and is
           reported to run on internal batteries for up to 50 hours.  It
           includes 16KB RAM, 32KB ROM, a full-size keyboard, built-in
           printer, and 20x4 character LCD screen. [289.156] [447.124]
           (1981 NOV [9])
         - Cromemco Inc. announces the C-10 personal computer.  It uses a
           4-MHz Z-80A, 64KB RAM, and 80x25 screen, for US$1000.
           [289.156]
         - Wang Labratories Ltd. introduces the Wang Professional
           Computer, for US$2700. [289.157]
         - Commodore Business Machines Inc. introduces the Commodore Max
           Machine. It has 16-color 40x25 screen capability, for US$180.
           [289.162]
         - Commodore Business Machines introduces the BX256 16-bit
           multiprocessor professional microcomputer.  It includes 256KB
           RAM, Intel 8088 for CP/M-86, 6509 CPU, 80-column B/W monitor,
           built-in dual disk drives, and 3-voice sound for US$3000.
           [289.162] [405.60]
         - Commodore Business Machines introduces the B128 microcomputer.
           It features 128KB RAM, 40KB ROM, 6509 CPU, 5.25-inch floppy
           drive, 3-voice sound chip, cartridge slot, and an 80-column
           green screen, for US$1700. [289.162] [405.543]
         - Commodore Business Machines introduces the P128 microcomputer.
           It features 128KB RAM, TV connector, 40x25 16-color display,
           and 320x200 graphics, for US$1000. [289.162]
         - Lobo Drives International introduces the Lobo MAX-80 personal
           computer. It features a 5-MHz Z80 processor, 64KB RAM,
           serial/parallel ports, interfaces for 5.25-inch and 8-inch
           floppy drives, hard drive interface, TRS-80 bus slot, CP/M,
           optional LDOS for TRS-80 emulation, monochrome graphics, and
           keyboard, for US$800-1000. [289.164] [446.390]
         - Altos Computer Systems announces the ACS8600. [289.164]
         - Toshiba America introducess its Toshiba T100 personal
           computer. [289.164]
         - Intel announces the 80186 microprocessor. [405.60] (JUL [9])
         - Digital Equipment announces the dual-processor Rainbow 100. It
           incorporates both Zilog Z-80 and Intel 8088 microprocessors,
           allowing it to run CP/M as well as CP/M-86 or MS-DOS.  Prices
           start at US$3000. [266.279] [290] (8085 and 8088 [289.272])
           (MAR [396.20])
     JUL - Bill Gates hires James Towne, a manager from Tektronix, as
           first president of Microsoft. [346.100]
         - Boston's Computer Museum, devoted to documenting and
           displaying the evolution of computer technology, is
           incorporated.
         - Timex Computer Corp. begins selling the Timex Sinclair 1000
           through over 1000 Timex retail outlets. [288.10]
         - Apple Computer releases the Apple Dot Matrix Printer, for
           US$700. It is a modified C.Itoh printer. [46]
     AUG - IBM ships the 200,000th IBM PC. [447.458]
         - Microsoft releases Multiplan for the Apple II and the Osborne
           I. [346.263]
         - Hercules announces the Hercules Graphics Card (HGC or HGA),
           with monochrome graphics at 720x348 resolution. [117] [120]
     SEP - Iomega begins production of the Alpha 10, a 10MB 8-inch
           floppy-disk drive using Bernoulli technology. [444.78]
         - On-Line Systems changes its name to Sierra On-Line.
           [353.362]
     OCT - IBM begins marketing Microsoft Multiplan for the IBM PC.
           [346.109]
     NOV - Drivetec announces the Drivetec 320 Superminifloppy, offering
           3.33MB unformatted capacity on a 5.25-inch drive. [444.80]
         - Lotus Development announces the Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet
           program at Comdex in Las Vegas. [41] [346.111] (OCT [9])
         - Franklin shows off a prototype of the Franklin Ace 1200, an
           Apple II compatible, at Comdex. [529.196]
         - VisiCorp announces the VisiOn graphical user interface at the
           Fall 1982 Comdex. [346.176] [477.158]
         - Compaq Computer introduces the Compaq Portable PC: 4.77MHz
           8088, 128KB RAM, 9-inch monochrome monitor, one 320KB
           5.25-inch disk drive, price US$3000. [1] [108] [117]
           [346.263] (JAN 1983 [47] [203.23] [346.95]) (MAR 1983 [41])
         - Satellite Software International introduces the WordPerfect
           word processing program. [330.108] (OCT [502.49])
     DEC - Tabor demonstrates a 3.25-inch floppy disk drive, the Model
           TC500 Drivette.  Unformatted capacity is up to 500KB on a
           single side. [444.72]
         - Amdek releases the Amdisk-3 Micro-Floppy-disk Cartridge
           system.  It houses two 3-inch floppy drives designed by
           Hitachi/Matsushita/Maxell. Price is US$800, without a
           controller card. [444.70]
         - Satellite Software International ships WordPerfect 2.0 for
           DOS, for US$500. [330.108] (v2.2 in October [502.49])
         - The IEEE Standards Board passes the IEEE 696/S-100 bus
           standard. [443.278]
         - Digital Research announces CP/M+. [443.431]
         - Apple Computer becomes the first personal computer company to
           reach US$1 billion in annual sales. [46]
     ??? - (spring) Microsoft releases GW-BASIC, with advanced graphics
           capabilities. [346.262]
     ??? - (spring) Microsoft releases Microsoft COBOL for MS-DOS.
           [346.262]
     ??? - (spring) IBM releases Digital Research's CP/M-86 for the IBM
           PC. [346.262]
     ??? - (spring) Microsoft ships its Multiplan spreadsheet program to
           IBM for testing and marketing for the IBM PC. [346.109]
     ??? - (summer) Microsoft receives its first Macintosh prototype from
           Apple, for use in developing software for the machine.
           [346.149]
     ??? - (late) General Consumer Electronics introduces the Vectrex,
           the first home gaming system with a built-in 9-inch
           monochrome vector monitor. It uses a Motorola 68A09
           processor. Price: US$200. [292] [338.82] [446.92]
     ??? - Matsushita introduces the National Mybrain 3000 microcomputer.
            It features an 8088 processor, 96KB RAM, 32KB video RAM,
           640x400 graphics, choice of 3-inch, 5.25-inch, and 8-inch
           floppy drives, and operates MS-DOS and CP/M-86. [447.110]
     ??? - Mitsubishi introduces the Multi 16 microcomputer.  It features
           an 8088 processor, 128KB RAM, 640x400 graphics, 300KB
           5.25-inch floppy, and CP/M-86. [447.112]
     ??? - Toshiba introduces the Pasopia 16 (T300 in the United States).
            It features an 8088 processor, optional 8087 math
           coprocessor, 192KB RAM, 4KB ROM, MS-DOS, 320KB 5.25-inch
           floppy, and up to 640x560 graphics. [447.113]
     ??? - Toshiba introduces the Tosbac UX-300.  It features a Toshiba
           88000 processor, 512KB RAM, 1MB 8-inch floppy drive, 10MB
           hard drive, and runs Unix, for US$9300. [447.113]
     ??? - NEC introduces the Advanced Personal Computer (N5200 in
           Japan).  It features a 5-MHz NEC PD8086 microprocessor,
           single or dual 1.2MB 8-inch disk drives, 128KB RAM,
           monochrome or color 12-inch monitor, 80x25 text, 640x475
           graphics, and supports CP/M-86 or MS-DOS. [447.113] (1983
           [461.280])
     ??? - NEC introduces the NEC PC-9800.  It features an Intel 8086
           microprocessor, 128KB RAM, 96KB ROM with NBASIC-86, 640x400
           graphics, various floppy drives, and MS-DOS or CP/M-86.
           [447.113]
     ??? - Hitachi introduces the BASIC Master 16000 microcomputer.  It
           features an Intel 8088 microprocessor, MS-DOS, 320KB RAM,
           640x400 graphics, and two 320KB 5.25-inch floppy drives.
           [447.114]
     ??? - Hitachi introduces the PT-1 Personal Terminal.  It features
           MS-DOS, 720x520 graphics, and two 1MB 8-inch floppy drives.
           [447.114]
     ??? - Sanyo introduces the MBC-55 microcomputer.  It features an
           Intel 8088 microprocessor, 160KB 5.25-inch floppy drive, 64KB
           RAM, optional Intel 8087 math coprocessor, and choice of
           CP/M-86, Concurrent CP/M-86, or MS-DOS. [447.114]
     ??? - Sord introduces the M-343 microcomputer.  It features an Intel
           8086 microprocessor, Intel 8087 math coprocessor, Zilog Z80A
           microprocessor, 640x400 graphics, dual floppy drives, and
           support of various operating systems. [447.116]
     ??? - Anritsu introduces the Anritsu Packet II microcomputer.  It
           features a Motorola 68000 microprocessor, two 150KB 5.25-inch
           floppy drives, and 256KB RAM. [447.116]
     ??? - Matsushita introduces the National JR-200 personal computer. 
           It features a 6802 microprocessor, 16KB ROM, and 32KB RAM.
           [447.124]
     ??? - Matsushita introduces the National JR-100 personal computer. 
           It features a 6802 microprocessor, 8KB ROM, and 16KB RAM.
           [447.124]
     ??? - Matsushita introduces the Tomy 16-bit Graphics Computer.  It
           features a TMS 9995 microprocessor. [447.124]
     ??? - Sord introduces the M5 microcomputer.  It features a Zilog
           Z80A microprocessor, 8KB ROM, 4KB RAM, and 16KB graphics RAM.
           [447.124]
     ??? - Sanyo introduces the PHC-25 microcomputer.  It features 24KB
           ROM with BASIC, and 22KB RAM. [447.124]
     ??? - AI Electronics introduces the AI-M16 microcomputer.  It
           features an Intel 8086 microprocessor, Intel 8089 I/O
           processor, optional Intel 8087 math coprocessor, 256KB RAM,
           and support for various operating systems. [447.116]
     ??? - Corvus Systems introduces the Corvus Concept microcomputer. 
           It uses aMotorola 68000 processor, 256KB RAM, 120x66
           character (560x720 graphics) B/W display, for US$5000.
           [396.6]
     ??? - Seiko introduces the 9500 Super Personal Computer.  It
           features an Intel 8086 microprocessor, Intel 8087 math
           coprocessor, two Intel 8088 microprocessors for I/O and
           communications control, 256KB RAM, RMX/86 operating system,
           and 512x480 color graphics. [447.118]
     ??? - Advanced Micro Devices and Intel sign a technology exchange
           agreement centering on Intel's x86 microprocessor
           architecture. [141]
     ??? - Seiko introduces the 8600, using an Intel 8086 microprocessor.
           [447.118]
     ??? - Sharp introduces the Sharp X1 microcomputer.  It features a
           Zilog Z80A microprocessor, 64KB RAM, 4KB video RAM,
           cassette-tape recorder, printer interface, dual joystick
           interface, sound synthesizer, 80x25 text, and dual 5.25-inch
           floppy drives. [447.118]
     ??? - Sony introduces the SMC-70 microcomputer.  It features a Zilog
           Z80A microprocessor, two 3.5-inch drives, and optional Intel
           8086 microprocessor add-on unit. [447.120]
     ??? - Aval introduces the AVC-777J2 portable microcomputer.  It
           features a Zilog Z80A microprocessor, 64KB RAM, 16KB video
           RAM, CP/M 2.2, 5-inch monochrome monitor, two 600KB 5.25-inch
           floppy drives, 5-inch thermal printer, and parallel/serial
           ports.  It weighs 27.5 pounds. [447.122]
     ??? - Aval introduces the AVC-666 microcomputer.  It is like the
           AVC-777J2, but without a monitor and printer. [447.122]
     ??? - Sord introduces the M23P portable microcomputer.  It features
           a Zilog Z80A microprocessor, 128KB RAM, 80x8 LCD display,
           dual 290KB 3.5-inch disk drives, and weighs 19.8 pounds.
           [447.12]]
     ??? - Milton Bradley buys General Consumer Electronics. [340.10]
     ??? - Mattel introduces the Intellivision II. [292]
     ??? - An insurance company contracts with programmer Wilton Jones to
           create a PC word processing program that mimicks Wang word
           processing.  That program becomes MultiMate. [33]
     ??? - Astrovision renames the Bally Computer System as the
           Astrocade. [292]
     ??? - Victor Business Products releases the Victor 9000
           microcomputer.  It features 128KB RAM, two 612KB disk drives,
           two serial ports, two parallel ports, 800x400 green high
           resolution video, speaker/amplifier, sound digitizer, 5-MHz
           8088 processor, CP/M-86 or MS-DOS, for US$5000. [445.216]
     ??? - Vector Graphic introduces the Vector 4 system, leaving them
           with US$3 million in stock of the Vector 3 system.
           [202.213]
     ??? - Franklin Computer Corp. unveils the Franklin Ace 1000, the
           first legal (at the time) Apple II clone.  It uses a 1.022
           MHz 6502 CPU, and comes with 64KB RAM. [9] [291.10]
     ??? - Andrew Fluegelman begins distributing his PC-Talk
           communications software, the first copyrighted program
           distributed as shareware. [315.32]
     ??? - General Videotex Corporation begins the Delphi online service.
           [218]
     ??? - Robert Lissner begins work on Apple Pie, which would be
           marketed by Apple Computer as AppleWorks for the Apple II.
           [218]
     ??? - Businessland opens. [34]
     ??? - Jack Tramiel resigns from Commodore Business Machines, but
           later takes his position back. [349.30]
     ??? - At the West Coast Computer Faire, Davong Systems introduces
           its 5MB Winchester Disk Drive for the IBM PC, for US$2000.
           [287.11]
     ??? - John Warnock founds Adove Systems. [346.146]
     ??? - In the first 8 months since its introduction, 11,000 Osborne 1
           computers ship. [203.23]
     ??? - Personal Software changes its name to VisiCorp. [346.280]
     ??? - Mouse Systems introduces the first commercial mouse for the
           IBM PC. [176.112]
     ??? - Apple Computer announces the Lisa computer to the press.
           [266.xv]
     ??? - Sanyo introduces the PHC-8000 hand-held computer.  It features
           a NSC-800 CMOS microprocessor, 24KB ROM, 4KB RAM, one-line
           LCD screen, optional I/O unit PHC-8010 allows connection to
           video monitor and microcassette recorder and adds 14KB ROM
           and 22KB RAM. [447.125]
     ??? - Toshiba introduces the Pasopia Mini.  It features an 8-bit
           CMOS microprocessor, 4KB RAM, 20KB ROM including 16KB BASIC,
           and a one-line LCD screen. [447.125]
     ??? - NEC introduces the PC-2001 Hand-Held Computer.  It features an
           8-bit 4-MHz CMOS uPD7907 microprocessor, 36KB ROM, 16KB RAM,
           serial port, and 40x2 character LCD screen. [447.125]
1983 JAN - The Winter Consumer Electronics Show is held, in Las Vegas,
           Nevada. [300.18]
         - Texas Instruments introduces the TI 99/2, using the TI-9995
           16-bit microprocessor, 4.2KB RAM, 24KB ROM, 16-color
           graphics. Price is US$100. [300.39] [444.496]
         - Spectra Video introduces the SV318 microcomputer.  It features
           32KB RAM and 32KB ROM, for US$300. [444.496]
         - Extex introduces the 2000 Piggyback Computer, a keyboard
           add-on for the Atari 2600, with 8KB BASIC and 3KB RAM, for
           US$100. [444.496]
         - Timex announces the Timex/Sinclair 2000, which is the
           repackaged Sinclair Spectrum. [444.496]
         - Apple Computer officially unveils the Lisa computer.  It
           features a 5-MHz 68000 microprocessor, 1MB RAM, 2MB ROM, a
           12-inch B/W monitor, 720x364 graphics, dual 5.25-inch 860KB
           floppy drives, and a 5MB Profile hard drive. It is slow, but
           innovative. Its initial price is US$10,000. The Lisa is based
           on the Xerox Star System, and cost Apple Computer US$50
           million to develop. It is the first personal computer with a
           graphical user interface (GUI). The software for it cost
           Apple Computer US$100 million to develop.  "Lisa" stands for
           Local Integrated Software Architecture. [9] [41] [46] [75]
           [80] [140] [176.145] [180.16,102] [202.211] [203.63]
           [346.149] [443.4] [443.42] [447.457] [477.158] (1982 JAN
           [120])
         - AT&T announces Unix System V. [461.133]
         - Mattel shows the Intellivision III at the Consumer Electronics
           Show. [292]
         - Apple Computer introduces the Apple IIe.  It features 64KB
           RAM, Applesoft BASIC, upper/lower case keyboard, seven
           expansion slots, 40x24 and 80x24 text, 1-MHz 6502 processor,
           up to 560x192 graphics, 140KB 5.25-inch floppy drive, Apple
           DOS 3.3, for US$1400. [46] [75] [120] [199.1] [200.1] [443.4]
           [443.68]
         - Apple Computer releases the Apple Letter Quality Printer, for
           US$2200. It is a modified Qume printer. [218]
         - VisiCorp (formerly Personal Software) sues Software Arts over
           rights to VisiCalc. [346.110]
         - Mattel Electronics demonstrates the Aquarius computer at the
           Winter CES.  It has 4KB RAM, and a Z80A microprocessor.  It
           is expected to sell for US$200. [176.145] [300.40]
           [444.492]
         - Timex introduces the Timex 2000, which is their re-packaged
           Sinclair Spectrum for the North American market.  Price is
           US$149 for a 16KB model. [300.42]
         - Atari introduces the 1200XL home computer, with 64KB RAM, and
           256 color capability.  Price: US$900. [300.46]
         - A full-page ad by Media Distributing offers a 44MB hard drive
           for US$4400; 22MB for US$3600; 11MB for US$2700.
         - Commodore's sales of VIC-20s reaches 1,000,000. [9]
         - Commodore introduces the SX-64, the first color portable
           computer. Weight is 10.5 kg. It incorporates a 5-inch color
           monitor and one or two 5.25 inch floppy drive.  Price is
           US$1600. [190.81] [349.16] [444.496]
         - Time magazine selects the microcomputer as its "Man" of the
           Year. [9] ("Machine of the Year" [346.264]) (1982 DEC [46])
         - Lotus Development ships Lotus 1-2-3 Release 1.0 for MS-DOS.
           [41] [217] [120] [346.111] [502.49]
         - Ziff-Davis begins publishing A+ magazine for Apple Computer
           products. [218]
     FEB - Microsoft establishes a sibsidiary company in West Germany.
           [346.264]
     MAR - Radio Shack announces its TRS-80 Model 100 portable Computer.
           It uses an 80c85 processor, and is based on the NEC PC-8201,
           which is built by Kyoto Ceramics (Kyocera).  It features 40x8
           text, 240x64 graphics, and runs on four AA alkaline
           batteries, powering it for about 20 hours.  Price is US$800
           for 8KB version, or US$1000 for the 24KB version. [9]
           [346.264] [529.14] (introduced in 1984 [202.199])
         - IBM announces the IBM PC XT.  It adds a 10 MB hard drive,
           three more expansion slots, and a serial interface.  With
           128KB RAM and a 360KB floppy drive, it costs US$5000. [35]
           [41] [75] [116] [120] [205.31] [346.264] (FEB [9])
         - MS-DOS 2.0 for PCs is announced. It was written from scratch,
           supporting 10 MB hard drives, a tree-structured file system,
           and 360 KB floppy disks. [117] [130] [146] [346.264]
         - Microsoft creates a publishing division, Microsoft Press.
           [346.264]
         - The Eagle 1600, the first 8086-based PC, ships. [108]
     APR - Microsoft introduces XENIX 3.0. [346.264]
         - Vector Graphic fires Frederick Snow, with Lore Harp taking
           over again. [202.213]
         - Microsoft introduces Multi-Tool Word for DOS (later renamed
           Microsoft Word) word processing program at Spring Comdex in
           Atlanta, Georgia. [346.127] (MAY [123]) (SEP [123])
         - John Sculley is hired at Apple Computer as Chief Operating
           Officer. [203.63] [266.281] (MAY [346.150])
         - Microsoft gives a "smoke-and-mirrors" demonstration of
           Interface Manager (later called Windows), which consists
           entirely of overlapping windows, appearing to be running
           programs simultaneously. [477.160]
         - Lotus Development ships Lotus 1-2-3 Release 1.0A. [217] (SEP
           1985 [502.49])
     MAY - The National Computer Conference is held in Anaheim,
           California. [529.188]
         - Fujitsu shows off first production of 256Kbit memory chips.
           [529.189]
         - Sony Electronics announces the 3.5 inch floppy disk and drive,
           double-sided, double-density, holding up to 1MB. [529.190]
         - Microsoft France opens its first office, in Paris, France.
           [346.117]
         - Sord introduces the M5 Fun Computer, and the M5 MultiComputer.
            Both Both feature a Zilog Z80 microprocessor, 8KB ROM, 4KB
           RAM, keyboard, serial/parallel/cassette ports, and two game
           controllers, for US$200. [529.190]
         - Sord announces the M23 computer, featuring a Z80 processor,
           128KB RAM, two disk drives, 640x256 8-color graphics, for
           US$2200. [529.190]
         - Toshiba announces a portable version of the T100 computer,
           with 64KB RAM, 40x8 LCD screen, modem, and briefcase, for
           US$1100. [529.190]
         - Toshiba announces the T300 computer, featuring a 16-bit
           processor, 650x500 8-color graphics, 192KB RAM, 640KB floppy
           disk drives, seven expansion slots, and IBM PC software
           compatibility, for US$2500. [529.190]
         - Sharp introduces the PC-5000 computer, featuring a 16-bit
           Intel 8088 processor, 128KB RAM, 80x8 LCD, 640x80 graphics,
           and weighing 11 pounds. [529.190]
         - Commodore ships the Commodore Executive 64.  It features 64KB
           RAM, detachable keyboard, 5-inch color monitor, 170KB floppy
           drive, for US$1000. [529.192]
         - Anderson Jacobson introduces the AJ Passport portable
           computer, with 256KB RAM, one or two floppy drives,
           serial/parallel ports, 300-baud modem, 640x250 graphics, and
           7-inch amber display. [529.192]
         - Computer Devices shows the Dot computer, with 16-bit Intel
           8088 processor, 128KB RAM, Sony 3.5-inch floppy drive,
           integrated 9-inch green or amber monitor, 1056x254 graphics,
           and two serial ports, for US$3000. [529.192]
         - NCR introduces the Decision Mate V computers, with Zilog Z80
           processor, optional Intel 8088 processor, and monochrome or
           color display, for US$2650-3440. [529.192]
         - Honeywell introduces the microSystem 6/10 microcomputer.  It
           is compatible with Honeywell's DPS 6 mainframe family.  It
           ises LSI 6 and Intel 8086 processors, 128KB RAM, dual
           5.25-inch drives, display, keyboard, and I/O ports for
           US$4000. [529.194]
         - Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Model 4, with 4-MHz Zilog
           Z80A microprocessor, 16KB RAM, cassette or 180KB 5.25-inch
           floppy drives, keyboard, 80x24 text 12-inch B/W monitor,
           optional CP/M, speaker, for US$2000. [368.148] [461.292]
         - Microsoft introduces its first mouse, "The Microsoft Mouse",
           including card and software, for US$200. [3] [123] [389.28]
           (APR [346.264])
         - Gavilan introduces the Gavilan Mobile Computer, a
           full-function portable computer.  It features a 16-bit Intel
           8088, 80KB RAM, 3-inch microfloppy drive, 66x8 LCD screen,
           touch pad, keyboard, 300-baud modem, and I/O ports. [336.24]
           [529.194]
     JUN - Microsoft quote: "We have a long-term relationship with IBM
           and have solid plans involving PC-DOS." [2]
         - The one millionth Apple II is made. [46] [75] [346.264] [9]
         - Apple Computer begins shipping the Lisa. [477.159]
         - Intel quote: "Accessing memory using a segmented architecture
           holds many advantages over the earlier linear-addressing
           method." [2]
         - Mattel announces the scrapping of plans for the Intellivision
           III. [292]
         - Mattel announces the Entertainment Computer System. [292]
         - The Summer Consumer Electronics Show is held, in Chicago,
           Illinois. [530.200]
         - Coleco announces the Coleco Adam, at the Summer CES.  The Adam
           is a Z80-based computer with 80-column SmartWriter daisy
           wheel printer, two game controllers, 80KB RAM (64KB user RAM,
           16KB video RAM), 3 sound channels, 16 color graphics,
           compatibility with ColecoVision games, 4 MC6801
           microprocessors controlling operation of peripherals, full
           keyboard, and 512KB tape-cartridge device, for US$600. [9]
           [336.4] [364.43] [202.210] [363.54] [364.43] [530.200] (1984
           [176.146])
         - Spectra Video shows the SV-328 at the Summer CES.  It is like
           the SV-318, but with a full-stroke keyboard, cursor keys, and
           32KB RAM. [530.202]
         - Atari shows The Graduate at the Summer CES.  It is an add on
           computer for the Atari 2600 VCS game unit.  It features 8KB
           RAM, keyboard, 16KB ROM with BASIC, and various I/O
           interfaces. [530.202]
         - Rabbit Computer shows the Rabbit RX83 at the Summer CES.  It
           features a Z80A processor, 2KB RAM, keyboard, and 256x192
           resolution 8-color graphics. [530.202]
         - Tomy shows the Tomy Tutor microcomputer at the Summer CES.  It
           features 16-color 256x192 graphics, 32x24 text, 16KB RAM,
           32KB ROM, three sound channels, for US$150. [530.202]
         - Video Technology shows a prototype Laser 2001, compatible with
           ColecoVision and Atari VCS cartridges.  It features 16KB ROM,
           64KB RAM, 256x192 graphics, four channel sound, and I/O
           interfaces. [530.202]
         - Video Technology shows the Laser 3000, an Apple II workalike
           microcomputer.  It features 24KB ROM, 64KB RAM, 81-key
           keyboard, 80-column text display, 560x192 graphics, four
           sound channels, and I/O interfaces. [530.202]
         - Unitronics shows the Sonic, an Apple II workalike
           microcomputer. It uses a TI video display processor chip,
           48KB RAM, and built-in wafertape drive. [530.204]
         - Taiwan Happy Home Computer Company shows the Multi-System
           microcomputer, compatible with both the Apple II and the IBM
           PC. [530.204]
         - NEC shows the PC-8201 portable computer for the first time in
           the US. [530.204]
         - Casio shows the FP-200 portable, with 20x8 LCD display, 8KB
           RAM, and I/O interfaces. [530.204]
     JUL - Apple Computer officially begins marketing the Lisa computer.
           [346.150]
         - Tom Mack releases the first version of RBBS for MS-DOS, the
           first shareware program for running a BBS. [489.105]
         - AT&T Bell Labs designs C++. [176.122] [374.12]
         - Steve Wozniak returns to Apple Computer. [200.13] (JUN [218]
     AUG - Jon Shirley replaces James Towne as president of Microsoft.
           [346.264]
         - A US federal appeals court judge rules that Franklin 
           Computers did violate Apple Computer copyrights on computer
           programs and the Apple Computer operating system in ROM.
           [80]
     SEP - Osborne Computer Corp. files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy
           protection. [9] [266.280] [370.12]
         - Microsoft France releases Multiplan for the Apple II.
           [346.118]
     OCT - Atari begins shipping its XL computers. b[364.36]
         - Visi Corp releases VisiOn, an integrated software environment
           for PCs, for US$1765. [348.69] [346.177] (NOV [346.285])
         - Coleco begins shipping the Adam. [363.54] [364.36]
         - National Semiconductor ships samples of its 6-MHz 32-bit
           NS32032 microprocessor. [364.37]
         - IBM introduces PC-DOS 2.1 with the IBM PCjr. [146]
         - IBM announces the IBM 3270 PC, an 8088-based system, for
           US$4290. [116]
         - IBM announces the IBM PC-XT Model 370, with 8088 CPU, 768K
           RAM, 360K drive, and 10 MB hard drive for US$9000. [116]
         - Quote from Spinnaker Software chairman William Bowman: "We're
           just sitting here trying to put our PCjrs in a pile and burn
           them.  And the damn things won't burn.  That's the only thing
           IBM did right with it - they made it flameproof.". [351.14]
         - Tandy/Radio Shack announces the "transportable" TRS-80 Model
           4P, for US$1800.  It features a 4-MHz Zilog Z80A CPU, 64KB
           RAM, two 5.25-inch floppy drives, and 9-inch B/W screen.
           [326.67] [368.148]
         - Compaq Computer introduces the Portable Plus. [108]
         - Texas Instruments withdraws from the personal computer market.
           [202.209] [266.281] [331.58]
     NOV - Microsoft formally announces Microsoft Windows, at the Plaza
           Hotel in New York.  It is promised for release in April,
           1984. [9] [45] [123] [137] [228.53] [346.177] [389.28]
           [416.67] [477.158]
         - Satellite Software International ships WordPerfect 3.0 for
           US$500. [330.108] [502.49]
         - Satellite Software International ships Personal WordPerfect
           for US$200. [330.108]
         - Borland International releases Turbo Pascal for CP/M and
           8086-based computers. [176.122] (first advertised in October
           [9] [346.265])
         - IBM announces the IBM PCjr, using Intel's 8088, for US$700 for
           the bare configuration. [9] [116] [120] [266.281] [35] [41]
           [357.28] [483.D4]
         - Quote from Sierra On-Line founder and president, Ken Williams:
           "the PCjr is bound to be around for a while". [357.30]
         - Microsoft again shows Windows to IBM, and again IBM is not
           interested. [45]
         - Microsoft officially releases Microsoft Word 1.0, for US$375,
           or US$475 with the Microsoft Mouse. [346.129] [502.49]
     DEC - Apple Computer introduces the redesigned Apple III as the
           Apple III+, for US$3000. [46] [75] [203.58]
         - Apple Computer releases the Apple ImageWriter for US$695.  It
           is a modified C.Itoh printer. [218]
         - Apple unveils the new Macintosh to the press. [372.29]
         - 20th Century Fox Videogames abandons the videogame business.
           [359.9]
         - Compaq Computer makes its first public stock offering, raising
           US$67 million. [113]
         - Vernon Buerg releases the first version of List, a popular
           file-browsing utility for MS-DOS. [489.103]
         - In an obscure television market somewhere on the Great Plains,
           Apple Computer runs its "1984" Macintosh ad, solely to make
           the ad eligible for awards during 1984. [180.171]
     ??? - (early) Radio Shack introduces the TRS-80 Pocket Computer,
           Model PC-4, replacing the PC-1, for US$70. [528.288]
     ??? - (early) Nelma Data Corporation introduces the Persona
           microcomputer. It features a 4-MHz Z80A, CP/M 2.3, 64KB RAM,
           dual single-sided 5.25-inch floppy drives, for $3000.
           [371.47]
     ??? - (summer) Starcom releases Dragon's Lair to arcade centers.  It
           is the first laser-disc based arcade game. [367.79]
     ??? - (end) Atari ceases production of the Atari 5200. [360.20]
     ??? - Atari cancels production of the Atari 1200XL, due to
           compatibility and other problems. [529.220]
     ??? - Hewlett-Packard begins design work on Precision Architecture.
           [160]
     ??? - Microsoft marketeer Rowland Hanson convinces Bill Gates to
           change the name of Interface Manager to Windows. [477.164]
     ??? - IBM and Microsoft begin co-developing OS/2. [38]
     ??? - Dan Silva and others leave Xerox, to form Electronic Arts.
           [448.27]
     ??? - Texas Instruments drops plans to market the TI 99/2.
           [528.14]
     ??? - The CP/M '83 Show is held in San Francisco, California.
           [529.196]
     ??? - Radio Shack unveils the TRS-80 Model 12 at the CP/M '83 Show. 
           It features a Zilog Z80A processor, 80KB RAM, 82-key
           keyboard, 1.25MB floppy drive, and software compatibility
           with the TRS-80 Model II. Price is US$3200. [529.196]
     ??? - Frankline shows an operating Franklin Ace 1200 Apple II
           compatible at the CP/M '83 Show.  It features an 8-bit
           processor, 128KB RAM, color display, upper/lower-case
           keyboard, 143KB floppy drive, CP/M card, 80-column text card,
           for US$2200. [529.196]
     ??? - Digital Research introduces enhanced CP/M-86 for the IBM PC. 
           It includes a printer spooler, and improved graphics.
           [529.198]
     ??? - Mattel introduces the Aquarius computer, with 4KB RAM, 8KB
           ROM, Z80A processor, 40x24 text output to a TV, 80x72 block
           graphics, in 16 colors.  Price is US$160. [529.49]
     ??? - Texas Instruments introduces the Compact Computer 40 (CC-40). 
           It uses the 8-bit TMS 70C20 processor, 6KB RAM, 34KB ROM with
           BASIC, and 31x1 LCD display.  It rnus on four AA batteries,
           lasting up to 200 hours. [529.37]
     ??? - Borland International is founded by Philippe Kahn. [102]
     ??? - Microsoft shows IBM a raw version of Windows.  IBM is not
           interested as they are already developing what would be
           called TopView. [45]
     ??? - Wang announces the single in-line memory module (SIMM).
           b[461.8]
     ??? - Hewlett-Packard unveils the HP 150 microcomputer.  It features
           an 9-MHz Intel 8088 microprocessor, dual 3.5-inch disk
           drives, 9-inch green HPTouch optical touchscreen, 256KB RAM,
           and 512x390 graphics. Code-name during development was Magic.
           [461.36]
     ??? - Philips and Sony develop the CD-ROM, as an extension of audio
           CD technology. [489.67]
     ??? - Bjarn Stroustrup creates the C++ extension to the C
           programming language. [132]
     ??? - Morrow Designs introduces the Morrow Micro Decision
           microcomputer. It features a 4-MHz Zilog Z80A microprocessor,
           64KB RAM, two serial ports, 200KB 5.25-inch floppy drive,
           CP/M v2.2, and separate video terminal. [461.306]
     ??? - Microsoft, SpectraVideo, and 14 Japanese computer companies
           announce the MSX specifications for low-end, 8-bit home
           computers systems. [530.24]
     ??? - STM Electronics introduces the Pied Piper Communicator 1
           portable computer.  It features a Zilog Z80 processor, 64KB
           RAM, 5.25-inch disk drive, six software packages, and 80x24
           text on monitor or TV, for US$1300. [530.30]
1984 JAN - Terrence E. Valeski and a group of investors buy all rights to
           the Intellivision from Mattel for US$16.5 million. [292]
           (US$20 million [340.10])
         - Jack Tramiel, founder and president of Commodore, leaves the
           company. [332.10] [334.6] [345.160] [349.30] [350.12] [362.6]
           [363.6] [410.5]
         - Apple Computer runs its "1984" commercial during the
           SuperBowl, introducing the Macintosh computer.  Apple
           Computer runs the ad only once, but dozens of news and talk
           shows replay it, making it one of the most memorable ads in
           TV history. The ad cost US$1.5 million. [46] [180.169]
           [185.121] [203.64]
         - Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh, for US$2500. It uses
           the 8-MHz 32-bit Motorola 68000 CPU, built-in 9-inch B/W
           screen, 512x342 graphics, 400KB 3.5-inch floppy disk drive,
           mouse, 128KB RAM, and weighing 20 pounds.  The Macintosh is
           the first major computer to use the emerging SCSI peripheral
           interface standard. [9] [41] [46] [75] [120] [140] [185.121]
           [205.38] [266.281] [346.151] [372.29] [477.159] [542.114]
         - Apple Computer introduces its 300-baud modem for US$300, and
           1200-baud modem for US$500. [75]
         - Microsoft ships Microsoft BASIC (MacBASIC) and Microsoft
           Multiplan for the Macintosh. [123] [346.152] [389.28]
         - Apple releases a new version of the Lisa computer, the Lisa 2.
            It uses all new software, as well as the Macintosh operating
           system.  It comes with 512KB RAM, and one 3.5-inch 400KB
           floppy drive.  The Lisa 2/5 comes with a 5MB hard drive, and
           the Lisa 2/10 comes with a 10MB hard drive. [373.11]
         - Seiko Instruments U.S.A. Inc. displays the first wristwatch
           computer, with a 10-character, 4-line LCD. [9]
         - Hitachi ad for their 3-inch compact floppy disk drive: "It's
           clear that the 3-inch floppy will become the new standard."
           [4]
         - IBM sues Corona Data Systems for copyright violation of the
           IBM PC's BIOS, and wins. [481.34] (FEB [203.23])
         - Commodore announces the Commodore 264 at the Winter Consumer
           Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Nevada.  Code name for the
           computer was "TED". The 264 uses a 7501 microprocessor, 64KB
           RAM, 320x200 pixel graphics offering 128 color variations.
           [333.7] [334.44] [350.4] [354.18] [356.7] [359.86]
         - Commodore shows a prototype of the Commodore 364 computer at
           the Winter Consumer Electronics Show.  The 364 is like the
           Commodore 264, but with a separate numeric keypad and
           built-in voice synthesizer. [334.44] [350.4] [354.18]
     FEB - Timex withdraws from the home computer business. [331.58]
         - Microsoft releases Multiplan v1.1 for the PC. [346.111]
         - IBM announces the IBM Portable PC, for US$2900. [35] [41] (MAR
           [116] [117] [120])
         - IBM sues Eagle Computer and Corona Data Systems for copyright
           violation of the IBM PC's BIOS, and wins. [203.23] [481.31]
     MAR - Ashton-Tate announces the integrated software package,
           Framework. [346.266]
         - Microsoft releases MS-DOS 2.1 for the IBM PCjr. [346.265]
         - Microsoft releases MS-DOS 2.11.  It includes enhancements to
           better allow conversion into different languages and date
           formats. [346.253] [346.266]
         - NEC introduces the 8-MHz V20 microprocessor, the first clone
           of Intel's 8088.  It uses 63,000 transistors. [477.125]
         - NEC introduces the 8-MHz V30 microprocessor, the first clone
           of Intel's 8086.  It uses 63,000 transistors. [477.125]
         - IBM ships the IBM PCjr.  It uses the 8088 CPU, includes 64KB
           RAM, a "Freeboard" keyboard, and one 5.25-inch disk drive, no
           monitor, for US$1300. [5] [9] (JAN [35])
         - Microsoft decides to temporary shelve work on a new
           spreadsheet (Excel) for the PC, and concentrate on a version
           for the Macintosh. [346.157]
         - 74 days after the introduction of the Macintosh, 50,000 units
           have been sold. [218]
         - Project IIx is cancelled at Apple Computer. [218]
     APR - The Canon Sales Company debuts the Apple Macintosh in Japan.
           [498.D4]
         - Commodore International launches the Commodore PC at the
           Hanover Fair in Germany. [365.20]
         - Commodore International launches the Commodore Z8000 at the
           Hanover Fair in Germany. [365.20]
         - Compaq Computer introduces its PCs to Europe. [113]
         - Apple Computer unveils the Apple IIc with an intense publicity
           extravaganza, at the Moscone Center in San Francisco. Priced
           at US$1300, 2,000 dealers place orders for more than 52,000
           units on the day of its introduction.  The IIc uses a 65C02A
           microprocessor, 128KB RAM, weighs 7.5 pounds, includes a
           3.5-inch floppy drive, supports 40- or 80-column screens, and
           allows both QWERTY and Dvorak keyboard layouts. [46] [75]
           [120] [199.1] [200.14] [218] [358.76] (MAY [9])
         - Apple Computer retires the Apple III and Apple III+, with only
           65,000 units sold in total. [46] [75] [203.58]
         - Microsoft France releases Multiplan for the IBM PC.
           [346.118]
         - Silicon Graphics begins shipping its first 3-D graphics
           workstations. [159]
         - Apple Computer releases the color Apple Scribe printer, using
           a special waxed ribbon and thermal print head. [218]
         - Microsoft releases Microsoft Word 1.1 for DOS. [346.131] (OCT
           1983 [346.265])
         - AT&T and Olivetti form a strategic relationship to develop and
           market PCs in the US. [166.58]
     MAY - Apple Computer announces that 70,000 Macintosh computers have
           been shipped in the first 100 days since its announcement.
           [480.D4]
         - Apple Computer names Kay Power as a research fellow of Apple.
           [343.41]
         - Apple Computer introduces the DuoDisk dual 5.25-inch floppy
           disk drive unit for the Apple II line. [218]
         - Apple Computer releases the AppleMouse II with MousePaint and
           a peripheral card for the Apple IIe or Apple II Plus (or
           directly in the Apple IIc). [218]
         - Quarterdeck Office Systems officially launches DESQ, a
           text-based windowing environment for running DOS programs.
           [346.181] (JAN [477.159])
     JUN - The Summer Consumer Electronics Show is held, in Chicago,
           Illinois. [366.16]
         - Ashton-Tate ships dBASE III. [346.266]
         - Tom Jennings creates the FidoNet BBS network. [6] [9]
           [164.47]
         - Motorola adds the 68020 32-bit processor to its line. [9]
           (1986 [120])
         - Amiga demonstrates a new computer, code-named "Lorraine".
           [341.6]
         - Apple Computer releases the Apple Color Plotter, a 4-pen
           plotter. [218]
         - Commodore announces the Commodore 16 at the Consumer
           Electronics Show. The machine looks like the VIC-20 and
           Commodore 64, but has 16KB of RAM, and is expected to sell
           for around US$100, and marketed as "The Learning Machine".
           [366.7] [366.16]
         - Commodore announces the renamed Commodore 264 as the Plus/4.
           It will now feature four built-in programs, not just one.
           Price should be around US$300. [356.7] [366.16]
         - Commodore announces the DSP 1101 letter-quality daisywheel
           printer, designed for the Plus/4. [366.22]
         - Commodore announces the MPS 802 dot matrix printer. [366.22]
         - Commodore announces the MCS 801 color dot matrix printer.
           [366.22]
         - Commodore announces the MPS 803 dot matrix printer, designed
           for use with the Commodore 16. [366.22]
         - Okidata introduces the Okimate 10 thermal transfer color dot
           matrix printer, for US$240. [366.36]
         - Compaq Computer introduces the Compaq Deskpro. [108] [113]
           [497.20] (JUL [487.67])
         - AT&T introduces the PC 6300, an 8-MHz 8086-based PC
           manufactured by Olivetti. [166.58] (JUN [487.67])
     JUL - Jack Tramiel, former president of Commodore International,
           buys a controlling interest in the Atari home computer and
           video game divisions from Warner Communications, for US$240
           million in long-term notes.  Warner retains Atari's
           coin-operated game division and home communications venture
           Ataritel. [9] [30] [355.14] [360.15] [410.5] [482.D1]
         - Six months after its introduction, 100,000 Macintosh computers
           have been sold. [203.65]
         - Digital Vision releases the Computer Eyes video capture system
           for the Apple II, selling for US$130 (US$350 with a camera).
           [218]
     AUG - Commodore purchases Amiga Corporation. [6] [9] [341.6]
         - IBM announces the PC AT, a 6MHz 80286 computer using PC-DOS
           3.0, a 5.25-inch 1.2MB floppy drive, with 256KB RAM, for
           US$4000, which doesn't include hard drive or monitor/card. 
           With a 20MB hard drive, color card and monitor: US$6700. [6]
           [9] [35] [41] [75] [108] [116] [120] [203.25] [346.266]
         - IBM announces its PC Network local area network. [9] [81]
         - IBM introduces PC/IX, based on UNIX System III from AT&T, for
           the PC AT. [81]
         - IBM announces TopView, a DOS multitasking program. [35]
           [383.14]
         - IBM announces the Enhanced Color Display monitor with 640x350
           resolution, priced at US$850. [81]
         - IBM announces the Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA), supporting
           up to 640x350 resolution in 16 colors.  With 64K, the card
           costs US$524.  For 640x350x16 mode, a US$200 64KB RAM
           expander is required. [81] [120]
         - IBM announces the Professional Graphics Display monitor, for
           US$1300.  The 14-inch monitor will display up to 256 colors
           (from 4096) simultaneously at 640x480 resolution. [81]
         - IBM announces the Professional Graphics Controller card, for
           US$3000.  The card takes up two adjacent slots of a PC, and
           includes an 8-MHz 8088 chip and 384KB of memory. [81]
         - Microsoft releases MS-DOS 3.0 for PCs. It adds support for 1.2
           MB floppy disks, and bigger (than 10 MB) hard disks. [117]
           [130] [146]
         - Visicorp sells Visi-On to Control Data. [484.D3]
     SEP - Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh 512K for US$3200. [46]
           [75]
         - Digital Research announces its Graphics Environment Manager
           (GEM) icon/desktop user interface for 8086- and DOS-based
           computers. [9] (OCT [346.266]) (NOV [477.159])
     OCT - Microsoft releases Microsoft Word 1.15 for DOS. [346.131]
         - Microsoft gives a demonstration of the final version of
           Windows to IBM.  For the third time, IBM is not interested.
           [45]
         - The number of hosts on the Internet reaches 1000. [56]
     NOV - The Tandy 1200 debuts.
         - Apple Computer launches the "Test Drive a Macintosh"
           promotion.  About 200,000 take a Macintosh home for a free
           24-hour trial. [46]
         - Lotus Development officially announces Jazz for the Macintosh,
           an all-in-one program incorporating a spreadsheet, database,
           graphics, word processing, and communications. [346.159]
         - Satellite Software International ships WordPerfect 4.0 for
           US$500. [330.108] [502.49]
         - The 2 millionth Apple II computer is sold. [46] [75]
           [346.267]
         - Jim Manzi is named president and chief operating officer of
           Lotus Development. [217]
         - Microsoft releases MS-DOS 3.1. It adds support for Microsoft
           networks. [130] [146] [346.254] [346.267]
     DEC - Several companies introduce 2400 baud modems at COMDEX, priced
           at US$800-900. [7]
         - Apple sells the 250,000th Macintosh system. [346.267]
         - Tandy introduces the Tandy 1000, for US$1300. [317.40]
     ??? - (spring) Atari officially discontinues the Atari 5200.
           [337.65]
     ??? - (spring) Commodore stops manufacturing the VIC-20. [366.16]
     ??? - (summer) Sierra On-Line releases the game King's Quest.
           [351.27]
     ??? - (summer) IBM introduces a new keyboard for the IBM PCjr,
           offering a free upgrade to all who want it. [357.79]
     ??? - (fall) Software Arts wins its lawsuit against VisiCorp over
           the rights to the VisiCalc program.  VisiCorp is ordered to
           pay US$500,000 to Software Arts.
     ??? - (fall) Atari introduces the Atari 7800 ProSystem. [337.66]
     ??? - Milton Bradley discontinues manufacturing of the Vectrex.
           [338.84] [340.10]
     ??? - Motorola unveils its 68010 CPU chip. [120]
     ??? - Sinclair announces the 16/32-bit QL microcomputer, using the
           Motorola 68008 microprocessor, 128KB RAM, two built-in tape
           drives, and multitasking ROM-based operating system.  Weight
           is 3 pounds.  Price is expected to be US$500. [366.38]
     ??? - Apple Computer releases ProDOS. [218]
     ??? - Apple Computer releases AppleWorks, one of the first
           integrated software packages, with modules for word
           processing, database management, and spreadsheet
           calculations.  It was written by Rupert Lissner. [218]
     ??? - Mattel sells marketing rights for the Aquarius home computer
           to Radofin Electronics. [340.10]
     ??? - Hewlett-Packard introduces the LaserJet laser printer,
           featuring 300dpi resolution, for US$3,600. [16] [117] [218]
           [314.173]
     ??? - Intel introduces the 80186, 80188, and 80286 processors. [108]
           [120]
     ??? - Foxbase releases Foxbase for MS-DOS. [494.6]
     ??? - Sirius Software files for Chapter 11 backruptcy proceedings.
           [358.12]
     ??? - Mindset debuts the Mindset PC. [176.145]
     ??? - MIPS Computer Systems is founded, and begins developing its
           RISC architecture. [160]
     ??? - Commodore introduces the Plus/4, with integrated software in
           ROM. [190.81]
     ??? - Olivetti buys 60% of Acorn Computers' public shares.
           [347.59]
     ??? - The Odyssey Division of North American Philips ceases
           production of hardware for its Odyssey programmable videogame
           system. [359.8]
1985 JAN - The Winter Consumer Electronics Show is held in Las Vegas,
           Nevada. [342.6]
         - Commodore unveils the Commodore 128 Personal Computer. It
           functions as three computers in one: a complete Commodore 64,
           a CP/M mode, and a new 128KB mode. [8] [342.6] [343.14]
         - Atari introduces the 65XE, for US$120.  Variations include the
           65XEM with a built-in 8-voice synthesizer, and the 65XEP with
           built-in monitor and 3.5 inch disk drive. [343.14] [357.66]
         - Atari introduces the 130XE, with 128KB RAM. [357.66]
         - Atari introduces the 130ST: 128KB RAM, 192KB ROM, 512 color
           graphics, MIDI interface, and mouse for US$400. [343.14]
           [357.6]
         - Atari introduces the 520ST: 512KB RAM, 192KB ROM, 512 color
           graphics, MIDI interface, and mouse for US$600. [343.14]
           [335.18] [357.7]
         - Microsoft releases Microsoft Word 1.0 for the Macintosh.
           [346.138] (1984 NOV [346.267])
         - Microsoft shows Apple's Steve Jobs the Microsoft Excel
           spreadsheet for the first time.  Jobs is not impressed,
           claiming that Lotus Development's Jazz would be more popular.
           [346.160]
         - Compaq Computer reports second year revenues of US$329
           million, an industry record. [113]
         - Coleco sells off its Adam inventory and leaves the computer
           business. [343.18] (1984 [9])
         - Apple Computer officially renames the Lisa the Macintosh XL.
           [46] [75]
         - Apple Computer releases the Apple LaserWriter laser printer.
           [140] [218] (AUG [120])
         - Satellite Software International ships WordPerfect Jr. for
           US$200. It is designed for use on the IBM PCjr. [330.108]
         - Former Microsoft founder Paul Allen founds Asymetrix.
           [346.267]
     FEB - Microsoft releases Microsoft Word 2.0 for DOS. [346.132]
           [346.267] [502.49]
         - Apple Computer co-founder Steve Wozniak resigns from Apple
           Computer, to start a company that will develop home video
           products. [46] [75]
         - IBM releases TopView, for US$150. [35] [107] [130] [477.159]
           (JAN [346.184] [346.267]) (APR [346.285])
     MAR - Apple Computer introduces the Apple Enhanced IIe. [218]
         - IBM announces that it will cease production and promotion of
           the IBM PCjr. [357.80]
     APR - IBM abandons production of the IBM PCjr. [13] [35] [357.30]
         - The Macintosh XL (formerly called Lisa) is dropped from Apple
           Computer's product line. [46] [120] [346.165]
         - Compaq Computer introduces the Compaq Deskpro 286 and Portable
           286. [108] [490.D4]
     MAY - John Sculley essentially fires Steve Jobs at Apple Computer.
           [180.206]
         - Microsoft introduces Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh, in New
           York. [346.162] [346.267] [492.61]
         - Lotus Development releases Jazz for the Macintosh. [346.165]
         - Microsoft demonstrates Microsoft Windows at Spring Comdex. 
           Release date is set for June, at a price of US$95.
           [346.187]
     JUN - Microsoft releases a revised Microsoft Word 1 for the
           Macintosh. [346.139]
         - Apple Computer reports its first quarterly loss. [75]
         - Microsoft announces Windows 1.0. [75] [150]
         - Apple Computer introduces the UniDisk 5.25 single 5.25-inch
           floppy disk drive, with the ability to daisy-chain additional
           drives through it. [218]
     JUL - Commodore unveils the new Amiga 1000 in New York.  It features
           a multitasking, windowing operating system, using a Motorola
           68000 CPU, with 256KB RAM, and 880KB 3.5-inch disk drive, for
           US$1300. [16] [187] (US$1200 [190.81])
         - Micrografx releases its first Microsoft Windows application,
           In-A-Vision. [346.191]
         - Wang announces a series of products to turn PCs into local and
           remote Wang terminals. [33]
         - Aldus PageMaker is released for the Apple Macintosh. [120]
           [180.220] [237.60]
         - Quarterdeck Office Systems ships DESQview 1.0. [130] (JUN
           [477.159])
     AUG - Microsoft and IBM sign a joint-development agreement to work
           together on future operating systems and environments. [45]
           [106] [123] [346.267]
     SEP - Electronic Arts releases DeluxePaint for the Amiga. 
           DeluxePaint was a rewrite of Prism for the IBM PC, which was
           an enhanced port of Doodle, created on a Xerox syystem.
           [448.27]
         - Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs resigns from Apple
           Computer. [16] [46] [75] [346.213] [346.268]
         - The one millionth copy of Microsoft Multiplan is sold.
           [346.268]
         - Steve Jobs and five senior managers of Apple Computer Inc.
           found NeXT Incorporated. [170.66] [222] [206.289] [346.213]
         - Computer company Gateway 2000 is formed, in Sioux City, Iowa,
           USA. [183]
         - Lotus Development ships Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2.0. [217] (NOV
           [346.268]) (JUL 1986 [502.49])
         - Satellite Software International ships WordPerfect 4.1 for
           US$500. [330.108] [502.49]
         - Microsoft releases Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh 512K.
           [346.166] [346.268]
         - Apple Computer introduces the UniDisk 3.5, a double-sided
           3.5-inch disk drive, capable of storing 800KB per disk.
           [218]
         - Apple Computer releases the Apple ImageWriter II printer.
           [218]
     OCT - Intel introduces the 16-MHz 80386 microprocessor. It uses
           32-bit registers and a 32-bit data bus, and incorporates
           275,000 transistors. Initial price is US$299. It can access 4
           gigabytes of memory. [41] [75] [176.74] [177.102] [296]
           [347.61] [477.125] [540.64]
         - Microsoft France releases a French version of Multiplan 2.0
           for the IBM PC. [346.119]
         - Apple Computer discontinues its 128K Mac. [75]
         - IBM announces its token ring network. [347.61]
         - General Electric Information Services begins the GEnie online
           service. [218] [318.22]
         - Hayes Microcomputer Products is issued a patent for the
           "Improved Escape Sequence with Guard Time", a technique to
           put a modem into command mode. [164.14]
         - AT&T Computer Systems introduces the PC 6300 Plus. [166.58]
     NOV - Microsoft ships Microsoft Windows 1.0, for US$100.  It is
           delivered two years after the initial announcement of the
           product. [16] [107] [117] [120] [123] [130] [134] [146]
           [477.159] (v1.01 [136] [346.192]) (v1.03 [346.187]
           [346.268])
         - Tandy announces it will offer Digital Research's GEM graphical
           user interface for its microcomputers. [346.190]
         - Apple Computer and Microsoft sign an agreement regarding
           Microsoft's use of Apple's copyrights on the visual display
           of the Macintosh. [309.256] [346.192] [477.170] (1984 [38])
     DEC - Ashton-Tate delivers dBASE III Plus. [346.268]
     ??? - (early) VisiCorp files for bankruptcy. [346.113]
     ??? - U.S. Robotics introduces the Courier 2400 modem. [235]
     ??? - Intel introduces the 80287 math coprocessor. [511.309]
     ??? - The Acorn Advanced RISC Machine (ARM), a 32-bit processor for
           home use, appears. [32]
     ??? - Manfred Schmitt founds computer manufacturer ESCOM, in
           Germany. [491.52]
     ??? - Mips Technologies introduces the first commercially available
           RISC chip, the R2000. [206.124]
     ??? - Microsoft purchases all rights to DOS from Seattle Computer
           Products for US$925,000. [41]
     ??? - Motorola unveils its 68008 CPU chip. [120]
     ??? - Sun Microsystems begins work on its SPARC processor. [160]
     ??? - Steve Wozniak returns to Apple Computer. [203.68]
     ??? - Mimic Systems announces the Spartan, a hardware upgrade for
           the Commodore 64 that turns it into an Apple IIe. [343.16]
     ??? - Commodore Business Machines and Electronic Arts create the
           Interchange Film Format (IFF) for graphics, sound, text,
           animation, and other file types. [449.33]
     ??? - Software Arts sells the rights to VisiCalc to Mitch Kapor, of
           Lotus Development, for US$800,000. [218]
     ??? - Nintendo introduces the Nintendo Entertainment System in the
           US. [292]
     ??? - Michael Ehman founds Ehman, Incorporated, as a Macintosh
           peripherals vendor. [423.75]
     ??? - Broderbund releases the first game in the Carmen Sandiego
           series. [531.8]
1986 JAN - Microsoft releases MS-DOS 3.25. [346.268]
         - Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh Plus, with 1 MB RAM,
           support for hard drives, a new keyboard with cursor keys and
           numeric keypad, priced at US$2600. [46] [75] [120] [140]
           [180.222] [203.68] [346.167] [346.268]
         - Apple Computer introduces the LaserWriter Plus printer.
           [346.268]
         - John Sculley becomes chairman of Apple Computer. [75]
         - Compaq Computer reports third year revenues of US$503.9
           million, a U.S. business record. [113]
         - Eric Graham shows his "Juggler" demo animation on the Amiga,
           showing the Amiga's capabilities of ray-traced animation
           merged with digitized sound. [442.31]
         - IBM announces the IBM RT Personal Computer, using RISC-based
           technology from IBM's "801" project of the mid-70s.  It is
           one of the first commercially-available 32-bit RISC-based
           computers.  The base configuration has 1MB RAM, a 1.2MB
           floppy, and 40 MB hard drive, for US$11,700.  With
           performance of only 2 MIPS, it is doomed from the beginning.
           [31] [116] [205.114] [329.129]
         - Microsoft releases MS-DOS 3.2. It adds support for 3.5-inch
           720 KB floppy disk drives. [130] (1985 DEC [146]) (MAR
           [346.254])
     FEB - Compaq Computer introduces the Compaq Portable II. [108]
         - Quarterdeck Office Systems ships DESQview 1.1. [130]
         - Quarterdeck Office Systems ships DESQview 1.2. [130]
         - Microsoft moves from Bellevue to Redmond, Washington. [123]
           (MAR [346.224])
         - Microsoft releases a French version of Windows 1.02.
           [346.268]
     MAR - The First International Conference on CD-ROM is held in
           Seattle, Washington, hosted by Microsoft. [58] [123]
         - IBM begins shipping the IBM RT PC. [117]
         - Microsoft first sells shares to the public, for US$21 per
           share. The initial public offering raises US$61 million. Bill
           Gates quickly becomes the world's youngest billionaire. [75]
           [123] [346.220] [346.268] [389.28]
         - Silicon Graphics decides to switch from the Motorola 68000
           line to MIPS Technologies' line of RISC processors. [160]
     APR - IBM announces the IBM PC Convertible, 80C88-based, 256K RAM,
           and two 720K floppy disks, for US$2000. [35] [41] [109] [116]
           [120] [146]
         - IBM discontinues the IBM Portable PC. [117]
         - Satellite Software International ships Student WordPerfect for
           US$75. [330.108]
         - IBM boosts the speed of the IBM PC AT by replacing the CPU
           with a 8-MHz Intel 80286. [117] [120]
         - Jim Manzi is named chief executive officer of Lotus
           Development Corp. [217]
         - Microsoft releases Microsoft Word 3.0 for DOS. [346.131]
           [502.49]
         - Compaq Computer joins the Fortune 500 list faster than any
           company in history. [113]
         - Compaq Computer ships its 500,000th personal computer. [113]
         - Apple Computer replaces the Macintosh 512K with the Macintosh
           512K Enhanced, for US$2000. [46] [75]
         - Satellite Software International changes its name to
           WordPerfect Corporation. [109] [330.116]
     MAY - IBM ships TopView 1.1. [130]
     JUL - Apple Computer discontinues the Macintosh XL. [75]
         - Jim Manzi is appointed chairman of Lotus Development. [217]
         - Byte by Byte releases Sculpt 3-D for the Amiga, the first 3-D
           modelling program to ship for the Amiga. [442.35]
     AUG - Intel ships the 80386. [31] [108]
         - Microsoft announces Works for the Macintosh. [346.268]
     SEP - Compaq Computer introduces the first 16-MHz Intel 80386-based
           PC, the Compaq Deskpro 386. [31] [41] [108] [117] [203.87]
           [346.197] [346.269]
         - Apple Computer introduces the Apple IIGS, with the Apple 3.5
           drive, for US$1000. It uses the Western Digital Center
           W65C816 (65816) microprocessor, operating at 1-MHz or
           2.8-MHz. [46] [75] [120] [199.1] [218]
         - Apple Computer releases AppleWorks 2.0. [218]
         - Apple Computer introduces the Apple 3.5 drive for the Mac and
           the Apple IIGS. [218].
         - IBM announces the IBM PC-XT Model 286, with 640KB RAM, 1.2MB
           floppy drive, 20MB hard drive, serial/parallel ports, and
           keyboard for US$4000. [35] [109] [116] [117] [120]
         - Quarterdeck Office Systems ships DESQview 1.3. [130]
         - Steve Jobs decides to use the ill-fated erasable optical disk
           drives for the first NeXT machine. [170.66]
     OCT - WordPerfect ships WordPerfect 4.2 for US$500. [330.109]
           [502.49]
         - Microsoft announces Microsoft Word 3.0 for the Macintosh.
           [346.139] [346.269]
         - The first AmiEXPO is held, in New York City. [442.37]
         - Impulse releases Silver 1.0 for the Amiga. [442.37]
         - Ashton-Tate ships the one millionth copy of dBASE. [346.269]
     NOV - Lotus Development releases a French version of Lotus 1-2-3
           v2.0 in France. [346.118]
     DEC - PageMaker is released for the PC. [120]
         - WordPerfect ships WordPerfect for the Apple IIgs for US$180.
           [330.109]
     ??? - Amstrad takes over the Sinclair computer operation, in
           England. [499.22]
     ??? - Microsoft purchases Dymanical Systems, Inc., makers of a
           TopView clone called Mondrian. [45]
     ??? - Motorola begins work on the 88000 processor. [160]
     ??? - Digital Research introduces its GEM operating environment for
           MS-DOS. [205.40]
     ??? - MIPS Technologies unveils the 8-MHz R2000 32-bit CPU.  With
           110,000 transistors, it achieves a speed rating of 5 MIPS.
           [176.75]
     ??? - MIPS Technologies begins volume shipments of its first RISC
           processor, the R2000. [160]
     ??? - Little-known company Advanced Logic Research announces the
           first 386-based PC, the Access 386. [16]
     ??? - Mitch Kapor, founder of Lotus Development, leaves the company.
           [346.280]
     ??? - NexGen begins work on the design of a fifth generation x86
           processor. [206.96]
     ??? - Motorola announces the 68030 microprocessor.  It uses about
           300,000 transistors. [16] [423.136]
     ??? - NEC Home Electronics introduces its NEC JC-1401P3A Multisync
           monitor. [109] (1986 [117])
     ??? - Software Publishing Corporation introduces Harvard
           Presentation Graphics for the PC. [109]
     ??? - IBM begins work on what would become the IBM RS/6000 series.
           [157]
     ??? - Gateway 2000 ships its first PC. [183]
     ??? - NexGen is founded. [206.30]
     ??? - Work begins on SCSI-2. [543]
     ??? - The Small Computer System Interface (SCSI-1) standard is
           finalized as ANSI X3.131-1986. [542.111] [543]
1987 JAN - Microsoft France releases a French version of Multiplan 3.0
           for the IBM PC. [346.119]
         - Lotus Development files a lawsuit against Paperback Software
           (maker of VP-Planner) and Mosaic Software (maker of The
           Twin), claiming infringement of copyrights over the look and
           feel of 1-2-3. [116] [217]
         - Microsoft begins shipping Microsoft Word 3.0 for the
           Macintosh. [346.140]
         - Byte by Byte releases Animate 3-D for the Amiga. [442.35]
         - Apple Computer introduces the Apple Platinum IIe. [218]
     FEB - Commodore announces the Amiga 500.  It features a 68000
           processor, 512KB RAM, floppy disk drive, and custom chips for
           animation, video, and audio. [16] [442.40]
         - Commodore announces the Amiga 2000. [16]
     MAR - Apple Computer introduces the open architecture Macintosh II. 
           The basic system sells for US$3900.  A system with 1MB RAM,
           one 800K floppy drive, and a 40MB hard drive is priced at
           US$5500.  The system features a plug-and-play architecture
           for expansion cards. [16] [41] [46] [75] [120] [140]
           [203.68]
         - Apple Computer introduces the expandable Macintosh SE for
           US$2900 for a dual floppy system. [16] [46] [75] [120]
         - Apple Computer introduces NuBus as the Mac's standard bus.
           [178]
         - U.S. Robotics unveils its 9600 bps Courier HST modem, for
           US$995. BBS sysops can purchase the modem for US$495. [111]
         - Aegis Development releases VideoScape 3D for the Amiga.
           [442.35]
     APR - IBM introduces the IBM Personal System/2 (PS/2) line, with
           IBM's first 386 PC, and 3.5-inch floppy drives as standard. 
           The PS/2 Model 30 uses a 8-MHz 8086, the Model 50 and 60 use
           the 10-MHz 80286, and the Model 80 uses a 20-MHz 80386. [35]
           [75] [116] [120] [203.27] [205.34] [330.132] [346.199]
           [346.269] [415.59]
         - IBM unveils its Video Graphics Array (VGA) in its Model 50 and
           higher of the PS/2 line.  VGA offers 256 simultaneous colors
           at a resolution of 320x200, and 16 colors at 640x480. The
           colors displayed have six bits of depth for each primary
           color, giving a palette of 262,144 different colors to select
           from. [116] [120] [346.199]
         - IBM unveils its Multicolor Graphics Array (MCGA) on its PS/2
           Model 30.  The MCGA is limited to 64K of memory, limiting
           640x480 resolution to just 2 colors, but still allowing
           320x200 in 256 colors. [116]
         - IBM introduces its Micro Channel Architecture (MCA) on its
           Model 50 and higher of the PS/2 line. [116] [346.199]
           [346.269] [415.59] [522.165]
         - IBM and Microsoft announce Operating System/2 (OS/2). [16]
           [31] [41] [123] [130] [146] [150] [346.200] [346.269]
           [379.256] [389.28] [415.59]
         - IBM announces the 8514/A Display Adapter, a high-resolution
           graphics card for the MCA PS/2 line.  The 8514/A adds
           1024x768 in 16 colors to the standard VGA, at a cost of
           US$1290.  With the addition of a US$270 Memory Expansion Kit,
           640x480 and 1024x768 resolutions can be had in 256 colors.
           [117]
         - IBM announces the 8514 16-inch monitor, for US$1550. [117]
         - IBM announces DOS 3.3 for PCs, for US$120. It adds support for
           1.44 MB floppy disks, and multiple 32 MB hard drive
           partitions. [117] [146] [329.113] [346.254]
         - Microsoft announces Microsoft Windows 2.0. [123] [137]
         - IBM ships TopView 1.12. [130]
         - Advanced Micro Devices files suit against Intel, claiming
           Intel had breached contractual obligations in a 1982
           technology sharing agreement between the two companies.
           [141]
     MAY - PC MOS 1.0 ships. [130]
         - Quarterdeck Office Systems ships DESQview 2.0. [130]
         - Microsoft releases Excel 1.04 for the Macintosh II.
           [346.269]
     JUN - IBM withdraws TopView from the market. [346.285] (1986
           [383.14])
         - Atari introduces the Atari XE Game System, with 64KB RAM,
           supporting 256KB game cartridges. [319]
         - Microsoft and IBM release the OS/2 developers' kit. [493.65]
         - Microsoft sells its 500,000th mouse. [346.269]
     JUL - WordPerfect creates an Amiga/Atari division within the
           company. [330.107]
         - IBM ships the first 8514/A adapters, PS/2 systems, and VGA
           cards. [307.110]
         - Microsoft acquires Forethought, maker of the PowerPoint
           presentation graphics program for the Macintosh. [346.269]
         - WordPerfect ships WordPerfect for the Amiga for US$400.
           [330.109]
         - Zilog introduces its Z-280 16-bit version of the Z-80 CPU.
           [32]
         - Sun Microsystems introduces its first SPARC-based system, the
           Sun-4/260, with 10 MIPS performance. [160] [176.75]
         - Sun Microsystems offers licenses for its SPARC microprocessor
           architecture. [171.80] (OCT [174.56])
         - Apple Computer creates the company Claris, to handle some of
           Apple Computer's software for the Apple II and Macintosh.
           [218] [419.75]
         - IBM ships the first PS/2 Model 80 systems. [307.134]
     AUG - IBM introduces the PS/2 Model 25, with an 8-MHz Intel 8086,
           combined system unit with monitor, no hard drive, and
           reduced-size keyboard, starting at US$1350. [118] [120]
         - Microsoft ships MS-DOS 3.3. [130]
         - Apple Computer introduces HyperCard, MultiFinder 5.0, and
           AppleFax Modem for the Macintosh, at the Macworld Expo. [140]
           [180.247] [320.36] [413.196]
         - Tandy introduces the Tandy 1000 TX, 1000 HX, 1400 LT, and
           4000. [319.43]
         - The Association of Shareware Professionals (ASP) is formed.
           [10]
     SEP - Microsoft ships Microsoft Bookshelf, its first CD-ROM
           application. [123]
         - Lotus Development announces Lotus 1-2-3 for the Macintosh.
           [346.170]
     OCT - Lotus Development ships Lotus 1-2-3 2.01 for MS-DOS.
           [502.49]
         - Microsoft unveils the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for Windows.
           [119] [123] [346.204] [389.28] [477.159] (NOV [346.270])
         - Microsoft ships Microsoft Works for DOS. [346.236] (1988 MAR
           [346.270])
         - Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows/386, priced at US$195.
           [120] [130] [477.159] (NOV [346.270])
         - Microsoft ships Windows 2.0. [75] [130] [346.193] [346.206]
           [477.159] (v2.03 [136]) (NOV [146] [346.270])
         - Compaq Computer introduces the 20-MHz Compaq Deskpro 386/20.
           [119]
         - Compaq Computer introduces the 20-MHz Compaq Portable 386.
           [119]
         - WordPerfect ships WordPerfect for the Atari ST for US$400.
           [330.109]
         - Ven-Tel unveils its EC18K-34 modem, which it claims can
           operate at up to 18,000 bps, with data compression achieving
           a throughput of 19,200 bps on normal voice phone lines.  The
           cost of the modem is US$1400. [120]
         - Ad Lib Incorporated unveils its Ad Lib Personal Computer Music
           System for US$245.  The card provides FM synthesis with 11
           simultaneous voices. [120]
         - Microsoft releases Microsoft Word 4.0 for the PC. [346.270]
           (SEP [502.49])
         - Microsoft releases Microsoft Word 3.0 for the Macintosh.
           [346.270]
     NOV - Borland International ships the Quattro spreadsheet program,
           including emulation of Lotus 1-2-3 commands.  This emulation
           will result in a nine-year legal battle over "look and feel"
           with Lotus Development. [453.4]
         - Compaq Computer makes its 1 millionth personal computer. [47]
           [113]
         - IBM reports that it has shipped 1 million PS/2 systems.
           [327.26]
         - Impulse releases Silver 2.0 for the Amiga. [442.37]
     DEC - Microsoft ships the one millionth copy of Windows. [346.270]
         - Microsoft releases OS/2 1.0. [346.270] [379.256]
         - IBM ships first copies of OS/2 Standard Edition 1.0. [31] [75]
           [130] [134] [135] [329.5] (NOV [146])
     ??? - Commodore launches its first IBM PC-compatible machines, the
           PC10-1 and PC10-2.  Both use a 4.77 MHz Siemens 8088. [115]
     ??? - Phar Lap Software and Quarterdeck Office Systems develop the
           Virtual Control Program Interface (VCPI), to allow 80386
           protected-mode DOS extended applications to coexist with
           80386-specific memory managers [511.366]
     ??? - Intel introduces the 80387 math coprocessor. [511.312]
     ??? - Motorola unveils the 68030 microprocessor. [120]
     ??? - U.S. Robotics introduces the Courier HST 9600 modem. [235]
     ??? - IBM discontinues the IBM PC line. [203.28]
     ??? - Linus introduces the WriteTop microcomputer, the first
           pen-based computer.  It runs MS-DOS, uses an 8088 processor,
           and weighs 9 pounds. [421.130]
     ??? - Hewlett-Packard releases the HP PaintJet color inkjet printer.
           [533.170]
1988 JAN - Impulse releases Turbo Silver 3.0 for the Amiga. [442.37]
         - Spectrum Holobyte introduces Tetris, the first entertainment
           software imported from the Soviet Union. [307.98]
     FEB - Apple Computer ships A/UX for the Macintosh II, Apple
           Computer's combination of the Mac interface with UNIX. [46]
           [75]
         - Compaq Computer reports sales for the year reach US$1.2
           billion, setting the record as the fastest company to reach
           that mark. [113]
     MAR - Apple Computer sues Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard for
           copyright infringement regarding Microsoft's Windows 2.03,
           Hewlett-Packard's NewWave, and the Macintosh OS. [38] [46]
           [75] [309.256] [328.15] [346.193] [346.270] [477.160
         - The Open Software Foundation is founded. [153] (MAY [160])
     APR - Motorola unveils the 88000 processor. [160]
         - Weitek introduces the Weitek 3167 math coprocessor chip as an
           enhancement to Intel's 386 CPU.  The 3167 is a single chip
           equivalent to Weitek's earlier 1167 circuit board
           coprocessor. [511.319]
     MAY - WordPerfect ships WordPerfect 5.0 for US$500. [502.49]
         - Microsoft releases Microsoft Excel 1.5 for the Macintosh.
           [346.170]
         - Lotus Development ships the four millionth copy of Lotus
           1-2-3. [346.270]
         - Apple Computer contracts with Quantum Computer Services to
           create the AppleLink - Personal Edition (later renamed
           America Online). [218]
     JUN - IBM announces the PS/2 Model 70, as 16-, 20-, and 25-MHz 80386
           systems. [131]
         - Microsoft ships Windows 2.1 as Windows/286 and Windows/386.
           [136] [146] (1987 [45])
         - Microsoft releases MS-DOS 4.0, including a graphical/mouse
           interface. [346.255]
         - Intel introduces the 16-MHz 80386SX microprocessor, like the
           80386 but with a 16-bit data bus.  Price is US$219 each, in
           quantities of 100. [177.103] [296] [477.126] [540.64]
     JUL - Lotus Development ships Agenda. [307.87]
         - IBM ships OS/2 Extended Edition 1.0. [31]
         - IBM ships DOS 4.0. It adds a shell menu interface and support
           for hard disk partitions over 32 MB. [31] [146]
     SEP - Apple Computer introduces the Apple IIc Plus for US$1100. [46]
           (APR [75]) (US$675 [218])
         - IBM introduces the IBM PS/2 Model 30 286, using the AT-bus. 
           It features a 10-MHz 286, 512KB RAM, VGA, and 20MB hard
           drive. [133] [308.40]
         - Claris releases AppleWorks 2.1. [218]
         - 61 companies support the formation of the Extended Industry
           Standard Architecture (EISA). Companies include Compaq
           Computer, AST, Epson, Hewlett-Packard, NEC Technologies,
           Olivetti, Tandy, Wyse, Zenith, Microsoft. [113] [157]
           [308.40] [346.199] [346.271] [522.167]
         - Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh IIx computer, using
           Motorola's 68030 and 68882 processors.  It is priced at
           US$7770. [46] [75]
         - Apple Computer releases GS/OS, a 16-bit operating system for
           the Apple IIGS. [218]
         - SPEC is formed, with the aim of producing a benchmark based on
           a standard set of real-life applications programs. [156]
         - Tandy ships the first MCA-bus-based clone PC, the Tandy 5000
           MC. [133]
         - Compaq Computer introduces its first laptop PC with VGA
           graphics, the Compaq SLT/286.  It has a 12-MHz 286, 640KB
           RAM, 20-40MB hard drive, 3.5-inch disk drive, and built-in
           10-inch grayscale LCD VGA screen. Price is up to US$5800.
           [133] [308.37]
     OCT - Microsoft releases QuickBASIC 4.5. [539.PC-20]
         - Symantec ships Q&A for OS/2. [522.41]
         - Apple Computer and Quantum Computer Services launch the
           AppleLink Personal Edition computer network. [316.22]
         - Microsoft and IBM ship OS/2 1.1 Standard Edition with
           Presentation Manager. [16] [45] [123] [134] [135] [313.105]
           [379.256] [477.160] [522.41]
         - Microsoft releases OS/2 LAN Manager for networked PCs.
           [346.271]
         - Steve Jobs of NeXT Inc. unveils the first NeXT computer, at
           the Davis Symphony Hall in San Francisco.  For US$6500, it
           features: 25-MHz Motorola 68030 processor and 68882 math
           coprocessor, 8MB RAM, 17-inch monochrome monitor, 256MB
           read/write magneto-optical drive, and true object-oriented
           NextStep operating system. [139] [170.65] [191.76] [203.7]
           [206.289] [344] [346.280] (AUG [11])
     NOV - Ashton-Tate sues Fox Software and Santa Cruz Operations for
           infringing copyrights on the Dbase language. [25] [148]
         - The Ami word processor for Windows is released. [477.160]
         - Microsoft releases MS-DOS 4.01. [146]
         - Byte by Byte releases Sculpt Animate 4-D for the Amiga.
           [442.35]
     ??? - Solbourne Computer Incorporated is the first vendor to produce
           a Sun-compatible SPARC-based computer. [173.81]
     ??? - Compaq Computer and other companies form the "Gang of Nine",
           to improve on the AT-bus, rather than take IBM's approach of
           abandoning it. [203.29]
     ??? - Digital Research transforms CP/M into DR DOS. [478.3]
     ??? - Toshiba introduces the T1600 16-MHz 286 portable. [313.36]
     ??? - Digital Equipment begins development of a 64-bit
           microprocessor.  The chip will debut as the 150-MHz Alpha
           21064 in 1992. [386.61]
     ??? - The bus standard used on IBM AT compatibles is given the name
           Industry Standard Architecture (ISA). [545.355]
     ??? - W.H. Sim founds Creative Labs, Inc., in California, USA, a
           subsidiary of Creative Technology. [221]
     ??? - U.S. Robotics introduces the Courier Dual Standard modem,
           supporting both v.32 and HST protocols, and the Courier v.32
           modem. Prices are US$1600 and US$1500, respectively. [235]
           [313.34]
     ??? - Tandy announces Thor CD, an erasable compact disk system for
           music, video, or data. [306.33]
     ??? - Hewlett-Packard introduces the HP DeskJet inkjet printer. 
           Price: US$1000. [309.89] [315.48]
     ??? - Tandy acquires GRiD Systems. [510.41]
1989 JAN - Commodore announces that 1 million Amiga computers have been
           sold. [412.6]
         - Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh SE/30, with MS-DOS and
           OS/2 disk compatibility, for US$4370. [46]
         - Digital Equipment introduces its first RISC-based workstation,
           the DECstation 3100, using the 16.7-MHz R2000 MIPS
           Technologies processor. [155] [160]
         - Microsoft releases Quick Pascal, designed to compete with
           Borland International's Turbo Pascal.
     FEB - Santa Cruz Operations announces the Open Desktop user
           interface for 80386-based UNIX systems. [309.256]
     MAR - Apple Computer introduces its Macintosh IIcx for US$5370. [46]
           [75] [310.187]
         - Microsoft releases Microsoft Word 4.0 for the Macintosh.
           [346.140]
         - A judge rules that Microsoft Windows 2.03 is not covered in
           the Apple Computer / Microsoft 1985 agreement.  This allows
           the issue to proceed to trial, in the suit of Apple Computer
           against Microsoft filed in March 1988. [309.256]
     APR - VCPI becomes an accepted industry standard for 80386-specific
           software. [511.366]
         - The VESA graphics standard emerges, providing a uniform method
           of accessing SuperVGA chipsets. [18]
         - Microsoft ships SQL Server. [346.271]
         - Intel announces the 80486 microprocessor at Spring Comdex in
           Chicago, Illinois. It integrates the 80386, 80387 math
           coprocessor, and adds an 8KB primary cache.  It uses 1.2
           million transistors.  Initial price is US$900. [16] [75]
           [176.75] [177.103] [296] [310.8] [312.8] [540.64] (US$950
           [477.126])
         - Intel introduces the 33-MHz version of the 80386
           microprocessor and 80387 math co-processor.  This version of
           the 387 incorporates new technology, making it inherantly
           faster than previous 387 chips. [312.13] [511.319]
         - Motorola announces the 68040 microprocessor.  It uses about
           1.2 million transistors. [312.8] [423.136]
         - Motorola announces the 50-MHz version of the 68030
           microprocessor. [312.14]
     MAY - Microsoft releases Microsoft Word 5.0 for DOS. [502.49]
         - Microsoft releases Microsoft Excel 2.2 for the Macintosh. It
           can handle spreadsheets up to 8 MB in size. [346.170]
           [346.271]
         - Hewlett-Packard buys workstation maker Apollo Computer for
           US$476 million. [158]
         - Solbourne Computers Incorporated is the first to announce a
           line of SPARC-based Sun-compatible computers. [171.80]
         - Apple Computer announces details of the System 7.0 Macintosh
           operating system. [310.187]
     JUN - IBM introduces the Office Vision system. [346.146]
         - Claris releases AppleWorks 3.0. [218]
         - Lotus Development releases Lotus 1-2-3 3.0 for MS-DOS, two
           years after its initial announcement. [346.210] [346.271]
           [502.49] [511.219]
         - Apricot Computers announces the first 486-based PC, in London,
           England. The VX FT system uses the 25-MHz Intel 80486 chip,
           IBM's MCA bus, and is priced starting at US$18,000. [310.8]
           (AUG [12])
     JUL - Lotus Development ships Lotus 1-2-3 2.2 for MS-DOS. [502.49]
           [511.219]
         - AmiEXPO is held in Chicago, Illinois. [448.55]
         - AT&T and Intel sign an agreement to produce 386-based PCs.
           [166.58]
     SEP - Atari introduces the Atari TT, featuring a 16-MHz 68030
           processor, 2MB RAM, a 3.5-inch floppy drive, and a built-in
           genlock device. [440.19]
         - Apple Computer announces the Macintosh Portable. [46] [75]
         - Apple Computer announces the 25-MHz Macintosh IIci. [46]
           [75]
         - IBM releases OS/2 1.2. [135] [346.243]
         - Hewlett-Packard ships NewWave for Windows. [477.160]
         - Hewlett-Packard announces a US$3990 UNIX workstation based on
           the Motorola 68030. [158]
         - NeXT ships the first NeXT Computer systems. [206.289] [222]
         - NeXT releases NextStep v1.0. [206.289] [222]
     OCT - France's Groupe Bull buys Zenith Data Systems for US$511
           million. [523.102]
         - Microsoft releases Microsoft Excel for OS/2's Presentation
           Manager. It is the first major application available for PM.
           [346.272]
         - Cyrix introduces the FasMath 83D87 math coprocessor,
           pin-compatible with Intel's 387. [511.329] [509.219]
         - Compaq Computer introduces its first notebook PC, the Compaq
           LTE. [113]
         - Byte by Byte releases Sculpt 4-D for the Macintosh, for
           US$1500. [442.35]
         - SPEC releases version 1.0 of its SPEC Benchmark Suite. [156]
         - IBM signs a deal with NeXT to license the NextStep operating
           system. [170.65]
     NOV - Weitek introduces the Weitek 4167 math coprocessor chip as an
           enhancement to Intel's 486 CPU. [511.319]
         - WordPerfect ships WordPerfect 5.1 for US$500. [502.49]
         - An exhibition of videographics and electronic paintings is
           held at the Cogburn Gallery on the University of Vermont's
           Burlington campus. The works were all generated on an Amiga
           1000. [448.50]
         - At fall Comdex, IBM strongly endorses Windows for low end PCs,
           and Microsoft publicly endorses OS/2 as the future platform
           for higher-end PCs. IBM and Microsoft agree to jointly
           develop a consistent, full-range of systems software. [38]
           [45] [123] [389.29] [477.160]
         - Compaq Computer introduces its first server PC, the Compaq
           Systempro. This is also the first EISA PC. [113]
         - Commodore announces the Amiga 2500/30.  It is essentially an
           Amiga 2000 with a 2630 Accelerator Board (25-MHz 68030 and
           68882 math coprocessor). [408.12]
     DEC - IBM demonstrates its new line of RISC System/6000
           workstations. [14]
         - Xerox files a lawsuit challenging the validity of Apple
           Computer's copyrights covering the Lisa and Macintosh
           computers' graphical user interface. [46] [75]
         - Microsoft ships Word for Windows 1.0. [477.160]
     ??? - (spring) Harris Semiconductor introduces the a 25-MHz version
           of the 80286.  Price is US$142 each in quantities of 1000.
           [312.13]
     ??? - (late) Intel begins production of the 80486 microprocessor.
           [477.126]
     ??? - Quote from a Lotus Development official, while demoing a new
           DOS version of Lotus 1-2-3: "We don't see Windows as a
           long-term graphical interface for the masses.". [312.14]
     ??? - Hewlett-Packard introduces the HP DeskJet Plus inkjet printer.
           Price: US$1000. [309.89]
     ??? - Borland International releases Quattro Pro spreadsheet
           program. [453.4]
     ??? - SPARC International is formed. [171.80]
     ??? - Creative Labs introduces the Sound Blaster, an 8-bit mono PC
           sound card. [221]
     ??? - NEC Technologies introduces the 4.2-pound NEC UltraLite laptop
           PC. [310.161]
     ??? - Sun Microsystems announces the 12.5 MIPS 20-MHz SPARCstation 1
           for a base price of US$9000. [16] [176.58]
     ??? - Apple Computer announces that it is developing a new font
           standard.  It will later emerge as TrueType. [416.195]
     ??? - Intel unveils the i860 chip. [16]
     ??? - The Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
           (PCMCIA) is formed, to develop a memory card standard for
           PCs. [20]
     ??? - Data General unveils its Aviion workstation line, based on the
           Motorola 88000. [160]
     ??? - Mission Cyrus introduces the Darius ProPortable, the first
           PS/2-compatible portable microcomputer. [309.57]
     ??? - Atari Computer introduces the Portfolio, a 1-pound DOS-based
           PC.  It uses a 4.92-MHz 80C88 processor, 240x64 resolution
           screen, and runs on three AA batteries. Price: US$400.
           [309.57]
     ??? - Zenith Data Systems introduces the Zenith MinisPort, a 6-pound
           laptop computer. [310.94]
     ??? - MicroPro International changes its name to WordStar
           International. [346.287]
     ??? - Linus discontinues the WriteTop pen-based microcomputer.
           [421.130]
     ??? - Hayes Microcomputer Products buys modem competitor Practical
           Peripherals. [451.A8]
1990 JAN - Motorola announces the availability of its 32-bit 25-MHz
           microprocessor, the 68040.  The 68040 incorporates 1.2
           million transistors, integrates the FPU, and includes 
           instruction and data caches. [13]
         - Apple Computer discontinues the Macintosh II. [75]
         - Sun Microsystems signs an agreement to transfer the SPARC
           trademark to SPARC International. [171.80]
         - Hayes Microcomputer Products wins a US$1.4 million lawsuit
           against Everex, Ven-Tel, and Omnitel, regarding the validity
           of Hayes' patent on the +++ escape sequence. [164.14]
         - Commodore gives a sneak preview of a proposed "interactive
           graphics player", based on a variant of the Amiga 500, with
           1MB of RAM.  The machine includes an integrated CD-ROM drive,
           but no keyboard. [441.17]
         - Intel releases the 80387SX math coprocessor. [511.319]
         - Intel releases the 10-MHz 287XL and 287XTL (designed for
           laptop computers) math coprocessors.  These coprocessors
           operate faster than previously released versions. [511.319]
     MAR - Lotus Development ships Lotus 1-2-3/G. [502.49]
         - Commodore offers Amiga 1000 owners US$1000 to trade in their
           Amiga on a new Amiga 2000. [441.7]
         - Cyrix introduces the FasMath 83S87 math coprocessor,
           pin-compatible with Intel's 387SX. [511.329]
         - Apple Computer introduces the 40-MHz Apple Macintosh IIfx.
           [18] [46] [75]
     APR - Microsoft introduces Russian MS-DOS 4.01 for the Soviet
           market. [123]
     MAY - The lawsuit of Xerox against Apple Computer regarding use of
           Xerox's graphical user interface is thrown out of court.
           [346.195]
         - Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows 3.0. Microsoft spends
           US$3 million for opening-day marketing, as part of a US$10
           million promotional campaign. [15] [28] [45] [75] [123] [146]
           [150] [346.239] [346.272] [379.256] [389.29] [477.161]
           [479.128]
         - The DPMI Committee releases the DPMI version 0.9
           specification. [511.369]
         - Toshiba unveils the first SPARC laptop, the SPARC LT.
           [171.80]
         - Digital Research releases DR DOS 5.0. [146] [511.242]
         - The PCMCIA card specification v1.0 is released. [147] (SEP
           [206.68])
     JUN - Duo Computers announces the Duo FC, incorporating a PC-AT
           compatible and a Nintendo game system in one case. [539.10]
         - Apple Computer announces that Claris shares would not be
           offered to the public, but that the company would become a
           wholly-owned subsidiary of Apple Computer. [419.75]
         - A US District Court judge rules that Paperback Software's
           duplicating the menu interface of Lotus 1-2-3 was a violation
           of copyright (the "look and feel" lawsuit was filed in 1987).
           [16] [161] [217]
         - Jon Shirley resigns as President of Microsoft.  He is replaced
           by former Boeing executive Michael Hallman. [346.272]
         - Nolan Bushnell unveils Commodore's CDTV at the Summer Consumer
           Electronics Show.  Code name during the product's development
           was "Baby". [539.A-18]
     JUL - Microsoft's sales revenues hit US$1 billion for the past year,
           the first personal computer software company to do so. [123]
           [346.272]
         - Lotus Development files lawsuits against Borland International
           (maker of Quattro) and Santa Cruz Operations (maker of SCO
           Professional) claiming copyright infringement of the Lotus
           1-2-3 spreadsheet software. [217] [453.4]
         - Macintosh hard drive manufacturer Jasmine Technologies emerges
           from Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. [414.63]
         - Acer Incorporated buys Altos Computer Systems for US$94
           million. [163.57]
     AUG - Gilbert Hyatt is granted a basic patent on the microprocessor,
           20 years after his first application for the patent. [23]
           [162] [185.193]
     SEP - IBM and Microsoft end cooperative work on operating systems,
           dividing up work-to-date between them, in a series of
           cross-licensing agreements. [162] [346.245] [379.256]
           [477.161] [511.95] (NOV [38])
         - The PCMCIA card specification v2.0 is announced. [546.73]
         - NeXT announces the Nextstation. [170.66] [206.289] (OCT
           [170.65])
         - Apple Computer discontinues the Apple IIc Plus. [218]
     OCT - Intel introduces the 20-MHz 80386SL microprocessor, designed
           for use in portable and laptop computers.  It uses 855,000
           transistors, a 32-bit internal data path, and a 16-bit
           external data path.  Price is US$150 each, in quantities of
           1000. [477.126] [540.64]
         - Apple Computer discontinues the Mac Plus, Mac SE, Mac SE/30
           and Mac IIx. [75]
         - Apple Computer unveils the Macintosh Classic for US$1000, the
           Macintosh LC, and the Macintosh IIsi. [17] [18] [46] [75]
           [414.230] [416.169]
         - Microsoft Bill Gates quote: "Even for the next ten years,
           [DOS] will have a significant role to play." [23]
         - IBM introduces the XGA MCA graphics card, as a replacement for
           VGA.  Resolutions of 640x480 and 1024x768 are supported, with
           up to 65,536 colors in the 640x480 mode.  At the same time,
           IBM joins the VESA group, making the XGA specification
           publicly available. [20] [24]
         - Advanced Micro Devices officially acknowledges that it is
           working on cloning Intel's 386 CPUs. [163.14]
         - Lotus Development introduces Lotus MarketPlace: Business, for
           the Macintosh. [414] [500.8]
         - Intel releases new versions of the 16-, 20-, and 25-MHz 80387
           math coprocessor chips.  These versions use the new, faster
           technology employed on the 33-MHz chip. [511.319]
     NOV - Apple Computer discontinues the Apple IIc Plus. [75]
         - PC/GEOS, with GeoWorks Ensemble, ships. [477.164]
         - Michael Spindler becomes president of Apple Computer. [75]
           [414.230]
         - AT&T makes a US$6 billion hostile takeover bid for NCR.
           [166.58] (US$7.5 billion [282.112])
         - LSI Logic announces the availability of SparcKIT, a SPARC
           chipset at speeds of 20-MHz and 25-MHz. [171.80]
         - Sun Microsystems unveils its SPARCstation 2 series, starting
           at roughly US$20,000. [18]
         - The DPMI Committee releases the DPMI version 1.0
           specification. [511.369]
         - The Multimedia PC Marketing Council sets the minimum
           configuration required of a PC to run MPC-class software:
           10-MHz 286 processor, 2MB RAM, 30MB hard drive, 16-color VGA,
           mouse, 8-bit audio card, 150KBps CD-ROM drive. [501.87]
           [509.228] [532] [546.77]
     DEC - Microsoft begins shipping the first version of the Object
           Linking and Embedding (OLE) library for Windows 3.0.
           [511.67]
         - Ashton-Tate's lawsuit regarding the copyright on the Dbase
           language is dismissed in court. [25]
     ??? - Apple Computer's AppleLink - Personal Edition is expanded and
           renamed America Online. [218]
     ??? - IBM unveils its new RISC-based workstation line, the RS/6000.
           Development work had been done under code name "America" for
           the RISC chip research, and "RIOS" for systems using the
           America technology. The architecture of the systems is given
           the name POWER, standing for Performance Optimization With
           Enhanced RISC. [205.116]
     ??? - U.S. Robotics introduces the Courier v.32bis modem. [235]
     ??? - Motorola announces a new line of single-chip RISC processors,
           the first of which is be the 88110. [205.81]
     ??? - NewTek releases the Video Toaster, a hardware/software video
           effects tool for the the Commodore Amiga 2000, for US$1600.
           [19] [409.21] [539.A-41]
     ??? - Hewlett-Packard's introduction of the LaserJet IIP breaks the
           US$1000 street price barrier. [19]
     ??? - The INMOS T-9000 processor, designed for parallel computing in
           the Transputer architecture, appears. [32]
     ??? - IBM introduces the 10-MHz 80286-based IBM PS/1 systems, with
           built-in VGA and monitor.  Prices range from US$1000 to
           US$2000. [138]
     ??? - INTV Corp. discontinues production of the Intellivision.
           [292]
     ??? - Commodore announces the Amiga 3000, at the Palladium in New
           York City. The system features a Motorola 16- or 25-MHz
           68030, 68881 or 68882 math coprocessor, new Enhanced Chip
           Set, Zorro III bus, 2MB RAM, 40- or 100-MB hard drive,
           AmigaDOS v2.0, and AmigaVision authoring system. Prices start
           at US$4100 with a monitor. [407.19]
     ??? - A judge rules that competitors to Intel can use the x86
           designation for their processors.  Intel decides to find
           another name for its new processors. [477.130]
1991 JAN - Apple Computer discontinues the Mac Portable. [75]
         - RDI announces the availability of Mac emulation software for
           SPARC systems. [171.80]
         - A judge rules that Mosaic Software infringed on Lotus
           Development's copyrights on Lotus 1-2-3. [217]
         - Sun Microsystems begins shipping the SPARCstation 2.
           [173.81]
         - Lotus Development abandons plans for Lotus MarketPlace:
           Households for the Macintosh, and withdraws Lotus
           MarketPlace: Business. [414.262]
         - Compaq Computer reports its first billion dollar quarter.
           [113]
         - Commodore releases the CDTV (Commodore Dynamic Total Vision)
           package. It features a CD-ROM player integrated with a
           7.16-MHz 68000-based Amiga 500.  List price is US$1000.
           [406.21] [411.30]
         - Microsoft releases Microsoft Excel for Windows 3.0. [123]
         - After a year of delays due to technical difficulties,
           Motorola's 68040 microprocessor becomes available. [20]
     FEB - Michael Ehman founds Sterling Solutions, to sell hard drives
           for the Macintosh. [423.75]
         - MIPS Technologies unveils the R4000 RISC processor
           architecture. [167.13]
     MAR - Sierra On-Line and Broderbund announce their intention to
           merge companies. [499.14]
         - Apple Computer discontinues the Macintosh IIcx. [75]
         - IBM spins off its entire printer and typewriter division to a
           New York investment firm.  The company Lexmark is born.
           [121]
         - Apple Computer unveils the TrueType font specification.
           [416.196]
         - NeXT announces availability of its Nextstation color computers
           for US$8000. [170.66]
         - Advanced Micro Designs releases its first clone chips of
           Intel's i386DX, the Am386DX, at speeds of 20- to 40-MHz. [19]
           [141] [176.75] [477.127] [540.64]
         - Microsoft announces the Microsoft BallPoint Mouse,
           incorporating mouse and trackball technology in a pointing
           device for laptop computers. [123]
     APR - Intel introduces the i486SX chip, initially at 20-MHz, and the
           i487SX math coprocessor. The i486SX is like the 486, but
           without the math coprocessor.  Price for the i486SX is
           US$258. [26] [177.103] [296] [477.127] [540.64]
         - The December 1990 dismissal of Ashton-Tate's lawsuit is
           reversed. [26]
         - 21 companies create the Advanced Computing Environment (ACE)
           Initiative. [113] [172.74] [174.14]
         - NeXT ships the Nextstation and the NextStep v2.0 operating
           system. [206.289]
     MAY - Apple Computer ships its System 7.0 Macintosh operating
           system, two years late, for US$100. [27] [46] [75] [346.243]
           [414.230] [416.196] (1990 [176.65])
         - AT&T and NCR sign a merger agreement. [172.58]
         - Lotus Development announces Lotus 1-2-3 for the Macintosh.
           [414.231]
         - Apple Computer releases the Apple Stylewriter, a modified
           Canon BubbleJet inkjet printer, using new TrueType font
           technology. [218] (MAR [414.230]
         - Apple Computer announces QuickTime software, for integration
           of dynamic media for Macintosh computers. [46] [140] (JUN
           [414.231]
         - Microsoft announces Microsoft Visual BASIC for Windows.
           [123]
         - Businessland posts a loss of US$43 million, and files for
           Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. [170.66]
     JUN - Microsoft releases MS-DOS 5.0. It adds a full-screen editor,
           undelete and unformat utilities, and task swapping. GW-BASIC
           is replaced with Qbasic, based on Microsoft's QuickBASIC.
           [28] [146] [479.128]
         - Intel introduces its 50-MHz 486 chip. [36] [152]
         - Tandy introduces its low-cost CDR-1000 CD-ROM drive for PCs. 
           At US$400, including drive and controller card, it is about
           half the price of other drives. [21] (MAR [527.15])
     JUL - Sega of America ships the Time Traveler holographic video game
           to arcade centers. [302.8]
         - Apple Computer and IBM sign a technology sharing agreement, to
           integrate the Mac into IBM's enterprise systems, to allow
           future RISC-based Macs to use IBM's Power PC chip, to work
           together on common multimedia standards, and to cooperatively
           produce a new object-oriented operating system. [22] [37]
           [46] [170.13] [205.13] [414.231] [525.3]
         - Symantec ships Norton Desktop for Windows. [477.164]
         - Borland International buys database competitor Ashton-Tate for
           US$440 million. [22] [39] [102] [414.231]
         - Microsoft vice president Brad Silverberg quote: DOS will be
           "with us forever.  We've learned how passionate people are
           about DOS.". [40]
         - Sun Microsystems introduces the SPARCstation ELC, and the
           SPARCstation IPX. [171.80]
         - Microsoft changes the name of OS/2 v3.0 to Windows NT. [40]
         - Advanced Micro Devices introduces the 25-MHz Am386SX.
           [477.127] [540.64]
     AUG - Symantec acquires Zortech Inc., maker of C++ compilers for
           DOS, Windows, OS/2, Macintosh, and UNIX. [42]
         - The ban on business is lifted on the Internet. [56]
     SEP - Digital Research Inc. releases DR DOS 6.0, for US$100. [43]
         - The PCMCIA card specification v2.x is released. [206.68]
         - Chips & Technologies introduces the F8680 PC/Chip
           microprocessor. It is designed for use in notebook and
           handheld computers.  The CPU is compatible with the Intel
           8086 and Intel 80186.  The chip also includes a universal
           asynchronous receiver/transmitter, CGA-compatible display
           controller, and PCMCIA support, making it the most integrated
           chip ever produced to date.  Price is US$45. [477.128]
     OCT - Apple Computer, Motorola, and IBM officially sign an accord on
           technology sharing.  Apple and IBM will jointly develop the
           PowerOpen Specification, based on IBM's AIX operating system.
           [44] [205.99] [293.35] [321.12] [145] [397.12] [399.32]
           [417.17] (SEP [75] [205.2])
     MAR - Advanced Micro Designs ships the 1-millionth Am386
           microprocessor. [141]
     OCT - Apple Computer and IBM create Kaleida, to create a
           hardware-independent multimedia scripting language. [399.32]
           [414.231]
         - Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh Classic II (replacing
           the Macintosh Classic). It features a 16-MHz 68030, System
           7.0.1, 2MB RAM, 40MB hard drive, B/W monitor, floppy drive,
           for US$1900. [46] [75] [417.148]
         - Apple Computer unveils the Macintosh PowerBook 100.  It
           features a 16-MHz 68000 CPU, System 7.0.1, 20MB hard drive,
           passive matrix B/W LCD screen, 2MB RAM, weighs 5.1 pounds,
           and costs US$2500. [46] [75] [417.130]
         - Apple Computer unveils the Macintosh PowerBook 140.  It
           features a 16-MHz 68030 CPU, System 7.0.1, 20MB hard drive,
           supertwist B/W LCD screen, 2MB RAM, SuperDrive floppy drive,
           weighs 6.8 pounds, and costs US$2900. [46] [75] [417.130]
         - Apple Computer unveils the Macintosh PowerBook 170.  It
           features a 25-MHz 68030 CPU, System 7.0.1, 40MB hard drive,
           active matrix B/W LCD screen, 4MB RAM, SuperDrive floppy
           drive, fax/modem, 68882 math coprocessor, weighs 6.8 pounds,
           and costs US$4600. [46] [75] [414.258] [417.130]
         - Apple Computer unveils the Macintosh Quadra 700.  It features
           a 25-MHz 68040, 8-bit color video, System 7.0.1, HyperCard,
           4MB RAM, 512KB video RAM, SuperDrive floppy drive, and
           various hard driveoptions, for US$5700-7700. [46] [75]
           [417.140]
         - Apple Computer unveils the Macintosh Quadra 900.  It features
           a 25-MHz 68040, 8-bit color video, System 7.0.1, HyperCard,
           4MB RAM, 1MB video RAM, SuperDrive floppy drive, and various
           hard driveoptions, for US$7200-9200. [46] [75] [417.140]
         - Apple Computer introduces the OneScanner gray-scale page
           scanner, for US$1400. [417.109]
         - MIPS Technologies officially introduces the 100-MHz R4000, its
           64-bit RISC processor. [44]
         - Quote from IBM's Lee Reiswig: "We will be enhancing OS/2 until
           the late 1990s." [47]
         - Insite Technology begins shipping its 21 MB 3.5-inch floppy
           disk drive to system vendors.  The drive uses "floptical"
           disks, using optical technology to store data. [149]
         - Sun Microsystems begins licensing the new chipset used in the
           SPARCstation 2. [173.81]
     NOV - IBM and Intel sign a 10-year joint development agreement to
           create a series of integrated processors. [48]
         - Microsoft announces the Multimedia Edition of Microsoft Works
           2.0 for Windows, on CD-ROM. [123]
     DEC - Apple Computer ships QuickTime 1.0. [75]
         - IBM introduces the 20-MHz 386SLC microprocessor.  It is an
           enhanced Intel 386SX, including an 8KB cache, and extra
           instructions.  It is the first chip produced under an
           agreement between Intel and IBM, for IBM to use in their own
           systems. [477.128]
     ??? - (summer) Ad Lib announces the Ad Lib Gold series of PC sound
           cards at the Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago, Illinois.
           [302.112]
     ??? - The US Federal Trade Commission begins an investigation of
           Microsoft Corp., for alleged monopolistic practices in the PC
           software market. [128]
     ??? - Quote by Aaron Goldberg, of International Data Corp.: "I don't
           know if anyone has tried to run Windows on a 286 machine, but
           frankly I'd rather have knitting needles in my eyes.".
           [169]
     ??? - Novell buys Digital Research. [478.3]
     ??? - S3 introduces the 911 graphics chip, incorporating GUI
           acceleration with VGA compatibility. [176.75]
     ??? - Intel recalls the 50-MHz version of the 486DX microprocessor,
           due to problems with overheating. [477.126]
     ??? - The Pearl Agency in Germany develops the first software
           vending machine.  The machines allow the buyer to view a demo
           or product description before purchasing the software on a
           diskette. [544.30]
     ??? - Commodore unveils the Amiga 3000UX, with a Motorola MC68030
           25-MHz processor, 68882 math coprocessor, UNIX System V
           Release 4, Open Look, and Ethernet support.  Cost is US$5000,
           without a monitor. [172.75]
     ??? - MIPS Technologies introduces the 64-bit R4000 RISC processor.
           [242]
     ??? - Creative Labs introduces the Sound Blaster Pro Deluxe, the
           first stereo PC sound card. [221]
     ??? - Hewlett-Packard introduces its first color image scanner, the
           HP Scanjet IIc.  The 400 dpi 24-bit flatbed scanner is priced
           at about US$2000. [413.157]
     ??? - BlueMaq International introduces the Heat Seeker II, a
           souped-up Macintosh SE with 14-inch monochrome monitor, 85MB
           hard drive, 800KB floppy drive, 25-MHz 68030 plus 68882 math
           coprocessor, for US$7000. [413.167]
     ??? - Hayes Microcomputer Products announces LANstep, a network
           operating system for small offices. [451.A8]
     ??? - Intel begins the design process of its sixth-generation
           processor, to follow the Pentium processor. [519.108]
1992 JAN - Apple Computer chairman John Sculley coins the term Personal
           Digital Assistant, referring to hand-held computers that
           typiclly operate via a stylus on a LCD display. [541.67]
         - IBM reports a year-end loss, for the first time, of US$564
           million, on revenues of US$64.8 billion. [49]
         - NeXT announces that a version of the NextStep OS will be made
           for Intel PCs. [206.289]
     FEB - Five years of arbitration with Intel ends, with Advanced Micro
           Devices being awarded full rights to produce and sell its
           Am386 line of processors. [141]
         - The PowerOpen Association is formed, with the goal of
           producing specifications for an open software/hardware
           platform that can run all UNIX, DOS/Windows (via emulation),
           and Macintosh applications. [205.308]
     MAR - Apple Computer introduces the CD150 CD drive, replacing the
           AppleCD SC Plus. [423.144]
         - Bridgette is incorporated, created by Michael Ehman as a
           successor to Ehman, Inc., to sell Macintosh peripherals.
           [423.76]
         - Apple Computer announces the Macintosh LC II, replacing the
           Macintosh LC in the US.  The LC II uses a 16-MHz Motorola
           68030, and comes with 4MB RAM, 256KB video RAM, and a 40MB
           hard drive, for US$1700.  With 512KB video RAM, and an 80MB
           hard drive, the price is US$2050. [46] [75] [418.137]
         - Microsoft launches its first TV advertising campaign, for
           Windows. [123]
         - Microsoft buys Fox Software for 1.36 million shares of
           Microsoft's common stock. [123] [389.29]
         - Apple Computer and IBM found Taligent, to work on a
           platform-independent operating system. [206.289] [400.6]
           (1991 OCT [205.95] [399.32] [431.87])
         - IBM ships OS/2 2.0. [477.165] [479.128]
         - Quarterdeck Office Systems ships DESQview X. [477.165]
         - Intel and Microsoft announce the Advanced Power Management
           (APM) specification for laptop computers, which allows the
           system to shut down power to system resources not currently
           in use. [477.126]
         - Intel introduces the i486DX2 microprocessor, with clock speeds
           of 25/50-MHz (external/internal), and 33/66-MHz.  For the
           most part, the DX2 is just a 25- or 33-MHz 486 that
           internally runs twice as fast. Price is US$550. [152]
           [177.103] [477.128] [540.64]
     APR - Cyrix introduces the 25-MHz Cx486SLC microprocessor.  It
           features an internal 32-bit data path, but with a 16-bit
           external data path.  It includes a 1KB cache, but no
           coprocessor.  Price is US$119. [477.129] [402.65] [540.64]
         - Ehman, Inc., a Macintosh peripherals company, closes, with
           US$4 million in debts. [423.75]
         - Microsoft ships Windows 3.1.  1 million copies of the new and
           upgrade versions are sold through retail channels within the
           first 50 days. [75] [123] [388.6] [477.165] [479.128] (MAY
           [509.177] [534.130])
     MAY - Apple Computer introduces the 33-MHz 68040-based Macintosh
           Quadra 950 (replacing the Quadra 900). It includes 8MB of
           RAM, 230/400MB hard drive options, and 24-bit video
           supporting 19-inch color monitors. Prices range from
           US$7200-9200. [46] [75] [420.149]
         - Sun Microcomputers' Sunsoft division introduces the Solaris
           2.0 operating system for Intel-based PCs. [174.13]
     JUN - Cyrix introduces the Cx486DLC microprocessor.  It is
           comparable to Intel's i486, but with only a 1KB cache, and
           using only 600,000 transistors. [477.129] [540.64]
         - Intel introduces the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI)
           local-bus standard for PC systems. [477.102] (July
           [545.359])
         - Mass Microsystems begins shipping its FloptiPak 21 21MB
           Floptical drive for the Macintosh.  Price is US$700.
           [423.117]
         - IBM and Microsoft sign a "divorce" document, allowing source
           code sharing for current versions operating systems up to
           September 1993. [68]
         - Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates receives a National Medal of
           Technology for Technical Achievement from US President George
           Bush. [123]
     JUL - Apple Computer discontinues the PowerBook 100. [75]
         - Advanced Micro Devices begins work on a fifth-generation x86
           processor (in the class of Intel's Pentium chip). [206.96]
     AUG - The first version of the VESA VL-Bus standard for PCs is
           ratified. [545.358]
         - Apple Computer introduces the PowerBook 145, replacing the
           PowerBook 140.  It features a backlit supertwist LCD display,
           25-MHz 68030 processor, System 7, 4MB RAM, and weighs 6.8
           pounds. [46] [75] [423.113]
         - The number of users of Apple Computer's System 7 reaches 4
           million. [46]
         - Compaq Computer introduces its first printer, the Compaq
           Pagemqrq. [113]
     SEP - Apple Computer launches the Performa Line, designed for mass
           merchandisers and superstores. [46] [75]
         - IBM creates the IBM Personal Computer Company. [361.58]
         - IBM introduces the 20/40-MHz and 25/50-MHz 486SLC2
           microprocessors. They feature a 16KB cache and optimized
           instruction set, but no internal math coprocessor, and only a
           16-bit data path. [477.129]
         - NeXT ships NextStep v3.0. [206.289]
     OCT - Cyrix announces the Cx486SLC/E processor. [540.64]
         - IBM and Motorola announce the PowerPC 601 microprocessors, in
           50-MHz and 66-MHz versions. [540.64]
         - Cyrix introduces the clock-doubled Cx486DRu2 microprocessor.
           Price is US$399. [477.130]
         - Apple Computer begins direct mail order sales. [46] [75]
         - Apple Computer introduces the PowerBook 160. [46] [75]
         - Apple Computer introduces the PowerBook 180, replacing the
           PowerBook 170. [46] [75]
         - Apple Computer announces the Macintosh Duo Systems, 210 and
           230. [46] [75]
         - Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh IIvx and IIvi. [46]
           [75]
         - IBM introduces its ThinkPad laptop computer. [75]
         - One year after the introduction of Apple Computer's PowerBook,
           sales of US$1 billion make it the first personal computer to
           break that threshold. [75]
         - Microsoft ships Microsoft Windows for Workgroups 3.1, which
           integrates networking and workgroup functionality. [123]
           [210.38] (NOV [477.165])
     NOV - Apple Computer announces QuickTime for Windows. [46] [75]
           [120]
         - Microsoft ships Microsoft Access Database for Windows. [123]
         - Digital Equipment unveils the Alpha 21064 64-bit
           microprocessor. [32] [175.15] [386.61] (FEB [540.64])
         - Hewlett-Packard announces an expansion of its HP 9000 series,
           with the midrange Model 735 workstation for US$37,400,
           deskside Model 755 for US$59,000, as well as low-end Model
           715/33 for US$5,000 and Model 725/50 for US$17,900.
           [175.15]
         - Sun Microsystems announces the low-end SPARCclassic
           workstation for US$4300 and high-end SPARCcenter 2000
           multi-processor server. [175.15]
     DEC - Apple Computer discontinues the Apple IIgs. [75]
         - Novell buys AT&T's UNIX Systems Laboratories, gaining all
           rights to the UNIX source code, for US$150 million. [79]
           (1993 DEC [219.141])
     ??? - (fall) A US federal court rules that Advanced Micro Devices
           does not have the right to use Intel microcode in its
           microprocessors. [477.92]
     ??? - Outbound Systems ships the Outbound Notebook System 2030E.  It
           features a 25-MHz 68030, 40-120MB hard drive, floppy drive,
           4MB RAM, and weighs 6.25 pounds.  Prices start at US$3300.
           [422.113]
     ??? - Outbound Systems ships the Outbound Notebook System 2030S.  It
           features a 33-MHz 68030, 40-120MB hard drive, floppy drive,
           4MB RAM, and weighs 6.25 pounds.  Prices start at US$3900.
           [422.113]
     ??? - Apple Computer introduces its first personal digital assistant
           at the Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago. [421.129]
     ??? - Novell purchases Digital Research Inc. for US$80 million.
           [219.141]
     ??? - Creative Labs introduces the Sound Blaster 16 with Advanced
           Signal Processor, a 16-bit stereo PC sound card. [221]
     ??? - Microsoft buys the Foxbase company. [494.6]
     ??? - The Multimedia PC Marketing Council increases the requirements
           for MPC-1 compliance to a 16-MHz 386SX processor. [546.77]
     ??? - Commodore introduces the Amiga 600: 4096 colors, stereo sound,
           full pre-emptive multitasking operating system (Workbench
           2.05), PCMCIA slot, Motorola 68000 CPU, for a base price of
           $500. [361.40]
     ??? - Hewlett-Packard introduces the HP LaserJet 4 laser printer.
           [361.43]
     ??? - Apple Computer and Sharp announce an agreement to codevelop a
           personal digital assistant, based on Apple's software and
           Sharp's hardware. [420.125]
     ??? - Hewlett-Packard unveils the HP PainJet XL300 color thermal
           ink-jet printer. It supports PCL 5C and PostScript Level 2,
           and includes a LocalTalk connector, Centronics parallel port,
           and RS-232 serial port. The PC-compatible version has a list
           priceof US$3500.  For the Macintosh, an extra US$2000 is
           required for PostScript and an additional 4MB of RAM.
           [420.127]
1993 JAN - Apple Computer shows off test versions of its Newton Personal
           Digital Assistants at the Winter Consumer Electronics Show.
           [46]
         - IBM reports a year-end loss, of US$4.96 billion, on revenues
           of US$64.5 billion.  This is the highest single-year loss for
           any US company in history. [50]
         - Cyrix announces the 486S processor. [540.64]
         - Stac Electronics files a lawsuit against Microsoft over
           inclusion in MS-DOS 6.0 of file compression, which it claims
           infringes on Stac's patents. [51]
     FEB - Apple Computer makes its largest product announcement in its
           history, and makes it in Japan: the Macintosh Color Classic,
           Macintosh LC III, Macintosh Centris 610 and 650, Macintosh
           Quadra 800, and PowerBook 165c. [46] [53] [75]
         - Apple Computer discontinues the Macintosh IIci and the Quadra
           700. [75]
         - Apple Computer ships the 10 millionth Macintosh computer. [46]
           [75]
         - IBM announces nine new systems in its RS/6000 line, priced
           between US$4000 and US$25000. [52] [163.88]
         - NeXT announces that it will drop its hardware line, to focus
           on becoming a larger player in the object-oriented software
           industry.  Approximately 50,000 NeXT machines were built in
           total. [53] [206.289] [222] [508.73]
         - The US Federal Trade Commission decides to take no action
           against Microsoft, after two years of investigating
           complaints of anticompetitive behavior.  The US Department of
           Justice begins its own antitrust investigation of Microsoft.
           [59] [128]
         - Digital Equipment announces the 200-MHz Alpha 21064 processor.
           [540.64]
     MAR - Amstrad begins shipping the Amstrad Pen Pad PDA600 Personal
           Digital Assistant (PDA) in England.  It is the first PDA to
           be shipped. The Pen Pad weighs under a pound, is 1 inch
           thick, and features a 240x320 resolution 3x4 inch screen.  It
           uses a 20-MHz Zilog Z8S180 microprocessor, and can run for 40
           hours on three AA batteries.  It includes 128KB RAM, with a
           PCMCIA expansion slot for memory expansion to 2MB.
           [545.143]
         - Lou Gerstner replaces John Akers as chairman of IBM.
           [464.14]
         - Intel introduces its 60-MHz Pentium processor. It uses 32-bit
           registers, with a 64-bit data bus, and incorporates 3.2
           million transistors. Initial price is US$878. [54] [75]
           [177.103] [212.191] [220.6] [376.29] [540.64]
         - The Software Publishers Association reports that MS-Windows
           applications are outselling MS-DOS programs for the first
           time. [479.128]
         - Microsoft introduces the MS-DOS 6.0 Upgrade, including
           DoubleSpace disk compression. 1 million copies of the new and
           upgrade versions are sold through retail channels within the
           first 40 days. [55] [123] [210.37] [388.6] [389.29]
         - Microsoft ships Microsoft Encarta, the first multimedia
           encyclopedia for a computer. [123]
     APR - Motorola Corp. ships the first PowerPC 601 chips.  The
           processors use 2.8 million transistors, with 3 execution
           units. [57] [428.209]
         - Compaq Computer, Intel, Microsoft, and Phoenix Technologies
           define the Plug and Play specification for PCs. [122]
         - Microsoft releases the OLE 2.0 specification for Windows
           development. [479.129]
         - Apple Computer demonstrates a prototype Macintosh running on
           an 80-MHz PowerPC 601 processor. [46]
         - Microsoft reports that there are 25 million licensed users of
           Microsoft Windows. [123] [389.29]
         - Gateway 2000 ships its 1 millionth PC. [183]
         - Advanced Micro Devices ships its first Am486 processors, the
           40-MHz Am486DX, and the 25/50-MHz Am486DX2. [141] [540.64]
     MAY - IBM releases OS/2 2.1, now including Windows 3.1 support. [60]
           [479.129]
         - Microsoft formally launches Windows NT 3.1. [123] [374.4]
           (1992 JUL [387.98] [479.129])
         - Intel completes the version 2.0 specification of its
           Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) local-bus standard
           for PC systems. [545.359]
         - NeXT ships NextStep v3.1 for Intel-based PCs. [206.289]
         - MIPS Technologies announces availability of the 150-MHz 64-bit
           R4400 RISC microprocessor. [242]
     JUN - Intel introduces the 486SL processor. [540.64]
         - Apple Computer expands its PowerBook line with the PowerBook
           180c and 145B. [46]
         - Apple Computer's 63-month legal suit against Microsoft and 
           Hewlett-Packard comes to a close, as a US District Court
           judge throws out Apple Computer's remaining claim. [61] [75]
           [123] [389.29]
         - The United States Environmental Protection Agency officially
           launches the Energy Star program.  Together with 50 major PC
           manufacturers, the Energy Star guidelines are designed to
           reduce idle power use of computer system components.
           [549.26]
         - John Sculley steps down as CEO of Apple Computer. [63] [71]
           [75]
         - Michael Spindler is appointed as CEO of Apple Computer. [75]
     JUL - A fire destroys a Sumitomo Chemical Company plant in Japan. 
           The plant had supplied 60% of the world's supply of cresol,
           used in memory chip casings. [535.42]
         - Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh Quadra 840AV and
           Macintosh Centris 660AV.  These computers integrate
           telecommunications, video and speed technologies on the
           desktop for the first time. [46] [75] (JAN [140])
         - The US Federal Trade Commission decides to take no action
           against Intel, after three years of investigating complaints
           of forcing exclusive dealing practices. [64]
         - IBM introduces its clock-tripled 25/75MHz Blue Lightning 
           486-based processor. [65]
         - Digital Equipment creates the Digital Personal Computer
           Business unit, to focus on PC sales. [144]
     AUG - Apple Computer introduces the Newton MessagePad personal
           digital assistant at Macworld Expo, in Boston's Symphony
           Hall.  It features 640KB RAM, 3MB of ROM storing applications
           and the operating system (Newton Intelligence), a low-voltage
           20-MHz 32-bit ARM 610 microprocessor, 240x336 resolution LCD
           screen, PCMCIA expansion socket, data transfer of 9600bps,
           and runs on four AAA batteries. 50,000 units sell in the
           first 10 weeks, but only 80,000 are sold during the product's
           life. [46] [140] [271.N7] [424.187] [429.36] [545.148]
         - IBM creates the Ambra Computer Corporation, a subsidiary of
           the IBM PC Company, to sell a new low-cost line of PCs. [65]
           [66] (JAN [504.44])
         - Microsoft begins shipping Windows NT, and Windows NT Advanced
           Server. [66] (JUL [535])
         - Microsoft reports first US$1 billion sales quarter. [75]
         - IBM demos its first PowerPC RS/6000 workstation. [66]
         - A court rules in favor of Lotus Development in its copyright
           infringement lawsuit against Borland International.  Borland
           is forced to remove the Lotus 1-2-3 command emulation from
           its Quattro Pro spreadsheet program.  However, the decision
           is overturned in 1995, and upheld in 1996. [67] [103]
           [453.4]
         - Apple Computer ships the Apple PowerCD, a portable CD-ROM
           drive that supports audio CDs and Kodak Photo CDs as well.
           [424.55]
         - Compton's New Media Incorporated receives a patent on
           multimedia search and retrieval technology, from the U.S.
           Patent and Trade Office.  The Office reverses the decision a
           year later, annulling the patent. [99] [468.8]
     SEP - The 1992 Joint Development contract between IBM and Microsoft,
           in which each company had access to the other's source code
           for OS/2 and Windows, expires. [501.102] [544.30]
         - Symantec acquires Fifth Generation Systems, maker of backup
           and security utilities for various operating systems. [68]
         - Gateway 2000 introduces the industry's first VESA VL-bus
           system. [183]
         - Cyrix begins shipping the Cx486DX microprocessor. [507.26]
         - IBM debuts and ships its first PowerPC-based RS/6000 systems,
           the RS/6000 Model 250, using a single PowerPC 601 chip.
           [69.1] [212.191] (OCT [205.272])
     OCT - John Sculley announces his resignation from Apple Computer.
           [46] [71] [75]
         - Motorola produces the first copies of the PowerPC 603, the
           second chip in the PowerPC family. [46] [71]
         - Apple Computer announces Macintosh TV, which combines an Apple
           Macintosh, television, and CD-ROM. [46] [140]
         - NEC Technologies unveils the first triple-speed (450KBps)
           CD-ROM drive. [70]
         - IBM and Motorola introduce the 80-MHz version of the PowerPC
           601 processor. [540.64]
         - IBM and Motorola introduce the 66- and 80-MHz version of the
           PowerPC 603 processor. [540.64]
         - Apple Computer renames the Centris 610 and 650 as Quadras.
           [75]
         - Apple Computer introduces the Quadra 605. [75]
         - Apple Computer introduces the PowerBook Duo 250, and 270c.
           [75]
         - Advanced Micro Devices introduces the 66-MHz Am486DX2.
           [540.64]
         - Microsoft ships Windows for Workgroups 3.11. [479.129] [538])
           (NOV [123])
     NOV - IBM releases OS/2 2.1 for Windows. [537.32]
         - Apple Computer demonstrates a Macintosh Quadra 610 with an
           Apple-designed 486SX board, running MS-DOS, at Comdex.
           [424.33]
         - Apple Computer quietly discontinues the Apple II product line.
            In its 17 year history, 5 million units were shipped. [46]
           [75]
         - Sales of Apple Computer's PowerBook series hits the 1 million
           mark. [46] [75]
         - Microsoft releases MS-DOS 6.2. [72]
         - Benny S. Lee, of Everex Systems, Inc. is sentenced to one year
           in prison for manufacturing and selling counterfeit MS-DOS
           software.  This is the first time a prison sentence is handed
           down for software counterfeiting in the U.S. [123]
     DEC - SunSoft (a subsidiary of Sun Microsystems) ships the first
           version of WABI, providing Microsoft Windows application
           compatibility on Solaris, Intel, and Sparc versions of UNIX.
           [73]
         - IBM posts a year-end loss of US$8.1 billion, on total sales of
           US$62.7 billion. [75]
     ??? - (summer) The Multimedia PC Marketing Council sets the MPC
           Level 2 standard, dictating the minumum configuration
           required of a PC to run MPC-2 class software.  The
           requirements are: a 486 processor, 160MB hard drive, double
           speed XA-ready multisession-capable CD-ROM drive, 16-bit
           sound card, and a 16-bit SuperVGA video card capable of
           65,000 colors in 640x480 resolution. [501.87]
     ??? - Novell buys Unix System V. [392.1]
     ??? - A Sixth District Court of Appeals overturns Advanced Micro
           Devices' 1992 win against Intel, claiming that the arbitrator
           had exceeded his jurisdiction. [141]
     ??? - Apple Computer licenses its PowerPC Macintosh operating system
           ROMs to DayStar Digital. [424.33]
     ??? - Commodore Business Machines stops producing Intel-based PC
           computers. [549.21]
     ??? - IPC Corporation of Singapore acquires Austin Computer Systems.
           [504.44]
     ??? - Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh TV, which combines a
           32-MHz 68030-based Macintosh with a 14-inch color TV.  The
           system includes 5MB RAM, 160MB hard drive, AppleCD 300i
           CD-ROM drive, and 512KB RAM. [424.34]
     ??? - The VESA group begins working on version 2.0 of its VL-Bus
           design. [545.359]
     ??? - Cyrix ships the Cx486DRx2 processor in 16/32-, 20/40-, and
           25/50-MHz versions.  The chips replace the Intel 386DX
           processors.  Prices are US$300-400. [535.40]
     ??? - Microsoft releases FoxPro 2.5 for Windows. [494.6]
     ??? - Work begins on SCSI-3. [543]
     ??? - Nintendo rereleases the Nintendo Entertainment System with an
           improved cartridge slot. [292]
     ??? - Spectrum HoloByte acquires MicroProse Software. [546.112]
1994 JAN - Shipments of Apple Computer Macintosh computers hits 1 million
           for the previous four month period, for the first time.
           [46]
         - Newer Technology introduces the Quadra Overdrive at Macworld
           Expo. The clock-doubled accelerator boards fit in the 68040
           socket of the Macintosh Quadra or Centris.  Processor speeds
           of 40-MHz and 50-MHz are available, for US$1700. [425.38]
         - NEC Technologies ships its quad-speed CD-ROM, priced at
           US$1000. [74]
         - Apple Computer announces that it will license its System 7.x
           operating system to other hardware companies. [75]
     FEB - Microsoft releases Microsoft Windows 3.11. [509.177]
         - Silicon Graphics founder and chairman James Clark resigns.
           [470.9]
         - Apple Computer introduces the Macintosh LC 575 and LC 550.
           [46]
         - Apple Computer introduces QuickTime 2.0, with interactive
           television, music and full-screen video support. [46]
         - IBM announces the shutdown its Ambra Europe company by the end
           of the quarter. [76]
         - A US District Court rules that Microsoft violated patents held
           by Stac Electronics, in data compression used in Microsoft's
           DoubleSpace in DOS 6.  Microsoft is ordered to remove or
           replace the technology. [82]
         - Electronic Arts and Broderbund Software announce a proposed
           merger, in a stock swap valued at about US$408 million.
           [468.10]
         - Microsoft releases MS-DOS 6.21, removing DoubleSpace disk
           compression. [90]
     MAR - Apple Computer unveils its first computers based on the
           PowerPC 601 processor, the Power Macintosh 6100/60, 7100/66,
           and 8100/80. Prices range from US$2000-4000 for complete
           systems. [46] [75] [140] [205.97] [384.48] [397.12] [429.92]
           [507.36] [538]
         - Apple Computer releases System 7.1, the OS for the Mac.
           [140]
         - Cyrix begins new shipments of the Cx486DX microprocessor,
           after fixing a flaw in the 32-bit floating-point code.
           [507.26] [509.217]
         - Apple Computer introduces QuickTake 100, the first 24-bit
           color digital camera for under US$1000. [140]
         - Apple Computer announces the Newton MessagePad 110 and 100.
           The 110 comes with 1MB RAM, transfers data remotely at
           38.5Kbps, and runs on four AA batteries. [46] [271.N7]
           [429.36]
         - Apple Computer ships the Macintosh Quadra 610 DOS Compatible. 
           It features a 40-MHz Motorola 68LC040 chip and a 25-MHz Intel
           486SX chips, for US$1580. [77]
         - Hewlett-Packard ships the HP DeskWriter 560C color inkjet
           printer. It features 600x300dpi, at a list price of US$720.
           [429.37]
         - Hewlett-Packard ships the HP DeskWriter 520 inkjet printer.
           List price is US$365. [429.37]
         - Intel ships its clock-tripled IntelDX4 processors, at
           25/75-MHz and 33/100-MHz. [78] [177.103]
         - Intel ships its 25/50-MHz IntelSX2 486 processor. [79]
         - Intel ships the 90-MHz Pentium processor. The chip consumes
           3.3 volts, and includes two internal caches. Pricing is
           US$849 each in quantities of 1000. [205.98] [265]
         - Intel ships the 100-MHz Pentium processor. The chip consumes
           3.3 volts, and includes two internal caches. Pricing is
           US$995 each in quantities of 1000. [205.98] [265] [547.4]
         - Novell buys WordPerfect Corporation for US$850 million.
           [211.82] [219.141] [392.1] [435.43] (US$1.4 billion [79])
           (JUN [219.141] [455.4]) (JUL [392.1]) (estimated $885 million
           in stock [216.4])
         - Aldus and Adobe Systems announce plans to merge the two
           companies. [211.82]
         - IBM and Motorola announce the 100-MHz PowerPC 601 processor.
           [265]
     APR - Symantec and Central Point Software Incorporated agree to
           merge companies in a stock swap valued at about US$60
           million. [82] [211.82] [509.34]
         - Broderbund Software calls off the proposed merger with
           Electronic Arts, due to a significant drop in the stock value
           of Electronic Arts. [468.10]
         - Motorola releases small quantities of its 68060
           microprocessor, operating at 50- and 66-MHz. [83]
         - IBM and Motorola announce the 100-MHz PowerPC 604 processor.
           The 604 has one floating-point unit, and three integer units.
           Two of the integer units perform single clock cycle
           instruction, while the other is used for integer
           multiplication and division.  The processor uses 3.6 million
           transistors. [84.33] [265] [428.209] (MAR [205.316]) (six
           execution units [428.209])
         - IBM releases PC-DOS 6.3. [90]
         - Commodore International and Commodore Electronics, two of the
           main international components of Commodore Business Machines,
           declare bankruptcy, and file for voluntary liquidation.
           [476.6] [491.52] [549.19]
         - Mosaic Communications releases Netscape Navigator 1.0, a
           world-wide web browser. [236.34]
         - The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, after re-examining the
           patent application it granted to Compton's New Media in 1993,
           decides to reject all 41 of the application's claims. [99]
           [468.8]
     MAY - Apple Computer introduces the 500 series of PowerBook
           computers (520, 520c, 540, 540c), and the PowerBook Duo 280
           and 280c.  All use clock-doubled Motorola 68LC040
           microprocessors, at speeds of 50/25-MHz or 66/33-MHz.  Prices
           range from US$2270 to US$3760. [46] [542.143]
         - Motorola ships sample copies of the PowerPC 603 processor.
           [85]
         - Microsoft sends out the first official beta test version of
           what will be Windows 95. [209.30]
         - MIPS Technologies announces availability of samples of the
           200-MHz 64-bit R4400 RISC microprocessor. [242]
     JUN - Apple Computer launches eWorld, its new online community, in
           the US. [46]
         - Apple Computer unveils System 7.5 operating system. [46]
           [542.187]
         - Apple Computer introduces new Macintosh 630 computers, and the
           PowerBook 150. [46]
         - Microsoft and Stac Electronics settle their legal differences
           over data compression patents.  Microsoft agrees to buy US$40
           million of Stac stock, and to pay Stac a further US$43
           million in royalties. [86]
         - Microsoft releases MS-DOS 6.22, bringing back disk compression
           under the name DriveSpace. [90]
         - Microsoft is granted a trademark to the name "Windows" for
           software products. [91]
         - Borland International sells its Quattro Pro spreadsheet to
           Novell for about US$140 million. [216.4] [424.22] [219.141]
           [455.4] (MAR [453.4]) (sold to WordPerfect [102.20])
         - Dr. Thomas R. Nicely of Lynchburg College notes that the
           Pentium processor sometimes produces flawed floating-point
           results, yielding only 4-8 decimals of precision. [265]
     JUL - IBM makes available sample quantities of the PowerPC 603
           processor.  High quantity pricing is US$165 for the 66-MHz
           chip, and US$195 for the 80-MHz version. [87] (JUN
           [212.191])
         - IBM ships AIX 4.1 for the RS/6000, and AIX for the Power
           Macintosh. [321.12]
         - IBM reports that it has shipped 1 million PowerPC 601
           processors in the first 10 months of production. [87]
           [206.149] [504.44]
         - Digital Equipment Corporation ships its AXP 21064A 64-bit
           275-MHz Alpha RISC processor in volume quantities, at US$1083
           per chip pricing. [88]
         - IBM announces that it will shut down the US operations of its
           Ambra subsidiary in October. [89] [504.44]
         - Microsoft reaches a settlement with the US Department of
           Justice regarding alleged monopolistic licensing practices.
           [128] [382.4]
         - U.S. Robotics ships the Courier v.34 28.8Kbps modems. List
           price: US$329 internal, US$349 external. [235]
     AUG - IBM shuts down its Ambra PC division. [239.155]
     SEP - The International Telecommunications Union ratifies the
           28.8Kbps V.34 modem standard. [426.90]
         - Advanced Micro Devices ships its Am486DX2-80 40/80-MHz
           processor. [91]
         - Microsoft ships its first keyboard, the Microsoft Natural
           Keyboard. [91]
         - U.S. Robotics ships the Sportster v.34 28.8Kbps modems. List
           price: US$329 internal, US$349 external. [235]
         - NexGen introduces its Nx586 microprocessor. [177.103]
           [505.37]
         - Alaris introduces the first PC with a NexGen Nx586 processor.
           [206.30]
         - Sun Microsystems unveils the 64-bit UltraSPARC RISC processor.
           [241]
         - Microsoft announces the name of its upcoming Windows upgrade:
           Windows 95. [92] [123] [389.29]
         - Digital Equipment Corporation formally introduces its
           next-generation Alpha AXP processors, including a 300-MHz
           version that can execute 1 billion instructions per second.
           [92] [265]
         - IBM introduces the Aptiva line, to replace the PS/1 line,
           aimed at the home PC market. [93] [505.38]
     OCT - Apple Computer expands its Macintosh Performa 6100 line with
           five new computers based on the PowerPC. [46] [207.34]
         - Advanced Micro Designs unveils the chip architecture of the K5
           processor. [188.3] [211.78]
         - Microsoft announces and ships Windows NT Workstation 3.5 and
           Windows NT Server 3.5. [94] [505.37]
         - Dr. Nicely reports his discovery of the Pentium floating point
           bug to Intel, and his report is made public on CompuServe.
           [265]
         - Microsoft makes a bid to buy Intuit (maker of Quicken) for
           US$1.5 billion stock swap. [95] [128]
         - Seagate Technologies announces the first disc drive and
           interface achieving a transfer rate of 100 MB per second.
           [227]
         - IBM formally launches OS/2 Warp version 3. [95] [142]
           [188.1]
         - IBM and Motorola announce and introduce the prototype of the
           PowerPC 620 processor, operating at 133-MHz. [95.39] [207.33]
           [211.78]
         - Motorola announces availability of the PowerPC 603 processor,
           at US$175 for the 66-MHz chip, and US$199 for the 80-MHz
           version. [145]
         - Motorola announces availability of the PowerPC 601 processor,
           at US$189 for the 66-MHz chip, and US$299 for the 80-MHz
           version. [145]
         - IBM introduces the 100-MHz PowerPC 601 processor. [95.39]
         - IBM introduces the 100-MHz PowerPC 604 processor. [94.39]
           [211.78]
         - IBM introduces the the 66-MHz and 80-MHz PowerPC 603
           processors. [95.39]
         - IBM drops the PS/2, PS/1, Ambra, and ValuePoint lines, and XGA
           graphics, in favor of industry standards for its new PC line,
           the Series 300 and Series 700. [95] [96]
         - MIPS Technologies announces the R10000 RISC microprocessor.
           [242]
         - Intel introduces the 75-MHz Pentium processor. [265]
         - Gateway 2000 Incorporated sells the first PC powered by
           Intel's 75-MHz Pentium. [97]
         - Apple Computer ships System 7.5 for the Macintosh. [392.45]
     NOV - Digital Equipment launches the Starion line of home-targeted
           personal computer systems. [455.32]
         - Hayes Microcomputer Products files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy
           protection. [237.37] [325.18] [451.A8] (OCT [129])
         - Apple Computer debuts the Power Macintosh 8100/100, as the
           industry's fastest, most powerful PC. [46] (8100/110 [98]
           [140])
         - Apple Computer, Motorola, and IBM announce that they will
           create a computer platform to run all major operating
           systems, except the Intel-based Microsoft Windows 3.1 and
           successors. [184.102] [397.12]
         - Apple Computer declares its intention to openly license the
           Mac operating system. [184.102]
         - IBM ships the 100-MHz PowerPC 601 processors. [211.78]
         - IBM ships the the 66-MHz and 80-MHz PowerPC 603 processors.
           [211.78]
         - Cyrix announces the M1 next-generation x86 processor.
           [211.78]
         - Sun Microsystems announces the Sparcstation 20 Model HS11,
           using a 100-MHz HyperSparc processor from Ross Technology.
           [98]
         - Digital Equipment introduces its AlphaStation computers, with
           166-MHz and 233-MHz Alpha AXP 21064 processors.  This line
           incorporates the PCI bus, and sell for US$7000-$16000. [98]
         - Apple Computer delivers QuickTime 2.0 for Windows. [46]
         - Intel confirms that about 2 million Pentium chips have been
           shipped with a defective floating-point unit. [100]
     DEC - The California Supreme Court upholds a 1992 decision that
           awarded Advanced Micro Devices technology rights in its suit
           against Intel. [141]
         - IBM ships the 100-MHz PowerPC 604 processors. [211.78]
         - Apple Computer demonstrates a PCI-based Power Macintosh using
           a 120-MHz PowerPC 604 processor. [265]
         - Intel ships the 63-MHz P24T Pentium Overdrive chip. [211.78]
           (1995 FEB [265])
         - Intel President Andy Groves admits the company mishandled the
           Pentium processor division problem, and appologizes for the
           resulting situation. [265]
         - NexGen announces sample availability of its 133-MHz Nx586
           microprocessor. [211.78]
         - Novell ships UnixWare 2.0. [225]
         - Novell ships PerfectOffice 3.0 for Windows. [225] (1995 JAN
           [439.28])
     ??? - (spring) IBM closes down the European division of the Ambra
           company. [504.44]
     ??? - (before July) WordStar International, Spinnaker Software, and
           SoftKey Software Products merge companies, forming SoftKey
           International. [504.44]
     ??? - (June?) Austin Computer Systems changes its name to IPC
           Technologies Incorporated. [504.44]
     ??? - IBM introduces the ValuePoint line of PC systems. [311.37]
     ??? - Hayes Microcomputer Products abandons LANstep. [451.A8]
     ??? - Apple Computer introduces the "Houdini" board, the DOS
           Compatibility Card for the Quadra 610, with a 25-MHz 486SX
           processor.  The entire inventory of 25,000 boards sells out
           in a few months. [204.166]
     ??? - Cyrix ships the 33/66-MHz Cx486DRx2 processor. [538.160]
     ??? - Number Nine Computer Corp. ships the first PC video board
           using a 128-bit accelerator chip. [239.42]
     ??? - Microsoft releases FoxPro 2.6 for Unix. [494.6]
     ??? - Iomega Corp. introduces its Zip drive and Zip disks, floppy
           disk sized removable storage in sizes of 25MB or 100MB.
           [239.68]
     ??? - Novell halts all development of Novell DOS. [219.141]
     ??? - Apple Computer releases the Apple Color StyleWriter Pro 360dpi
           color inkjet printer. [429.37]
     ??? - Apple Computer ships Macintosh Application Environment 1.0 for
           the HP-UX operating system with the Motif interface, and the
           Solaris operating system with the OpenLook interface.
           [429.37]
     ??? - The SCSI-2 standard is finalized as ANSI X3.131-1994.
           [542.111] [543]
     ??? - NEC Technologies ships the NEC MultiSpin 4xPro quad-speed
           CD-ROM drive, for US$1000. [429.37]
1995 JAN - Apple Computer ships QuickTime VR, bringing virtual reality to
           Macintosh and Windows-based personal computers. [46]
         - Apple Computer ships the 1 millionth Power Macintosh. [46]
         - Apple Computer announces the Newton MessagePad 120. [46]
           [271.N7]
         - Microsoft unveils Microsoft Bob, a "superapplication" for
           Windows comsumer users, with a "social interface". The code
           name for the project was "Utopia". [101] [123]
         - Radius Incorporated demonstrates the first Power Macintosh
           clone, using Apple Computer's licensed System 7 operating
           system. [101]
         - Borland International founder Philippe Kahn resigns as
           president and CEO. [102] [439.12]
         - Advanced Micro Devices and Intel settle all outstanding
           processor related legal issues.  Advanced Micro Devices pays
           Intel US$58 million in damages, and Intel pays US$18 million
           for breach of contract damagaes.  Advanced Micro Devices
           retains full rights to microcode in Intel386 and Intel486
           chips. [102] [141] [265]
         - Compaq Computer reaches worldwide number one PC marketshare
           position. [113]
         - IBM announces that 1 million copies of OS/2 Warp have shipped.
           [142]
     FEB - IBM announces PC DOS 7, with integrated data compression from
           Stac Electronics (Stacker). [142]
         - IBM and Motorola announce that test samples have been made of
           the PowerPC 603e (100-MHz) and PowerPC 602 (66MHz)
           microprocessors. [145] [204.211] [265]
         - Judge Sporkin rejects the settlement worked out between
           Microsoft and the Department of Justice. [380.31] [382.4]
           [439.28]
         - U.S. Robotics acquires Megahertz Holding Corporation. [235]
     MAR - Apple Computer launches QuickTime On-Line, an Internet World
           Wide Web server. [46]
         - An appeals court overturns the Lotus/Borland decision,
           allowing emulation of Lotus 1-2-3 commands in Quattro Pro. 
           The reversal of the prior court ruling saves Borland
           International US$100 million that it might have been required
           to pay. [103] [453.4]
         - Iomega begins shipping its Zip drive. [485.7]
         - IBM releases the ThinkPad 701C.  It features an automatically
           expanding full-sized keyboard, dubbed the Butterfly.  The
           laptop features a 10.4-inch thin-film transistor display,
           50-MHz Intel 486DX2, 14.4K fax/modem, and weighs just 4.3
           pounds. [439.32] [471.35]
         - Intel introduces the 120-MHz Pentium processor. Pricing is
           US$935 each in quantities of 1000. [62] [189.1] [265]
         - Jim Cannavino resigns from IBM. [439.12]
         - Microsoft ships Bob for Windows. [226.12]
     APR - Apple Computer announces the Power Macintosh 5200/75 LC for
           the education market, using the 75-MHz PowerPC 603 processor.
           [46] [104]
         - IBM releases PC DOS 7. [105]
         - Apple Europe introduces the Power Mac 6200 series in Europe.
           [178.33]
         - The US Department of Justice files a lawsuit to block the
           merger of Intuit and Microsoft. [128] [382.4]
         - Lotus Development renames Ami Pro to Word Pro. [439.28]
         - Apple Computer introduces the new Apple CD 6003 quad-speed
           CD-ROM player. [46]
         - Apple Computer ships the QuickTake 150 digital camera for the
           Macintosh, Power Macintosh, and Windows environments. [46]
         - At an auction in New York, ESCOM buys all rights, properties,
           and technologies of Commodore. [186] [187] [491.52]
     MAY - Microsoft and Intuit announce the termination of their planned
           merger. [123] [128] [382.4] [389.29] [439.28]
         - ESCOM announces the creation of a subsidiary company, Amiga
           Technologies, in Germany. [187]
         - Apple Computer unveils the next generation of its Mac OS at
           its Worldwide Developers Conference. [46]
         - Power Computing, the first company to license Apple Computer's
           Power Mac technology, begins shipping its first Power Mac
           clones. [178.35] (AUG [454.32])
         - Intel releases the mobile version of the 90-MHz Pentium
           processor. [439.32]
         - IBM unveils its new IBM PC 300 desktop systems, with 75-MHz
           and 90-MHz Pentium CPUs. Complete systems start at US$2000.
           [127]
         - Apple Computer ships System 7.5.2 for the Macintosh, with PCI
           bus support. [392.45]
         - Intel introduces the P6 processor. [439.12]
         - Sun Microsystems announces sample availability of the 64-bit
           UltraSPARC microprocessor. [241]
     JUN - IBM buys Lotus Development for US$3.5 billion in cash.   [124]
           [142] [376.1] [376.100] [383.1] [439.12] [464.15] [517.14]
         - Intel announces the immediate availability of the 133-MHz
           Pentium processor. Price is US$935 each in quantities of
           1000. [62] [124] [126] [265] [376.6] [383.4] (APR [439.28])
         - Intel ceases shipments of the 60- and 66-MHz Pentium
           processors. [383.4]
         - The 1994 settlement between Microsoft and the US Department of
           Justice, which was thrown out in February, is reinstated.
           [389.29]
         - Apple Computer introduces its first color laser printer, the
           Color Laser Printer 12/600PS.  The 600x600 dpi printer comes
           with 12 MB of RAM, uses a Canon-based engine, and costs about
           US$7,000. [124]
         - Apple Computer introduces its first PowerMac system using
           Intel's PCI bus, the Power Macintosh 9500, available with a
           120-MHz or 132-MHz PowerPC 604 CPU.  The 9500/120 with a 1 GB
           hard drive costs US$5000. The 9500/132 with 2 GB drive costs
           US$5800. [125] [145]
         - IBM and Motorola announce that test samples have been made of
           the PowerPC 604 microprocessor at 120-MHz and 133-MHz. [145]
           [265]
         - IBM debuts the Power Series 830 workstations with the PowerPC
           604 microprocessor (100-133 MHz), and the ThinkPad Power
           Series 850 with the PowerPC 603e, at the PC Expo in New York.
           [142] [377.6] [125] [128] [145] [212.191] [397.12] (Power
           Series 850 [385.14])
         - Iomega introduces an internal version of its 100MB removable
           cartridge Zip drive. [377.37]
         - Iomega introduces the Jaz line of high-capacity removable
           cartridge drives.  The cartridges hold 1 gigabyte, costing
           about US$100 each. Transfer rate of the drive is up to 5MBps.
           [376.29] [377.37] [384.2]
         - IBM adds the 133-MHz Pentium to its IBM PC 700 line. [142]
         - Data General announces that future Aviion workstations will
           use Intel processors, not Motorola's 88000 chip. [386.61]
         - Boca Research signs a letter of intent to buy Hayes
           Microcomputer Products for US$72 million, choosing to use the
           Hayes name for the merged company. [129.3] [238.3] [321.12]
           [378.74] [451.A8]
         - To this point, Apple Computer has sold 2 million Power Macs
           and upgrade cards since their initial release. [179.33]
         - Advanced Micro Devices announces sample availability of the
           clock-tripled 120-MHz Am486 DX4 processor. [141] [265]
         - Compaq Computer introduces the 120-MHz Pentium-based Compaq
           Deskpro XL, starting at US$3950. [113]
         - Microsoft releases Windows NT v3.5.1. [237.45] [323.20]
         - Microsoft releases Windows NT v3.5.1 for the PowerPC.
           [428.209]
     JUL - Symantec buys Delrina. [439.29]
         - IBM completes its US$3.5 billion acquisition of Lotus
           Development Corporation, making it a wholly-owned subsidiary.
           [142] [217]
         - U.S. Robotics begins shipping enhanced Courier V.Everything
           modems capable of transmitting data at up to 33.6Kbps.
           [235]
         - Seagate Technologies ships the one millionth Barracuda
           5.25-inch hard drive, since the line was introduced in 1993.
           [227]
         - Seagate Technologies ships the one millionth Elite 3.5-inch
           hard drive, since the line was introduced in November 1989.
           [227]
         - Hewlett-Packard unveils the DeskJet 1600C and 1600CM, color
           ink-jet printers. [402.35]
     AUG - The Software Publishers Association announces packaging
           guidelines for retail software, in an attempt to reduce
           packaging and use less environmentally harmful materials.
           [548.13]
         - Pinnacle Micro introduces the Apex 4.6, a 5.25-inch optical
           drive, storing 4.6GB on a single removable disc.  Transfer
           rate is up to 6MBps, with a seek time of 17ms.  Costs are
           US$200 for cartridges, and US$1700 for the drive.  Software
           supports Windows, Macintosh, and various Unix platforms.
           [402.6]
         - Microsoft and the US Department of Justice sign a "consent
           decree", which will govern Microsoft's licensing practices of
           Windows for the next 6.5 years.  The ruling comes after 4
           years of investigation of monopolistic licensing practices.
           [387.32] [389.29]
         - Apple Computer expands its line of PowerMac systems using
           Intel's PCI bus, with the Power Macintosh 8500, 7500, and
           7200.  The 8500 uses a 120-MHz PowerPC 604 processor. [114]
         - Lotus Development ships SmartSuite 4.0 for Windows 3.1, for
           US$400. [322.3]
         - Intel demonstrates a system using a 150-MHz P6 CPU, running
           Windows 95. [114]
         - Boca Research abandons its plans to merge with Hayes
           Microcomputer Products. [237.37] [321.12] [451.A8]
         - Microsoft releases Windows 95. More than 20,000 retail stores
           offer copies for sale. Microsoft prepares for aupport calls,
           with 1600 people staffing tech support lines.  1 million
           copies of the new and upgrade versions are sold through
           retail channels within the first 4 days. [182] [123] [271.70]
           [272.A5] [301.3] [323.20] [387.1] [388.6] [389.29] [428.12]
           [439.12]
         - Compaq Computer introduces nine new desktop models based on
           the 133-MHz Pentium processor. [113]
         - Compaq Computer and Fisher-Price team up to develop,
           manufacture, and market a new line of educational and
           entertainment-oriented products. [113]
         - Microsoft introduces Microsoft Office 95. [439.29]
         - Hewlett-Packard introduces the DeskJet 850C and 855C, color
           ink-jet printers.  Prices: US$658 and US$663, respectively.
           [402.35]
     SEP - Diamond Multimedia Systems acquires modem maker Supra, for
           cash and stock worth US$54 million. [325.18] (AUG [375.3])
         - AT&T shuts down NCR, at a cost of US$1.2 billion. [282.112]
         - IBM introduces the Aptiva PC. [142]
         - Intel announces the official name for the P6 chip: Pentium
           Pro. [62] [432.47]
         - Two groups of companies agree on a proposed high density
           compact disc format.  The new format will allow up to 18.8
           gigabytes total on a double-sided disc. [324.50]
         - One month after the release of Windows 95, an estimated 7
           million copies have been sold to end-users. [271.70]
         - Six months after its release, 30,000 units of Microsoft' Bob
           have been sold. [226.12]
         - Intel introduces the 83-MHz Pentium OverDrive processor, for
           replacement in 33-MHz 486DX and 486DX2/66 systems.  Price:
           US$300. [323.3] [403.123]
         - Novell sells UnixWare and the rights to the UNIX operating
           system to Santa Cruz Operations for US$145 million. [324.24]
           [439.12] (1994 OCT [216.4]) (1995 DEC [472.25]) (US$60
           million [216.4])
         - Intel announces the 80486SXSF and GXSF 486 microprocessors,
           designed for hand held computer products.  The GX has a
           16-bit bus, the SX a 32-bit bus.  Both are 33-MHz, operating
           on 2.0-3.3 volts. [324.3]
         - AT&T spins off its computer subsidiary (formerly NCR) as AT&T
           Global Information Solutions. [324.20]
     OCT - Digital Equipment announces its Alpha 21164 processor running
           at 333-MHz. [112] [265]
         - Intel introduces a 120-MHz Pentium designed for mobile
           computers. [62]
         - NexGen announces the Nx686 processor.  It integrates new
           multimedia instructions and a multimedia execution unit into
           the x86 architecture. [303.67]
         - Seagate Technologies and Conner Peripherals agree to a US$1.1
           billion merger. [227] [439.29] (SEP [324.16])
         - Sun Microsystems ships the 143-MHz and 167-MHz versions of the
           UltraSparc processor. [325.38]
         - Intel releases the mobile version of the 120-MHz Pentium
           processor. [439.32]
         - Advanced Micro Devices and NexGen announce a planned merger,
           in which NexGen would become a subsidiary of Advanced Micro
           Devices. The cost to Advanced Micro Devices is US$861 million
           in stock. [141] [220.3] [265] [348.35] [391.32]
         - IBM celebrates the first anniversary of launching OS/2 Warp,
           with nearly 4 million copies sold. [142]
         - IBM releases the ThinkPad 760CD, with the industry's first
           12.1-inch thin-film transistor display on a laptop.  The
           laptop uses a 120-MHz Pentium processor. [439.32]
         - Motorola announces pricing and general availability of 100-
           and 120-MHz versions of its PowerPC 603e microprocessor. 
           Prices are US$207 and US$260 each, respectively, in
           quantities of 1000. [181]
         - Jim Manzi announces his resignation as CEO of Lotus
           Development. [217] [389.4] [432.1] [439.12] [464.15]
         - Novell announces its decision to exit from the personal
           productivity applications business, to focus on networking
           software. [225] [392.1]
         - Cyrix releases the 100-MHz 6x86 microprocessor (formerly
           code-named M1).  The chip is manufactured by IBM, and priced
           at US$450 each in quantities of 1000. [325.111] [389.49]
           [431.54] [437.27] [438.35] [460] [512.112]
         - Cyrix announces sample availability of the 120-MHz 5x86,
           available for US$160 each in quantities of 1000. [265]
           [460]
         - Six weeks after its release 4 million copies of Windows 95
           have been sold. [326.27]
         - Microsoft reports selling 7 million copies of Windows 95 in
           under two months of its release. [390.2]
     NOV - Power Computing begins shipping the PowerWave 604 series of
           Macintosh-compatible PowerPC-based microcomputers.  They use
           the 120- to 150-MHz PowerPC 604 processors.  Prices start at
           US$3200. [426.54]
         - President of Amiga Technologies announces that the Power PC
           processor will be used in Amiga computers sometime in 1997.
           [186].
         - U.S. Robotics begins shipping enhanced Sportster v.34 modems
           capable of transmitting data at up to 33.6Kbps. [235]
         - Intel releases the Pentium Pro microprocessor, at speeds
           150-200 MHz, available initially for US$974 to US$1682.
           [215.24] [216.26] [265] [397.12] [439.12] [518.182]
         - SPARC Technology Business, a division of Sun Microsystems,
           Inc., announces the sampling of the 200-MHz 64-bit
           UltraSPARC-I microprocessor. [265]
         - Sun Microsystems introduces new Ultra 1 and Ultra 2
           workstations, based on the 64-bit UltraSparc microprocessor.
           Initial speeds are 143-, 167-, and 200-MHz, with prices
           ranging from US$16,500 to US$60,000. [216.1] [241] [513.49]
         - NexGen announces the sampling of the 120-MHz Nx586 processor. 
           Price is US$303 each in quantities of 1000. [265]
         - NexGen announces the sampling of the 133-MHz Nx586 processor. 
           Price is US$447 each in quantities of 1000. [265]
         - Advanced Micro Devices begins shipping samples of its 133-MHz
           Am5x86 Pentium-class processor. Price is US$93 each in
           quantities of 1000. [228.25] [265] (US$74 [141])
         - Mitsumi announces a 128-MB 3.5-inch flexible disk drive
           system, compatible with 720KB and 1.44MB diskettes. [485.7]
         - IBM, Apple Computer, and Hewlett-Packard dissolve Taligent
           Inc. [259.5] [399.32] (DEC [260.3] [439.3])
         - IBM, Apple Computer, and Motorola release the PowerPC Platform
           specifications, called the Common Hardware Reference Platform
           (CHRP). It encompasses support for Macintosh System 7,
           Windows NT, AIX, Solaris, Netware, and OS/2.  Windows 3.x and
           Windows 95 are excluded. [283.56] [433.15] [439.12]
     DEC - IBM and Apple Computer dissolve Kaleida Labs. [259.5] (NOV
           [398])
         - Apple Computer ships the Newton 2.0 operating system.
           [271.N7]
         - IBM ships a record 1 million copies of OS/2 Warp in the month,
           bringing the installed base to 12.7 million. [295.3]
           [462.6]
         - IBM completes work on OS/2 for the PowerPC. [381.11]
     ??? - Intel destroys 1.5 million flawed Pentium chips, at a rough
           cost of US$475 million. [425.10]
     ??? - Apple Computer ships an updated "Houdini" board, the DOS
           Compatibility Card for the Power Macintosh.  For US$740, it
           gives a 486DX2/66, sound, and 800x600 SVGA graphics.
           [204.166]
     ??? - Microsoft releases FoxPro 3.0 for Windows, with OLE support.
           [494.6]
     ??? - Nintendo officially drops the Nintendo Entertainment System
           from its product line. [292]
     ??? - Sega introduces the 32-bit game system, Saturn. [520.34]
     ??? - Sony Electronics introduces the 32-bit game system,
           PlayStation. [520.34]
1996 JAN - Advanced Micro Devices and NexGen complete their merger, with
           AMD paying US$623 million for NexGen. [141] [450.18]
         - Intel announces the immediate availability of the 60/150-MHz
           Pentium P55C processor.  Pricing is US$547 each in quantities
           of 1000. [265] [283.8] [473.10] [523.6]
         - Intel announces the immediate availability of the 66/166-MHz
           Pentium P55C processor.  Pricing is US$749 each in quantities
           of 1000. [265] [283.8] [473.10] [523.6]
         - NeXT ends development of the NextStep operating system.
           [283.8]
         - IBM releases OS/2 for the PowerPC. [293.35]
         - Umax Data Systems buys Radius' Macintosh operating system
           license. [427.40]
         - Philippe Kahn resigns as chairman of Borland International.
           [401.32] (1995 NOV [439.12])
         - Compaq announces the Scanner Keyboard, for US$350.  It
           incorporates a color page scanner into an otherwise normal
           keyboard. [404.A5]
         - Silicon Graphics introduces new workstations based on the MIPS
           Technologies R10000 microprocessor. [294.1]
         - Corel purchases WordPerfect, Quattro Pro, and the
           PerfectOffice application suite from Novell for US$180
           million in cash, stock, and future licensing royalties.
           [297.6] [299.1] [430.42] [451.1] [455.4] [435.43] [467.6]
         - Digital Equipment announces it is exiting from the consumer
           desktop PC market, and discontinuing the Starion line of
           multimedia PCs. [455.32] [475.A5]
         - The US Supreme Court upholds a ruling that Borland
           International's Quattro Pro did not violate Lotus
           Development's Lotus 1-2-3 copyrights. The original suit was
           filed in July, 1990. [304.49]
         - Intel renames the P7 processor Merced. [450.3]
         - Apple Computer's board of directors fire CEO Michael Spindler,
           and demote co-founder Mike Markkula from chairman to vice
           chairman. [430.38] [451.3]
         - Advanced Micro Devices and Intel sign a five-year patent
           cross-license agreement. [141]
         - The US Supreme Court votes 4-4 on the Lotus/Borland
           "look-and-feel" issue, upholding the decision of appeal in
           March 1995. [453.4]
         - Apple Computer publicly shows the Macintosh operating system
           running on an IBM system (PowerPC-based) for the first time.
           [430.42]
     FEB - Micron Electronics closes subsidiary company Zeos. [486.311]
         - Santa Cruz Operations releases SCO UnixWare 2.1. [472.25]
         - Microsoft releases the Windows 95 Service Pack 1 operating
           system update. [472.109]
         - Motorola ships samples of the 64-bit PowerPC 620 processor.
           [298.40]
         - Seagate Technologies and Conner Peripherals complete their
           merger. [473.10]
         - Apple Computer's board of directors names Gilbert Amelio as
           new CEO, president, and chairman of the company. [299.3]
           [381.11] [430.38] [455.2] (JAN [459.28])
         - IBM announces it is abandoning plans to develop its Power
           Personal Series line of PowerPC-based desktop PCs. [301.3]
           [381.11]
         - Cyrix announces volume availability of the 110-MHz P133+ 6x86
           microprocessor, for US$326. [457.42] [460]
         - Cyrix announces volume availability of the 60/120-MHz P150+
           6x86 microprocessor, for US$451. [457.42] [460] [473.10]
         - Cyrix announces limited availability of the 66/130-MHz P166+
           6x86 microprocessor, for US$621. [457.42] [460] [473.10]
         - IBM ships OS/2 Warp Server. [305.8] [374.1]
         - Apple Computer licenses the MacOS to Motorola. [381.11]
     MAR - Microsoft ships the 30 millionth copy of Windows 95.
           [452.53]
         - Packard Bell Electronics receives Zenith Data Systems, as part
           of a US$650 million deal with NEC and Groupe Bull. [305.3]
           [456.10] [475.A5] [523.102] (FEB [521.13])
         - Computer-maker CompuAdd shuts down operations. [436.53]
         - Silicon Graphics and Cray Research agree to merge, at a cost
           of about US$764 million to Silicon Graphics. [374.1] [458]
           [469.3]
         - Compaq Computer introduces the 180-MHz Pentium Pro-based
           Prolinea. [514.10]
         - Intel releases the 120-MHz OverDrive (Pentium) processor for
           60-MHz systems, with the 133-MHz version for 66-MHz systems,
           and the 125-MHz version for 75-MHz systems.  Price for any of
           the chips is US$400. [474.60]
         - Advanced Micro Devices begins shipping the AMD5K86
           microprocessor. Prices are US$75 each for the AMD5K86-P75,
           and US$99 each for the AMD5K86-P90, in quantities of 1000.
           [141]
         - Digital Equipment introduces the HiNote Ultra II, subnotebook.
            It features a 100/120/133-MHz Pentium, weighs 4 pounds,
           10.4-inch color SVGA active matrix screen, removable
           memory/hard drive pack, removable CD-ROM/speaker pack, and
           removable external ports pack. Prices range from
           US$3000-6000. [463.6] [515.16]
         - Iomega sells its 1-millionth Zip drive. [485.7]
         - Digital Equipment unveils 366-MHz and 400-MHz versions of its
           Alpha microprocessor. [458.8]
     APR - Hewlett-Packard begins shipping the HP LaserJet 5 line of
           laser printers. [516.31,86]
         - Silicon Graphics completes its purchase of Cray Research, for
           US$764 million. [466.1]
         - Corel releases Corel WordPerfect Suite 7, and Corel Office
           Professional Suite. [467.6] (MAY [497.1])
         - Apple Computer introduces the Power Macintosh 9500/150, with a
           150-MHz PowerPC 604 processor. [494.124]
     JUN - Sony Information Technologies of America introduces Sony's new
           line of comsumer-based PC systems, priced at US$2000-3000.
           [524.14]
         - Intel begins shipping small quantities of the 200-MHz Pentium
           processor. [523.6]
         - IBM begins shipping small quantities of its version of Cyrix'
           150-MHz 6x86 processor. [495.32]
         - Cyrix introduces the 6x86-P200+ processor. [523.6]
         - SunSoft releases Wabi 2.2. [523.19]
         - Nintendo announces the Nintendo 64, a 64-bit game system.
           [520.34]
         - Advanced Micro Devices begins shipping the K5-PR100
           microprocessor.  It is a 100-MHz Pentium-compatible plug-in
           replacement.  Price is US$84 each for 1000. [141] [494.16]
           [524.131] [525.65]
     JUL - Caldera buys DR DOS from Novell. [478.3]
         - Compaq Computer discontinues the ProLinea desktop computer
           line. [526.10]
         - Digital Equipment begins shipping the 433-MHz Alpha 21164
           processor. [496.16]
         - Intel begins shipping the 200-MHz Pentium Pro with a 512-KB
           cache. [488.31]
         - Apple Computer releases System 7.5.3 operating system for the
           Macintosh. [525.18]
     AUG - Intel releases the 150-MHz mobile Pentium processor, designed
           for use in portable computers. [503.8]
     ??? - Micro Express ships the MicroHex-686/100, the first computer
           using the Cyrix 6x86 microprocessor. [431.54]
     ??? - Advanced Micro Designs discontinues the NexGen Nx586
           processor. [434.36]

Trademarks: (some have not yet been attributed)
    
    #9 is a trademark of Number Nine Computer Corp.
    1-2-3 is a registered trademark of Lotus Development Corp.
    386 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    386SX is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    3Com is a registered trademark of 3Com Corp.
    486 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    486SX is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    520ST
    68000 is a registered trademark of Motorola, Inc.
    80386 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    86-DOS
    Acer is a registered trademark of Acer America Corp.
    Adam
    Adlib is a trademark of Adlib Multimedia, Inc.
    Adobe is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc.
    Adobe Type Manager is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc.
    Advanced Micro Devices
    Agenda is a trademark of Lotus Development Corp.
    AIX is a registered trademark of International Business Machines
        Corp.
    Aldus is a trademark of Aldus Corp.
    Alpha is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corp.
    ALR is a registered trademark of Advanced Logic Research, Inc.
    Altair is a trademark of Motorola Corp.
    Altos is a trademark of Altos Computer Systems
    Am386 is a registered trademark of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
    Am486 is a registered trademark of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
    AMD is a registered trademark of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
    AMD-K5 is a trademark of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
    AMD5K86 is a trademark of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
    Amdek is a trademark of Wyse Technology
    America Online is a trademark of America Online, Inc.
    AMI is a trademark of American Megatrends, Inc.
    Amiga is a trademark of Commodore Amiga, Inc.
    Ami Pro is a trademark of Samna Corp. (transferred)
    Ami Pro is a registered trademark of Lotus Development Corp.
    Apollo is a registered trademark of Apollo Computer, Inc.
    Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc.
    Apple IIC is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc.
    Apple IIE is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc.
    Apple IIGS is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    AppleCD is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    AppleLink is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc.
    AppleMouse is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc.
    AppleSoft is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Apple SuperDrive is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    AppleTalk is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    AppleWriter is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    AppleWorks is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Apricot Computers
    AS/400 is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
    Ashton-Tate is a registered trademark of Ashton-Tate, Inc.
        (transferred)
    Ashton-Tate is a registered trademark of Borland International,
        Inc.
    AST is a registered trademark of AST Research, Inc.
    AST Bravo is a trademark of AST Research, Inc.
    AST Premium is a registered trademark of AST Research, Inc.
    Asteroids is a trademark of Atari, Inc.
    AT is a registered trademark of International Business Machines
        Corp.
    AT&T is a registered trademark of American Telephone and Telegraph
        Company.
    Atari is a registered trademark of Atari, Inc.
    Atari XE
    Atari 520ST
    ATI is a trademark of ATI Technologies, Inc.
    ATM is a trademark of Adobe Systems Inc.
    AutoCAD is a registered trademark of AutoDesk, Inc.
    AutoDesk is a trademark of AutoDesk, Inc.
    A/UX is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Aviion
    AXP is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corp.
    Baby Blue
    Banyan is a registered trademark of Banyan Systems, Inc.
    Bell is a trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories
    Bernoulli is a trademark of Iomega Corp.
    Bernoulli Box is a registered trademark of Iomega Corp. 
    BJ is a trademark of Canon, Inc.
    Blue Lightning is a trademark of International Business Machines
        Corp.
    Boca Research is a trademark of Boca Research, Inc.
    Borland is a trademark of Borland international, Inc.
    Breakout is a trademark of Atari, Inc.
    Bubble-Jet is a trademark of Canon Inc.
    Businessland
    BYTE is a registered trademark of McGraw-Hill, Inc.
    Byte Shop
    C128
    C-64
    C++ is a trademark of American Telephone and Telegraph Company,
        Inc.
    Canon is a registered trademark of Canon Inc.
    cc:Mail is a registered trademark of cc:Mail, Inc.
    Claris is a registered trademark of Claris Corp.
    Classic is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Coleco
    Color Computer is a registered trademark of Radio Shack, a division
        of the Tandy Corp.
    Columbia Data Products
    COMDEX is a trademark of Interface Group, Inc.
    Commodore
    Compaq is a registered trademark of Compaq Computer Corp.
    Compaq I is a trademark of Compaq Computer Corp.
    Compaq Deskpro
    Compaq Deskpro 286
    Compaq Deskpro 386
    Compaq Deskpro 386/20 is a trademark of Compaq Computer Corp.
    Compaq Portable is a trademark of Compaq Computer Corporation
    Compaq Portable 286
    Compaq Portable II
    CompuServe is a registered trademark of CompuServe, Inc.
    Computer Eyes
    ComputerLand is a trademark of ComputerLand Corp.
    Computer Shack
    Computerworld is a trademark of International Data Group, Inc.
    CORBA is a trademark of Object Management Group, Inc.
    Corel is a trademark of Corel Systems Corp.
    CorelDRAW! is a trademark of Corel Systems Corp.
    Courier is a trademark of U.S. Robotics Corp.
    Courier HST is a trademark of U.S. Robotics Corp.
    Courier HST Dual Standard is a trademark of U.S. Robotics Corp.
    Courier v.32bis is a trademark of U.S. Robotics Corp.
    CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research (transferred)
    CP/M is a registered trademark of Novell, Inc.
    Creative Computing
    Creative Labs
    Creative Technology
    Crosstalk is a trademark of Digital Communications Associates, Inc.
    Dashboard is a trademark of Hewlett-Packard Company
    Data General is a trademark of Data General Corp.
    Datamaster
    Datamation is a trademark of Reed Properties, Inc.
    DataPerfect is a trademark of WordPerfect Corp.
    Dataquest is a trademark of Dataquest Inc.
    Dazzler is a registered trademark of Cromemco, Inc.
    dBASE is a regsitered trademark of Ashton-Tate, Inc. (transferred)
    dBASE is a registered trademark of Borland International, Inc.
    dBASE II is a registered trademark of Ashton-Tate, Inc.
        (transferred)
    dBASE II is a registered trademark of Borland International, Inc.
    dBASE III is a registered trademark of Ashton-Tate, Inc.
        (transferred)
    dBASE III is a registered trademark of Borland International, Inc.
    dBASE III Plus is a trademark of Ashton-Tate, Inc. (transferred)
    dBASE III Plus is a registered registered trademark of Borland
        International, Inc.
    dBASE IV is a registered trademark of Ashton-Tate, Inc.
        (transferred)
    dBASE IV is a registered trademark of Borland International, Inc.
    Deadline is a registered trademark of Infocom
    DEC is a registered trademark of Digital Equipment Corp.
    DECpc is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corp.
    DECstation is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corp.
    Dell is a trademark of Dell Computer Corp.
    Delrina is a trademark of Delrina Technology
    DeskJet is a registered trademark of Hewlett-Packard Company
    DeskPro is a registered trademark of Compaq Computer Corp.
    DESQ is a registered trademark of Quarterdeck Office Systems
    DESQview is a trademark of Quarterdeck Office Systems, Inc.
    Digital is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corp.
    Digital Research is a registered trademark of Digital Research,
        Inc.
    Digital Vision
    DISCUS M26 is a trademark of Morrow Designs.
    Disk II is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Docking Station is a trademark of NEC Home Electronics, Inc.
    DOOM is a trademark of id Software
    DrawPerfect is a registered trademark of WordPerfect Corp.
        (transferred)
    DrawPerfect is a registered trademark of Novell, Inc.
    DR DOS is a trademark of Digital Research, Inc. (transferred)
    DR DOS is a registered trademark of Novell, Inc.
    DuoDisk is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    DuoFile is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Eagle 1600
    Electric Pencil
    Epson is a registered trademark of Epson America, Inc.
    Encapsulated PostScript is a trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc.
    Ethernet is a trademark of Xerox, Inc.
    Everex is a registered trademark of Everex Systems, Inc.
    eWorld is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Excel is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Exidy
    Fairchild Semiconductor
    Fastback Plus is a trademark of Fifth Generation Systems, Inc.
    FidoNet
    Fortune 500
    FoxBASE is a registered trademark of Fox Software
    FOXBASE+ is a registered trademark of Fox Software 
    FoxPro is a trademark of Fox Holdings, Inc. (transferred)
    FoxPro is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Franklin ACE is a trademark of Franklin Computer Corp.
    Freeboard
    Frugal Floppy
    Fujitsu is a trademark of Fujitsu Ltd.
    Future Computing
    FX is a registered trademark of Epson America, Inc.
    Gateway is a trademark of Gateway Systems Corp.
    Gateway 2000 is a trademark of Gateway 2000, Inc.
    GEM is a trademark of Digital Research, Inc.
    General Electric
    GEnie is a trademark of GE Information Services
    GS is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    GS/OS is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    GW is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    GW BASIC is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. 
    Harvard Graphics is a registered trademark of Software Publishing
        Corp.
    Hayes is a registered trademark of Hayes Microcomputer Products,
        Inc.
    Hayes Smartmodem 1200 is a trademark of Hayes Microcomputer Products,
        Inc.
    Hayes Smartmodem 2400 is a trademark of Hayes Microcomputer Products,
        Inc.
    Heathkit is a registered trademark of Heath Company.
    Hercules is a registered trademark of Hercules Computer Technology.
    Hewlett-Packard is a registered trademark of Hewlett-Packard
        Company.
    Hitachi is a trademark of Hitachi Ltd.
    HP is a registered trademark of Hewlett-Packard Company.
    HP-GL is a registered trademark of Hewlett-Packard Company.
    HP-UX is a registered trademark of Hewlett-Packard Company.
    HP Vectra PC is a trademark of Hewlett-Packard Company.
    HST is a registered trademark of U.S. Robotics Corp.
    HX-20 is a registered trademark of Epson America, Inc. 
    HyperCard is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    i287 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    i386 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    i387 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    i486 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    i487 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    i860 is a registered trademark of Intel Corp.
    i960 is a registered trademark of Intel Corp.
    IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines
        Corp.
    iCOM
    IIGS is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    ImageWriter is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Indigo is a registered trademark of Silicon Graphics, Inc.
    Indeo is a registered trademark of Intel Corp.
    Indy is a trademark of Silicon Graphics, Inc.
    Infocom
    INMOS
    Intel is a registered trademark of Intel Corp.
    Intel Inside is a registered trademark of Intel Corp.
    Intel287 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    Intel386 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    Intel387 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    Intel486 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    Intel487 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    Intel 80486DX4 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    IntelDX2 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    IntelDX4 is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    Intellivision
    Iomega is a trademark of Iomega Corp.
    IPX is a trademark of Novell, Inc.
    IRIS is a registered trademark of Silicon Graphics, Inc.
    Jazz is a registered trademark of Lotus Development Corp.
    LAN Manager is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    LANtastic is a trademark of Artisoft, Inc.
    LaserJet is a registered trademark of Hewlett-Packard Company.
    LaserWriter is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    LetterPerfect is a registered trademark of Novell, Inc.
    Lisa is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    LocalTalk is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Logitech is a trademark of Logitech, Inc.
    Lotus is a registered trademark of Lotus Development Corp.
    Lotus 1-2-3 is a registered trademark of Lotus Development Corp.
    Lotus Notes is a registered trademark of Lotus Development Corp.
    LSI Logic
    LTE is a registered trademark of Compaq Computer Corp.
    Mac is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Mac IIfx is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh Centris is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh Duo is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh IIfx is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh IIcx is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh IIx is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh IIci is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh IIsi is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh IIvi is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh IIvm is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh IIvx is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh LC is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh Performa is a registered trademark of Apple Computer,
        Inc.
    Macintosh Plus is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh Quadra is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh SE is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Macintosh SW/30 is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    MacPaint is a registered trademark of Claris Corp.
    Macworld is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 
    MacWrite is a registered trademark of Claris Corp.
    Mattel
    MC68000 is a trademark of Motorola Corp.
    McAfee is a trademark of McAfee Associates
    MCGA
    Media Distributing
    MessagePad is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Micral is a trademark of Bull S.A.
    Micro Channel is a registered trademark of International Business
        Machines Corp.
    MicroNet
    Micropolis is a trademark of Micropolis Corp.
    MicroPro is a registered trademark of MicroPro International Corp. 
    Microsoft is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Microsoft Access is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Microsoft BASIC is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Microsoft C is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Microsoft Excel is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Microsoft Mouse is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Microsoft Press is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Microsoft QuickBasic is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. 
    Microsoft Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Microsoft Word is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Microsoft Works is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    MicroVAX is a registered trademark of Digital Equipment Corp.
    Mindset PC
    MIPS is a registered trademark of MIPS Technologies, Inc.
    Missile Command is a trademark of Atari, Inc.
    MITS
    MNP is a trademark of Microcom Systems, Inc.
    Morrow Designs is a trademark of Morrow Designs.
    Mosaic Software
    MOS Technology
    Motif is a registered trademark of Open Software Foundation, Inc.  
    Motorola is a registered trademark of Motorola Corp.
    MousePaint is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Mouse Systems is a registered trademark of MSC Technologies, Inc. 
    MPC
    MS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    MS OS/2 is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. 
    Multicolor Graphics Array
    MultiMate is a trademark of Multimate International (transferred)
    MultiMate is a registered trademark of Borland International, Inc. 
    Multimodem is a trademark of Multi-Tech Systems, Inc.
    Multiplan is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    MultiSpeed is a registered trademark of NEC Corp. 
    MultiSpin is a trademark of NEC Technologies, Inc.
    MultiSync is a trademark of NEC Technologies, Inc.
    Multitool is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. 
    MX-80
    National Semiconductor is a trademark of National Semiconductor
        Corp.
    NCR is a registered trademark of NCR Corp.
    NEC is a registered trademark of NEC Corp.
    Netscape Navigator is a trademark of Netscape Communications Corp.
    NetWare is a registered trademark of Novell, Inc.
    NetWare 3 is a trademark of Novell, Inc.
    NetWare 4 is a trademark of Novell, Inc.
    NetWare Lite is a trademark of Novell, Inc.
    NewTek
    Newton is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    NexGen
    NeXT is a registered trademark of NeXT, Inc. 
    NextStep is a trademark of Next, Inc.
    NextStation
    NFS is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Northgate is a trademark of Northgate Computer Systems.
    Norton Utilities is a trademark of Symantec Corp.
    Novell is a registered trademark of Novell, Inc.
    Novell DOS is a trademark of Novell, Inc.
    NuBus is a trademark of Texas Instruments, Inc.
    ObjectVision is a trademark of Borland International, Inc.
    OfficeVision is a registered trademark of International Business
        Machines Corp. 
    Okidata is a registered trademark of Oki America, Inc.
    Olivetti is a registered trademark of Ing. C. Olivetti.
    Open Desktop is a trademark of The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc.
    OpenDoc is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    OpenGL is a registered trademark of Silicon Graphics, Inc.
    Open Software Foundation is a trademark of The Open Software
        Foundation, Inc.
    Operating System/2 is a trademark of International Business Machines
        Corp.
    OS/2 is a registered trademark of International Business Machines
        Corp.
    Osborne 1 is a registered trademark of the Osborne Computer
        Corporation.
    OverDrive is a registered trademark of Intel Corp.
    PageMaker is a registered trademark of Aldus Corp.
    PaintJet is a registered trademark of Hewlett-Packard Company
    Paperback Software
    Paradox is a registered trademark of Borland International, Inc.
    Password is a registered trademark of U.S. Robotics Corp.
    PC/AT is a registered trademark of International Business Machines
        Corp.
    PCjr
    PCL is a registered trademark of Hewlett-Packard Company 
    PC Magazine is a trademark of Ziff Communications Company
    PCMCIA is a trademark of Personal Computer Memory Card International
        Association
    PC MOS
    PC Mouse is a trademark of Mouse Systems Corp.
    PC Tools is a trademark of Central Point Software
    PC World is a trademark of International Data Group, Inc.
    PC/XT is a registered trademark of International Business Machines
        Corp.
    PDP-11
    Pentium is a registered trademark of Intel Corp.
    PerfectOffice is a trademark of Novell, Inc.
    Performa is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Personal Computer AT is a registered trademark of International
        Business Machines Corp.
    Personal Computer XT is a registered trademark of International
        Business Machines Corp.
    Personal IRIS is a trademark of Silicon Graphics, Inc.
    Personal NetWare is a trademark of Novell, Inc.
    Personal System/1 is a registered trademark of International Business
        Machines Corp.
    Personal System/2 is a registered trademark of International Business
        Machines Corp.
    PET is a registered trademark of Commodore Business Machines, Inc.
    PDP-11 is a registered trademark of Digital Equipment Corp.
    Phoenix is a trademark of Phoenix Technologies, Ltd.
    PICK is a registered trademark of Pick Systems 
    PKUNZIP is a registered trademark of PKWARE, Inc.
    PKWARE is a registered trademark of PKWARE, Inc.
    PKZIP is a registered trademark of PKWARE, Inc.
    PLANETFALL is a registered trademark of Infocom, Inc. 
    Plus/4
    Pocket Computer is a registered trademark of Radio Shack, a division
        of the Tandy Corp.
    Pong
    PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc.
    POWER Architecture is a trademark of International Business Machines
        Corp.
    POWER2 Architecture is a trademark of International Business Machines
        Corp.
    PowerBook is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    PowerBook Duo is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Power Mac is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Power Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    PowerPC is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
    POWERserver is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
    POWERstation is a trademark of International Business Machines
        Corp.
    Precision Architecture
    Presentation Manager is a trademark of International Business
        Machines Corp.
    Print Shop is a trademark of Broderbund Software Inc.
    ProComm is a trademark of Datastorn Technologies, Inc.
    ProDOS is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Professional Graphics Controller
    ProFile
    Prolinea is a trademark of Compaq Computer Corp.
    Proprinter is a registered trademark of International Business
        Machines Corp.
    Proprinter XL is a registered trademark of International Business
        Machines Corp. 
    ProSpeed is a registered trademark of NEC Corp. 
    PS/1 is a registered trademark of International Business Machines
        Corp.
    PS/2 is a registered trademark of International Business Machines
        Corp.
    QBasic is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    QDOS
    Quarterdeck is a registered trademark of Quarterdeck Office Systems,
        Inc.
    Quattro is a registered trademark of Borland International, Inc.
        (transferred)
    Quattro is a registered trademark of Novell, Inc.
    Quattro Pro is a registered trademark of Borland International,
        Inc.
    QuickBasic is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    QuickC is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    QuickDraw is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Quicken is a trademark of Intuit Company
    QuickTime is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    QuickWriter is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
    QuietWriter is a registered trademark of International Business
        Machines Corp.
    QX-10 is a registered trademark of Epson America, Inc. 
    R2000 is a trademark of MIPS Technologies, Inc.
    R3000 is a registered trademark of MIPS Technologies, Inc.
    R3010 is a registered trademark of MIPS Technologies, Inc.
    R4000 is a registered trademark of MIPS Technologies, Inc.
    R4200 is a registered trademark of MIPS Technologies, Inc.
    R4300 is a trademark of MIPS Technologies, Inc.
    R4300i is a trademark of MIPS Technologies, Inc.
    R4400 is a trademark of MIPS Technologies, Inc.
    R5000 is a trademark of MIPS Technologies, Inc.
    R6000 is a trademark of MIPS Technologies, Inc.
    R8000 is a trademark of MIPS Technologies, Inc.
    R10000 is a trademark of MIPS Technologies, Inc.
    Radio Shack is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp.
    RISC System/6000 is a trademark of International Business Machines
        Corp.
    RS/6000 is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
    RT is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
    RT PC is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
    RT Personal Computer is a trademark of International Business
        Machines Corp.
    S-100
    S3 is a trademark of S3 Inc.
    SAA is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
    Satellite Software International
    Scelbi
    SCO is a registered trademark of Santa Cruz Operations, Inc.
    Scribe
    SCSI is a trademark of Security Control Systems, Inc.
    Seagate is a trademark of Seagate Technology, Inc.
    Seattle Computer Products
    Sears
    Seiko Instruments U.S.A. Inc.
    Selectric is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
    Shugart
    SideKick is a registered trademark of Borland International, Inc.
    SilentWriter is a registered trademark of NEC Corp. 
    Silentype is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 
    Silicon Graphics is a registered trademark of Silicon Graphics,
        Inc.
    Sketchpad
    Smartmodem is a trademark of Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc.
    SmartSuite is a registered trademark of Lotus Development Corp.
    Softcard is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    SoftSide
    Software Arts is a registered trademark of Lotus Development Corp.
    Software Publishing
    SoftWindows is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Solaris is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Solbourne
    Sony is a registered trademark of Sony Corp.
    Sorcerer is a registered trademark of Exidy Systems.
    Sound Blaster is a trademark of Creative Technology, Inc.
    SPARC is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    SPARCserver is a trademark of SPARC International, Inc.
    SPARCstation is a trademark of SPARC International, Inc.
    SparcKIT
    Sphere
    SpinWriter is a registered trademark of NEC Corp.
    Sportster is a registered trademark of U.S. Robotics, Inc.
    Stac is a trademark of Stac Electronics.
    Stacker is a registered trademark of Stac Electronics.
    Star
    Star Micronics is a registered trademark of Star Micronics America,
        Inc.
    StyleWriter is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Sun Microsystems is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems,
        Inc.
    SunOS is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    SunSoft is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Sun Workstation is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    SuperBowl
    SuperCalc is a registered trademark of Sorcim Corp. (transferred)
    SuperCalc is a registered trademark of Computer Associates
        International, Inc.
    SUPER MARIO BROS. is a registered trademark of Nintendo of America,
        Inc.
    SUPER MARIO BROS.2 is a registered trademark of Nintendo of America,
        Inc.
    SUSPENDED is a registered trademark of Infocom, Inc.
    SVR4 is a trademark of Novell, Inc.
    SX is a trademark of Intel Corp.
    SX-64
    Symantec is a registered trademark of Sumantec Corp.
    Systems Application Architecture is a trademark of International
        Business Machines Corp.
    System 7 is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Taligent is a trademark of Taligent, Inc.
    Tandy is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp.
    Telebit is a registered trademark of Telebit Corp.
    Teletype is a trademark of American Telephone and Telegraph Company
    Teletype is a registered trademark of Teletype Corp.
    Texas Instruments is a trademark of Texas Instruments Inc.
    The Source
    The Twin
    ThinkPad is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
    ThinkJet is a registered trademark of Hewlett-Packard Company
    TI is a registered trademark of Texas Instruments Inc.
    TI-99/4 is a registered trademark of Texas Instruments, Inc.
    Time
    Timex
    TopView is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
    Toshiba is a registered trademark of Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Transputer
    TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Radio Shack, a division of the
        Tandy Corp.
    TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp., D.B.A.
    TRSDOS is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp., D.B.A.
    TRS Model II is a trademark of Radio Shack, a division of the Tandy
        Corp.
    TRS Model III is a trademark of Radio Shack, a division of the Tandy
        Corp.
    TrueType is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
    Turbo C is a trademark of Borland International, Inc.
    Turbo C++ is a trademark of Borland International, Inc.
    Turbo Pascal is a registered trademark of Borland International,
        Inc.
    Ultimedia is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
    ULTRIX is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corp.
    UniDisk
    Univel is a trademark of Univel.
    UNIX is a registered trademark of UNIX System Laboratories, Inc.
        (transferred)
    UNIX is a registered trademark of Novell, Inc.
    UNIX System V is a trademark of Novell, Inc.
    UnixWare is a registered trademark of Novell, Inc.
    USRobotics is a registered trademark of U.S. Robotics, Corp.
    U.S. Robotics is a registered trademark of U.S. Robotics Corp.
    U.S. Robotics Courier is a registered trademark of U.S. Robotics
        Corp.
    U.S. Robotics Password is a registered trademark of U.S. Robotics
        Corp.
    V.Everything is a trademark of U.S. Robotics Corp.
    ValuePoint is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
    VAX is a registered trademark of Digital Equipment Corp.
    VAX-11 is a registered trademark of Digital Equipment Corp.
    Ven-Tel is a trademark of Ven-Tel, Inc.
    VESA is a trademark of Video Electronics Standards Association
    VGA is a trademark of International Business Machines Company, Ltd.
    VIC-20
    Video Graphics Array
    Video Toaster
    VINES is a registered trademark of Banyan Systems, Inc.
    VisiCalc is a registered trademark of Visicorp. (transferred)
    VisiCalc is a registered trademark of Lotus Development Corp.
    Visi-On is a trademark of Visicorp.
    Visual Basic is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Visual C++ is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    VL-Bus is a trademark of Video Electronics Standards Association
    VMS is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corp.
    VP-Planner
    Vulcan
    Wabi is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Wang is a registered trademark of Wang Laboratories, Inc.
    Warner Communications
    WATCOM is a trademark of WATCOM International Corp.
    WATCOM C is a trademark of WATCOM Systems, Inc.
    Weitek is a trademark of Weitek Corp.
    Western Digital is a trademark of Western Digital Corp.
    Win32 is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Winchester
    Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Windows NT is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Windows/386 is a trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    WIN-OS/2 is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
    Word
    WordPro is a registered trademark of Professional Software, Inc.
    WordPerfect is a trademark of WordPerfect Corp. (transferred)
    Wordperfect is a trademark of Novell, Inc.
    WordStar is a registered trademark of MicroPro International Corp.
        (transferred)
    WordStar is a registered trademark of WordStar International Inc.
    Workplace Shell is a trademark of International Business Machines
        Corp.
    Wyse is a registered trademark of Wyse Technology, Inc.
    XGA is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
    XT is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
    X Windows is a trademark of the Massachusetts Institute of
        Technology.
    X Window System is a trademark of the Massachusetts Institute of
        Technology.
    XE
    Xedex
    XENIX is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp.
    Xerox is a registered trademark of Xerox Corp.
    Z80 is a registered trademark of Zilog, Inc.
    Z-280
    Z8000 is a registered trademark of Zilog, Inc.
    Zenith is a registered trademark of Zenith Electronics Corp.
    Zenith Data Systems is a trademark of Zenith Electronics Corp.
    ZEOS is a registered trademark of ZEOS International Ltd.
    Zilog is a registered trademark of Zilog, Inc.
    Zork is a registered trademark of Infocom, Inc.
    ZX80
    ZX81


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[78] Info World, March 14, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 11.
[79] Info World, March 28, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 13.
[80] PC Magazine, February 21, 1984, Volume 3, Number 3.
[81] PC Magazine, November 13, 1984, Volume 3, Number 22.
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[86] Info World, June 27, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 26.
[87] Info World, July 11, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 28.
[88] Info World, July 18, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 29.
[89] Info World, August 1, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 31.
[90] Info World, August 29, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 35.
[91] Info World, September 5, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 36.
[92] Info World, September 12, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 37.
[93] Info World, September 19, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 38.
[94] Info World, October 3, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 40.
[95] Info World, October 17, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 42.
[96] Info World, October 24, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 43.
[97] Info World, October 31, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 44.
[98] Info World, November 7, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 45.
[99] Info World, November 14, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 46.
[100] Info World, November 28, 1994, Volume 16, Issue 48.
[101] Info World, January 9, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 2.
[102] Info World, January 16, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 3.
[103] Info World, March 13, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 11.
[104] Info World, April 3, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 14.
[105] Info World, April 10, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 15.
[106] PC Magazine, November 12, 1985, Volume 4, Number 23.
[107] PC Magazine, February 25, 1986, Volume 5, Number 4.
[108] PC Magazine, November 25, 1986, Volume 5, Number 20.
[109] PC Magazine, January 13, 1987, Volume 6, Number 1.
[110] Texas Instruments, Inc.,
          http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/companyinfo.html, 1995 OCT 17.
[111] PC Magazine, March 10, 1987, Volume 6, Number 5.
[112] Digital Equipment Corp., http://www.dec.com, 1995 OCT 5.
[113] Compaq Computer Corp., http://www.compaq.com, 1995 OCT 26.
[114] Info World, August 7, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 32.
[115] PC Magazine, March 31, 1987, Volume 6, Number 6.
[116] PC Magazine, May 26, 1987, Volume 6, Number 10.
[117] PC Magazine, July 21, 1987, Volume 6, Number 13.
[118] PC Magazine, September 29, 1987, Volume 6, Number 16.
[119] PC Magazine, November 10, 1987, Volume 6, Number 19.
[120] PC Magazine, November 24, 1987, Volume 6, Number 20.
[121] PC Magazine, August, 1995, Volume 14, Number 14.
[122] PC Magazine, October 11, 1994, Volume 13, Number 17.
[123] Microsoft Corp., http://library.microsoft.com/msinfo/mshist.htm,
          1995 JUN 16.
[124] Info World, June 12, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 24.
[125] Info World, June 19, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 25.
[126] Info World, May 22, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 21.
[127] Info World, May 15, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 20.
[128] Info World, June 26, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 26.
[129] Info World, July 10, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 28.
[130] PC Magazine, April 12, 1988, Volume 7, Number 7.
[131] PC Magazine, August, 1988, Volume 7, Number 14.
[132] PC Magazine, September 13, 1988, Volume 7, Number 15.
[133] PC Magazine, November 29, 1988, Volume 7, Number 20.
[134] PC Magazine, September 12, 1989, Volume 8, Number 15.
[135] PC Magazine, January 16, 1990, Volume 9, Number 1.
[136] PC Magazine, May 15, 1990, Volume 9, Number 9.
[137] PC Magazine, June 26, 1990, Volume 9, Number 12.
[138] PC Magazine, August, 1990, Volume 9, Number 14.
[139] PC Magazine, September 11, 1990, Volume 9, Number 15.
[140] BYTE, December 1994, Volume 19, Number 12.
[141] Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., http://www.amd.com, 1995 OCT 30.
[142] IBM, http://www.ibm.com/Newsfeed, 1995 OCT 31.
[143] Dataquest Incorporated, http://www.dataquest.com, 1995 OCT 31.
[144] Digital PC Business Unit,
          http://www.pc.digital.com/text/newswire/back.htm,
          1995 OCT 31.
[145] Motorola Semiconductor Products, http://www.motserv.indirect.com.
[146] PC Magazine, September 24, 1991, Volume 10, Number 16.
[147] PC Magazine, December 31, 1991, Volume 10, Number 22.
[148] PC Magazine, February 11, 1992, Volume 11, Number 3.
[149] PC Magazine, April 14, 1992, Volume 11, Number 7.
[150] PC Magazine, April 28, 1992, Volume 11, Number 8.
[151] PC Magazine, May 12, 1992, Volume 11, Number 9.
[152] PC Magazine, June 16, 1992, Volume 11, Number 11.
[153] UnixWorld, December 1988, Volume 5, Number 12.
[154] UnixWorld, May 1988, Volume 5, Number 5.
[155] UnixWorld, February 1989, Volume 6, Number 2.
[156] UnixWorld, March 1990, Volume 7, Number 3.
[157] UnixWorld, April 1990, Volume 7, Number 4.
[158] UnixWorld, May 1990, Volume 7, Number 5.
[159] UnixWorld, June 1990, Volume 7, Number 6.
[160] UnixWorld, July 1990, Volume 7, Number 7.
[161] UnixWorld, September 1990, Volume 7, Number 7.
[162] UnixWorld, November 1990, Volume 7, Number 11.
[163] UnixWorld, December 1990, Volume 7, Number 12.
[164] Boardwatch Magazine, October 1992.
[165] Boardwatch Magazine, November 1992.
[166] UnixWorld, February 1991, Volume 8, Number 2.
[167] UnixWorld, March 1991, Volume 8, Number 3.
[168] UnixWorld, April 1991, Volume 8, Number 4.
[169] UnixWorld, June 1991, Volume 8, Number 6.
[170] UnixWorld, September 1991, Volume 8, Number 9.
[171] UnixWorld, October 1991, Volume 8, Number 10.
[172] UnixWorld, December 1991, Volume 8, Number 12.
[173] UnixWorld, January 1992, Volume 9, Number 1.
[174] UnixWorld, July 1992, Volume 9, Number 7.
[175] UnixWorld, January 1993, Volume 10, Number 1.
[176] BYTE, September 1995, Volume 20, Number 9.
[177] PC Magazine, September 12, 1995, Volume 14, Number 15. 
[178] Macworld, July 1995.
[179] Macworld, October 1995.
[180] Insanely Great - The Life and Times of the Macintosh, the
          Computer That Changed Everything, by Steven Levy, 1994.
[181] Motorola, Incorporated, http://www.mot.com/pressindex.html,
          1995 OCT 26.
[182] PC Magazine, September 26, 1995, Volume 14, Number 16. 
[183] PC World, October 1995.
[184] Macworld, April 1995.
[185] The Dream Machine - Exploring the Computer Age, by Jon Palfreman
          and Doron Swade, 1991.
[186] Amiga Technologies, http://www.amiga.de, 1995 NOV 11.
[187] Champaign-Urbana Computer Users Group, Inc.,
          http://www.prairienet.org/community/clubs/cucug/main.html,
          1995 NOV 11.
[188] PC Week, October 24, 1994, Volume 11, Number 42.
[189] PC Week, March 27, 1995, Volume 12, Number 12.
[190] IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Volume 17, Number 3,
          Fall 1995.
[191] IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Volume 17, Number 1,
          Spring 1995.
[192] BYTE, February 1976.
[193] BYTE, April 1976.
[194] BYTE, February 1978, Volume 3, Number 2.
[195] BYTE, April 1978, Volume 3, Number 4.
[196] BYTE, May 1978, Volume 3, Number 5.
[197] Power Portable Computing - The IBM PC Convertible, by Dick
          Conklin, 1987.
[198] Byteing Deeper into Your Timex Sinclair 1000, by Mark Harrison,
          1982.
[199] Exploring the Apple IIgs, by George Little, 1987.
[200] The Apple IIgs Book, by Jeanne DuPrau and Molly Tyson, 1986.
[201] The Best of SYNC, Volume 1, by Paul Grosjean, 1983.
[202] The Untold Story of the Computer Revolution - Bits, Bytes, Bauds
          & Brains, by G. Harry Stine, 1985.
[203] Understanding Computers - The Personal Computer, by Time-Life
          Books, 1989.
[204] BYTE, April 1995, Volume 20, Number 4.
[205] Inside the Power PC Revolution, by Jeff Duntemann and Ron Pronk,
          1994.
[206] BYTE, November 1994, Volume 19, Number 11.
[207] Macworld, December 1994.
[208] BYTE, July 1978, Volume 3, Number 7.
[209] PC Magazine, October 10, 1995, Volume 14, Number 17. 
[210] PC Magazine, January 11, 1994, Volume 13, Number 1.
[211] PC World, January 1995.
[212] PC Magazine, October 24, 1994, Volume 13, Number 19.
[213] ComputerWorld Canada, November 3, 1995, Volume 11, Number 22.
[214] http://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs.cmu.edu/user/bam/www/numbers.html,
          1995 NOV 23.
[215] Info World, November 6, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 45.
[216] ComputerWorld Canada, November 17, 1995, Volume 11, Number 23.
[217] Lotus Development Corp., http://www.lotus.com, 1995 NOV 27.
[218] Apple II History, http://www.hypermall.com/History, 1992 MAY 12.
[219] PC Week, November 6, 1995, Volume 12, Number 44.
[220] PC Week, October 30, 1995, Volume 12, Number 43.
[221] Creative Labs, Inc.,
          http://www.creaf.com/www/corporate/about.html, 1995 DEC 1.
[222] NeXT, Inc.,
          http://www.next.com/NeXTanswers/HTMLfiles/1825.htmld/1825.html,
          1995 DEC 4.
[223] International Data Corp., http://www.idcresearch.com, 1995 DEC 4.
[224] BYTE, September 1978, Volume 3, Number 9.
[225] Novell, Inc., http://corp.novell.com, 1995 DEC 4.
[226] Technology in Government, December 1995, Volume 2, Number 12.
[227] Seagate Technologies, http://www.seagate.com, 1995 DEC 5.
[228] Info World, November 20, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 47.
[229] BYTE, November 1978, Volume 3, Number 11.
[230] BYTE, December 1978, Volume 3, Number 12.
[231] BYTE, February 1979, Volume 4, Number 2.
[232] BYTE, March 1979, Volume 4, Number 3.
[233] BYTE, April 1979, Volume 4, Number 4.
[234] BYTE, May 1979, Volume 4, Number 5.
[235] U.S. Robotics Corp., http://www.usr.com, 1995 DEC 6.
[236] Macworld, December 1995.
[237] Macworld, November 1995.
[238] Info World, July 3, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 27.
[239] PC Magazine, January 10, 1995, Volume 14, Number 1.
[240] PC Magazine, March 14, 1995, Volume 14, Number 5.
[241] Sun Microsystems, http://www.sun.com, 1995 DEC 6.
[242] MIPS Technologies, Inc., http://www.mips.com, 1995 DEC 7.
[243] BYTE, June 1979, Volume 4, Number 6.
[244] BYTE, July 1979, Volume 4, Number 7.
[245] BYTE, August 1979, Volume 4, Number 8.
[246] BYTE, November 1979, Volume 4, Number 11.
[247] BYTE, December 1979, Volume 4, Number 12.
[248] BYTE, January 1980, Volume 5, Number 1.
[249] BYTE, March 1980, Volume 5, Number 3.
[250] BYTE, April 1980, Volume 5, Number 4.
[251] BYTE, June 1980, Volume 5, Number 6.
[252] BYTE, July 1980, Volume 5, Number 7.
[253] BYTE, October 1980, Volume 5, Number 10.
[254] BYTE, December 1980, Volume 5, Number 12.
[255] BYTE, January 1981, Volume 6, Number 1.
[256] BYTE, February 1981, Volume 6, Number 2.
[257] BYTE, April 1981, Volume 6, Number 4.
[258] BYTE, June 1981, Volume 6, Number 6.
[259] ComputerWorld Canada, December 15, 1995, Volume 11, Number 25.
[260] Info World, December 4, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 49.
[261] BYTE, July 1981, Volume 6, Number 7.
[262] BYTE, August 1981, Volume 6, Number 8.
[263] BYTE, September 1981, Volume 6, Number 9.
[264] BYTE, January 1982, Volume 7, Number 1.
[265] CPU Info Center, http://infopad.eecs.berkeley.edu/CIC/,
          1996 JAN 9.
[266] Fire in the Valley - The Making of the Personal Computer, by Paul
          Freiberger and Michael Swaine, 1984.
[267] Creative Computing, March 1981, Volume 7, Number 3.
[268] Creative Computing, April 1981, Volume 7, Number 4.
[269] Creative Computing, May 1981, Volume 7, Number 5.
[270] Creative Computing, June 1981, Volume 7, Number 6.
[271] PC World, December 1995.
[272] Times Colonist, Friday, December 29, 1995.
[273] Creative Computing, July 1981, Volume 7, Number 7.
[274] Creative Computing, August 1981, Volume 7, Number 8.
[275] Creative Computing, September 1981, Volume 7, Number 9.
[276] Creative Computing, October 1981, Volume 7, Number 10.
[277] Creative Computing, November 1981, Volume 7, Number 11.
[278] Creative Computing, December 1981, Volume 7, Number 12.
[279] Creative Computing, January 1982, Volume 8, Number 1.
[280] Creative Computing, February 1982, Volume 8, Number 2.
[281] Creative Computing, April 1982, Volume 8, Number 4.
[282] PC Magazine, January 9, 1996, Volume 15, Number 1.
[283] Info World, January 8, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 2.
[284] PC Magazine, December 5, 1995, Volume 14, Number 21.
[285] Creative Computing, May 1982, Volume 8, Number 5.
[286] Creative Computing, June 1982, Volume 8, Number 6.
[287] Creative Computing, August 1982, Volume 8, Number 8.
[288] Creative Computing, September 1982, Volume 8, Number 9.
[289] Creative Computing, October 1982, Volume 8, Number 10.
[290] Creative Computing, November 1982, Volume 8, Number 11.
[291] Creative Computing, January 1983, Volume 9, Number 1.
[292] History of Classic Games,
          http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~dgb/museum/history/index.html
[293] Info World, January 15, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 3.
[294] ComputerWorld Canada, February 2, 1996, Volume 12, Number 2.
[295] Info World, January 29, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 5.
[296] Processor Hall of Fame - Technical Specifications,
          http://www.intel.com:80/intel/museum/25anniv/html/hof/techspecs.html
[297] Info World, February 5, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 6.
[298] Info World, February 19, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 8.
[299] ComputerWorld Canada, February 16, 1996, Volume 12, Number 3.
[300] Creative Computing, April 1983, Volume 9, Number 4.
[301] Info World, February 26, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 9.
[302] Compute, October 1991.
[303] BYTE, January 1996, Volume 21, Number 1.
[304] PC World, March 1996.
[305] Info World, February 12, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 7.
[306] Personal Computing, July 1988.
[307] Personal Computing, October 1988.
[308] Personal Computing, November 1988.
[309] BYTE, July 1989, Volume 14, Number 7.
[310] BYTE, August 1989, Volume 14, Number 8.
[311] PC Magazine, July 1994, Volume 13, Number 13.
[312] BYTE, June 1989, Volume 14, Number 6.
[313] Personal Computing, January 1989.
[314] Personal Computing, December 1988.
[315] Family & Home Office Computing, August 1988, Volume 6, Number 8.
[316] Home Office Computing, November 1988.
[317] Family Computing, March 1987, Volume 5, Number 3.
[318] Family Computing, June 1987, Volume 5, Number 6.
[319] Family Computing, September 1987, Volume 5, Number 9.
[320] Family & Home Office Computing, November 1987, Volume 5,
          Number 11.
[321] Info World, August 28, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 35.
[322] Info World, September 4, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 36.
[323] Info World, September 11, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 37.
[324] Info World, September 25, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 39.
[325] Info World, October 9, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 41.
[326] Info World, October 16, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 42.
[327] Family & Home Office Computing, March 1988, Volume 6, Number 3.
[328] Family & Home Office Computing, July 1988, Volume 6, Number 7.
[329] Personal Computing, February 1988.
[330] Personal Computing, March 1988.
[331] Family Computing, May 1984, Volume 2, Number 5.
[332] Family Computing, November 1984, Volume 2, Number 11.
[333] The Transactor, Volume 5, Issue 2.
[334] The Transactor, Volume 5, Issue 1.
[335] Computer Entertainment, June 1985, Volume 3, Number 6.
[336] Computers & Electronics, December 1983, Volume 21, Number 12.
[337] Electronic Games, November 1984.
[338] Electronic Games, September 1984.
[339] Computers & Electronics, November 1982, Volume 20, Number 11.
[340] Electronic Games, July 1984.
[341] Compute's Gazette, November 1984, Issue 17, Volume 2, Number 11.
[342] RUN, March 1985, Issue 15.
[343] Electronic Games, April 1985.
[344] Chronicle of the Year 1988, by Jacques Legrand, 1989.
[345] RUN, June 1984, Issue 6.
[346] The Making of Microsoft, by Daniel Ichbiah and Susan Knepper,
          1991.
[347] Info World, October 23, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 43.
[348] Info World, October 30, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 44.
[349] Commodore Computing International, March 1984, Volume 2,
          Number 10.
[350] Ahoy!, March 1984, Number 3.
[351] Computer Entertainment, August 1985, Volume 3, Number 8.
[352] The Soul of a New Machine, by Tracy Kidder, 1981.
[353] Hackers, by Steven Levy, 1984.
[354] Power/Play, Spring 1984, Volume 3, Number 1.
[355] Electronic Games, October 1984, Volume 2, Number 15.
[356] Ahoy!, September 1984, Number 9.
[357] Computer Entertainment, July 1985, Volume 3, Number 7.
[358] Electronic Games, March 1985.
[359] Electronic Games, May 1984, Volume 2, Number 12.
[360] Electronic Games, December 1984, Volume 2, Number 17.
[361] Computing Now!, November 1992, Volume 10, Number 7.
[362] Ahoy!, April 1984, Number 4.
[363] Compute!, March 1984, Issue 46, Volume 6, Number 3.
[364] Computers & Electronics, February 1984, Volume 22, Number 2.
[365] Commodore Computing International, June 1984, Volume 3, Number 1.
[366] Compute's Gazette, September 1984, Issue 15, Volume 2, Number 9.
[367] Electronic Games, January 1985, Volume 3, Number 1.
[368] Popular Computing, May 1984, Volume 3, Number 7.
[369] InfoAge July 1983, Volume 2, Number 6.
[370] InfoAge November 1983, Volume 2, Number 9.
[371] InfoAge December 1983, Volume 2, Number 10.
[372] InfoAge February 1984, Volume 3, Number 1.
[373] InfoAge March 1984, Volume 3, Number 2.
[374] ComputerWorld Canada, March 15, 1996, Volume 12, Number 5.
[375] Info World, August 14, 1995, Volume 17, Issue 33.
[376] PC Week, June 12, 1995, Volume 12, Number 23.
[377] PC Week, June 26, 1995, Volume 12, Number 25.
[378] PC Week, July 3, 1995, Volume 12, Number 26.
[379] PC Magazine, January 24, 1995, Volume 14, Number 2.
[380] PC Magazine, April 25, 1995, Volume 14, Number 8.
[381] Technology in Government, April 1996, Volume 3, Number 4.
[382] ComputerWorld, May 29, 1995, Volume 29, Number 22.
[383] ComputerWorld, June 12, 1995, Volume 29, Number 24.
[384] ComputerWorld, June 19, 1995, Volume 29, Number 25.
[385] ComputerWorld, June 26, 1995, Volume 29, Number 26.
[386] ComputerWorld, July 24, 1995, Volume 29, Number 30.
[387] ComputerWorld, August 28, 1995, Volume 29, Number 35.
[388] ComputerWorld, September 4, 1995, Volume 29, Number 36.
[389] ComputerWorld, October 16, 1995, Volume 29, Number 42.
[390] ComputerWorld, October 23, 1995, Volume 29, Number 43.
[391] ComputerWorld, October 30, 1995, Volume 29, Number 44.
[392] ComputerWorld, November 6, 1995, Volume 29, Number 45.
[393] BYTE, March 1982, Volume 7, Number 3.
[394] BYTE, April 1982, Volume 7, Number 4.
[395] BYTE, May 1982, Volume 7, Number 5.
[396] BYTE, June 1982, Volume 7, Number 6.
[397] Computerworld, November 13, 1995, Volume 29, Number 46.
[398] Computerworld, November 20, 1995, Volume 29, Number 47.
[399] Computerworld, December 4, 1995, Volume 29, Number 49.
[400] Computerworld, December 11, 1995, Volume 29, Number 50.
[401] Computerworld, January 8, 1996, Volume 30, Number 2.
[402] PC Week, August 7, 1995, Volume 12, Number 31.
[403] PC Week, September 11, 1995, Volume 12, Number 36.
[404] PC Week, April 8, 1996, Volume 13, Number 14.
[405] BYTE, September 1982, Volume 7, Number 9.
[406] Amiga World, June 1991, Volume 7, Number 6.
[407] Amiga World, June 1990, Volume 6, Number 6.
[408] Amazing Computing for the Commodore Amiga, February 1990,
          Volume 5, Number 2.
[409] Amiga World, October 1990, Volume 6, Number 10.
[410] The Transactor, November 1984, Volume 5, Issue 3.
[411] Amazing Computing for the Commodore Amiga, March 1991, Volume 6,
          Number 3.
[412] Amazing Computing, February 1989, Volume 4, Number 2.
[413] Macworld, November 1991, Volume 8, Number 11.
[414] Macworld, February 1992, Volume 9, Number 2.
[415] The Road Ahead, by Bill Gates, 1995.
[416] Macworld, September 1991, Volume 8, Number 9.
[417] Macworld, December 1991, Volume 8, Number 12.
[418] Macworld, May 1992, Volume 9, Number 5.
[419] Macworld, June 1992, Volume 9, Number 6.
[420] Macworld, July 1992, Volume 9, Number 7.
[421] Macworld, August 1992, Volume 9, Number 8.
[422] Macworld, April 1992, Volume 9, Number 4.
[423] Macworld, October 1992, Volume 9, Number 10.
[424] Home Office Computing, July 1994, Volume 12, Number 7.
[425] Home Office Computing, June 1995, Volume 13, Number 6.
[426] Home Office Computing, July 1995, Volume 13, Number 7.
[424] Macworld, January 1994, Volume 11, Number 1.
[425] Macworld, April 1994, Volume 11, Number 4.
[426] Macworld, February 1996, Volume 13, Number 2.
[427] Macworld, March 1996, Volume 13, Number 3.
[428] BYTE, November 1995, Volume 20, Number 11.
[429] Macworld, May 1994, Volume 11, Number 5.
[430] Macworld, April 1996, Volume 13, Number 4.
[431] PC Magazine, March 12, 1996, Volume 15, Number 5.
[432] PC Week, October 16, 1995, Volume 12, Number 41.
[433] PC Week, November 20, 1995, Volume 12, Number 46.
[434] PC Magazine, May 14, 1996, Volume 15, Number 9.
[435] PC World, April 1996.
[436] PC World, May 1996.
[437] PC Week, November 27, 1995, Volume 12, Number 47.
[438] PC Week, December 11, 1995, Volume 12, Number 49.
[439] PC Week, December 25, 1995, Volume 12, Number 51.
[440] Compute's Amiga Resource, December 1989, Volume 1, Number 5.
[441] Compute's Amiga Resource, June 1990, Volume 2, Number 3.
[442] Compute's Amiga Resource, February 1990, Volume 2, Number 1.
[443] BYTE, February 1983, Volume 8, Number 2.
[444] BYTE, March 1983, Volume 8, Number 3.
[445] BYTE, November 1982, Volume 7, Number 11.
[446] BYTE, December 1982, Volume 7, Number 12.
[447] BYTE, April 1983, Volume 8, Number 4.
[448] Amazing Computing for the Commodore Amiga, September 1989,
          Volume 4, Number 9.
[449] Compute's Amiga Resource, April 1990, Volume 2, Number 2.
[450] PC Week, January 22, 1996, Volume 13, Number 3.
[451] PC Week, February 5, 1996, Volume 13, Number 5.
[452] Windows Magazine, April 1996, Volume 7, Number 4.
[453] Computerworld, January 22, 1996, Volume 30, Number 4.
[454] Computerworld, January 29, 1996, Volume 30, Number 5.
[455] Computerworld, February 5, 1996, Volume 30, Number 6.
[456] Computerworld, February 12, 1996, Volume 30, Number 7.
[457] Computerworld, February 19, 1996, Volume 30, Number 8.
[458] Computerworld, March 4, 1996, Volume 30, Number 10.
[459] Info World, April 8, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 15.
[460] Cyrix, Inc., http://www.cyrix.com, 1996 FEB.
[461] BYTE, October 1983, Volume 8, Number 10.
[462] PC Week, January 29, 1996, Volume 13, Number 4.
[463] Computerworld, March 18, 1996, Volume 30, Number 12.
[464] Computerworld, March 25, 1996, Volume 30, Number 13.
[465] Computerworld Canada, May 10, 1996, Volume 12, Number 9.
[466] Computerworld Canada, May 24, 1996, Volume 12, Number 10.
[467] Computerworld Canada, April 26, 1996, Volume 12, Number 8.
[468] Computer Graphics World, June 1994, Volume 17, Number 6.
[469] Info World, May 20, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 21.
[470] Computer Graphics World, March 1994, Volume 17, Number 3.
[471] PC Week, February 12, 1996, Volume 13, Number 6.
[472] PC Week, February 19, 1996, Volume 13, Number 7.
[473] PC Week, February 26, 1996, Volume 13, Number 8.
[474] PC Week, March 11, 1996, Volume 13, Number 10.
[475] PC Week, April 1, 1996, Volume 13, Number 13.
[476] Computer Graphics World, September 1994, Volume 17, Number 9.
[477] PC Computing, March 1993, Volume 6, Number 3.
[478] Info World, July 29, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 31.
[479] PC Computing, March 1994, Volume 7, Number  3.
[480] New York Times, May 3, 1984.
[481] New York Times, June 9, 1984.
[482] New York Times, July 3, 1984.
[483] New York Times, July 31, 1984.
[484] New York Times, August 3, 1984.
[485] Datamation, April 15, 1996, Volume 42, Number 8.
[486] PC World, July 1996, Volume 14, Number 7.
[487] Info World, July 15, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 29.
[488] Info World, July 22, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 30.
[489] PC Computing, February 1990, Volume 3, Number 2.
[490] New York Times, May 1, 1985.
[491] Computer Graphics World, October 1995, Volume 18, Number 10.
[492] Info World, May 27, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 22.
[493] Info World, June 3, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 23.
[494] Info World, June 17, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 25.
[495] Info World, June 24, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 26.
[496] Info World, July 1, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 27.
[497] Computerworld Canada, July 5, 1996, Volume 12, Number 13.
[498] New York Times, April 13, 1984.
[499] Compute, May 1991, Volume 13, Number 5, Issue 129.
[500] Compute, June 1991, Volume 13, Number 6, Issue 130.
[501] Compute, January 1994, Volume 16, Number 1, Issue 160.
[502] PC World, July 1990, Volume 8, Number 7.
[503] Info World, August 5, 1996, Volume 18, Issue 32.
[504] Windows Magazine, October 1994, Volume 5, Number 10.
[505] Windows Magazine, December 1994, Volume 5, Number 12.
[506] Windows Magazine, March 1994, Volume 5, Number 3.
[507] Windows Magazine, May 1994, Volume 5, Number 5.
[508] PC Magazine, May 17, 1994, Volume 13, Number 9.
[509] Windows Magazine, June 1994, Volume 5, Number 6.
[510] PC Magazine, April 25, 1989, Volume 8, Number 8.
[511] PC Magazine, February 12, 1991, Volume 10, Number 3.
[512] PC Magazine, May 28, 1996, Volume 15, Number 10.
[513] Computerworld, May 6, 1996, Volume 30, Number 19.
[514] Computerworld, May 13, 1996, Volume 30, Number 20.
[515] Computerworld, May 20, 1996, Volume 30, Number 21.
[516] PC Week, May 6, 1996, Volume 13, Number 18.
[517] PC Week, June 3, 1996, Volume 13, Number 22.
[518] PC Magazine, March 26, 1996, Volume 15, Number 6.
[519] PC Magazine, February 20, 1996, Volume 15, Number 4.
[520] Home Computing & Entertainment, September 1996.
[521] PC Today, April 1996, Volume 10, Number 4.
[522] PC Magazine, December 27, 1988, Volume 7, Number 22.
[523] PC Week, June 10, 1996, Volume 13, Number 23.
[524] PC Week, June 17, 1996, Volume 13, Number 24.
[525] PC Week, July 8, 1996, Volume 13, Number 27.
[526] PC Week, July 22, 1996, Volume 13, Number 29.
[527] PC World, May 1991, Volume 9, Number 5.
[528] Creative Computing, July 1983, Volume 9, Number 7.
[529] Creative Computing, August 1983, Volume 9, Number 8.
[530] Creative Computing, September 1983, Volume 9, Number 9.
[531] Compute, November 1990, Volume 12, Number 8, Issue 123.
[532] Windows Magazine, August 1993, Volume 4, Number 8.
[533] Windows Magazine, September 1993, Volume 4, Number 9.
[534] Windows Magazine, October 1993, Volume 4, Number 10.
[535] Windows Magazine, November 1993, Volume 4, Number 11.
[536] Windows Magazine, December 1993, Volume 4, Number 12.
[537] Windows Magazine, January 1994, Volume 5, Number 1.
[538] Windows Magazine, July 1994, Volume 5, Number 7.
[539] Compute, October 1990, Volume 12, Number 7, Issue 122.
[540] PC World, April 1994, Volume 12, Number 4.
[541] BYTE, October 1993, Volume 18, Number 11.
[542] BYTE, August 1994, Volume 19, Number 8.
[543] SCSI FAQ,
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[544] PC Magazine, August, 1993, Volume 12, Number 14.
[545] PC Magazine, October 12, 1993, Volume 12, Number 17.
[546] Compute, November 1993, Volume 15, Number 10, Issue 158.
[547] Compute, May 1994, Volume 16, Number 5, Issue 164.
[548] Home PC, February 1996, Volume 3, Number 2.
[549] Computing Now!, June 1994, Volume 12, Number 2.