How to Build a Flying Saucer
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Taken from KeelyNet BBS (214) 324-3501 Sponsored by Vangard Sciences PO BOX 1031 Mesquite, TX 75150 October 16, 1990 -------------------------------------------------------------------- How to Build a Flying Saucer After So Many Amateurs Have Failed An essay in Speculative Engineering by T. B. Pawlicki -------------------------------------------------------------------- At the end of the nineteenth century, the most distinguished scientists and engineers declared that no known combination of materials and locomotion could be assembled into a practical flying machine. Fifty years later another generation of distinguished scientists and engineers declared that it was technologically infeasible for a rocket ship to reach the moon. Nevertheless, men were getting off the ground and out into space even while these words were uttered. In the last half of the twentieth century, when technology is advancing faster than reports can reach the public, it is fashionable to hold the pronouncements of yesterday's experts to ridicule. But there is something anomalous about the consistency with which eminent authorities fail to recognize technological advances even while they are being made. You must bear in mind that these men are not given to making public pronouncements in haste; their conclusions are reached after exhaustive calculations and proofs, and they are better informed about their subject than anyone else alive. But by and large, revolutionary advances in technology do not contribute to the advantage of established experts, so they tend to believe that the challenge cannot possibly be realized. The UFO phenomenon is a perversity in the annals of revolutionary engineering. On the one hand, public authorities deny the existence of flying saucers and prove their existence to be impossible. This is just as we should expect from established experts. But on the other hand, people who believe that flying saucers exist have produced findings that only tend to prove that UFOs are technologically infeasible by any known combination of materials and locomotion. There is reason to suspect that the people who believe in the existence of UFOs do not want to discover the technology because it is not in the true believer's self interest that a flying saucer be Page 1 within the capability of human engineering. The true believer wants to believe that UFOs are of extraterrestrial origin because he is seeking some kind of relief from debt and taxes by an alliance with superhuman powers. If anyone with mechanical ability really wanted to know how a saucer flies, he would study the testimonies to learn the flight characteristics of this craft, and then ask, "How can we do this saucer thing?" This is probably what Werner Von Braun said when he decided that it was in his self-interest to launch man into space: "How can we get this bird off the ground, and keep it off?" Well, what is a flying saucer? It is a disc-shaped craft about thirty feet in diameter with a dome in the center accommodating the crew and, presumably, the operating machinery. And it flies. So let us begin by building a disc-shaped airfoil, mount the cockpit and the engine under a central canopy, and see if we can make it fly. As a matter of fact, during World War II the United States actually constructed a number of experimental aircraft conforming to these specifications, and photographs of the craft are published from time to time in popular magazines about science and flight. It is highly likely that some of the UFO reports before 1950 were sightings of these test flights. See how easy it is when you 'want' to find answers to a mystery? The mythical saucer also flies at incredible speeds. Well, the speeds believed possible depend upon the time and place of the observer. As stated earlier, a hundred years ago, twenty-five miles per hour was legally prohibited in the belief that such a terrific velocity would endanger human life. So replace the propeller of the experimental disc airfoil with a modern aerojet engine. Is mach 3 fast enough for believers? But the true saucer not only flies, it also hovers. You mean like a Hovercraft? One professional engineer translated Ezekiel's description of heavenly ships as a helicopter-cum-hovercraft. But what of the anomalous electromagnetic effects manifest in the space surrounding a flying saucer? Well, Nikola Tesla demonstrated a prototype of an electronic device that was eventually developed into the electron microscope, the television screen, an aerospace engine called the Ion Drive. Since World War II, the engineering of the Ion Drive has been advanced as the most promising solution to the propulsion of interplanetary spaceships. The drive operates by charging atomic particles and directing them with electro-magnetic force as a jet to the rear, generating a forward thrust in reaction. The advantage of the Ion Drive over chemical rockets is that a spaceship can sweep in the ions it needs from its flight path, like an aerojet sucks in air through its engines. Therefore, the ship must carry only the fuel it needs to generate the power for its chargers; there is no need to carry dead weight in the form of rocket exhaust. There is another advantage to be derived from ion rocketry: The top speed of a reaction engine is limited by the ejection velocity of its exhaust. An ion jet is close to the speed of light. If space travel is ever to be practical, transport will have to achieve a large fraction of the speed of light. In 1972 the French journal Science et Avenir reported Franco- Page 2 American research into a method of ionizing the airstream flowing over the wings to eliminate sonic boom, a serious objection to the commercial success of the Concorde. Four years later a picture appeared in an American tabloid of a model aircraft showing the current state of development. The photograph shows a disc-shaped craft, but not so thin as a saucer; it looks more like a flying curling stone. In silent flight, the ionized air flowing around the craft glows as a proper ufo should. The last word comes from an engineering professor at the local university; he has begun construction of a flying saucer in his backyard. To the true believer, the flying saucer has no jet. It seems to fly by some kind of antigravity. As antigravity is not known to exist in physical theory or experimental fact in popular science, the saucer is clearly alien and beyond human comprehension. But antigravity depends upon what you conceive gravity to be, doesn't it? For all practical purposes, you do not have to understand what Newton and Einstien mean by gravity. Gravity is an acceleration downward, to the center of the earth. Therefore, antigravity is an acceleration upward. As far as practical engineering is concerned, any means to achieve a gain in altitude is an antigravity engine. An airplane; a balloon; a rocket; a stepladder; all are antigravity engines. See how easy it is to invent an antigravity engine? There are three basic kinds of locomotive engines. The primary principle is traction. The foot and the wheel are traction engines. The traction engines depend upon friction against a surrounding medium to generate movement, and locomotion can proceed only as far and as speedily as the surrounding friction will provide. The second principle is displacement. The balloon and the submarine rise by displacing a denser medium; they descend by displacing less that their weight. The tertiary drive is the rocket engine. A rocket is driven by reaction from the mass of material it ejects. Although a rocket is most efficient when not impeded by a surrounding medium, it must carry not only it's fuel but also the mass it must eject. As a consequence, the rocket is impractical where powerful acceleration is required for extended drives. In chemical rocketry, ten minutes is a long burn for powered flight. What is needed for practical antigravity locomotion is a fourth principle which does not depend upon a surrounding medium or ejection of mass. You must take notice that none of the principles of locomotion required any new discovery. they have all been around for thousands of years, and engineering only implemented the principle with increasing efficiency. A fourth principle of locomotion has also been around for thousands of years: It is centrifugal force. Centrifugal force is the principle of the military sling and the medieval catapult. Everyone knows that centrifugal force can overcome gravity. If directed upward, centrifugal force can be used to drive an antigravity engine. The problem engineers have been unable to solve is that centrifugal force is generated in all directions on the plane of the centrifuge. It won't provide locomotion unless the force can be concentrated in one direction. The solution of the sling, of releasing the wheeling at the instant the centrifugal Page 3 force is directed along the ballistic trajectory, has all the inefficiencies of a cannon. The difficulty of the problem is not real, however. There is a mental block preventing people from perceiving a centrifuge as anything other than a flywheel. A bicycle wheel is a flywheel. If you remove the rim and tire, leaving only the spokes sticking out of the hub, you still have a flywheel. In fact, spokes alone make a more efficient flywheel than the complete wheel; this is because momentum only goes up only in proportion to mass but with the square of speed. Spokes are made of drawn steel with extreme tensile strength, so spokes alone can generate the highest level of centrifugal force long after the rim and tire have disintegrated. But spokes alone still generate centrifugal force equally in all directions from the plane of rotation. All you have to do to concentrate centrifugal force in one direction is remove all the spokes but one. That one spoke still functions as a flywheel, even though it is not a wheel any longer. See how easy it is once you accept an attitude of solving one problem at a time as you come to it? You can even add a weight to the end of the spoke to increase the centrifugal force. But our centrifuge still generates a centrifugal force acceleration in all directions around the plane of rotation even though it doesn't generate acceleration equally in all directions at the same time. All we have managed to do is make the whole ball of wire wobble around the common center of mass between the axle and free end of the spoke. To solve this problem, now that we have come to it, we need merely to accelerate the spoke through a few degrees of arc and then let it complete the cycle of revolution without power. As long as it is accelerated during the same arc at each cycle, the locomotive will lurch in one direction, albeit intermittently. But don't forget that the piston engine also drives intermittently. The regular centrifugal pulses can be evened out by mounting several centrifuges on the same axle so that a pulse from another flywheel takes over as soon as one pulse of power is past it's arc. The next problem facing us is that the momentum imparted to the centrifugal spoke is carries it all around the cycle with little loss of velocity. The amount of concentrated centrifugal force carrying the engine in the desired direction is too low to be practical. Momentum is half the product of mass multiplied by velocity squared. Therefore, what we need is a spoke that has a tremendous velocity with minimal mass. They don't make spokes like that for bicycle wheels. A search through the engineers' catalog however, turns up just the kind of centrifuge we need. An electron has no mass at rest (you cannot find a smaller minimum mass than that); all it's mass is inherent in its velocity. So we build an electron raceway in the shape of a doughnut in which we can accelerate an electron to a speed close to that of light. As the speed of light is approached, the energy of acceleration is converted to a momentum approaching infinity. As it happens, an electron accelerator answering our need was developed by the University of California during the last years of World War II. It is called a betatron, and the doughnut is small enough to be carried comfortably in a man's hands. Page 4 We can visualize the operation of the Mark I from what is known about particle accelerators. To begin with, high energy electrons ionize the air surrounding them. This causes the betatrons to glow like an annular neon tube. Therefore, around the rim of the saucer a ring of lights will glow like a string of shining beads at night. The power required for flight will ionize enough of the surrounding atmosphere to short out all electrical wiring in the vicinity unless it is specially shielded. In theory, the top speed of the Mark I is close to the speed of light; in practice there are many more problems to be solved before relativistic speeds can be approached. The peculiar property of microwaves heating all material containing the water molecule means that any animal luckless enough to be nearby may be cooked from the inside out; vegetation will be scorched where a saucer lands; and any rocks containing water of crystallization will be blasted. Every housewife with a microwave knows all this; only hard-headed scientists and soft-headed true believers are completely dumbfounded. The UFOnauts would be cooked by their own engines, too, if they left the flight deck without shielding. This probably explains why a pair of UFOnauts, in a widely published photograph, wear reflective plastic jumpsuits. Mounting the betatrons outboard on a disc is an efficient way to get them away from the crew's compartment, and the plating of the hull shields the interior. At high accelerations, increasing amounts of power are transformed into radiation, making the centrifugal drive inefficient in strong gravitational fields. The most practical employment of this engineering is for large spacecraft, never intended to land. The flying saucers we see are very likely scouting craft sent from mother ships moored in orbit. For brief periods of operation, the heavy fuel consumption of the Mark I can be tolerated, along with radiation leakage - especially when the planet being scouted is not your own. When you compare the known operating features of particle centrifuges with the eyewitness testimony, it is fairly evident that any expert claiming flying saucers to be utterly beyond any human explanation is not doing his homework, and he should be reexamined for his professional license. For dramatic purpose, I have classified the development of the flying saucer through five stages: Mark I - Electronic centrifuges mounted around a fixed disc, outboard. Mark II - Electronic centrifuges mounted outboard around a rotating disc. Mark III - Electronic centrifuges mounted outboard around a rotating disc, period of cycles tuned to harmonize with ley lines, for jet assist. Mark IV - Particle centrifuge tuned to modify time coordinates by faster than light travel. Mark V - No centrifuge. Solid state coils and crystal harmonics transforms ambient field directly for dematerialization and rematerialization at destinations in time and space. Now that the UFO phenomenon has been demystified and reduced to Page 5 human ken, we can proceed to prove the theory. If your resources are like those of the PLO, you can go ahead and build your own flying saucer without any further information from me, but I have nothing to work with except the junk I can find around the house. I found an old electric motor that had burned out, but still had a few turns left in it. I drilled a hole through the driving axle so that an eight inch bar would slide freely through it. I mounted the motor on a chassis so that the bar would rotate on an eccentric cam. In this way in end of the bar was always extended in the same direction while the other end was always pressed into the driving axle. As both ends had the same angular velocity at all times, the end extending out from the axle would always have a higher angular momentum. This resulted in a concentration of centrifugal acceleration in one direction. when I plugged the in the motor, the sight of my brainchild lurching ahead - unsteadily, but in a constant direction, - gave me a bigger thrill than my baptism of sex - lasted longer, too. But not much longer. In less than twenty seconds the burned-out motor gasped its last and died in a puff of smoke; the test run was broadcast on radio microphone but the spectacle was lost without television. Because my prototype did not survive long enough to run in two directions I had to declare the test inconclusive because of mechanical breakdown. So, what the hell, the Wright brothers didn't get far off the ground the first time they tried either. Now that I know the critter will move, it is worthwhile to put a few bucks in to a new motor, install a clutch, and gear the transmission down. One problem at a time is the way it goes. A rectified centrifuge small enough to hold in one hand and powered by solar cells, based on my design, could be manufactured for about fifty dollars (depending on production and competitive bids). Installed on Skylab, it would be sufficient to keep the craft in orbit indefinitely. A larger Hyperspace Drive (as I call this particular design) will provide a small but constant acceleration for interplanetary spacecraft that would accumulate practical velocities over runs of several days. It is rumored that a gentleman by the name of Dean invented another kind of antigravity engine sometime during the past fifty years, but I have been unable to track down any more information except that its design consists of wheels within wheels. A gentleman in Florida, Hans, Schnebel, sent me a description of a machine he built and tested that is similar in principle to the Dean drive. Essentially, a large rotating disk has a smaller rotating disc on one side of the main driving axle. The two wheels are geared together so that a weight mounted on the rim of the smaller wheel is always at the outside of the larger wheel during the same length of arc of each revolution, and always next to the main axle during the opposite arc. What happens is that the velocity of the weight is amplified by harmonic coincidence with the large rotor during one half of its period of revolution, and diminished during the other half cycle. This concentrates momentum in the same quarter continually, to rectify the centrifuge. The result is identical to my Hyperspace Drive, but has the beauty of continuously rotating motion. Now, if the Dean drive is made with a huge main rotor, - like about thirty feet in diameter - there is enough room to mount a series of smaller wheels around the rim, set in gimbals Page 6 for attitude control, an Mr. Dean himself has himself a model T Flying Saucer requiring no license from the AEC. In 1975, Professor Eric Laithwaite, Head of the Department of Electrical Engineering at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London, England, invented another approach to harnessing the centrifugal force of a gyroscope to power an antigravity engine - well, he almost invented it, but he did not have the sense to hold onto success when he grasped it. Professor Laithwaite is world-renowned for his most creative solutions to the problems of magnetic-levitation-propulsion systems, and the fruit of his brain is operating today in Germany and Japan, his railway trains float in the air while traveling at over three hundred miles per hour. If anyone can present the world with a proven anti gravity engine, it must be the professor. Laithwaite satisfied himself that the precessional force causing a gyroscope to wobble had no reaction. This is a clear violation of Newton's Third Law of Motion as 'generally conceived'. Laithwaite figured that if he could engage the precessional acceleration while the gyroscope wobbled in one direction and release the precession while it wobble in other directions, he would be able to demonstrate to a forum of colleagues and critics at the college a rectified centrifuge that worked as a proper antigravity engine. His insight was sound but he did not work it out right. All he succeeded in demonstrating was a 'separation between action and reaction,' and his engine did nothing but oscillate violently. Unfortunately, neither Laithwaite or his critics were looking for a temporal separation between action and reaction, so the loophole he proved in Newton's Third Law was not noticed. Everyone was looking for action without reaction, so no one saw anything at all. Innumerable other inventors have constructed engines essentially identical to Laithwaite's, including a young high school dropout who lives across the street from me. Another invention described is U.S. Patent disclosure number 3,653,269, granted to Richard Foster, a retired chemical engineer in Louisiana. Foster mounted his gyroscopes around the rim of a large rotor disc, like a two cylinder flying saucer. Every time the rotor turns a half cycle, the precessional twist of the gyros in reaction generates a powerful force. During the half cycle when Foster's gyros were twisting in the other direction, his clutch grabbed and transmitted the power to the driving wheels. During the other half cycle, the gyros twisted freely. Foster claims his machine traveled four miles per hour until it flew to pieces from centrifugal forces. After examining the patents, I agreed that it looked like it would work, and it certainly would fly to pieces because the bearing mounts were not nearly strong enough to contain the powerful twisting forces his machine generated. Foster's design, however, cannot be included among antigravity engines because it would not operate off the ground. He never claimed it would, and Foster always described his invention truthfully as nothing more than an implementation of the fourth principle of locomotion. What Laithwaite needed was another rotary component, like the Dean drive, geared to his engine's oscillations so that they would always be turned to drive in the same direction. As it happens, an Italian by the name of Todeschini recently secured a patent on this Page 7 idea, and his working model is said to be attracting the interest of European engineers. When the final rectifying device is added to the essential Laithwaite design, all the moving parts generate the vectors of a vortex, and the velocity generated is the axial thrust of the vortex. Therefore I call inventions based on this design the Vortex Drive. By replacing the Hyperspace modules of the Mark I Flying Saucer with Vortex modules, still retaining the essential betatron as the centrifuge, performance is improved for the Mark II. To begin with, drive is generated only when the main rotor is revolving, so the saucer can be parked with the motor running. This eliminates the agonizing doubt we all suffered when the Lunar Landers were about to blast off to rejoin the command capsule: Will the engine start? This would explain why the ring of lights around the rim of a saucer is said to begin to revolve immediately prior to lift off. A precessional drive affords a wider range of control, and the responses are more stable than a direct centrifuge. But the most interesting improvement is the result of the 'structure' of the electromagnetic field generated by the Vortex drive. By amplifying and diminishing certain vectors harmonically, the Mark III flying saucer can ride the electromagnetic current of the Earth's electromagnetic field like the jet stream. And this is just what we see UFO's doing, don't we, as they are reported running their regular flight corridors during the biennial tourist season. Professor Laithwaite got all this together when he conceived of his antigravity engine as a practical application of his theory of "rivers of energy running through space"; he just could not get it off the drawing board the first time. The flying saucer consumes fuel at a rate that cannot be supplied by all the wells in Arabia. Therefore we have to assume that UFO engineers must have developed a practical atomic fusion reactor. But once the Mark III is perfected, another fuel supply becomes attainable, and no other is so practical for flying saucer. The Moray Valve converts the Mark III into a Mark IV Flying Saucer by extending its operational capabilities through 'time' as well as space. The Moray Valve, you see, functions by changing the direction of flow of energy in the Sun's gravitational field. It is the velocity of energy that determines motion, and motion determines the flow of time. We shall continue the engineering of flying saucers in the following essays. My investigation into antigravity engineering brought me a technical report while this typescript was in preparation. Dr. Mason Rose, President of the University for Social Research, published a paper describing the discoveries of Dr. Paul Alfred Biefeld, astronomer and physicist at the California Institute for Advanced Studies, and his assistant, Townsend Brown. In 1923 Biefeld discovered that a heavily charged electrical condensor moved toward its positive pole when suspended in a gravitational field. He assigned Brown to study the effect as a research project. A series of experiments showed Brown that the most efficient shape for a field propelled condensor was a disc with a central dome. In 1926 Townsend published his paper describing all the construction features and flight characteristics of a flying saucer, conforming to the testimony of the first flight witnessed over Mount Rainer Page 8 twenty-one years later and corroborated by thousands of witnesses since. (The Biefeld-Brown Effect explains why a Mark III rides the electromagnetic jet stream.) We may speculate that flying saucers spotted from time to time may not only include visitors from other planets and travelers through time, but also fledglings from an unknown number of cuckoo's nests in secret experimental plants all over the world. The space program at Cape Canaveral may be nothing more than a supercolossal theatre orchestrated by Cecil B. Demille to reassure Americans that they are still 'numero uno' after Russia beat our atomic ace by putting Sputnik into orbit. We need not doubt that the Apollo spaceships got to the Moon, but we may wonder if Neil Armstrong was the first man to land there. The real space program may have been conducted in secret as a spin-off from the Manhattan Project since the end of World War II, and Apollo 13 may have been picked up by a sag wagon to make sure our team scored a home run every time they went to bat. The exploration of space is the most dangerous enterprise ever taken on by a living species. Don't you ever wonder why the Russians are losing men in space like a safari being decimated in headhunter country, while nothing ever happens to our boys except accidents during ground training? -T.B. Pawlicki Well, I hope you enjoyed that. Coming soon in our series of informational speculations: Build your own Time Machine, Build your own Pyramid or Megalith, Turn lead into gold, Create a worldwide communications network, and my personal favorite, How to build an atomic bomb. Now if someone knows how we can clone a person using household materials, that would be the topper of the toppers. Keep your mind open, but not so open that your brains fall out... -------------------------------------------------------------------- This file courteously supplied to KeelyNet by the Darkside (Ken Geest) at 314-644-6705 -------------------------------------------------------------------- -The Rev. Transcendental Communications... UFOs! Conspiracies & Cover-Ups! New Age!  \/   _______ ^  BBS# (714)599-6270  (_______) / \   ../ o o o o \.. / \  FAX# (714)599-5045  (_______________) / (o) \   ~~~~~~~~~ / \  ............. ----------- Page 9 Vangard Notes I had the pleasure of meeting Tom at the 1987 Global Sciences Congress in Denver. He is as fascinating in person as his writings indicate. Tom has also written 2 excellent books, "How to Build a Flying Saucer" and "Hyper-Space". We have kept in contact since that time by mail. You may write Tom at : T. B. Pawlicki 843 Fort Street Victoria, B.C. V8W 1H6 Canada -------------------------------------------------------------------- If you have comments or other information relating to such topics as this paper covers, please upload to KeelyNet or send to the Vangard Sciences address as listed on the first page. Thank you for your consideration, interest and support. Jerry W. Decker.........Ron Barker...........Chuck Henderson Vangard Sciences/KeelyNet -------------------------------------------------------------------- If we can be of service, you may contact Jerry at (214) 324-8741 or Ron at (214) 242-9346 -------------------------------------------------------------------- (word processor parameters LM=8, RM=75, TM=2, BM=2) Taken from KeelyNet BBS (214) 324-3501 Sponsored by Vangard Sciences PO BOX 1031 Mesquite, TX 75150 October 15, 1990 listed on KeelyNet as UFO6.ZIP -------------------------------------------------------------------- The following article was published as a two part series in the February and March issues of "The UFO Enigma". This is the newsletter of the UFO Study Group of Greater St. Louis, Inc. This article could be placed under more than one catagory. Comments anyone??? KEN HANKE -------------------------------------------------------------------- NIKOLA TESLA MAN AHEAD OF HIS TIME (or How To Build a UFO) By Bill Jones Nikola Tesla, inventor of alternating current motors, did the basic research for constructing electromagnetic field lift-and-drive aircraft/space craft. From 1891 to 1893, he gave a set of lectures and demonstrations to groups of electrical engineers. As part of each show, Tesla stood in the middle of the stage, using his 6' 6" height, with an assistant on either side, each 7 feet away. All 3 men wore thick cork or rubber shoe soles to avoid being electrically grounded. Each assistant held a wire, part of a high voltage, low current circuit. When Tesla raised his arms to each side, violet colored electricity jumped harmlessly across the gaps between the men. At high voltage and frequency in this arrangement, electricity flows over a surface, even the skin, rather than into it. This is a basic circuit which could be used by aircraft / spacecraft. The hull is best made double, of thin, machinable, slightly flexible ceramic. This becomes a good electrical insulator, has no fire danger, resists any damaging effects of severe heat and cold, and has the hardness of armor, besides being easy for magnetic fields to pass through. The inner hull is covered on it's outside by wedge shaped thin metal sheets of copper or aluminum, bonded to the ceramic. Each sheet is 3 to 4 feet wide at the horizontal rim of the hull and tapers to a few inches wide at the top of the hull for the top set of metal sheets, or at the bottom for the bottom set of sheets. Each sheet is separated on either side from the next sheet by 1 or 2 inches of uncovered ceramic hull. The top set of sheets and bottom set of sheets are separated by about 6 inches of uncovered ceramic hull around the horizontal rim of the hull. Page 1 The outer hull protects these sheets from being short-circuited by wind blown metal foil (Air Force radar confusing chaff), heavy rain or concentrations of gasoline or kerosene fumes. If unshielded, fuel fumes could be electrostatically attracted to the hull sheets, burn and form carbon deposits across the insulating gaps between the sheets, causing a short-circuit. The space, the outer hull with a slight negative charge, would absorb hits from micro-meteorites and cosmic rays (protons moving at near the speed of light). Any danger of this type that doesn't already have a negative electric charge would get a negative charge in hitting the outer hull, and be repelled by the metal sheets before it could hit the inner hull. This wouldn't work well on a very big meteor, I might add. The hull can be made in a variety of shapes; sphere, football, disc, or streamlined rectangle or triangle, as long as these metal sheets, "are of considerable area and arranged along ideal enveloping surfaces of very large radii of curvature," p. 85. "My Inventions" , by Nikola Tesla. The power plant for this machine can be a nuclear fission or fusion reactor for long range and long-term use to run a steam engine which turns the generators. A short range machine can use a hydrogenoxygen fuel cell to run a low-voltage motor to turn the generators, occasionally recharging by hovering next to high voltage power lines and using antennas mounted on the outer hull to take in the electricity. The short-range machine can also have electricity beamed to it from a generating plan on a long-range aircraft / spacecraft or on the ground. (St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Nov. 24, 1987, Vol 109, No. 328, "The Forever Plane" by Geoffrey Rowan, p.D1, D7.) ("Popular Science", Vol 232, No. 1, Jan. 1988, "Secret of Perpetual Flight? Beam Power Plane," by Arthur Fisher, p. 62-65, 106) One standard for the generators is to have the same number of magnets as field coils. Tesla's preferred design was a thin disc holding 480 magnets with 480 field coils wired in series surrounding it in close tolerance. At 50 revolutions per minute, it produces 19,400 cycles per second. The electricity is fed into a number of large capacitors, one for each metal sheet. An automatic switch, adjustable in timing by the pilot, closes, and as the electricity jumps across the switch, back and forth, it raises it's own frequency; a switch being used for each capacitor. The electricity goes into a Tesla transformer; again, one transformer for each capacitor. In an oil tank to insulate the windings and for cooling, and supported internally by wood, or plastic, pipe and fittings, each Tesla transformer looks like a short wider pipe that is moved along a longer, narrower pipe by an insulated non-electric cable handle. The short pipe, the primary, is 6 to 10 windings (loops) of wire connected in series to the long pipe. The secondary is 460 to 600 windings, at the low voltage and frequency end. The insulated non-electric cable handle is used through a set Page 2 of automatic controls to move the primary coil to various places on the secondary coil. This is the frequency control. The secondary coil has a low frequency and voltage end and a maximum voltage and frequency end. The greater the frequency the electricity, the more it pushes against the earth's electrostatic and electromagnetic fields. The electricity comes out of the transformer at the high voltage end and goes by wire through the ceramic hull to the wide end of the metal sheet. The electricity jumps out on and flows over the metal sheet, giving off a very strong electromagnetic field, controlled by the transformer. At the narrow end of the metal sheet, most of the high-voltage push having been given off, the electricity goes back by wire through the hull to a circuit breaker box (emergency shut off), then to the other side of the generators. In bright sunlight, the aircraft / spacecraft may seem surrounded by hot air, a slight magnetic distortion of the light. In semi-darkness and night, the metal sheets glow, even through the thin ceramic outer hull, with different colors. The visible light is a by-product of the electricity flowing over the metal sheets, according to the frequencies used. Descending, landing or just starting to lift from the ground, the transformer primaries are near the secondary weak ends and therefore, the bottom set of sheets glow a misty red. Red may also appear at the front of the machine when it is moving forward fast, lessening resistance up front. Orange appears for slow speed. Orange-yellow are for airplane-type speeds. Green and blue are for higher speeds. With a capacitor addition, making it oversized for the circuit, the blue becomes bright white, like a searchlight, with possible risk of damaging the metal sheets involved. The highest visible frequency is violet, like Tesla's stage demonstrations, used for the highest speed along with the bright white. The colors are nearly coherent, of a single frequency, like a laser. A machine built with a set of super conducting magnets would simplify and reduce electricity needs from a vehicle's transformer circuits to the point of flying along efficiently and hovering with little electricity. When Tesla was developing arc lights to run on alternating current, there was a bothersome high-pitched whine, whistle, or buzz, due to the electrodes rapidly heating and cooling. Tesla put this noise in the ultrasonic range with the special transformer already mentioned. The aircraft / spacecraft gives off such noises when working at low frequencies. Timing is important in the operation of this machine. For every 3 metal sheets, when the middle one is briefly turned off, the sheet on either side is energized, giving off the magnetic field. The next instant, the middle sheet is energized, while the sheet on either side is briefly turned off. There is a time delay in the capacitors recharging themselves, so at any time, half of all the metal sheets are energized and the other half are recharging, alternating all around the inner hull. This balances the machine, giving it very good stability. This balance is less when fewer of the circuits are in use. Page 3 Fairly close, the aircraft / spacecraft produces heating of persons and objects on the ground; but by hovering over an area at low altitude for maybe 5 or 10 minutes, the machine also produces a column of very cold air down to the ground. As air molecules get into the strong magnetic fields that the machine is transmitting out, the air molecules become polarized and from lines, or strings, of air molecules. The normal movement of the air is stopped, and there is suddenly a lot more room for air molecules in this area, so more air pours in. This expansion and the lack of normal air motion make the area intensely cold. This is also the reason that the aircraft / spacecraft can fly at supersonic speeds without making sonic booms. As air flows over the hull, top and bottom, the air molecules form lines as they go through the magnetic fields of the metal sheet circuits. As the air molecules are left behind, they keep their line arrangements for a short time,long enough to cancel out the sonic boom shock waves. Outside the earth's magnetic field, another propulsion system must be used, which relies on the first. You may have read of particle accelerators, or cyclotrons, or atom smashers. A particle accelerator is a circular loop of pipe that, in cross-section, is oval. In a physics laboratory, most of the air in it is pumped out. The pipe loop is given a static electric charge, a small amount of hydrogen or other gas is given the same electric charge so the particles won't stick to the pipe. A set of electromagnets all around the pipe loop turn on and off, one after the other, pushing with one magnetic pole and pulling with the next, until those gas particles are racing around the pipe loop at nearly the speed of light. Centrifugal force makes the particles speed closer to the outside edge of the pipe loop, still within the pipe. The particles break down into electrons, or light and other wavelengths, protons or cosmic rays, and neutrons if more than hydrogen is put in the accelerator. At least 2 particle accelerators are used to balance each other and counter each other's tendency to make the craft spin. Otherwise, the machine would tend to want to start spinning, following the direction of the force being applied to the particles. The accelerators push in opposite directions. As the pilot and crew travel in space, outside the magnetic field of a world, water from a tank is electrically separated into oxygen and hydrogen. Waste carbon dioxide that isn't used for the onboard garden, and hydrogen (helium if the machine is using a fusion reactor) is slowly, constantly fed into the inside curves of both accelerators. The high speed particles go out through straight lengths of pipe, charged like the loops and in speeding out into space, push the machine along. Doors control which pips the particles leave from. This allows very long range acceleration and later deceleration at normal (earth) gravity. This avoids the severe problems of weightlessness, including lowered physical abilities of the crew. It is possible to use straight-line particle accelerators, even as few as one per machine, but these don't seem as able to get the best machine speed for the least amount of particles pushed out. Page 4 Using a constant acceleration of 32.2 feet per second per second provides earth normal gravity in deep space and only 2 gravities of stress in leaving the earth's gravity field. It takes, not counting air resistance, 18 minutes, 58.9521636 seconds to reach the 25,000 miles per hour speed to leave the earth's gravity field. It takes about 354 days, 12 hours, 53 minutes and 40 seconds (about) to reach the speed of light - 672,487,072.7 miles per hour. It takes the same distance to decelerate as it does to speed up, but this cuts down the time delay that one would have in conventional chemical rocketry enormously, for a long journey. A set of superconducting magnets can be charged by metal sheet circuits, within limits, to whatever frequency is needed and will continue to transmit that magnetic field frequency almost indefinitely. A shortwave radio can be used to find the exact frequencies that an aircraft / spacecraft is using, for each of the colors it may show whole a color television can show the same overall color frequency that the nearby, but not extremely close, craft is using This is limited, as a machine traveling at the speed of a jet airliner may broadcast in a frequency range usually used for radar sets. The craft circuits override lower frequency, lower voltage electric circuits within and near their electromagnetic fields. One source briefly mentioned a 1941 incident, where a shortwave radio was used to override automobile ignition systems, up to 3 miles away. When the shortwave radio was turned off, the cars could work again. How many UFO encounters have been reported in which automobile ignition systems have suddenly stopped? I figure that things would not be at all pleasant for drivers of modern cars with computer controlled engine and ignition systems. Computer circuitry is sensitive to small changes in voltage and a temporary wrong-way voltage surge may wipe the computer memory out. It could mean that a number of drivers would suddenly be stranded with their cars not working should such a craft fly low over a busy highway. Only diesel engines, already warmed up, and Stanley Steamer type steam engine cares are able to continue working in a strong electromagnetic field. In May, 1988, it was reported that the U.S. Army had lost 5 Blackhawk helicopters and 22 crewmen in crashes caused by ordinary commercial radio broadcasting overriding the computer control circuits of those helicopters. Certainly, computer circuits for for this aircraft / spacecraft can and must be designed to overcome this weakness. One construction arrangement for this craft to avoid such interference is for the metal sheet circuits to be more sharply tuned. Quartz or other crystals can be used in capacitors; in a very large number of low-powered, single frequency circuits, or as part of a frequency control for the metal sheet circuits.