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Helpful commands in IRIX

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Helpful commands in IRIX: ++++++++++++++++++++++++++ see also: http://esprit.engr.sgi.com/handbook_html/software_tools.html#REF81128 _____________________________________________________________________________ ln -s <existing_file> <link_file> <source> <target> _____________________________________________________________________________ B = byte b = bit so what does MB mean ? megabyte or megabit ??? and what is Mb? Megabit ? Megabyte Majority tends to say: #################################### MB Megabyte Mb Megabit Mbps Megabit per seconds Netzwerk 100Mb/sec <=> 12.5 MB/sec (=12.5 Megabytes/sec) #################################### Bandwith measure in bits per second ------------------------------------ 1Kb/s = 1000 bits per second 1Mb/s = 1'000'000 bits per second Space measured in bytes and multipliers are power of 2 ------------------------------------------------------ 1KB = 1'024 bytes 1MB = 1'048'576 bytes 1GB = 1'073,741,824 bytes #################################### always double check: df -m will say MB and actually means Mbytes fx> label/show/part states Megabytes diskperf MB = Megabytes ftp says Kbytes/s _____________________________________________________________________________ Typical speeds: ================ source: ~nick/info/net/speed Network: --------- Modem: 33600bps 33 kbit/s 10 MBytes/40Min Ethernet 10BaseT 10 Mbit/s 1.25 MByte/s 12.5 MByte/10s 75 MByte/Min Fastethernet: 100BaseT 100Mbit/s 12.5 MByte/s 125 MByte/10s 750 MByte/Min Gigabit Ethernet: 1000Mbit/s 125 MByte/s 1250 MByte/10s 7'500 MByte/Min ATM OC3 155Mbit/s ATM OC12 622Mbit/s Storage: -------- Fibre Channel 100 MBytes/s (~1Gb/sec) 200 MBytes/s (~2Gb/sec) Other: ------ FireWire IEEE1394 400Mbit/s 50 MBytes/s 800Mbit/s 1600Mbit/s 3200Mbit/s PCI bus bandwidth: ------------------ 33MHz, 64bit wide, 266 MB/s Theoretical bandwidth; 66MHz 532 MB/s Theoretical bandwidth; Unfortunately, you're both incorrect. Due to the implementation of the Origin's XIO-to-PCI Bridge/Xbridge chip(s), the (X)Bridge will "disconnect" DMA on every cache-line boundary, which casues a certain fraction of the PCI bandwidth to be unavailable. On the O2000 this leads to the *theoretical* maximum on a 64-bit/33-Mhz bus being ~213 MB/s (not 266), and we've actually seen ~211 MB/s in certain test cases. The same applies to Xbridge, so the *theoretical* maximum through Xbridge to/from a 64-bit/66-Mhz bus is ~426 MB/s (roughly), though I don't know what the max we've actually ever seen is. (A vague memory says ~380 MB/s with some SCSI controllers, but don't quote me.) _____________________________________________________________________________ SCSI Cable Length ----------------- SCSI-1 SE 6m HVD 25m SCSI-2 SE 3m HVD 25m SCSI-3 SE 1.5m HVD 25m ( SCSI-3 can be used up to 3m with max 4 devices including the controller (HA)) See: http://www.scsita.org/experts/index01.html _____________________________________________________________________________ Address Allocation for Private Internets http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/htbin/rfc/rfc1918.html The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of the IP address space for private internets: 10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 (10/8 prefix) 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 (172.16/12 prefix) 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255 (192.168/16 prefix) _____________________________________________________________________________ System Configuration: ====================== Hardware: ---------- hinv hardware inventory command hinv -vv detailliert mit revision level hinv -mv Revision of Octane Powersupply nvram,sgikopt get or set non-volatile RAM variables diskpatch -v Get info about the disk (very useful) help_mem get exact memoryinfo (only at PROM) swap -ln Swap info in MegaBytes swap -s /usr/gfx/gfxinfo display graphics subsystems informationstopgfx glxinfo display info about a GLX extension and OpenGL renderer setmon set the current and default video output format /usr/gfx/setmon 60Hz also check for ~ /usr/gfx/ucode/<XXX>/vof /usr/gfx/setmon 1024x768_75 /usr/gfx/setmon stereo To do setmon from remote (via network): setenv DISPLAY :0.0 ; /usr/gfx/setmon 72Hz stopgfx;gfxinit;startgfx; gfxinit will not work if stopgfx was not used just before Octane dual head with new monitor GDM5411: setmon -p0 72Hz;setmon -p1 72Hz xsetmon graphical setmon xscreen replaces setmon (GUI) actually a link to xsetmon /usr/bin/X11/xsetmon O2: /usr/sbin/flatpanel ircombine (for Onyx) mt status pre6.4: scsicontrol >=6.4 : scsiha -p # scsicontrol probe and control scsi devices devices for the CDROM can be found in /dev/scsi when issuing scsicontrol no CD must be in CD driver if there is a CD mounted then the error message appears: sc0d4l0: cannot open: Resource busy Ex: scsicontrol -i sc0d4l0 (l0 stands for lun 0) sc0d4l0: CD-ROM TOSHIBA CD-ROM XM-3501TA0095 ANSI vers 2, ISO ver: 0, ECMA ver: 0; Response format type 1, but has SCSI-2 capability bits set supports: reladdr. inquiry format is SCSI 1 Device is not ready to get the firmware of the CDROM drive with a mounted CD use: fx scsiadminswap -p -b # -d # diskpatch -v Info about all disks sc0d3l0: Disk SGI IBM 0662 S12 1S11 Serial: 00222769 sc0d1l0: Disk SGI QUANTUM XP34300 S89C Serial: MP621520 devnm name identifies the special file associated with the mounted filesystem /dev/MAKEDEV create device special files !!! first do "cd /dev " then "./MAKEDEV ......" MAKEDEV will create the device file in the current dir!!! ./MAKEDEV plp ioconfig IRIX 6.4 (ioconfig -f /hw ;reinitialize the hwgraph tree) -d add debuging output (ioconfig -d -f /hw) sample for /etc/ioconfig to set SCSI bus differently on a O2000: 1051 /hw/module/1/slot/io5/mscsi/pci/1/scsi_ctlr/0 on O200 following line should work 103 /hw/module/1/slot/MotherBoard/node/xtalk/8/pci/3/scsi_ctlr/0 /etc/ioperms: /dev/console 0644 root sys flash reprogram the flash PROM hardware on Origin and OCTANE machines -V Print currently loaded flash PROM version and time see also FYI 100490 and the addition sent on August 27 Flash node from in PROM >>flashcpu dksc(0,1,0)/usr/cpu/firmware/ip27prom.img PROM >> enable all setdevperms - Update printing device entries in /etc/ioperms Flash Octane from PROM: flashcpu cdrom(0,4,7)/firmware/IP30/IP30prom.bin # maybe option -o (overwrite) has to be used TIB 200415 IP35 Cache Size May Be Set Incorrectly to 4MB If you find some nodes that are not 8 MB, you should reflash them from the IRIX(R) operating system by using the -o option with the following command line to override version checking: flash -o -b <brick id>/usr/cpu/firmware/ip35prom.img O3000/O3k l1 and l2 commands directly from Unix (starting with IRIX 6.5.15): -------------------------------------- l1cmd - Send a command to the SGI L1 System Controller Ex: # l1cmd env l2cmd - Send a command to an SGI L2 System Controller how do I check fan speeds" or voltages: --------------------------------------- I know this is invading ESP-land but here is a cronjob I setup in the Peachtree office, 2,17,32,47 * * * * test 32 -le `sysctlrd -p | grep "air temp" | awk '{print $5}' | awk -F. '{print $1}'` && echo "Overtemperature condition in Peachtree Lab" | Mail -s "Overtemperature in Lab" [email protected] Something similar can be created for the O3K. This real example sends email if 32C is less than the reported temperature. Diagnostics: ------------- ide fe irsaudit Software: ---------- nvram get or set non-volatile RAM variables chkconfig configuration state checker versions -n Show the internal version number rather than the date long impr_base Shows all files that belong to impr_base config Shows all config files --> usefull to find license files changed List installed configuration files that have a corresponding .O or .N file and their respective .O or .N files. -b brief versions -b patchSG\* -m (modified) List only modified installed files showfiles show files belonging to installed products -A Print absolute pathnames -c Show only config files showfiles -- <name_of_file> showprods -nD1 IRIX 6.4 SCSI commands: scsiha -p X where X is the scsibus ioconfig -f /hw this will add the entries for that device scsiadminswap this will prepare a drive for hot removal scsiadminswap -u -b <bus#> -d <id#> (-u unplug) scsiadminswap -p -b <bus#> -d <id#> (-p plug) pciconfig hot-plug insert, hot-plug remove, and query PCI devices _____________________________________________________________________________ csh: /usr/local/bin/sgi_conf >&! /usr/local/sgiadm/configs/`hostname``date +_%b%d_%Y` sh,ksh: /usr/local/bin/sgi_conf >/usr/local/sgiadm/configs/`hostname``date +_%b%d_%Y` 2>&1 _____________________________________________________________________________ Add a CDdrive while the system is running (hot plug!): ------------------------------------------------------ scsiha -p <X> <X> is the SCSI bus; probe the bus Probe for devices on the bus ioconfig -f /hw /etc/init.d/mediad stop; /etc/init.d/mediad start other scsi commands: scsiha -t <X> where <X> is the scsibus ; Return interesting SCSI bus and attached target parameters scsicontrol -i /dev/scsi/sc0d1l0 show device type scsiadminswap this will prepare a drive for hot removal scsiquiesce this will take the bus in quiet mode _____________________________________________________________________________ mkfs -n version=2 # this feature was introduced in 6.5.5, and will # be de default starting with 6.5.14 # if IRIX older that 6.5.6 -> not able to mount xfs filesystems # that were created with version=2 format # see also NPA 200378 _____________________________________________________________________________ make new devices in Fabric visible (SAN / Switch) scsiha -lp <busNr> ioconfig -f /hw >now it should be visible in hinv Integral SCSI controller 16: Version Fibre Channel QL2200 Fabric RAID controller: node 2000006016fe1ee1 port 0 on SCSI controller 16 Fabric RAID controller: node 2000006016fe1ee3 port 0 on SCSI controller 16 Fabric RAID lun: node 2000006016fe1ee3 port 0 lun 1 on SCSI controller 16 fx -x -d /dev/rdsk/world-wide-name/lun#vol/cCpN # = Lun No., C = Controller No., N = Port No. Ex: fx -x -d /dev/rdsk/2000006016fe0d52/lun2vol/c16p0 _____________________________________________________________________________ How do I see the world wide names of the HBAs on a host, from the host itself? scsiha -w <SCSI controller ID> # scsiha -w 15 15 Portname: 210000e08b020637 _____________________________________________________________________________ new tape support in IRIX 6.5.11 ------------------------------- docu: man ts (/var/sysgen/master.d/tpsc is obsolete) chkconfig ts on To add support for a new device, you must add device information to the ts_types table, run an autoconfig to generate a new kernel, execute chkconfig -f ts on, and restart the system to execute this kernel. master.d/scsi file that contains the ts_types table _____________________________________________________________________________ Umount /root in miniroot -> "resource busy" ---> umount /root/hw ===================== _____________________________________________________________________________ Enabling Disabling CPU's valid for Octane and ?? ------------------------------------------------ go to PROM: disable 0 disable CPU 0 enable 0 enable CPU 0 enable show status of the CPU's _____________________________________________________________________________ Fibre Channel see also Origin Fibre Vault and Fibre Channel RAID Admin Guide 007-3715-00X -------------- command ssmcli (storage processor command line interface) talks to the SP (storage processor) in the Fibre Channel RAID ecnlosure. It communicates directly with the ssmagent. ssmcli is an alternitive to the Raid GUI ssmgui. ssmagent must be runnung - if no > ssmcli commands will fail # chkconfig ssm on # /etc/init.d/ssm start add in .login (or even better .cshrc) the path to set path = ($path /usr/ssm/bin /usr/ssm/lib) or add in .profile PATH=$PATH:/usr/ssm/bin:/usr/ssm/lib ssmcli can be used to get various info about the RAID and can also be used to bind/unbind the disks. GIU: /usr/ssm/bin/ssmgui & collect usseful info: getagent getlun for every lun getlog for every SP getcache for every SP getcontrol for every SP getcrus for every enclosure getdisk for every enclosure scsifo -d fx label/show/all for every lun visible to irix xlv_mgr -c 'show -long -verbose all' /etc/config/ssmagent.config sesmgr Fibre Channel Drive Enclosure Status/Configuration Command Line Interface sesmgr getversion sesmgr poll sesmgr topology sesmgr getstatus sesmgr getstatus -v -> get the Enclosure ID 0x5.... sesmgr getstatus -e 0x50050cc00000205c #Obtaining a detailed status of an enclosure _____________________________________________________________________________ Fibre Channel NON-RAID commands: -------------------------------- command fccli (fibre channel command line interface) talks directly to the JBOD agent fcagent. Only way to talk to JBOD storage. fcagent must be running, other wise fccli does not work # chkconfig fcagent on # /etc/init.d/fcagent start # fccli getstatus -c 14 ENCLOSURE | DRIVES POWER FANS PEER LCC ----------+----------------------------------------- 4 | OK OK OK OK zdi80010 6# fccli getstatus -c 14 -e 4 Enclosure 4, status OK Vendor ID: CLARiiON Product ID: DISK ENC LCC SN#: ms1033430400 LCC Mfg. Date: 9820 LCC code rev: 003 FRUs: 10 disk slot(s) 1 fan slot(s) 2 power supply slot(s) 1 peer LCC slot(s) +---------------------------------------+------+ | [ 4] OK | | +---------------------------------------+ | | | | | | | | | | | | P | | O | O | O | O | O | O | O | O | O | O | E L | | K | K | K | K | K | K | K | K | K | K | E L | | 40| 41| 42| 43| 44| 45| 46| 47| 48| 49| R C | +---------------------------------------+ | | FANS OK | OK | | PS0 OK PS1 OK | | +---------------------------------------+------+ # fccli GETVERSION # fccli GETSTATUS _____________________________________________________________________________ Clariiion SCSI Channel RAID stuff: ------------------------------------ add following lines to /.login (better .cshrc) # complete path definition: set path = ($path /usr/cluster/bin /usr/raid5) raidgui graphical raid interface raid5 linked to raidcli # raid5 getagent see which disk is bound to which lun: # raid5 -d sc5d8l0 getdisk |grep Lun or check all luns with # raid5 -d sc5d8l0 getlun 0 get detailed info about disk A0: # raid5 -d sc5d8l0 getdisk a0 Get the FRU info about disk: # raid5 -d sc5d8l0 getfru c2 returns firmware (flare) revision and SP model number. NOTE: model 7624 = SAUNA controller and model 7305 = PHOENIX controller. # raid5 -d sc5d8l0 getsp Which SP owns which lun ? # scsifo -d Group 8: [P] sc2d8l3 (82) [ ] sc5d8l3 (181) Group 9: [P] sc2d8l2 (80) [ ] sc5d8l2 (172) Group 10: [P] sc2d8l1 (71) [ ] sc5d8l1 (170) Group 11: [ ] sc2d8l0 (62) [P] sc5d8l0 (168) assign a certain lun to a certain SP Ex: assign lun1 to go over SCSI bus 5 (SPB) # scsifo -s sc2d8l1 Which SCSI bus belongs to which SP: # raid5 getagent |egrep 'Name|Node' Name: xl-raid3-SPA Node: sc2d8l0 Name: xl-raid3-SPB Node: sc5d8l0 Reassign Lun Ownership can also be done with # raidcli tresspass sc6d6l0 mine Get 'Current' and 'Default' owner of a certain lun # raid5 -d sc11d8l0 getlun 0 | egrep 'Current|Default' _____________________________________________________________________________ PS9400 commands: ================ CLI: /usr/bin/tpssm7cli # tpssm7cli -d -i san-storage 1 162.21.17.32 san-storage 1 162.21.17.31 san-storage 1 162.21.17.30 san-storage 0 162.21.17.32 san-storage 0 162.21.17.31 san-storage 0 162.21.17.30 # tpssm7cli 162.21.17.30 -c "help show" -n "san-storage 1" /opt/tp9400/bin/tpssm7devices Total Performance Storage Manager 7 Devices, Version 07.11.78.00 Built Wed Dec 12 14:45:17 CST 2001 Copyright (C) LSI Logic Corp 1999. All rights reserved. /dev/scsi/200400a0b80c3c48/lun0/c3p1 [Storage Array san-storage 1, Volume 3, LUN 0, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3b6d000000073c764137>] /dev/scsi/200400a0b80c3c48/lun0/c4p2 [Storage Array san-storage 1, Volume 3, LUN 0, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3b6d000000073c764137>] /dev/scsi/200400a0b80c3c48/lun1/c3p1 [Storage Array san-storage 1, Volume 4, LUN 1, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3c48000000013c76415d>] /dev/scsi/200400a0b80c3c48/lun1/c4p2 [Storage Array san-storage 1, Volume 4, LUN 1, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3c48000000013c76415d>] /dev/scsi/200400a0b80c3c48/lun31/c3p1 [Storage Array san-storage 1, Volume Access volume, LUN 31, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3b6d0000000800000000>] /dev/scsi/200400a0b80c3c48/lun31/c4p2 [Storage Array san-storage 1, Volume Access volume, LUN 31, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3b6d0000000800000000>] /dev/scsi/200500a0b80c3c48/lun0/c3p1 [Storage Array san-storage 1, Volume 3, LUN 0, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3b6d000000073c764137>] /dev/scsi/200500a0b80c3c48/lun0/c4p2 [Storage Array san-storage 1, Volume 3, LUN 0, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3b6d000000073c764137>] /dev/scsi/200500a0b80c3c48/lun1/c3p1 [Storage Array san-storage 1, Volume 4, LUN 1, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3c48000000013c76415d>] /dev/scsi/200500a0b80c3c48/lun1/c4p2 [Storage Array san-storage 1, Volume 4, LUN 1, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3c48000000013c76415d>] /dev/scsi/200500a0b80c3c48/lun31/c3p1 [Storage Array san-storage 1, Volume Access volume, LUN 31, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3c480000000200000000>] /dev/scsi/200500a0b80c3c48/lun31/c4p2 [Storage Array san-storage 1, Volume Access volume, LUN 31, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3c480000000200000000>] /dev/scsi/200200a0b80c3972/lun0/c4p2 [Storage Array san-storage 0, Volume 1, LUN 0, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3972000000093c76400f>] /dev/scsi/200200a0b80c3972/lun0/c3p1 [Storage Array san-storage 0, Volume 1, LUN 0, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3972000000093c76400f>] /dev/scsi/200200a0b80c3972/lun1/c3p1 [Storage Array san-storage 0, Volume 2, LUN 1, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3747000000013c764078>] /dev/scsi/200200a0b80c3972/lun1/c4p2 [Storage Array san-storage 0, Volume 2, LUN 1, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3747000000013c764078>] /dev/scsi/200200a0b80c3972/lun31/c3p1 [Storage Array san-storage 0, Volume Access volume, LUN 31, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c451b0000000a00000000>] /dev/scsi/200200a0b80c3972/lun31/c4p2 [Storage Array san-storage 0, Volume Access volume, LUN 31, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c451b0000000a00000000>] /dev/scsi/200300a0b80c3972/lun0/c3p1 [Storage Array san-storage 0, Volume 1, LUN 0, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3972000000093c76400f>] /dev/scsi/200300a0b80c3972/lun0/c4p2 [Storage Array san-storage 0, Volume 1, LUN 0, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3972000000093c76400f>] /dev/scsi/200300a0b80c3972/lun1/c3p1 [Storage Array san-storage 0, Volume 2, LUN 1, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3747000000013c764078>] /dev/scsi/200300a0b80c3972/lun1/c4p2 [Storage Array san-storage 0, Volume 2, LUN 1, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c3747000000013c764078>] /dev/scsi/200300a0b80c3972/lun31/c4p2 [Storage Array san-storage 0, Volume Access volume, LUN 31, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c37470000000200000000>] /dev/scsi/200300a0b80c3972/lun31/c3p1 [Storage Array san-storage 0, Volume Access volume, LUN 31, Volume WWN <600a0b80000c37470000000200000000>] _____________________________________________________________________________ Failover path: If you try the command "scsifo -d", it should show you all pases to the TP9400 Luns, with a p on the primary, the other pases is where the xlv fails over to in case of a failure on the primary path. For this to work you need to have the xlvplex software installed; but you do not need the plexing license. If you want to change the default selected pases, you need to enter a config in /etc/failover.conf _____________________________________________________________________________ /etc/failover.conf is only needed for JBOD, bandwidth solutions, and 3rd-party RAID if using our RAID products the failover will happen automatically 240 seconds after the 1st failed I/O request _____________________________________________________________________________ Performance stuff: ------------------ sysmeter -v all display system performance values eoe.sw.perf sysmeter -h <rem_hostname> _____________________________________________________________________________ How to Burn CD? --------------- gcombust (stefan) How to burn on burn (eggi)? ---------------------------- rlogin burn -l root cd /usr/cdr; source ./cdrenv; /usr/cdr/bin/SGI/cdrpub & _____________________________________________________________________________ Show the remote admin what you type: ------------------------------------ let him first issue: % tty /dev/ttyq8 $ script /dev/ttyq8 from now on the admin on /dev/ttyq8 sees all my commands updated after every <return> _____________________________________________________________________________ $HOME/.rhosts lion.zurich.sgi.com nick root lion nick root be also aware that .rhosts is disregarded if it is owned by another user or if its permissions allow anyone who is not the owner to modify the file. --> chmod 600 .rhosts !!! this can fool you if you forget !!! _____________________________________________________________________________ sticky bit (1000) ---------- chmod +t $HOME/tmp ls -ld $HOME/tmp drwxrwxrwt 3 nick user 118 Aug 3 10:34 /usr/people/nick/tmp man chmod .... If a directory is writable and the sticky bit, (t), is set on the directory, a process may remove or rename files within that directory only if one or more of the following is true (see unlink(2) and rename(2)): the effective user ID of the process is the same as that of the owner ID of the file the effective user ID of the process is the same as that of the owner ID of the directory the process is a superuser. how to find these directories: find . -type d -perm 1000 -print setuid-bit setgid-bit ---------------------- setuid (4000) setgid (2000) how to find these files: find / -local \( -perm 2000 -o -perm 4000 \) -exec ls -l {} \; _____________________________________________________________________________ ls -lh show size more human readable, specially for large files ls -u Use time of last access instead of last modification "file file.name " will change the access time of a file (useful for mailchecking) _____________________________________________________________________________ open ftp in a browser: ftp://<loginname>:<passwd>@<hostname>:/some/dir Ex: ftp://nick:[email protected]:/tmp/ _____________________________________________________________________________ License: -------- lmdiag -c /usr/lib/SoftWindows/FLEXlm/license.dat lmdiag -c /var/flexlm/license.dat _____________________________________________________________________________ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Start_of_Alains6.5_tips ---------------------------------------------------------- showprods -F <product> shows from WHERE the software has been installed Log of the Installation: /var/inst/instlog df --> in Human numbers --> df -h Shows gigabytes instead of k # df -h Filesystem Type Size use avail %use Mounted on /dev/root xfs 4.1G 3.6G 442M 90% / /dev/xlv/volume1 xfs 4.2G 1.1G 3.2G 26% /d1 /dev/xlv/volume2 xfs 4.2G 1.7G 2.5G 40% /usr/vtr/clips ------------------------------------------------- Backup utilities: ================== move trees from source_dir to target_dir: cd source_dir tar -cvf - . | (cd tartget_dir; tar -xpvf - ) -p restores files to their original modes ignoring present umask. Setuid and sticky information are also restored cd /source/dir tar -cvpBf - ./backup_dir | rsh [email protected]<remhost> "(cd /target; tar -xpBf -)" Just restore some directories from a tar archive: tar -xvf sgiadm.tar sgiadm/bin sgiadm/configs Note that this will restore the directory sgiadm/bin and sgiadm/configs from the archive; also NOTE that there is NO terminating '/', so the command "tar -xvf sgiadm.tar sgiadm/bin/" would not work it would just restore the empry dir sgiadm/bin/ but none of the directories contents xfsdump -l0 - /source_dir | xfsrestore - /target_dir cp : new features for 1) Direct IO 2) realtime filesystems cp -D cp -tP -e ...... Also df can now show you the realtime usage portion of the filesystem with the df -r flag List_tape List content of a tape written by Backup(1), cpio(1), tar(1), or bru(1) dump / restore dump 0Cu 2m /usr must include the C option followed by the size of the tape for example 2m (2Mbytes) otherwise it is constantly asking for another tape ------------------------------------------------- Byte swap: ---------- dd if=/dev/rmt/tapedevice bs=20b conv=swab | tar vxf - or first: tar tvf /dev/rmt/tapedevicens ------------------------------------------------- mkpart - Partition Configuration Tool for Origin ------------------------------------------------- NUMA stuff ----------- sn - NUMA Memory Management Configuration Tool gr_sn - Graphical NUMA Memory Management Configuration Tool nstats - NUMA Memory Management Statistics gr_nstats - NUMA Memory Management Statistics dplace - a NUMA memory placement tool ex.: dplace -data_pagesize 64k -stack_pagesize 64k a.out dlook - a tool for showing memory and process placement To show memory and thread placement for a program called a.out that would normally be run by % a.out < in > out and place the resuls in a file called output one would simply % dlook -out output a.out < in > out ------------------------------------------------- bufview : file system buffer cache activity monitor the tool works like top or osview ------------------------------------------------- Acces control lists / Capabilities ---------------------------------- While this is documented in a Pipeline article here is the list of the new commands. attrinit - Set file attributes -> neat tool since it can read a script file. Take a look at the file /etc/irix.cap you will be surprised. chacl - change the access control list of a file or directory use the ls -D to obtain the ACL chlabel - change the label of a file chcap - change file capability sets use the ls -P to get the cap set try ls -P /sbin YOU WILL be SURPRISED. ----------------------------------------------- base command # ifconfig eg0 inet 195.141.85.196 netmask 0xffffff00 # ifconfig eg0 eg0: flags=c15c43<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,FILTMULTI,MULTICAST,CKSUM,DRVRLOCK,LINK0,IPALIAS,HIGHBW> inet 195.141.85.196 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 195.141.85.255 ifconfig : 2 new options 1) list of the interfaces with -a 2) speed status ( 10/100 ) with -v ifconfig -a ec0: flags=c43<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,FILTMULTI,MULTICAST> inet 169.238.226.62 netmask 0xffffff80 broadcast 169.238.226.127 lo0: flags=1849<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST,CKSUM> inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000 ifconfig -v ec0 ec0: flags=c43<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,FILTMULTI,MULTICAST> inet 169.238.226.62 netmask 0xffffff80 broadcast 169.238.226.127 speed 10.00 Mbit/s half-duplex IP aliases: see insight: IRIX Admin: Networking and Mail Chapter 3 o make sure ipaliases is chkconfiged on # chkconfig |grep ipaliases o edit /etc/config/ipaliases.options ef0 190.190.17.214 netmaks 0xffff0000 broadcast 190.190.255.255 Do it by hand: # ifconfig ef0 alias 190.190.17.214 --------------------------------------------------------- Gigabit Ethernet: TIB 200390 Patch 4291 or IRIX 6.5.13 /var/sysgen/master.d/if_eg for detailed tuning or # ifconfig eg0 sspace 262144 rspace 262144 ->> ifconfig-X.options: netmask 0xffffff00 sspace 262144 rspace 262144 --------------------------------------------------------- prtvtoc : new feature : provides info for all the drives prtvtoc -a /dev/rdsk/dks1d6vh pt# start end #blocks type owner 7 4096 8888542 8884447 xlv [/usr/vtr/clips] vh 0 4095 4096 vol 0 8888542 8888543 /hw/node/io/pci/1/scsi_ctlr/0/target/4/lun/0/disk/volume_header/char pt# start end #blocks type owner vh 0 63 64 vol 0 922667 922668 /dev/rdsk/dks1d2vh pt# start end #blocks type owner 7 4096 8888542 8884447 xlv [/d1] vh 0 4095 4096 vol 0 8888542 8888543 /dev/rdsk/dks0d1vh pt# start end #blocks type owner 0 4968 8519902 8514935 xfs / 1 8519903 8888542 368640 vh 0 4967 4968 vol 0 8888542 8888543 ------------------------------------------------------- Roboinst : automatic software installation tool --------- roboinst, roboinst_start, roboinst_check -------------------------------------------------------- id : -P Reports the capability set of the invoking process. id -P uid=16432(berlie) gid=20(user) capability=(all= CAP_DAC_WRITE+ep CAP_DAC_READ_SEARCH+ep CAP_FOWNER+ep CAP_MAC_WRITE+ep CAP_STREAMS_MGT+ep CAP_SCHED_MGT+ep CAP_DEVICE_MGT+ep CAP_MAC_RELABEL_OPEN+ep) /bin/id -P uid=998(guest) gid=998(guest) capability=(all=) ---------------------------------------------------------- Checkpoint and Restart Processes : great for shutdowns ----------------------------------------------------------- The CPR functionality has 2 commands : cpr, cview ( gui ) Applications have to be cpr-aware !!!! An application out of the box will normally not work with cpr Stop a process: -------------- cd /var/tmp/cpr cpr -c <statfile> -p <proc_id> Ex: cpr -c ckpt05Feb2002 -p 53711 Restart it: ----------- cpr [-j] -r ckpt05Feb2002 How to find out the PGID of the process named standard.x: ps -efj |egrep 'PGID|standard.x' cd /scratch/cpr; cpr -c ckpt05Feb2002 -p 537245:GID ----------------------------------------------------------- Live Installations !! ---------------------- Yes finaly its here and its called Roboinst roboinst, roboinst_start, roboinst_check - automatic software installation tool also new options to inst and swmgr inst -V live_install:on .... ----------------------------------------------------------- How to speed up inst at exit: ...after install is done inst > set rqs_task rqsread inst > quit man inst ... If set to "rqsread", then only the first rqs phase will be performed (the rqs registry file is updated). But I don't know how to properly call rqsall(1) at a later time ----------------------------------------------------------- linkstat - a Craylink monitoring tool # linkstat /hw/module/1/slot/r2/router/mon Router: /hw/module/1/slot/r2/router/mon Port 3: Utilization: bypass 0% receive 2% send 2% Retries 71847 (6/Min), SN errs 116395 (19/Min), CB errs 31196 (2/Min) Port 5: Utilization: bypass 9% receive 13% send 20% Retries 25087 (2/Min), SN errs 497298 (38/Min), CB errs 30417650 (2914/Min) Port 6: Utilization: bypass 0% receive 4% send 3% Retries 46394 (4/Min), SN errs 6252865 (599/Min), CB errs 5557 (0/Min) ----------------------------------------------------------------- xbstat - monitor Crossbow (Xbow) traffic xbstat -d /hw/module/1/slot/n1/node/xtalk/0/mon -t 60 ----------------------------------------------------------------- psifconfig - show and set packet scheduling interface configuration psifconfig -i ec0 ec0 packet scheduling is OFF reserved bandwidth 0 max reservable bandwidth 625000 interface bandwidth 1250000 MTU 1500 num_batch_pkts 4 flags 0x100000 packet scheduler has been disabled by administrator ------------------------------------------------------------------- rstat - show resource reservation status ------------------------------------------------------------------- The command top has changed a lot look it up IRIX smith 6.5 IP32 load averages: 0.00 0.00 0.00 15:49:04 66 processes: 62 sleeping, 3 zombie, 1 running CPU: 98.0% idle, 0.5% usr, 1.0% ker, 0.0% wait, 0.0% xbrk, 0.5% intr Memory: 128M max, 101M avail, 12M free, 180M swap, 124M free swap PID PGRP USERNAME PRI SIZE RES STATE TIME WCPU% CPU% COMMAND 43647 43647 berlie 20 2248K 824K run/0 0:00 0.5 1.09 top 10107 10107 root 20 155M 27M sleep 396:03 0.3 0.88 Xsgi 41465 41465 berlie 30 21M 1504K sleep 0:08 0.1 0.26 xwsh 26318 26666 berlie 20 23M 1320K sleep 14:44 0.1 0.13 pmgadge 40697 40622 berlie 20 29M 2224K sleep 3:12 0.0 0.03 cdplaye ------------------------------------------------------------------ Hardware inventory ------------------ A few things have changed here some new commands and options hinv -mv Location: /hw/module/1/slot/n1/node MODULEID Board: barcode K0015226 part rev 8P12_MPLN Board: barcode FXW293 part 013-1547-003 rev E IP27 Board: barcode DGR051 part 030-1266-001 rev C Location: /hw/module/1/slot/n2/node IP27 Board: barcode DGR650 part 030-1266-001 rev C ..... topology -------- Machine topology information is extracted from the hardware graph. Machine dist has 4 cpu's, 2 memory nodes, and 2 routers. The cpus are: cpu 0 is /hw/module/1/slot/n1/node/cpu/a cpu 1 is /hw/module/1/slot/n1/node/cpu/b cpu 2 is /hw/module/1/slot/n2/node/cpu/a cpu 3 is /hw/module/1/slot/n2/node/cpu/b ..... ioconfig : onfigure I/O devices Look up the /hw pseudo filesystem and /etc/ioperms /etc/ioconfig.conf ----------------------------------------------------------------- uns - the Unified Name Service Architecture ------------------------------------------- Related commands and files: nsadmin : Name Service Administration Utility /etc/nsswitch.conf - name service configuration file nsadmin restart To remove a single cache file have a look at the man page and the option remove for nsadmin, or just try: /sbin/umount /ns;/usr/sbin/nsadmin remove ;/bin/rm /var/ns/cache/* ;/usr/sbin/nsadmin restart The man page suggests that the removal of a single map is possible so I would try this first. flush all the nsd maps and restart nsd: # nsadmin flush; nsadmin restart include LDAP services: see TIB 200396 ----------------------------------------------------------------- XLV Logical Volumes -------------------- the lv subsystem is not supported anymore /dev/dsk/xlv has moved to /dev/xlv ---------------------------------------------------------------------- crontab(1) was enhanced to allow root to edit/list/remove other users' crontabs ------------------------EndofAlainsTips _____________________________________________________________________________ System info: ------------ uptime show how long system has been up who -r who: display who is on the system w who is on and what they are doing finger user information lookup program _____________________________________________________________________________ sn0 commands: -------------- checkclk linkstat a Craylink monitoring tool linkstat -a Report on all links in the system clear sn0log messages: > At the prom command monitor promt, type 'pod', > > At the pod prompt, type 'clearalllogs, and then 'reset' > Or just from the unix prompt: #sn0log -w -a > /var/adm/sn0log_date this is to write the prom logs to a file #sn0log -c -a this is to clear the prom logs comparison of OS command line / POD sn0log -a -c = clearalllogs = Clear all log files. sn0log -a -i = initalllogs = Initialize all PROM logs for all modules in the system; resets PROM variables to factory defaults. _____________________________________________________________________________ sn1 commands > I had a question from a customer about getting the temparature data > on his SGI3000 from IRIX. > > We have this data in the L1, listet with the env command; but I have > been unable to find a command to obtain this data from IRIX, unless > you connect to the L1 via a serial connection. > > On the Everest systems we can get this type of data with the sysctlrd -p > command, on the Origin 2K we can talk with the msc ( elsc ) with the > command sn0msc, I haven't been able to find a similar command to for the > SN1 to talk to an L1 from IRIX. # uname -R 6.5 6.5.14f # showfiles -- l1cmd f 45690 160192 field_diags_sysco.sw.stand m usr/sbin/l1cmd f 39545 1653 field_diags_sysco.sw.stand m usr/share/catman/u_man/cat1/l1cmd.z # showfiles -- l2cmd f 34704 160192 field_diags_sysco.sw.stand m usr/sbin/l2cmd f 58351 1794 field_diags_sysco.sw.stand m usr/share/catman/u_man/cat1/l2cmd.z # l1cmd env | grep TEMP | awk '{print $11$12}' 22c/71F 20c/68F 22c/71F 20c/68F # l1cmd only talks to C bricks, l1cmd --scdev /hw/module/...c../L1/controller _l1_command_ Use l2cmd to target a non C brick. # l2cmd 001i21 l1 env | grep TEMP | awk '{print $11$12}' 21c/69F 21c/69F # _____________________________________________________________________________ MMSC ----- MMSC is connected to 2 or more MSC ports; MMSC only used with 2 or more O2000 MMSC display keypad debounce problem (FYI 100882 100884 100737) MMSC>r 1 MMSC>setenv DEBOUNCE_DELAY 200000 _____________________________________________________________________________ POD ---- how to enter POD: PROM -> command monitor > pod 1) 1A 000: POD IOC3 Dex>go cac 2) 1A 000: POD IOC3 CAC>initalllogs 3) 1A 000: POD IOC3 CAC>reset see also TIB 200124: Problems with 400-MHz Node Board Upgrades _____________________________________________________________________________ Documentation: ----------------- makewhatis needed for "man -k" and "apropos" man -k apropos relnotes relnotes patchSG0002278 1 (Chapter 1 of #2278 Relnotes) grelnotes graphical /CDROM/docs/CDgrelnotes _____________________________________________________________________________ Install System: ----------------- Here are the two commands for booting sash and fx IRIX 6.4 CD put into local CDROM controller 0 SCSI ID=4 1) go to PROM 2) go to Command Monitor do the commands hinv (check for SCSI id of CDROM) boot -f dksc(0,4,8)sash64 (sashARCS for older systems) boot -f dksc0,4,7)stand/fx.64 --x (fx.ARCS for older systems) in fx to fx> label > create > all fx> repartition > resize (now you can adjust the swap part.) fx -s "dksc(0,3,0)" open disk with SCSI ctrl 0; SCSI ID 3; lun 0 # fx -x "dksc(0,3,0)" _____________________________________________________________________________ Boot miniroot from disk: ------------------------ | Is it possible to boot miniroot from local disk? To boot miniroot you need the files sa and unix.IPXX (and sash in vh). EX: To boot miniroot from disk: # mkdir /disk/miniroot # cp /CDROM/sa /disk/miniroot # mkdir /disk/miniroot/miniroot # cp /CDROM/miniroot/unix.IPXX Then you can boot miniroot from the prom menu setting local directory /disk/miniroot _____________________________________________________________________________ Description for inst: ====================== View: distribution Status: N=new, U=upgrade, S=same, D=downgrade, P=patch upgrade Patches: A=installable patch, X=uninstallable (missing base product) Selection: i=install, r=remove, k=keep Subsystem Types [bdrpc]: b=reBoot needed, d=Default, r=Required, p=patch, c=Client only Usefull command ---------------- Inst > keep all Inst > install A (install all installable software, spec. for patches) Inst > inst S (install same) Inst > inst I Reinstallation of Software: Select all installed software for reinstallation: Inst > admin Admin> files nss_fasttrack List all files belonging to nss_fasttrack Admin> save /tmp/inst_save Save selection to file /tmp/inst_save load /tmp/inst_save load selection from the file Help: ---- a) Inst > help (help keep) b) Inst ><ENTER> Automatic installation: inst -f /CDROM/dist -a -u upgrade inst -f /CDROM/dist -a -I <selection> -I selection install -R selection remove -K selection keep Maintenance and feature stream / how to switch streams: --------------------------------------------------------- read all Overlay and Application CD's; might be possible that also the 6.5 core CD's have to be read > keep * > inst standard > inst maint #switch to maintenance stream > inst feature #switch to feature stream _____________________________________________________________________________ How to downgrade overlay ? > install downgrade > set rulesoverride true _____________________________________________________________________________ How to install new system with limited space ? > install impr_print impr_base > keep appletalk *.books.* netwr_client demos custlink cosmocreate Register ********************** > keep *_dev # get rid of all the _dev conflicts from overlay CD ********************** _____________________________________________________________________________ extract single files from inst package by installing to other root directory: idea: install that product to another target (-r) and get it from that directory PRB 200261 The PROM can be manually installed on systems not running 6.5.10+ by downloading one of the patch files (#4153 or #4154) and using the following steps: 1. Install the patch in an alternate root tree. % inst -a -r/var/tmp/patch -f<path to extracted patch files> \ -Vrulesoverride:on -Iall NOTE: You will need to add '-mCPUBOARD=IP32' if you extract the files on a system other than an O2 system. 2. Install flash image (you must be root to do this). % su # /sbin/flashinst -T -y -q \ /var/tmp/patch/usr/cpu/firmware/ip32prom.image 3. Clean up the extracted files. # rm -rf /var/tmp/patch ---------------------------- extract file io6prom.img Using IRIX 6.5.11 Overlays [2 of 3] 812-0819-011 # grep usr/cpu/firmware/io6prom.img /CDROM/dist/eoe_6511f.idb f 0644 root sys usr/cpu/firmware/io6prom.img xlv54/6.5.11f/work/stand/arcs/IO6prom/SN0PROMio6prom.img eoe.sw.base sum(42196) size(367304) off(17655411) mach(CPUBOARD=IP27) cmpsize(0) # inst -f /CDROM/dist/eoe_6511f -Y usr/cpu/firmware/io6prom.img -m CPUBOARD=IP27 -V rulesoverride:on -r /tmp -I default ; -r <target>; -Y <file> Install only file during installations Default distribution to install from: /CDROM/dist/eoe_6511f .... proceed with inst dialog # ls -R /tmp extract ip27prom code (the next is all one line..) % inst -f /CDROM/dist/eoe_6511f -Y usr/cpu/firmware/ip27prom.img -m CPUBOARD=IP27 -V rulesoverride:on -r /tmp -I default -> When inst menu comes up type 'go' -> When inst completes type 'quit' % ls -R /tmp -> the prom image is in /tmp/usr/cpu/firmware ================================================= other example how to if_eg.o from 6.5.14: inst -U -r /var/tmp/removethis -f eoe_6514m -I eoe.sw.base -K '*' will extract all files from eoe.sw.base to /var/tmp/removethis -OR- You can use showfiles: cd /tmp showfiles -f /CDROM_812-0818-014/dist/eoe_6514m -x --usr/cpu/sysgen/IP27boot/if_eg.o + /tmp/if_eg.o NOTE: To extract this file in IP27boot w/ showfiles, you have to be on a IP27 system. _____________________________________________________________________________ Filesystems: ------------- xfs_growfs /mount_point Info about a xfs filesystem (isize,block_size) xfs_estimate estimate the space that an XFS filesystem will take xfs_db debug xfs filesystem xfs_db -r /dev/dsk/XXXXX xfs_db> sb xfs_db> print xfs_ncheck generate pathnames from i-numbers for XFS fsr_xfs filesystem reorganizer for XFS _____________________________________________________________________________ Access the volume header of a CDROM: ------------------------------------ Assuming CD on controller 0 and SCSI id=4 # ls -l /dev/dsk/dks0d4* brw------- 1 root sys 4, 8 Mar 19 15:52 dks0d4s brw------- 1 root sys 128, 64 Jan 26 13:27 dks0d4s0 brw------- 1 root sys 128, 65 Jan 26 13:27 dks0d4s1 brw------- 1 root sys 128, 79 Jan 26 13:27 dks0d4s15 brw------- 1 root sys 128, 70 Jan 26 13:27 dks0d4s6 brw------- 1 root sys 128, 71 Jan 26 13:27 dks0d4s7 #install -F /dev/dsk -m 600 -u root -g sys -blk 128,72 dks0d4s8 ls -l /dev/dsk/dks0d4s8 brw------- 1 root sys 128, 72 Mar 19 15:52 dks0d4s8 Current contents: File name Length Block # sgilabel 512 32 io4prom 1029914 33 mr 28672000 2045 sash64 190904 58045 sashARCS 283172 58418 sashIP17 284720 58972 _____________________________________________________________________________ Disk information: ----------------- fx> label/show/parameters list all parameters fx> label/set/parameters Command Tag Queueing write buffering _____________________________________________________________________________ XLV Logical volumes: --------------------- Repair a defective volume (eg overlapping) o delete the logical volume "local" xlv_admin (delete object) --------- o delete the partition 15 on disk dks0d2 fx repartition > expert --- starting cyl =0 number of cyl=0 o make a new logical volume xlv_make ------- > vol local > data > plex > ve /dev/dsk/dks0d2s6 o make a filesystem on this logical volume man mkfs mkfs_xfs -d name=/dev/dsk/xlv/local -l internal,size4m -------- o restore from backup Useful XLV commands: ------------------ xlv_assemble -n Scan all disks for logical volume labels, but don't save the logical volume configuration and don't activate the kernel with this configuration. xlv_assemble xlv_admin (for IRIX 5.3) ( 41) 42) ) xlv_mgr (for IRIX 6.X) xlv_mgr -c "show -long all" prtvtoc (prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/dks<controller-id>d<SCSI-id>vh dks0d1vh ) /usr/sbin/prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/*vh !! always on raw device !! xfs_copy copy the contents of an XFS filesystem dvhtool modify and obtain disk volume header information ex: dvhtool -v list /dev/rdsk/dks0d3vh ex: dvhtool -v list ( will take system disk) extract sash from volume header: dvhtool -v get sash /tmp/sash /dev/rdsk/dks0d1vh cp ide to volume header: ls -l /usr/stand/ide -rwxr-xr-x 1 root sys 2154692 Jan 26 13:23 /usr/stand/ide ---> dvhtool -v add /usr/stand/ide ide /dev/rdsk/dks0d1vh assuming disk on controller 0 SCSIid=1 dvhtool <Enter> Command? (read, vd, pt, dp, write, bootfile, or quit): vd Volume Directory pt Partition Table dp Device Parameters dvhtool again: --------------- a) list content of volhdr: dvhtool -v list /dev/rdsk/dks0d1vh b) extract file from volhdr: dvhtool -v get sgilabel /tmp/sgilabel /dev/rdsk/dks0d1vh c) write a file to volhdr: dvhtool -v add /tmp/sgilabel sgilabel /dev/rdsk/dks0d4vh sh: SOURCE=/dev/rdsk/dks0d1vh TARGET=/dev/rdsk/dks0d3vh dvhtool -v list ${SOURCE} dvhtool -v get sash /var/tmp/sash ${SOURCE} dvhtool -v get ide /var/tmp/ide ${SOURCE} dvhtool -v get sgilabel /var/tmp/sgilabel ${SOURCE} dvhtool -v add /var/tmp/ide ide ${TARGET} dvhtool -v add /var/tmp/sash sash ${TARGET} dvhtool -v add /var/tmp/sgilabel sgilabel ${TARGET} _____________________________________________________________________________ XVM commands: -------------- xvm show -verbose * xvm show * xvm show -top vol ab 6.5.16 existiert weitere Option '-extend' _____________________________________________________________________________ diskalign XLV Aligned Disk Striping Utility # useful to find out stripe_unit % diskalign -n vol1 -r5m '/dev/dsk/dks12d8l[0-1]s7' # request size 5m # Number of devices = 2 # Request alignment = 4096 bytes # Desired request size = 5242880 bytes # Aligned request size = 5242880 bytes # Alignment padding = 0 bytes # Padding I/O overhead = 0.00 % # vol vol1 data plex ve -stripe -stripe_unit 5120 \ /dev/dsk/dks12d8l0s7 \ /dev/dsk/dks12d8l1s7 end exit _____________________________________________________________________________ Discussion about SWAP swap Swap: --------------------------------- swap -s ; swap -ln virtual swap: /etc/config/swap.options vlength=XXX set virtual swap to XXX * 512 bytes could also be added to /etc/fstab (IRIX 6.5) /vswap/vswap1 swap swap pri=5,vlength=524288000 0 0 # (268 GB !) _____________________________________________________________________________ Start another Netscape thread (no new process) netscape -remote "openURL (http://lion.zurich.sgi.com)" netscape -remote "openURL (file:/tmp/tes.html, new-window)" alias nsm 'netscape -remote mailto' _____________________________________________________________________________ /etc/TIMEZONE before 1997 TZ=MET-1MDT,M3.5.0/2,M10.5.0/3 for 1997 TZ=MET-1MDT,89/2,299/3 after 1997 TZ="MET-1MDT-2,M3.5.0/2:00,M10.5.0/3:00" (Sysadminclass) after 1997 TZ="MET-1MDT,M3.5.0/2:00,M10.5.0/3:00" (Chris) not sure if "-2" is needed or not "...." can cause problems (date will show Thu Jan 27 17:14:26 "MET 2000) untested hint: 1) the following works for Europe: TZ=MET-01MDT,M3.5.0/02:00:00,M10.5.0/03:00:00 export TZ 2) Try reading comp.sys.sgi.* on oasis. TZ=CET-1CEST,M3.5.0/2,M10.5.0/3 <<<<<< the one to go for ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ which failed with Failsafe 1.2 and Informix so another choice: TZ=CET-1CST-2,M3.5.0/02,M10.5.0/03 _____________________________________________________________________________ It will set the time 1 hr forward on the lst sunday of the third month ( March) and change back to "normal" time on the last sunday of October. date show or set date date +_%b%d_%y _Jan21_98 date +_%b%d_%Y _Jan21_1998 -> use %d and NOT %e (%e will give a blank from the 1st until 9th) /usr/etc/amtime1970 print current seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, or convert between local time and seconds since Jan. 1, 1970. _____________________________________________________________________________ diff differential file and directory comparator gdiff graphical diff cmp compare two files sdiff side-by-side difference program whereis _____________________________________________________________________________ Cadmin: /etc/init.d/cadmin [ start | stop | clean ] called during system startup from /etc/rc2 to initialize the cadmin objectserver(1M) and directoryserver(1M) if database is corrupted: /etc/init.d/cadmin clean or better: /etc/init.d/mediad stop /etc/init.d/cadmin stop /etc/init.d/cadmin clean /usr/lib/desktop/telldesktop quit /etc/init.d/cadmin start /etc/init.d/mediad start fm -lrb & more brutal method: ----------------- # killall fm # mediad -k # killall objectserver # cp -pr /usr/Cadmin/classes /usr/Cadmin/classes.orig # rm /usr/Cadmin/classes/groupObject.op # rm /usr/Cadmin/classes/nisAccountObject.op # rm /usr/Cadmin/classes/peopleNISObject.op # rm /usr/Cadmin/classes/peopleObject.op # /usr/Cadmin/bin/parseclasses # /usr/Cadmin/bin/objectserver # ps -ef | grep obj --> when you see 2 objectserver processes running, do: if this fails: #par -siN open -l -SS /usr/Cadmin/bin/objectserver -d # mediad #fm -lrb& check specially foranges in /etc/inittab and /etc/hosts (cat -v ) _____________________________________________________________________________ Debugging iso9660 mounts: /etc/init.d/mediad stop /usr/etc/mediad -f #start it in the foreground and write error message # to standard out _____________________________________________________________________________ autoconfig configure kernel autoconfig -vf -f forced -v verbose cp /unix /unix.save at next system restart /unix.install will be automatically moved to /unix _____________________________________________________________________________ mount / umount umount -a after issuing this command you have to do: mount -t proc /proc /proc other wise ps won't work anymore _____________________________________________________________________________ changes to etc/inetd.conf: vi /etc/inetd.conf ; alter the file to make it active: killall -HUP inetd this will NOT restart the process , but the config will be reread can control with "par -sSSi -p <proc_id_of_inetd>" and then issue the kill command _____________________________________________________________________________ links: ------- ln -s existing_file link_file ln <file1> <target> _____________________________________________________________________________ Nice mechanisme to implement locking with hard links: more than one processes should o check if a lock is set by creating a hard link touch ./L.$$ # touch a tempfile with the own proc id # try to link lockfile to L.$$: ln ./L.$$ lockfile # if successfull go on, do your tasks and at the end remove the file "lockfile" # as long as this link is set, nobody else should be able to create such a link # if not successfull stay in your loop and try again after a while Ex: % touch L.1 L.2 % ln L.1 lockfile # successfully locked % ln L.2 lockfile # lock will fail May not unlink existing outplock - Error 0 % rm lockfile # release the lock % ln L.2 lockfile # successfully locked % ls -li 63117 -rw-rw-r-- 1 nick user 0 Aug 13 10:53 L.1 63118 -rw-rw-r-- 2 nick user 0 Aug 13 10:53 L.2 63118 -rw-rw-r-- 2 nick user 0 Aug 13 10:53 lockfile _____________________________________________________________________________ shutdown and startup: ------------------- wakeupat Request that system power back on at a future time powerdown stop all processes and halt the system Automatically starting a system ------------------------------- O20?? MSC: <Ctrl>t aut 1 PROM: AutoLoad=Y kernel: reboot_on_panic = -1 Indy: nvram -> rebound y autopower [y|n] AutoLoad [Yes | No] (replaces "bootmode [m | c] _____________________________________________________________________________ colorview show available colors showrgb uncompile an rgb color-name database show available colors _____________________________________________________________________________ eurosign see bug 785417 (I never got it to work) and bug 785478 --------------... Mail from Andy Heel: "�" comes because your font does not support the euro symbol. You need a iso8859-15 font (xlsfont | grep "iso8859-15" ), and AFAIK you have to set LANG to your european Language. (e.g. de_DE.ISO8859-15) (ls /usr/lib/locale/) If you need more fonts install x_eoe.sw.Xoptfonts. Use cat euro.bin (attached) to test this. Andy P.S. 1. winterm 2. setenv LANG de_DE.ISO8859-15 3. winterm -fn "-bitstream-*-medium-r-normal--15-70-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15" 4. cat euro.bin euro.bin: � _____________________________________________________________________________ setenv TERM iris-tp set TERM at single mode xfontsel point & click interface for selecting X11 font names usefule for exact xwsh: xwsh --fn -sgi-haebfix-medium-r-normal--15-150-72-72-m-90-isoo8859-1 /usr/lib/X11: system.chestrc system.4Dwmrc XKeysymDB app-defaults /usr/lib/X11/xdm -> ../../../var/X11/xdm /var/X11/xdm: xdm-errors system wide xhost is set in: /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession-remote Toolchest stuff: ---------------- $HOME/.chestrc replace the system toolchest /usr/lib/X11/system.chestrc $HOME/.auxchestrc append to system toolchest customize the popup menu that appears when the right mouse button change the button bindings in /usr/lib/X11/system.4Dwmrc OR override system defaults by creating a $HOME/.4Dwmrc file -> man 4DWm Fontstuff: ---------- xev print contents of X events xmodmap xmodmap -e "keycode 65 = Mode_switch Multi_key" After that <Shift> + <AltGr> ^ a Won't work in tcsh (disables pasting with the middle mouse button): xmodmap -e "pointer = 1 5 3 4 2" xlsfonts | grep 8859-1 xfd -fn -sgi-screen-medium-r-normal--15-150-72-72-m-80-iso8859-1 winterm -fn "-sgi-screen-medium-r-normal--15-150-72-72-m-80-iso8859-1" winterm -fn "-sony-*-*-r-*-*-16-*-*-75-*-*-*-*" xfontsel choose your own font step by step man ascii xwininfo window information utility for X xprop property displayer for X (get info about a specific window) xlswins server window list displayer for X setxkeyamp fr_CH.xkm compose composetable xmodmap -e "keycode 65 = Mode_switch Multi_key" -> then use <Shift> + <Right Alt> followed by a: -> will procuce adiaresis The command being executed by the GUI is: /usr/bin/X11/setxkbmap -config //.desktop-oxygen/0.0/keyboard-cfg.xkb oxygen 21# cat //.desktop-oxygen/0.0/keyboard-cfg.xkb model=indy layout=fr_ch you can put the setxkeymap command in /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession.dt. You can set the language via $HOME/.lang LANG is defined systemwide in /etc/default/login also PATH can be defined there (default path is taken from /usr/include/paths.h) or in /etc/cshrc setxkbmap de setxkbmap us setxkbmap de_CH Umlaute only work in sh (not csh) see also /usr/lib/X11/xkb/symbols xrm ressources: --------------- xterm -xrm '*background: NavyBlue' -xrm '*foreground: yellow' for valid ressources check the definition files in /usr/lib/X11/app-defaults XTerm for xterm XWsh for winterm winterm -xrm 'winterm.cursorTextColor: red' _____________________________________________________________________________ Dual head: I've been doing a little more investigation this morning and it looks like the death grip interrupts the xdm parent process if you enter it on the keyboard assigned to display 0. If you enter it on a different keyboard that's assigned to another display, it interrupts only the child xdm process that's assigned to that X display. I also discovered that if I logout of X display 0's desktop, it also terminates the other X display. I fixed this by changing the DisplayManager._n.terminateServer: statement to False in the /var/X11/xdm/xdm-config file. _____________________________________________________________________________ Put faces on the login desktop: ----- man clogin: $HOME/.icons/login.icon /usr/local/lib/faces/$USER /usr/lib/faces/$USER chkconfig noiconlogin -> NO icons are displayed instead /usr/Cadmin/images/cloginlogo.rgb is displayed _____________________________________________________________________________ /etc/default/login: ------------------ CONSOLE=/dev/console --> root connection is posible from console AND from xterm connections CONSOLE=any_thing --> Nobody can connect as root directly. "su" must allways be used CONSOLE=/dev/ttyd1 --> root connection is only posible from console in serial port 1. No xterm root connections are posible. see also man xdm CONSOLE=noXlogin effectively prevents ANY�direct root-logins on the system. Users must login with normal user names. To gain root access users will have to use the su command. with CONSOLE=/dev/ttyd1 you will be able to login as root on the "console serial port". � _____________________________________________________________________________ Add certain programs that should be started ONCE when loging into the desktop: cat $HOME/.sgisession xhost + trusted.zurich.sgi.com /usr/local/bin/vmail see also 'Desktop User's Guide' in the book SGI_EndUser _____________________________________________________________________________ Move window with numkeypad: --------------------------- xmodmap -e "keysym Num_Lock = Num_Lock Pointer_EnableKeys" then press <Shift>+<NumLock> (some times <CTRL>+<Shift>+<NumLock>) -> now you can move the mouse with the num keypad 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9 move the mouse 5 default pointer 0 locks default pointer button for dragging . unlocks / sets the default button to Button1 * sets the default button to Button2 - sets the default button to Button3 Unix Hints an Hacks/ Kirk Waingrow/ Ch 11.7 _____________________________________________________________________________ IMG Indigo Magic Desktop (man IMG) toolchest Menue dirview desktop manager launch iconcatalog ov desks overview tool 4Dwm not invoked by end user iconsmith graphical interactive drawing program colorview An X11 program that displays a color patch and a list of color names from an X11 rgb database iconbookedit man 4Dwm The IRIS Extended Motif Window Manager _____________________________________________________________________________ nm print name list of an object file(s) nm /usr/lib/libspaceball.a typical linker error message: ld:error 33: unresolved text symbol "dbtext" -- first referenced by usr/lib/ libspaceball.a (spaceball.o) ***error code 1 (BU21) elfdump dumps selected parts of a 32-bit or a 64-bit ELF object file elfdump -Dl <programm> show used share objects odump dumps selected parts of an object file file <executable> will show if it is a 32 N32 or 64 compiled image Octal dump: ------------ od - octal dump od -x Interpret words in hex. od -c Interpret bytes as characters _____________________________________________________________________________ Networking stuff: ---------------- par system call tracer par -s -SS -p <pid> par -SS -s -i -l -n par -siN open -l -SS /usr/Cadmin/bin/objectserver -d par -isSS -l -o /tmp/os1.par /usr/Cadmin/bin/objectserver -l 7 -d par -s -SSS -i -N write -a 4096 -b 4096 -o /tmp/output-file -p PID will trace process #PID and all its subsequent children. The arguments to write() system calls will be logged, including up to 4096 of ascii (a) or binary (b) data from the buffer given to write() par -rsSSQQ -o inst par -ilsASSQQQ -o /tmp/date_a date 10 traceroute print the route packets take to a network host ping send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts ping -c 1 -R <targethost_name> show routes (-c counts) netstat show network status -r show routing netstat 5 # show packet status every 5 seconds # first line shows the total, further lines show delta # perfect to watch if we have further collisions netstat -ia 2 netstat -I ec0 2 netstat -s -p tcp netstat -C To match a socket to a process, the fuser(1M) command can be used. For example, the command fuser 25/tcp will display information about any processes listening on TCP port 25. Note that fuser requires the numeric value for the port, not the name of the service. The -n option will force netstat to display service information numerically. route manually manipulate the routing tables route add default <IP-addres_gateway> 1 ???????? Ex: route add -net <destination> <gateway> route add -net 193.187.200 193.187.248.100 add it permanently to /etc/config/static-route.options add default route to gateway 144.253.153.1: route add -net default 144.253.153.1 route -n monitor # monitor any changes in the routing table # normally nothing happens # Very useful when we want to know through which interface we go # when connecting to a remote system: route get <hostname> # get info about the route to that host route get <IP-address> smtstat show FDDI SMT status smtstat -C # check 5 for neighbourhood (or use fddiviz) nslookup query Internet name servers interactively nslookup > ls -d zurich.sgi.com # dump the whole map nslookup -query=mx sgsc or nslookup > set querytype=MX > eggenberger.org eggenberger.org preference = 10, mail exchanger = mail.eggenberger.org Authoritative answers can be found from: eggenberger.org nameserver = DNS.NETSTREAM.CH eggenberger.org nameserver = DNS2.NETSTREAM.CH mail.eggenberger.org internet address = 207.154.76.249 DNS.NETSTREAM.CH internet address = 62.65.128.10 DNS2.NETSTREAM.CH internet address = 62.65.128.15 netsnoop capture and decode network traffic (like snoop on SUN) /usr/sbin/netsnoop -vvv "(ip.src == 195.10.101.49)||ip.dst == (195.10.101.49)" IRIX 6.2 (PART 1 OF 2) eoe.sw.ipgate snoop similar to netsnoop but for IRIX 6.3 and later (nfs.sw.nfs) snoop -o snoopfile.out <host> <host> rpc ypserv capture all rpc packets between the 2 hosts snoop -v -i snoopfile.out look at the file snoopfile.out snoop -o /var/tmp/snoop.out arp look at all arp broadcasts snoop port 25 watch the mail port (defined in /etc/services) snoop port 53 watch DNS queries (find out who is dnsserver) snoop -d lo0 rpc nfs watch nfs queries on loopback interface (also see /etc/rpc) snoop rpc mountd watch how partitions get mounted and umounted snoop -o /tmp/snoopfile.out 192.2.3.4 192.3.2.4 Truncate each packet after snaplen bytes -s <snaplen> save lot of disk space snoop -o /tmp/snoopfile.out -s 140 snoop -d eg1 "lion not mahagoni" # watch traffic on interface eg1 # snoop all packets from or to lion # disregard packets from or to mahagoni snoop "not pinky not punky" # snoop all packets except for pinky and punky http://www.enteract.com/~lspitz/snoop.html look at the captured snoop packages: snoop -i /tmp/snoopfile.out get overview snoop -i /tmp/snoopfile.out -V verbose overview snoop -i /tmp/snoopfile.out -v -p 10,15 look at packets 10-15 rpcbind rpcinfo -p <hostname> rup show host status of local machines (RPC version) rup -l <hostname> proclaim client for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) portmap TCP,UDP port to RPC program number mapper (Not for ordinary users) arp address resolution display and control arp -a ( before issue a ping <broadcast.address> looked up by ifconfig ec0) arp -av show add. info such as the interface associated with entries and age of the entry rup show host status of local machines (RPC version) ruptime show host status of local machines nfsstat display Network File System statistics (/usr/etc/) -s (server) -c (client) -z (reset statistics) ttcp test TCP and UDP performance ipfilterd see also WebFORCE Firewall Admin Guide ttcp usage: one host will send, the other will listen on the transmitter host: # ttcp -t -s -fm <reciever-host> on the reciever host: # ttcp -r -s -fm -fm means result in the format (f) Mbit/sec (m) basic network files: -------------------- /etc/sys_id, /etc/hosts, /etc/config/ifconfig-?.options (netmask) /etc/protocols, /etc/services, /etc/networks, /etc/gateways /etc/resolv.conf /var/yp/ypdomain (NIS) (if NIS domain != internet domain) _____________________________________________________________________________ process related stuff: ----------------------- man 5 signal: Name Value Default Event __________________________________________________________________________ SIGHUP 1 Exit Hangup [see termio(7)] SIGINT 2 Exit Interrupt [see termio(7)] SIGQUIT 3 Core Quit [see termio(7)] SIGILL 4 Core Illegal Instruction SIGTRAP 5 Core Trace, Breakpoint, Range Error Divide by Zero, or Overflow Trap SIGABRT 6 Core Abort SIGEMT 7 Core Emulation Trap SIGFPE 8 Core Arithmetic Exception SIGKILL 9 Exit Killed SIGBUS 10 Core Bus Error SIGSEGV 11 Core Segmentation Fault SIGSYS 12 Core Bad System Call SIGPIPE 13 Exit Broken Pipe SIGALRM 14 Exit Alarm Clock SIGTERM 15 Exit Terminated SIGUSR1 16 Exit User Signal 1 SIGUSR2 17 Exit User Signal 2 SIGCHLD 18 Ignore Child Status Changed SIGPWR 19 Ignore Power Fail/Restart SIGWINCH 20 Ignore Window Size Change SIGURG 21 Ignore Urgent Socket Condition SIGPOLL 22 Exit Pollable Event [see streamio(7)] SIGIO 22 Exit input/output possible signal SIGSTOP 23 Stop Stopped (signal) SIGTSTP 24 Stop Stopped (user) [see termio(7)] SIGCONT 25 Ignore Continued SIGTTIN 26 Stop Stopped (tty input) [see termio(7)] SIGTTOU 27 Stop Stopped (tty output) [see termio(7)] SIGVTALRM 28 Exit Virtual Timer Expired SIGPROF 29 Exit Profiling Timer Expired SIGXCPU 30 Core CPU time limit exceeded [see getrlimit(2)] SIGXFSZ 31 Core File size limit exceeded [see getrlimit(2)] SIGCKPT 33 Ignore Checkpoint warning [see cpr(1)] SIGRESTART 34 Ignore Restart warning [see cpr(1)] SIGRTMIN 49 Exit POSIX 1003.1b SIGRTMIN SIGRTMAX 64 Exit POSIX 1003.1b SIGRTMAX _____________________________________________________________________________ xman X11 manual pages Print man pages: man -c ppp >ppp_man.txt ; lp -d<printername> ppp_man.txt Put it into a file for access with vi man -c ppp | col -b > ppp_man.txt pcat csh.z | imprint -l man -p <command> show commands that would be executed for formatting man 4 passwd Show section 4 of passwd apropos locate commands by keyword lookup (~man -p _____________________________________________________________________________ Compress and uncompress: ------------------------------ pack,pcat,unpack compress and expand files (Huffman coding) gzip, gunzip compress and uncompress files Gzip uses the Lempel-Ziv algorithm used in zip and PKZIP compress (LZW-algorithm) zip,unzip fw_IZzip.sw.zip usr/freeware/bin/zip works fine for archives compressed on NT tar cf - nsmail | gzip -c | crypt my_secret_password > nsmail.packed cat -v print non ASCII Charachters File Transfer via email: -make package with tar (cd /source/dir ; tar -cvf source.tar ./dir_or_file) -compress source.tar (will create source.tar.Z) -make a ASCII version out of it uuencode source.tar.Z source.tar.Z > source.tar.Z.uu - this can be sent as an attachment via email ex: mailx -v -s "sending source.tar.Z.uu" [email protected] < source.tar.Z.uu to unpack : -save attachement as /any/dir/source.tar.Z.uu -uudecode source.tar.Z.uu -uncompress source.tar.Z ( ->source.tar) -tar -xvf source.tar _____________________________________________________________________________ Formating --------- tr translate characters Ex: tr -d "[\200-\777]" < filename > filename2 delete all control characters in "filename" cat xx | tr -s "[a-z]" "[A-Z]" (convert all lower to upper) get rid of the ^M in a file (saved with Netscape) cat -v file.txt | tr -d /^M/ > cleanfile.txt or better: cat file.txt| tr -d '\015' > cleanfile.txt do the same job in vi: :g/^M/s///g (^M has to typed as '<ctrl><v><m>') and another solution: sed 's/^V^M//g' foo > foo.new convert from Macintosh file to Unix Ascii (Mac files contain lots of ^M) #Octal: \015 (^M CR Carriage Return) ; \012\ (^J LF Line Feed) cat file.txt | tr -s "\015" "\012" show each directory of PATH on seperate directory: alias pa 'echo $PATH | tr -s "[:]" "\n"' cut -d<delimiter> -f<field> cut -d":" -f3 /etc/passwd print all UID's of /etc/passwd cut -d":" -f3 /etc/passwd | sort -n | uniq cut -d":" -f3,1 /etc/passwd also show the username cut -c0-20 <file> print character 0 until 20 of each line in <file> first character is 0 sed Ex: 1.) /usr/etc/netstat -ia | grep 08:00 | sed 's/ *//;s/://g' | head -1 | tr '[a-f]' '[A-F]' 2.) nvram | grep eaddr | cut -d= -f2 | sed -e s/://g | tr '[a-f]' '[A-F]' 3.) sysinfo | grep -v System | sed 's/00//g' | sed 's/ //g;2s/^/0800/' | tr '[a-f]' '[A-F]' paste merge same lines of several files or subsequent lines of one file 4.) replace in /etc/fstab the word vol_usr with vol_usr_plex: sed 's/'vol_usr'/'vol_usr_plex'/g' /etc/fstab > /tmp/fstab.cloned the serach patterns can also be replaced by variables: sed 's/'$xlv_usr'/'$d3_xlv_usr[$nxlv]'/g' /etc/fstab > $tmpmnt/etc/fstab same function can be implemented with perl see also UGU: perl -p -i -e 's/original text string/replacementstring/g' <filename> list perm, size and name: ls -lt | tr -s " " | cut -d " " -f1,5,9 drwxrwxr-x 103 develop -rw-rw-r-- 6639 examples.html sed replace string: sh: VARIABLE=nick echo "hallo world" | sed -e s/world/$VARIABLE/g hallo nick csh: set VARIABLE = nick echo "hallo world" | sed -e s/world/$VARIABLE/g hallo nick guenstig um das in einer Schlaufe zu verwenden _____________________________________________________________________________ /usr/etc/macconfig ha.sw.base _____________________________________________________________________________ man ascii map of ASCII character set /show ASCII Table _____________________________________________________________________________ Trouble to remove a special file: --------------------------------- ls -i list file by inode clri clear inode (elete file by inode) should only be used for efs filesystems for xfs filesystems use xfs_check and xfs_repair(repeatedly) Filesystem repair: ----------------- xfs_check /usr/sbin/xfs_repair (comes with patch1422 in IRIX 6.2) xfs_repair /dev/rdsk/dks0d2s0 do it on the raw device _____________________________________________________________________________ Memmory and processes: ---------------------- pmem report per-process memory usage (/usr/sbin/pmem) belongs to package "pcp.sw.monitor /Performance Co-Pilot for IRIX 6.2, 1.2" ps report process status gmemusage graphical memory usage viewer gr_osview graphical system monitor osview ASCII system monitor gr_top display processes having highest CPU usage in a window top display processes having highest CPU usage top -o mem sort processes by size of memory used xload CPU load with history sar # sar -f /var/adm/sa/sa01 What was the system activity at the first of this month ? only for root # sar -d -f /var/adm/sa/sa21 -s 07:30 -e 09:30 show disk activity (-d) on 21st of this month between 07:30 and 09:30 Sar data is collected by crontab of user sys with script /usr/lib/sa/sa1 (every hour) _____________________________________________________________________________ more about sar: ---------------- best to watch system for a certain period and save all data into a file sar -A -o /var/tmp/sar.log 10 5 -A all options combined 10 delay of 10 seconds 5 take 5 samples then look at all the details by reading from that log: sar -U -f /var/tmp/sar.log # per CPU utilization, similar to -u sar -D -f /var/tmp/sar.log # Disk sar -w -f /var/tmp/sar.log # swap more about top: --------------- use the option '?' within top; Ex press 'o' and type 'res' this will sort the processes by RES memory size can also be achieved with command: top -o res _____________________________________________________________________________ Debugging: ========== par: process activity reporter / truss-like system call tracer Example: #par -s -i -N open -o filename -l -SS /usr/Cadmin/bin/objectserver -d see also padc ifconfig ec0 debug Turn on Network debugging ifconfig ec0 -debug Turn off Network debugging nm print name list of an object file(s) (compiler_dev.sw.util) stat display stat attributes of named files stat $HOME/xx file determine file type see also /etc/magic for the various types looking for a speacial type of file in the filesystem for exapmple type "Arena" find . -local -type f -print -exec file {} \; |grep Arena find . -local -type f -print -exec grep <search_pattern> {} \; List only the files which contain a certain search pattern: find . -type f -exec grep -il <search_pattern> {} \; List the search pattern proceeded by the filename: # good one: !!! # find . -type f -exec grep "string or options" /dev/null {} \; fgrep TZ `find /etc -type f -print` search for strin "TZ" in all files in /etc cd some/dir; grep "pattern" */* find / -local -type f -size +20000 -print Print all files which are larger than 10MB find / -local -type f \( -name core -o -name dead.letter \) -atime +7 -mtime +7 - Henk: find . -name \*\['\126',a\]\* -print find all files which contain the tilede (~) and an "a" in their name lists all set-UID files owned specifically by root find / -user root -perm -4000 -exec ls -l {} \; find / -local -perm -4000 -exec ls -l {} \; # list ALL SUID files a nice one:#################################### Find all the files which were modified on 24.June: touch -t 06251012 /tmp/june25 touch -t 06231012 /tmp/june23 find / -local -newer /tmp/june23 ! -newer /tmp/june25 -exec ls -l {} \; If you would like finer granularity than a day, then you might try this: touch 07040330 first_time touch 07040415 last_time find . \( -newer first_time ! -newer last_time \) -print Find all files which are NOT named index* : find . -type f ! -name "index*" -print ^^^ clean up /tmp and /var/tmp but don't remove sockets: bad: | 30 0 * * * find /tmp /var/tmp -depth \ | -atime +7 -print 2> /var/tmp/clean_tmp.log | xargs rm -f better: find /tmp /var/tmp -type f ... That way, no symlink/socket/directory/pipe will be removed filetype determine filetype of specified file or files (only IRIX ?) strings find printable strings in an object file or binary Crash analysis: =============== /var/adm/crash savecore icrash IRIX system crash analysis utility icrash unix.43 vmcore.43.comp corefile = vmcore.43.comp, namelist = unix.43, outfile = stdout echo t -a -w <filename> | icrash # icrash -e "trace -a" -w /tmp/trace_output DBX: ===== indee02 8# ls -l core -rw-r--r-- 1 root sys 6673948 Oct 24 11:05 core indee02 9# file core core: IRIX core dump of 'swmgr' indee02 10# dbx /usr/sbin/swmgr core dbx version 7.2 Aug 29 1997 03:27:55 Core from signal SIGSEGV: Segmentation violation (dbx) t > 0 <Unknown>() [< unknown >, 0x5f2e70b4] (dbx) wi [???, 0x5f2e70a0] addiu sp,sp,-48 [???, 0x5f2e70a4] sw ra,28(sp) [???, 0x5f2e70a8] sw gp,24(sp) [???, 0x5f2e70ac] move a3,a0 [???, 0x5f2e70b0] move a2,a1 *[???, 0x5f2e70b4] lw t6,0(a3) [???, 0x5f2e70b8] beq t6,zero,0x5f2e70c8 [???, 0x5f2e70bc] nop [???, 0x5f2e70c0] bne a3,zero,0x5f2e70d0 [???, 0x5f2e70c4] nop (dbx) (dbx) q _____________________________________________________________________________ in order to use dbx the object file has to be compiled with the option '-g' (which is the "not stripped" versions) dbx [options] [object_file [corefile]] _____________________________________________________________________________ elfdump, odump dumps selected parts of an object file elfdump -Dl /usr/etc/mediad Dumps library list in dynamic shared objects _____________________________________________________________________________ Multiprocessors: mpadmin control and report processor status -s A summary of the unrestricted, restricted, isolated, preemptive and clock processor is printed to the standard output _____________________________________________________________________________ fuser identify processes using a file or file structure -u give process id AND username -c may be used with files that are mount points for file systems. With that option the report is for use of the mount point and any files within that mounted file system. Example: fuser -c /CDROM which processes still using files useful for umounting fuser 25/tcp which process is using port 25 via tcp ? _____________________________________________________________________________ Systeminfo: ---------- sysconf get configurable system variables (POSIX) sysconf | grep PAGE get pagesize of the system pathconf get configurable pathname variables (POSIX) limits _____________________________________________________________________________ mkfile create a file ex: mkfile 5m bigfile create a file called "bigfile" with the size 5MB sum print checksum and block count of a file sum -r <file> _____________________________________________________________________________ Backup commands: ----------------- Moving trees: cd /source/dir find . -depth -print | cpio -o | rsh <remhost> "cd /target/dir; \ cpio -ipdm" cd /source/dir find . -depth -print | cpio -ovBc -O /dev/tape cd /source/dir tar -cvBf - ./docu | rsh [email protected] "cd /space1/nick; tar -xpBf -" how to find out WHICH file has a bad block on the disk (cpio will terminate at read error !) ksh: find . -print | cpio -ovBc -O /dev/null > /var/tmp/log1 2>/var/tmp/err1 csh: (find . -print | cpio -ovBc -O /dev/null > /var/tmp/log1 ) >& /var/tmp/err1 an then: find . -print | tee /var/tmp/log2 last entry in /var/tmp/log1 is the name of the last file which is ok so we have to look for the NEXT file in log2 xfsdum/xfsrestore: xfsdump -f [email protected]:/dev/tape -l 0 -L Backup_lion_nick -s nick /d2 means: -f <device> -l <level> -L <session_label> -s subtree xfsdump -J -f /dev/tape -l 0 -o -M chita -L chita_MyLib /MyLib -J inhibits the normal update of the inventory -o Overwrite the tape -M <media label> xfsdump over network (not tested): xfsdump -l0 - /source_dir | rsh [email protected] "xfsrestore - /target_dir" Primus ID: 3.0.9096944.2817482 To copy /usr/people/fred to the network host magnolia's /usr/tmp directory: # xfsdump -J -s people/fred - /usr | rsh magnolia xfsrestore - /usr/tmp This creates the directory /usr/tmp/people/fred on magnolia. Note: The superuser account on the local system must be able to rsh to the remote system without a password. For more information, see hosts.equiv(4). call xfsdump from within a script and restore from tape --> use -F -F Inhibit interactive operator prompts # xfsrestrore -F -f /dev/tape /tartget_file_system >&! /var/tmp/restorelog Be aware that if there is already data on the tape written by xfsdump, another xfsdump will append after the previous dumpprevious. If not desired use the option: -o Overwrite the tape ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- full backup used by graphical 'Backup & Restore Manager' : Backup : /sbin/cpio -KWovO $TPDEV IRIX 6.5.12: cpio -o -K -W -v -C 131072 -M MediaFull -O /d2/backup.cpio Restore : cpio -iudvk -I $TPDEV $RDIR Take care with -W option of Backup : see bugg 752381, call FF30652 get a specific directory save with System Backup: # cd / # cpio -iuvdk -C 131072 -I [email protected]:/dev/tape disk1/wang/\* >&! /var/tmp/restorelog !!!! don't use "./disk1/wang" and don't use "/disk1/wang" neither of them will work !!! How was this tape drive written ? ->try List_tape lion 21% List_tape -h speedy Tape listing started. Please wait... Backup is a tar archive rwxrwxr-x 12831/20 dir Oct 26 13:12 2000 tmp/ .... _____________________________________________________________________________ Recovering from an Unbootable Kernel: ------------------------------------- Enter Command Monitor from PROM: >> sash >> ls dksc(0,1,0)/ >> boot -f /unix.save when system is up: cp /unix.save /unix _____________________________________________________________________________ PROM Variables: --------------- fastfan set speed of fan for Octane[not set or |1] ec0mode Ethernet mode for O2 resetenv reset variables to factory settings rebound y restart system after crash (Indy,..) _____________________________________________________________________________ find & grep ------------ find . -type f -print -exec grep <search_pattern> {} \; |more find . -i <inode_nr> -print grep -n . <filename> Precede each line by its line number in the file (first line is 1) grep "^<pattern>" search pattern that starts at the beginning of line grep -v '^\#' /etc/fstab search for all lines which don't begin with # egrep egrep 'pattern1|pattern2' <file> egrep -v ^awf:.*unknown|^Broken pipe fgrep grep -v ^$ <filename> get rid of all the empty lines in a file grep -l <pattern> <file> only list filenames containing the <pattern> _____________________________________________________________________________ diskpatch prevent stiction problems with some disk drives is run by cron _____________________________________________________________________________ Networker: ---------- nwrecover /usr/etc recover from Backup nwadmin nsrcap -v (if trouble with license; editing license.dat) see also ~nick/info/applications/networker/commands _____________________________________________________________________________ cronjobs: --------- at 0815am Jan 24 that works: lion 3% at 1015am Apr 16 mailx -s "9GB Disk fuer Nick nicht vergessen" [email protected] </usr/people/nick/template/remind_hans warning: commands will be executed using /bin/sh job 924250500.a at Fri Apr 16 10:15:00 1999 that works: :--)) % at 0900am Aug 2 echo "Auf sgsc /service/nsr loeschen\nGruss Nick" >/tmp/$$ mailx -s "your subject" [email protected] </tmp/$$ rm /tmp/$$ ^D for different formats of months or weekdays consult: /usr/lib/locale/C/LC_TIME _____________________________________________________________________________ Printing stuff: =============== System V: --------- /usr/lib/lpsched /usr/lib/lpshut lp , cancel lptest generate lineprinter ripple pattern enable <printername> ; disable <printername> /usr/lib/lpadmin -x<queuename> Delete this queue /usr/lib/lpadmin -d<queuename> Make this the new default printer lpstat -t lpstat -o all open jobs addclient allow remote printing clients to connect /usr/spool/lp/.rhosts /var/spool/lp/log get more details in /var/spool/lp/log: lp -d phaser850 -o"verbose" /tmp/tesfile ############ Unsupported printers in impressario: /var/spool/lp/PPD_untested/<vendor>/ impr_print.sw.ppd_unsupported have to be copied to /var/spool/lp/PPD_model Test files (impr_dev) /usr/impressario/tests/* /usr/lib/print/data/testprint.ps HP Laserjet 2100 supported ? If it's a postscript printer and you have a winNT/95/98 driver for it, then extract the .ppd file from the driver and put it into /usr/spool/lp/PPD_MODEL If its PCL I don't know. See http://mortenb.oslo.sgi.com/SSE_tips/Printer_Impressario.txt Print man pages: man -c ppp >ppp_man.txt ; lp -d<printername> ppp_man.txt pcat csh.z | imprint -l Fun with Printers ------------------ files: /var/spool/lp/log log file since last reboot /var/spool/lp/interface/<printername> interface script (BANNER=0 <- no banner page) more variables: raw, CONVTYPE /usr/spool/lp/.rhosts access to printer OR addclient speedy.zurich.sgi.com addclient -a put a "+" in /usr/spool/lp/.rhosts mknetpr add a network printer Special options: lp -o landscape Print landscape; see /var/spool/lp/interface/<yourprinter> for more options ########################################### location of global and personal printer seetings: /var/spool/lp/settings/<printer_name>/<username> /var/spool/lp/settings/<printer_name>/defaultSettings ########################################### Print from NT to Unix: ---------------------- Samba printing does not work as smooth as expected. To print on SGI paper on the hp4050 do the following: On NT: o print document, but use 'print to file' o save the file on UNIX Now put in the desired paper in TRAY 1 on UNIX: o lp -d hp4050_tray1 -o raw <your_filename> Printing troubleshooting guide: ---------------------------------- I. Uninstall and then reinstall all of the print.sw stuff II. Enable debug in the interface script, look in the directory /var/spool/lp/interface, you should see files that are named the same as any printers you created. 1. Edit the file in question. At the top of the file you will see a line that looks like this: #!/bin/sh Change it to look like this: #!/bin/sh -x Save the change and exit the editor. 2. Try to print something short and simple: cat <filename> |lp -d<printer_name> cat /etc/hosts |lp -dsgiprinter 3. The debug output should end up in the /var/spool/lp/log file and look like the script commands executed. 4. Print with the debug option 'verbose' lptest >/tmp/testfile lp -d<printer_name> -o"verbose" /tmp/testfile III. Make sure you have the following subsystems install. 1. do a versions |grep impr_ output should show - impr_print.sw.laserjetPS, impr_base.man.impr, impr_base.man.relnotes, impr_base.sw.impr, impr_base.books.Impr_UG, impr_print.man.impr plus any others you may want to include. 2. Check out the Impressario release note for more info (grelnotes impressario). To test connection for a IP addressable printer check out the following: IV. One test to try is telnet to the IP address and port number of the printer. Exp: telnet 128.120.27.14 9100 ( or 515 -std bsd port) where 128.120.27.14 is the IP address and 9100/515 is the port number. If that succeeds w/o error messages. You should see something like: $ telnet 150.166.144.35 9100 -OR- telnet 150.166.144.35 515 Trying 150.166.144.35... Connected to 150.166.144.35. Escape character is '^]'. # this indicates a connection ^] # type 'Ctrl ]' to break the connection telnet> quit # then 'quit' to exit Connection closed. Check the printer documentation to make sure which network port the printer is listening on. If necessary either change the configuration inside the printer to conform, or modify /var/spool/lp/interface/<prtrname> to use a port that matches the printer as in the following excerpt from one of the networkable model files: --- # Network port to write to. 9100 is HP Jetdirect card and EX. # The JetDirect 3Plus EX uses 9100, 9101, and 9102 for ports 1, 2, and 3. # Many other vendors use same port as HP. OUTSOCK is port to write to. # INSOCK is socket to read for status (for future use -- status # now read from same socket address as specified a by OUTSOCK). OUTSOCK=9100 INSOCK=9100 The good general test is to take a file that should be printable by the printer, ie: /usr/lib/print/data/testprint.ps for a postscript printer and then: "cat /usr/lib/print/test.ps > /dev/plp". This will bypass all the printing spooling stuff and blow the file right out the parallel port to the postscript printer, and if the basic hardware is ok it should print it. _____________________________________________________________________________ /usr/impressario/gifts/models/lpr2lp: #!/bin/sh # # quick script to redirect the output of lpr to the default printer # under the local lp spooler. # # to change the destination of the lp, add -d<printername> to the end # # use this script with a printcap entry of the form: # # fake|fake printer:\ # :lp=/dev/null:of=/etc/lpr2lp: # cat - | lp _____________________________________________________________________________ Add page break to a ASCII file in vi: type in insert mode: hold down <ctrl> and press <V> then <L> vi will then show ^L (as one character) _____________________________________________________________________________ Convert Hexadezimal to Binary ----------------------------- lion 13% bc ibase is Input Base obase=2 obase is Output Base ibase=16 F <ENTER> 1111 3E <ENTER> 111110 !! Die Buchstaben [A-F] muessen gross geschrieben sein --> else syntax error 1) Hex --> Bin ibase=16 obase=2 2) Hex --> Dez ibase=16 obase=10 3) Dez --> Hex ibase=10 obase=16 _____________________________________________________________________________ 2^ 2 1 4 2 8 3 16 4 32 5 64 6 128 7 256 8 512 9 1024 1k 10 2048 11 4096 8192 16384 32768 15 65536 131072 262144 524288 1048576 1m 20 2097152 21 4194304 22 8388608 23 16777216 24 33554432 25 67108864 134217728 268435456 536870912 1073741824 1GB 30 2147483648 4294967296 8589934592 17179869184 34359738368 35 68719476736 137438953472 274877906944 549755813888 1099511627776 40 4398046511104 8796093022208 17592186044416 35184372088832 140737488355328 50 _____________________________________________________________________________ Calculate (csh): @ a = 10 @ b = 5 expr $a / $b -> 2 expr 88893360 / 1024 increment a: a=`expr $a + 1` _____________________________________________________________________________ Error messages: --------------- /var/adm/SYSLOG (also see /usr/sbin/sysmon ; graphical SYSLOG filter) /usr/lib/sysmon/notifier.config config file for GUI messages /etc/syslog.conf /usr/include/syslog.h /usr/include/sys/syslog.h sysmon System Log Viewer (graphical) syserr System Error Notification Broker xconfirm general purpose dialog box xconfirm -header "Hey you" -t "Ready to talk to me? --Nick" -b No -B Yes /usr/bin/X11/xconfirm -display :0.0 -header Confirm -icon question -B No -b Yes xconfirm -c -B yes -header "hey you!" -t "call Jean Louis" -icon info \ -geometry 300x200 xconfirm -t "Modem funktioniert" -t "Gruss Nick Wildi / SGI " & /etc/issue Message (will be displayed BEFORE login) /etc/motd Message of today (will be displayed after succesfull login) ____________________________________________________________________________ Digital Media: ------------- dmconvert digital media file conversion utility /usr/sbin/soundplayer -nodisplay <filename> _____________________________________________________________________________ Media Base backup tool: mbdump _____________________________________________________________________________ Videotools: ----------- videopanel (same as vcp) video control panel (graphical tool) settings are stored in /usr/etc/video/videod.defaults vlinfo Video Library path, node and control info tool mediaplayer (movieplayer) dmplay play movie dmconvert convert from different formats Ex: extract 'frames' from a MPEG1 file named filename.mpg dmconvert -f jfif -p video -n out#.jpg filename.mpg out#.jpg OR dmconvert -v -f rgb -p video,rate=24.0000,il=none,size=orig -n \ ./outfile#.rgb,start=0,step=1 /disk2/filename.mpg ./outfile#.rgb OR If anyone wants to use the GUI tools, there is yet another way. I find this helpful to visually find a specific frame in the mpg file. Open the file in moviemaker (open read only) In moviemaker view as filmstrip Find the frame you want to extract and click. Copy this to the clipboard (edit->copy / right click on frame->copy) File->Export As (select format and filename) moviemaker dminfo dmrecord mediaconvert movieconvert DIVO diagnostics: /usr/diags/DIVO/bin/divotest /usr/diags/DIVO/bin/loopback Sirius test tools /usr/dmedia/bin/SIRIUS NTSC: A color television standard or timing format encoding all of the color, brightness, and synchronizing information in one signal. NTSC uses a total of 525 horizontal lines per frame, with two fields per frame of 262.5 lines each. Each field refreshes at 60 Hz (actually 59.94 Hz). (from O2: Silicon Graphics 1600SW Flat Panel Inst Instruct) from Sirius release notes NTSC (640x486_301) or PAL (768x576_25i) _____________________________________________________________________________ Audio: ------- apanel graphical Audio Panel audiopanel -nodisplay -nofork -outlevels 10 (set low audio level) soundplayer graphical Sound Player soundplayer -nodisplay 01.african.thumb.inst.aifc sfplay ssplay cdman graphical CD player datman graphical DAT player soundfilter IRIX 5.3 mediaconvert IRIX 6.2 xset set volume of keyboard bell (xset b off ; xset b 45) /etc/nvram volume <XX> 0 < XX < 255 (Volume of bootup sound) xset b off;xset b on after Windd has changes the sound off the bell xset q check the current settings auto-repeat speed of keyboard (-art [timeout] -ari [interval]) xset -art 25 -ari 1 # fast most of that is defined in ~/.desktop-<hostname>/panelsession midikeys start a midi keyboard Demos: /usr/share/data/sounds/soundscheme/soundfiles: _____________________________________________________________________________ echo: echo "\07" ring the bell (csh,sh) echo $'\a' ring the bell (sh) _____________________________________________________________________________ How to resize your window to a certain size (xwsh): echo "\033[203;3;80/y" # resize it to 3 lines 80 coloumns echo "\033[203;80;100/y" # 80 lines 100 coloumns more explained in detail: >From the manual page xwsh CSI Pv m describes a sequence that begins with CSI ("control sequence introducer") followed by zero or more semicolon separated numbers followed by the character "m". ESC ("escape") expands to "\033". CSI expands to either "ESC [" (escape left-bracket) or to "\233". DCS ("device control string") expands to either "ESC P" (escape capital-P) or to "\220". ST ("string terminator") expands to either "ESC \\" (escape backslash) or to "\234". So the CSI is documented to be "ESC [". To resize the window: CSI Pv / y xwsh command. The first parameter to this escape sequence is the particular command described in the table that follows. Each command has different numbers of arguments which are described below. 203 Set the window size by row and column. This sequence takes three parameters. The first is 203. The second parameter is the number of rows to use. The third parameter is the number of columns to use. So to resize to 60 columns and 30 rows, you'd do echo '^[[203;30;60/y' Here '^[' is the rendition of the ASCII escape character. It depends a bit on your shell how you can access it. Control-V ESC is a good bet with many shells. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- again echo combined with different *-terms Perhaps this little trick to set the title/decoration of wsh will help illuminate the man page. $ cat title1 case $TERM in xterm|vt*) /bin/echo "\033]0;$1\007" ;; hpterm) /bin/echo "\033&f0k${#1}D${1}\033&f-1k${#1}D${1}\c" ;; iris*) /bin/echo '\033P1.y'$1'\033\\\033P3.y'$1'\033\\\c' ;; esac _____________________________________________________________________________ echo magics of echo ===================== change the title in a xwsh: echo "\033P1.yyourTitle\033\\" change the iconname of the a window: echo -n "\033P3.yhallo\033\\" script from my .cshrc which changes the title of my xwsh to what ever directory I'm in: ======== if ($?TERM) then if ($TERM == iris-ansi || $TERM == iris-ansi-net) then alias update '/bin/echo "\033P1.y`hostname`:${cwd}\033\\\c\033P3.y`hostname`\033\\\c"' alias pupdate '/bin/echo "\033P1.y"\!*"\033\\\c\033P3.y"\!*"\033\\\c"' alias pushd 'pushd \!*; update' alias popd 'popd \!*; update' alias rlogin 'pupdate \!*; /usr/bsd/rlogin \!*; update' alias rl 'pupdate [email protected]\!*; /usr/bsd/rlogin \!* -l guest; update' alias cd 'cd \!*; update' endif endif -------------------------------- Here's another script that is a bit more general; supports both xterm and winterm #!/bin/sh # usage: title "text here in $1" ## for xterms: #ESC ] Ps ; Pt BEL # #Ps = 0 -> Change Icon Name and Window Title to Pt #Ps = 1 -> Change Icon Name to Pt #Ps = 2 -> Change Window Title to Pt #Ps = 46 -> Change Log File to Pt (now normally disabled by a # compile-time option although not the case in the past; it's # a security hole that allows people to overwrite arbitrary # files accessible to the person running xterm) #Ps = 50 -> Set Font to Pt # ## echo "\033]2;This is the new title\007" ## \033 = ^[ ## \007 = ^G case $TERM in xterm|xterms) echo -n "\033]2;$1\007" ;; winterm|iris-ansi|iris-ansi-net) echo -n "\033P1.y$1\033\\" ;; *) echo "unknown term type $TERM" ;; esac ------------------------------------ Below is my little perlscript that runs after every cd command I issue: I call it 'wintitle' and keep it in my ~/bin directory Mind the escape characters.. This is all extracted from the manpage of xwsh This is how I set it up in my .cshrc file (based on csh, but it also works great in tcsh, which is my now-favorite) if ( $?prompt) then alias cd 'set old=$cwd; chdir \!*; setprompt; wintitle ${host}:$cwd' #setprompt alias here... ... endif Good luck Hendrik #!/usr/sbin/perl # wintitle changes the icon and title words of a winterm sessions to the argument(s) given # print "P1.y$ARGV[0]\\"; print "P3.y$ARGV[0]\\"; _____________________________________________________________________________ set prompt for Csh: set prompt = "%n%U%m%u %C% " # username @ hostname (underline) Trailing component of cwd set prompt = "%?" #return code of previous command _____________________________________________________________________________ OpenInventor: ------------ /usr/sbin/SceneViewer /usr/demos/Inventor/SceneViewer /usr/sbin/ivview Demos: /usr/share/data/models/ _____________________________________________________________________________ bitmap Bitmap editor ImageVision Tools: ---------------- imgview ,imgworks,imgformats,imginfo,imgcopy imgworks: visual tool for enhancing image files (graphical user interface) % imgformats The following formats are supported by the ImageVision Tools: Kodak PhotoCD overview (PCDO) (read only) SOFTIMAGE image (SOFTIMAGE) IL TCL script image (ilTCL) FIT image (FIT) Classic SGI image (SGI) JFIF/JPEG image (JFIF) Raw image (Raw) TIFF image (TIFF) (Tag Image File Format) PNG image (PNG) PPM image (PPM) YUV image (YUV) Alias image (Alias) GIF image (GIF) *.gif Kodak PhotoCD image (PCD) (read only) Other tools: ------------- acroread read *.pdf files (no *.eps nor *.tiff files) /usr/adobe/Acrobat3.0/Reader/mipsirix/bin/acroread vstiff read *.tiff files ghostview, ghostscript xpsview psrip /usr/lib/print/psrip convert Postscript file to raster data format (--> *.tiff file) xv dist.engr:/sgi/hacks/xv convert a jpeg or sgi/rgb file to acrobat pdf: use XV to convert the image into a postscript file xpsview will view an image that has been converted to EPS snapshot save a portion of the screen in an image file scrsave save a part of the screen in an image file imprint converts text files to PostScript, similar to Adobe enscript(tm) -r rotate 90 degrees; -B header on each page 114 impr_base.sw.impr usr/sbin/imprint untested Ex: imprint -G -h -r -fCourier7 /usr/sbin/imprint -r -f Courier7 yourfile.txt /usr/sbin/imprint -2rG yourfile.txt mag /usr/sbin/mag magnify (check if dirty spots are in frame buffer or not) Converters: ------------ dmconvert digital media file conversion utility (command line) mediaconvert graphical tool to dmconvert to_dos,to_unix convert text files between MSDOS and UNIX DOS -> Unix by hand 1) vi: :%s/^V^M//g 2) sed: % sed 's/^V^M//g' foo > foo.new (NOTE: ^V is control V and ^M is control M or Enter) ps2ascii PS -> ASCII usr/freeware/bin/ps2ascii (CD freeware 2.0 module fw_gs.sw.gs) ps2ascii.ps usr/freeware/lib/ghost/ps2ascii.ps (fw_gs.sw.gs) f2ps (1) - Fig to Postscript translator ax2ps (1) - convert a TIFF facsimile to compressed PostScript html2ps (1) - convert HTML to PostScript pdf2ps (1) - Aladdin Ghostscript PDF to PostScript translator ghost.sw.ghostscript rgb2ps (1) - Convert an SGI image to PostScript sgi2ps (1) - convert an SGI image file to PostScript stiff2ps (1) - convert a Stream TIFF (STIFF)image file to PostScript impr_base.sw.impr text2ps (1) - convert text files (ASCII) to PostScript like enscript on earlier UNIX impr_base.sw.impr /usr/lib/print/lptops convert a text file into a PostScript file /usr/lib/print/lptops -H -U -M 2 -P 7.5pt -G -W !* | lp -d <queuname> print.sw.spooler ps2pdf dist.engr.sgi.com:/sgi/hacks/ghost PS to PDF converter Usage: /usr/lib/print/text2ps -p /tmp/xx.ps /tmp/xx 3D Translator ------------- from to .iv see $HOME_nick/info/tools/converters/info _____________________________________________________________________________ Sendmail: ========== sendmail send network mail mailq show mailqueue status vacation send mail to users or read mail mailbox mail notification xbiff mailbox flag for X after you modify the sendmail.cf, you should do the following: /etc/init.d/mail stop /usr/lib/sendmail -bz /etc/init.d/mail start how to delete mails which can not be delivered: # /etc/init.d/mail stop # rm /var/spool/mqueue/r.... /var/spool/mqueue/d.... # /etc/init.d/mail start check for /etc/aliases the line: #+:+ if you are using NIS after changing /etc/aliases issue: newaliases versions of sendmail: telnet localhost 25 220- lion.zurich.sgi.com Sendmail 950413.SGI.8.6.12 -->version 8.6.12 configmail list sendmail autoconfiguration script Vacation message setup (from Peter's help page) ----------------------------------------------- Traveling & Vacation Messages This tutorial tells you how to set up vacation messaging for your email. This way when people send you email and you are out of town they will get a message to that effect. 1. In your home directory create a file .vacation.msg that has your vac. mesg. with: From: ... Subject: I'm on vacation Precedence: bulk 2. In your home directory create a file .forward containing the following line: \username, "|/usr/sbin/vacation username" Note: replace username in the above example with your login name 3. To activate this message, in a shell window type: vacation -i -r 1 (this is the number "1" for 1 message per day) 4.To deactivate, when you return, move .forward to another location to save it mv .forward .forward.save 5. To reactivate (next trip) edit .vacation.msg and move the .forward file back mv .forward.save .forward 6. To test, send yourself an email and see if the vacation program replies correctly 7. For more information, read the man page on vacation How to add logging for certain mail aliases -------------------------------------------- add the alias in /etc/aliases (/etc/aliases.yp) # grep "^support^ /etc/aliases.yp support:michi, "|/usr/local/bin/savesupport" # cat /usr/local/bin/savesupport #!/bin/csh -f cat >> /usr/local/savemail/support exit # ls -l /usr/local/savemail/support -rw-r--r-- 1 guest guest ..... # should belong to guest # under 6.2 it did not work otherwise How to redirect Mail to null ? ------------------------------ in /etc/aliases (or /etc/aliases.yp for NIS) keak: /dev/null dont forget to issue 'newaliases' afterwards !! How to send mail to more than one person: ----------------------------------------- cat $HOME/nick/.forward nick [email protected] # don't use the back slash \[email protected] as suggested in the # description for vacation _____________________________________________________________________________ Mail test to Switch, test outgoing and incoming email % mailx -v -s "test_subject" [email protected] test_body . _____________________________________________________________________________ Send email by hand on port 25: telnet <somehost> 25 MAIL From:<[email protected]> RCPT To:<[email protected]> DATA blah blah and other content . quit _____________________________________________________________________________ Send email by hand (or by script) /usr/lib/sendmail -f [email protected] [email protected] << END From: [email protected] To: [email protected] Subject: Mail test some text END _____________________________________________________________________________ AntiSpam (like Speed) o read http://www.sendmail.org/antispam.html o increase loglevel to 12 (goes to SYSLOG) (sendmail 8.8.8) _____________________________________________________________________________ procmail does user-level filtering, using .forward (like vacation). fw_procmail freeware page _____________________________________________________________________________ Mail on NT: ------------ Allow relaying: Start > Control Panel > Admin Tools > Internet Service Manager tree: Default SMTP Virtual Server right click - Properties Access > relay restrictions: grant access to all SMTP has to be started in 'services' _____________________________________________________________________________ Mail -> SMS Gateway: % mailx -v -s "Gruezi SMS Test" [email protected] test an [email protected] --N . EOT http://www2.bluewin.ch/services/sms/guide_d.html funktioniert leider nicht wenn Absender von SGI _____________________________________________________________________________ NIS === passwd file on Master server: rpc.passwd.options AND /etc/config/ypmaster.options rpc.passwd.options: /etc/passwd.yp /etc/config/ypmaster.options: PWFILE=/etc/passwd.yp ALIASES=/etc/aliases.yp ypwhich print the NIS server or map master hostname (to which server is this client bound?) ypset point ypbind at a particular NIS server _____________________________________________________________________________ Test Proxy Server with: Can the customer telnet the proxy system on the proxy port?, for example: echo "GET http://www.sgi.com/"|telnet their_proxy 8080 _____________________________________________________________________________ Serial Devices: -------------- setup a terminal: HW: connect serial line 2 of workstation to server serial line 1 SW: on workstation change /etc/uucp/Devices uncomment the line with "Direct ttyd2 - 9600 direct" CMD: to connect to server do a "cu -l ttyd2" on the workstation of course eoe.sw.uucp has to be installed _____________________________________________________________________________ Info about devices: man [keyboard | serial | mouse | pcmouse | pckeyboard ] _____________________________________________________________________________ mkfp is a formatting/partitioning utility that can be used to create DOS and HFS file systems on devices such as floppies, flopticals, SyQuest, Jaz, PC Cards, Zip and hard-drives. _____________________________________________________________________________ User and accounts: ------------------ /etc/autolgin /etc/autolgin.on /etc/default/login man xdm check /etc/passwd and /etc/group if setup correct: al pwck grpck /etc/capability user capability database (check with id -P) Standart files (skeleton) starting with IRIX 6.5 new location /var/sysadm/config/default.{cshrc/login/profile} old location (pre 6.5) /etc/std{cshrc/login/profile} To add a user with a command use /usr/sysadm/privbin/addUserAccount see man page which explains which other scripts are run and what skeleton files are copied to that home dir _____________________________________________________________________________ PATH path variable: --------------------- csh tcsh: add in .login the path to (better to set it in .cshrc because .login will not be sourced when only executing rsh) set path = ($path /usr/ssm/bin /usr/ssm/lib) set path = (. $path) # add . to path; sec hole sh, ksh add in .profile PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin PATH=:$PATH # add . to PATH; sec hole Accounting: ----------- acctcom -u <user> eoe.sw.acct (chkconfig acct on) eoe.{man.sw}.audit (Audit trail software) quot /d2 summarize filesystem ownership ; disk utilization by user quot -a _____________________________________________________________________________ Security: ----------- crypt <key> <xx >xx.encrypted encript xx with the key abc and write it to file xx.encrypted Ex: crypt abc <xx >xx.encrypted To decode the encrypted file: crypt abc <xx.encrypted _____________________________________________________________________________ SSH scp /usr/freeware/bin/scp -v [email protected]:/var/adm/SYSLOG /tmp/SYSLOG /usr/freeware/bin/scp -v [email protected]:/var/adm/SYSLOG /tmp/SYSLOG _____________________________________________________________________________ Mail: ===== different Mail tools to send mail: mailx -s "" -v license This tool will NOT take the .signature Modify the sender's address: mail [email protected] <<EOF ? From: verysecret ? Subject: anothertest ? now content ? EOF _____________________________________________________________________________ NFS automount and autofs -------------------------- autofs master map /etc/auto_master (man autofsd | autofs) Do not kill autofsd to change the AutoFS configuration. Run the autofs command to cause changes in the configuration maps to take affect. _____________________________________________________________________________ Shellscript stuff / Editor --------------------------- dirname /var/adm/SYSLOG -> /var/adm basename /var/adm/SYSLOG -> SYSLOG basename string [ suffix ] basename filename.ps.Z .Z -> filename.ps basename filename.ps.Z .ps.Z -> filename basename filename.ps.Z '.ps.Z' -> filename printf print formatted output read Read from a file Ex: printf "\aPlease fill in the following: \nName: " read name printf "Phone number: " read phone sed echo '16i[q]sa[ln0=aln100%Pln100/snlbx]sbA0D4D465452snlbxq'|dc awk: # foreach f ( `showprods -nD1 | grep patchSG | awk '{print $2}'` ) ? echo $f ? end Sort /etc/passwd by ascending UID: awk -F: '{print $3,$1}' /etc/passwd | sort -k2 -n OR awk '{ FS=":" ; OFS="\t\t"; print $1,$3}' /etc/passwd | sort -k2 -n OR cat /etc/passwd |awk -F: '{printf ("%8s\t%13s\t%3s\n",$3,$1,$5)}' |sort -k1 -n sort -t: +2n -3 /etc/passwd archive only regular files in a directory, ommitting subdirectories and hidden files: ls -al | awk '$0!~/^d/ {print $9}' | xargs tar cvf archive_name.tar ^^^^^^^ means ignore lines where the entire line ($0) starts with a "d" versions -nb |grep patchSG |awk '{print $2}' |cut -c11-14 compare directories after copying a tree: cd /source_dir; ls -lR | awk '{print $5,$9}' > /tmp/list_source cd /dest_dir; ls -lR | awk '{print $5,$9}' > /tmp/list_dest then compare the 2 files /tmp/list_source /tmp/list_dest Print size and name of file with a preceeding "o" % ls -l | awk '{print "o",$5,$9}' o 10390 MotOGLDump.c o 61246 v_indy.txt select all emerg(0) alert(1) and crit(2) messages from /var/adm/SYSLOG awk '$4~/[0-2][A-X]:/ ' /var/adm/SYSLOG awk '$4~/[0-2][A-X]:/ ' /var/adm/oSYSLOG +------------ explained: awk 'pattern { action }' #if there is no action defined then the whole line is printed in above example we do pattern matching with the fourth element and check if it contains the digit 0-2 [emerg(0) alert(1) crit(2)] followed by any letter (representing the facility) followed by a ":" a typical line in SYSLOG looks like this: Aug 16 09:59:26 1T:lion nick: another logger_test +------------ delete empty lines in a text file: --------------------------------- awk 'NF>0' <text_file> or sed '/^$/d' <text_file> print line 20 to line 30 of a file: ----------------------------------- sed -n '20,30p' <textfile> _____________________________________________________________________________ Join files together: task: join the 2 files together % cat x 2178557 2179065 % cat y glXCreateGLXPixmap function call generates a BadAlloc Networker does not write tapes to full capacity % cat -n x > xn ; cat -n y > yn #this will add number for each line % join -1 1 -2 1 -o 1.2,2.2 -t : xn yn # join file xn and yn comparing by the first field of each file # field one from file 1 (-1 1) # field one from file 2 (-2 1) # write to stdout field 2 of file one (1.2) and field 2 of file 2 (2.2) # as field separator take the ':' sign the command will result in: 2178557: glXCreateGLXPixmap function call generates a BadAlloc error 2179065: Networker does not write tapes to full capacity _____________________________________________________________________________ timex redirect output into a file: the following will not work: 14% timex date > /tmp/log The output of timex is sent to stderr, not stdout! solution: 15% sh $ timex date 2>/tmp/log Tue Mar 25 11:44:48 PST 1997 $ cat /tmp/log real 0.02 user 0.01 sys 0.01 OR sh -c "timex date 2> /tmp/log" _____________________________________________________________________________ IRISConsole: -------------- Logs normally stored under: /var/IRISconsole/logs/console_logs/ access IRISconsole by command line Ringier: ictelnet admin-indy 5000 general: ictelnet <IRISconsole_host> 5000 _____________________________________________________________________________ cu ~! escape to interactive shell on loca systemi; get back with <exit> ~%put from [ to ] ~%take from [ to ] ~t prints the values of the termio structure _____________________________________________________________________________ O2 uppgrade to 5200 CPUs ------------------------ Upgrade prom before replacing the CPU! Remember diskcloning newer flashes the proms. Check Prom version: On booted system use: strings /usr/cpu/firmware/ip32prom.image | grep VERSION (must be 4.12 or higher, this image is copied when cloning) This checks the version of the PROM image at: /usr/cpu/firmware/ip32prom.image If incorrect Run following command: /sbin/flashinst -T -y /usr/cpu/firmware/ip32prom.image If system will not boot, you will have to swap the customers old CPU back onto Systemboard. Then boot the system up and do the above command. If customer does not have the Old CPU, try replacing the Systemboard. Newer Systemboards are supposed to be using Prom Version: 4.11 or higher and this should let you at least get to miniroot. _____________________________________________________________________________ Availmon: ----------- /var/adm/avail amreport full screen ASCII report tool (replaced in 6.5.5 with ESP) +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Info and Tips from HANS: ########################## Availmon: ========= 5.3 --- - /etc/sendmail.cf >>> actually - mv /etc/sendmail.cf /etc/sendmail.cf.old - cp /etc/sendmail.cf.auto /etc/sendmail.cf - ./configmail list - /etc/init.d/mail stop - /etc/init.d/mail start - Test: ./Mail -s test root >>> blablabla >>> cntl c 6.2 --- - cd /var/adm/avail - ./amregister: autoemail > nur letzte Zeile besetzt mit [email protected] - ./amconfig: alle flags on - /etc/hosts: zb: sgzh.zurich.sgi.com als domain eingerichtet - email muss aufgesezt - reboot email aufsetzen --------------- - /etc/init.d/mail start - /usr/etc/configmail setup Buffersize for a shell: ======================= - xwsh -name winterm -sl 65535 (ein neues shell oeffnen) - cd /usr/lib/X11/app-defaults - jot XWsh - winterm.retainLimit: 60000 (hinzufuegen) Call an other unix: zg:connecting 2 indys via serial ports =================== - eoe2.sw.uucp >>> laden und konfigurieren - chown uucp /dev/ttyd2 (/etc/uucp/Devices) >>> #ttyd2 auskommentieren - cu -l /dev/ttyd2 crontab editieren: ================== - login as hans user in a window - crontab -l > tmp.crontab (when there is something in it) - jot tmp.crontab #min hour daymo month daywk cmd ----------------------------------------- 30 7 * * * cp /usr/people/hans/support/field/RMA /usr/people/hans/RMA.saved editieren des Eintrages 35 7 * * * cp /usr/people/hans/support/field/installations /usr/people/hans/installations.saved editieren des Eintrages - crontab -l 30 7 * * * cp /usr/people/hans/support/field/RMA /usr/people/hans/RMA.saved - crontab tmp.crontab - rm tmp.crontab (or not) Core file austesten: ==================== - edge core (sagt aus von welcher apps das core kreiert wurde) Diverse Unixbefehle: ==================== - timex -t mkfile -v 800m /tmp/test - tail -f /usr/adm/SYSLOG - tar c record x extract t listen v verbose - tar -xvf will extract a file from dir - Backup / > befehl im unix shell - backup: > cd /usr/lib/vadmin > ls > backup_restore* backup_restore.hlp > ./backup_restore & - banner >>> to exploid the writting - confidence - find . -type f -print | xargs grep -i string - cat RMA.saved|grep -i ps|wc -l - df -k|awk '{printf "%-45s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7}' DISK KOPIEREN ============= mkdir /.AA mount /dev/dsk/dks1d2s0 /.AA cd /; tar cBf - . | (cd /.AA; tar xBf -) cd /tmp; dvhtool -v g sash sash -v g ide ide dvhtool -v c sash sash -v c ide ide -v l /dev/rdsk/dks1d2vh DLT DRIVE ========= - mt -f /dev/rmt/tps2d6nrsvc status - tar cvf /dev/rmt/tps2d6nrsvc /etc - mt -f /dev/rmt/tps2d6nrsvc rewind - tar tvf /dev/rmt/tps2d6nrsvc - ls -l /dev/rmt/tps2d6 - more /var/sysgen/master.d/scsi - stacker -c /dev/scsi/sc2d6l0 - stacker -u 0 - stacker -u 1 DRUCKEN OHNE HEADER =================== [para:hans] 24 /usr/people/hans % rlogin [email protected] IRIX Release 6.2 IP22 ocracoke Copyright 1987-1996 Silicon Graphics, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Last login: Sat Jun 1 12:17:01 MDT 1996 by [email protected] ocracoke 2% cd ~meyer ocracoke 3% cd bin ocracoke 4% more lp1 #!/bin/sh /usr/lib/print/lptops -U -W -G -P 10pt $* ocracoke 5% /usr/lib/print/lptops -U -W -P 10pt |lp (enter und cntr d) request id is lexmark-125 (standard input) Email: ====== - eurotac.neu.sgi.com IBM Stiction: ============= - 120194 bis 021095 licenses: ========= - /var/netls# more nodelock Netzwerkbefehle: ================ - finger: user information lookup program z.b: finger [email protected] - rcp -r [email protected]:/usr/people/stephan/.zmailrc /usr/people/hans/tmp/.mailrc - last: zeigt an, wer in der vergangenheit alles eingeloggt hat - rup: zeigt alle user im netz an - /etc/config/netif.options zeigt primary interface - /etc/config/ifconfig-1.options zeigt netmask (255.255.255.128) - netstat -ia zeigt 0800690... Adresse - netstat -C zeigt collisions - /etc/init.d/network stop " start Network setup: ============== - /etc/hosts >>> 144.253.153.81 iris1 - /etc/sys_id >> iris1 - igconfig ef0 >>> netmask 0xffffff80 - cd /etc/config - vi ifconfig-1.options netmask 0xffffff80 - files exportieren: vi exports /disk2 exports -va - remote files mounten: vi fstab host:/disk2 /disk2 nfs bg intr 0 0 mount -a NVRAM: ====== - setenv showconfig istrue (more verbose)(tested drivers) printen: ======== - more RMA.saved |grep -i doa|lptops -h |lp -dTIMicroWriter Querformat printen --------- PROM flashen: ============= - flashio -v - flashio -s 3 /usr/cpu/firmware/io4prom.bin Command Monitor: - flash -s 3 dksc(x,x,8)io4prom from CDROM drive System Informationen: ===================== - sysinfo: eadresse - nvram: eadresse - sys_id: hostname - sysctlr: all infos from frontpanel and sysctlr prom version - flashio: ioprom version Patches downloaden: =================== - sgzh >>> /usr/tmp >>> customized patches onyx & sirius - patchserver in cortaillod >>> rlogin [email protected] >>> type: getpatch - deliver, IZU-3060, xvf * [email protected] - R - RCP tar file with patch - tar -xvf patch_1478.tar (jedes tar.file einzeln entpacken) Voegele: ======== - login to [email protected] - cu voegele - logout: type >>> ~. and carriage return XLV einricheten ============== 1.Neues Label einrichten: ========================= fx -x fx version 5.3, Oct 18, 1994 fx: "device-name" = (dksc) fx: ctlr# = (0) fx: drive# = (1) ...opening dksc(0,1,) fx: Warning: this disk appears to have mounted filesystems. Don't do anything destructive, unless you are sure nothing is really mounted on this disk. ...controller test...OK Scsi drive type == SGI SEAGATE ST31230N0112 ----- please choose one (? for help, .. to quit this menu)----- [exi]t [d]ebug/ [l]abel/ [a]uto [b]adblock/ [exe]rcise/ [r]epartition/ [f]ormat fx> l ----- please choose one (? for help, .. to quit this menu)----- [sh]ow/ [sy]nc [se]t/ [c]reate/ fx/label> c 2.Partitionen einrichten ======================== fx -x fx version 5.3, Oct 18, 1994 fx: "device-name" = (dksc) fx: ctlr# = (0) fx: drive# = (1) ...opening dksc(0,1,) fx: Warning: this disk appears to have mounted filesystems. Don't do anything destructive, unless you are sure nothing is really mounted on this disk. ...controller test...OK Scsi drive type == SGI SEAGATE ST31230N0112 ----- please choose one (? for help, .. to quit this menu)----- [exi]t [d]ebug/ [l]abel/ [a]uto [b]adblock/ [exe]rcise/ [r]epartition/ [f]ormat fx> r ----- partitions----- part type cyls blocks Megabytes (base+size) 0: efs 5 + 3617 2575 + 1862860 1 + 910 1: raw 3622 + 396 1865435 + 204350 911 + 100 8: volhdr 0 + 5 0 + 2575 0 + 1 10: volume 0 + 4019 0 + 2069785 0 + 1011 (Dies ist nur ein Beispiel) capacity is 2070235 blocks ----- please choose one (? for help, .. to quit this menu)----- [ro]otdrive [o]ptiondrive [e]xpert [u]srrootdrive [re]size fx/repartition> Im epert Mode k�nnen Sie efs nach xfs �ndern 3.XLV0 einrichten ================= xlv_make xlv_make>vol xlv0 xlv_make>data xlv_make>plex xlv_make>ve dksxdxsx xlv_make>ve dksxdxsx xlv_make>end xlv_make>show xlv_make>exit 4.mkfs mit XLV0 erstellen ========================= mkfs -b size=1k -l internal,size=4m /dev/dsk/xlv/xlv0 5.XLV0 mounten ============== mkdir /vol1 mount /dev/dsk/xlv/xlv0 /vol1 6.Restore auf XLV0 ================== Ich neheme an Sie werden tar ben�tzen Disk stripping ============== - Stripping: ---------- xlv_make <<EOT vol xlv0 data ve -force -stripe -stripe_unit 256 dks2d2s7 dks2d3s7 dks2d4s7 end show exit EOT - MKFS: ----- mkfs -t xfs -d name=/dev/dsk/xlv/xlv0 -l internal,size=4096b mkfs Script =========== - ksh # while true > do > mkfile 1000m /d2/test > echo "file erstellt" > rm /d2/test > done