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Difference between revisions of "Introductory Guide to SprintNet"

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Latest revision as of 16:19, 1 September 2020

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 %!!                     Phreakers/Hackers/Anarchists                      !!%
 X!!                     -++--++--++--++--++--++--++-                      !!X
 %!!                                                                       !!%
 %!!                    SIMILAR PACKET SWITCHED NETWORKS                   !!%
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 %!! P/H/A - Written By Doctor Dissector On Sunday, April 22, 1990 - P/H/A !!%
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 Part I: Disclaimer
    The sole purpose of this document is to educate. Neither the author nor
 the sponsor group (Phreakers/Hackers/Anarchists) will be held responsible
 for the reader's actions before, during, and following exposure to this
 document as well as the validity or accuracy of the information contained
 within this document.

 Part II: Introduction
    Packet switching networks can be said to be the most useful tool for both
 the inexperienced and the experienced hack. When I first learned about
 PSNs (SprintNet/Telenet in general), I discovered that there were not any
 good "full length" introductions or guides to the use of these systems. In
 effect, scrounging around for a small file here and another there was not
 very productive in any sense. So, I decided to compile a "complete"
 introduction and guide, as I know it, to the "world" of the packet switched
 network. Enjoy!
                                                Doctor Dissector - PHA

 Part III: Table Of Contents
    Part    Description
    -----   -------------------------------------------------------------
     I      Disclaimer
     II     Introduction
     III    Table Of Contents
     IV     What Is A Packet Switched Network?
     V      Network Protocols
     VI     PAD Security
     VII    Connection To The SprintNet PAD
     VIII   X.121 International Address Format
     IX     Network User Identification
     X      Setting PAD ITI/X.3 Parameters
     XI     Disconnect Code Sequence
     XII    Misc Network Notes
     XIII   Appendix
     XIV    Conclusion And Closing Notes
     XV     Greets, Hellos, Etc....

    Appendix  Description
    --------  -----------------------------------------------------------
       A      Hunt/Confirm Sequence Codes
       B      PAD Command Summary
       C      ITI/X.3 Parameter Summaries
       D      International DNIC/PSN List
       E      Overseas PSNs Which Accept Collect Calls
       F      Network Protocol List
       G      Glossary

 Part IV: What Is A Packet Switched Network?
    A packet switched network can be accessed through any local POTS
 dialup/port. Systems known as "hosts" on the PSN pay for connection to
 the PSN depending on transmission speed and protocol type. PSNs offer
 more efficient data transfer and less rates as compared to the typical
 circuit switched call. Thus, to anyone who would be interested in
 transferring large amounts of data over either the PSN or the circuit
 system, the PSN would result in an increase of convenience due to the
 reduction of data transmission error and cost.
    Another feature of the PSN is the speed and data translation which
 takes place between the PSN's PAD (Packet Assembler/Disassembler) and
 the host. For example, one could connect to the PSN's PAD at 1200 bps
 and the PAD could connect to the host system at 9600 bps and still
 allow the user to receive error free transmission. This "flow control"
 is done by the actual increase or decrease of the data packet between
 the PAD and the user or the PAD and the host.
    PSNs also have the ability to interconnect through special gateways
 which might allow one user who dialed one PSN's PAD and then connected
 to another PSN's PAD through a system which was accessible by the first.
 Almost every PSN in the world can be accessed through gateways on one
 PSN to another PSN, through subsequent gateways until the target PSN
 is achived; of course, there are always exceptions, some private or
 small data networks may not be reachable through gateways, these systems
 can only be reached, usually, through direct dialins.
     Some PSNs allow the caller to execute "collect calls" to host
 systems which accept them, although the majority of the hosts on any
 given PSN do not accept collect calls. To connect to a host system which
 does not accept collect calls, one must possess a network user identifier
 (NUI) or access to a private system on the PSN which accepts collect
 calls and has the ability to access another PSN with its own identifier.
 These will be discussed further into this document.

 Part V: Network Protocols
    The PSN utilizes several communications protocols similar to the
 communications protocols used by typical asynchronous modems. However,
 MOST PSNs utilize synchronous communications and the X type protocols
 versus the typical modem's asynchronous V protocols. As a result, the
 PAD of any PSN also serves as a synchronous/asynchronous translator
 between the synchronous netowrk and the asynchronous modem.
    Most PSNs offer network speeds from snail's pace baud rates of
 300 bps (asynchronous) to the lightning of 48,000 bps (synchronous).
 The most common data protocol used by PSNs today is the X.25 protocol,
 thus if one were able to access a private PAD which offered support for
 the X.25 protocol, one could access virtually any network user address
 (NUA) from that PAD. SprintNet PADs support the X.25 protocol, so if
 one had an NUI of sorts, one also could access any NUA from the SprintNet
 PAD. See appendix F for a list of network protocols.

 Part VI: PAD Security
    SprintNet PADs and most dialin PADs in general have no "immediate"
 form of telephone security common within their systems. Plainly, SprintNet
 and most PSN dialin PADs cannot trace on the fly, as they do not have
 their own equiptment to trace incomming calls. HOWEVER, this does not
 mean that they CANNOT trace; SprintNet can, and will, upon probable
 cause, cooperate with the telco to trace calls. Notice that tracing
 usually is premeditated and one-time abusers have a very slim chance
 of being caught. Also note that most PAD activities are logged and if
 abuse is suspected, the PSN owners would most likely suspect the abuser
 as originating from the local area, since the POTS dialin/port is also
 located in the same area.
    Once online, security from "calling" hosts which do not accept collect
 calls is enforced by the presence of the NUI. Without an NUI, one would
 usually be stuck, only able to call systems accepting collect calls, sans
 the use of another system's NUI.
    There is one more aspect of seucurity worth mentioning. Whenever a
 packet of data is sent to a host system, a header of data is sent stating
 where the originating "call" is being placed by. Thus, if you were
 connecting to "312312" from your local POTS dialin/port that owned an
 address of "20231H," the system at 312312 would know the call was being
 originated from 20231H. Once again, if someone were abusing any system on
 the PSN and that system saved a log of the originating addresses accessing
 that system, the owners of the abused system could easily determine which
 POTS dialin/port number the abuser was using, and then inform the PSN
 security of possible abuse in that dialin's local area. Because of this
 ability to "trace" the originating address, there is one way to foil this.
 One could connect to another PAD, and then, from that PAD connect to
 the target system. Thus, the POTS dialin/port address will be sent to
 the connected PAD, and the connected PAD would intercept the POTS address
 and send the connected PAD's address to the target system instead of
 the POTS address. SO, if the target system was abused and the owners
 attempted to "trace" the originating address, they would receive the
 address of the connected PAD. For example: you dial your local POTS
 dialin/port which had an address of "71516G," log into another PAD at
 "415100," connect from 415100 to "213213." The system at 213213 if
 "traced" would find that you were originating from 415100, not 71516G.
 See how it works? Good... Notice that the system 213213 would still
 know that you were originating from 71516G, but the folks you were
 genuinely abusing wouldn't know that!

 Part VII: Connection To The SprintNet PAD
    The following procedure outlines the methods used to connect to
 and through the SprintNet PAD.

 Step    Procedures                           Network/Operator Response
 ----    ----------                           -------------------------
  1      Turn on your terminal. Make sure
         it's Online.

  2      Dial your local SprintNet access

  3      For data sets Bell 103 & 113 type,
         depress the DATA button.

  4      Enter the hunt/confirm sequence      <CR> <CR>
         for your baud/parity type. For
         E,7,1 1200/2400, type <CR> twice.
         For hunt/confirm sequences, see
         appendix A.

  5      SprintNet will identify itself,      TELENET
         its port address, and then send      909 14B
         a TERMINAL= prompt for terminal
         identification. "D1" specifies       TERMINAL=D1<CR>
         dumb terminal.

  6      NUI Input: After SprintNet gives
         the "@" prompt, type "ID ;" and      @ID ;ABCD<CR>
         then your ID code, follwed by a      PASSWORD=123456<CR>
         <CR>. Then enter your password
         followed by another <CR>. If you
         don't have an NUI, you can always
         access systems which allow collect

  7      At the "@" prompt, you can enter     @02341123456790<CR>
         the network user address (NUA) of
         the desired host. If, during the
         connection attempt wish to abort
         the attempt, a BREAK signal will
         bring you back to the "@" prompt.

  8      SprintNet will respond with a        (address) CONNECTED
         connection message, or an error

  9      To disconnect from your computer,    (address) DISCONNECTED
         log off as usual. SprintNet will
         send a disconnect message. To
         disconnect off of a system without
         logging off, typing "<CR>@<CR>" will
         bring you back to the "@" prompt.

 Part VIII: X.121 International Address Format
    Most PSNs around the world follow the X.121 format for access to both
 domestic and international hosts. SprintNet does not require some parts
 of the format for domestic connection, which will be discussed below.

 +-----------------------------------------    Zero Handler For SprintNet
 |                                             (Formats The X.121 Address)
 |       +---------------------------------    Data Network Identifier
 |       |                                     Code (DNIC)
 |       |
 |       |
 |       |       +-------------------------    Area Code of Host
 |       |       |
 |       |       |
 |       |       |         +---------------    DTE Address of Host
 |       |       |         |
 |       |       |         |
 |       |       |         |       +--------    Port Address
 |       |       |         |       |
 |       |       |         |       |

|0|   |DDDD|   |AAA|    |HHHHH|   |PP|

                                   +-------    Optional 'Subaddress'
                                               Field for Packet Mode

    For a complete list of DNICs/PSNs according to country, please see
 appendix D.
    On SprintNet, a "0" MUST lead the NUA, although on other PSNs, this
 may not be necessary.
    On SprintNet, the DNIC is defaulted to 3110. Any host entered at the
 "@" prompt, if domestic to Telenet/USA, will not require the input of
 zero handler or the 3110 DNIC. For example:

           Domestic           X.121          SprintNet Int'l
           ----------     --------------     ---------------
           2129966622     31102129966622     031102129966622
           212869         311021200869       0311021200869
           21244          311021200044       0311021200044

 Part IX: Network User Identification
    Network user identifiers (NUIs) offer full SprintNet PAD use for
 any distance or amount of time for any host accessible by the PAD in
 question. Think of the NUI as a /<-/<00l Kode for calling long
 distance. Any systems that you call are logged, and each call is charged.
 At the end of the month, the owner of the NUI is billed. So, it is
 possible to hack out NUIs and use them, but like k0dez, abuse kills.
    NUIs can be entered into SprintNet in two ways. The first method is to
 type "ID ;xxxx" where xxxx can be from 4-? charachters in length, both
 alphabetic and numeric. Then, at the password prompt, enter a password.
    The second method for entering an NUI is in conjunction to the NUA
 you are accessing. The format is "<NUA>,<ID>,<PW>" where at the "@"
 prompt you would type the desired NUA, followed by a comma, then your
 ID followed by a comma, and then your password. Your password will not
 be echoed.

 Part X: Setting PAD ITI/X.3 Parameters
    Online PAD parameter modification may be desired for certain
 applications, connections, or data transfers. See appendix C for brief
 summaries of these parameters. Modification of these parameters can be
 done by the following procedure at the "@" prompt:

    X.3 Parameters
    To display current parameters: "PAR?<CR>"
        The PAD will respond with: "PAR1:<VALUE>,2:<VALUE>,..."

    To modify parameter(s): "SET? <PARM>:<VALUE>,<PARM>:<VALUE>,..."
        The PAD will respond with: "PAR<PARM>:<VALUE>,..."

    ITI Parameters
    To display current parameters: "PAR? 0,<PARM>,<PARM>,..."
        The PAD will respond with: "PAR<PARM>:<VALUE>,<PARM>:<VALUE>,..."

    To modify parameter(s): "SET? 0:33,<PARM>:<VALUE>,<PARM>:<VALUE>,..."
        The PAD will respond with: "PAR0:33,<PARM>:<VALUE>,..."

 Part XI: Disconnect Code Sequence
    When disconnected off of any host on SprintNet, a disconnect coding
 sequence with a string of data will be sent to your terminal. The
 following is a translation format for the disconnect coding.


            <NUA> is the NUA of the given host system.
               AA is the clearing code.
               BB is the diagnositc code.
      TT:TT:TT:TT is the time spent on the host.
              CCC is the number of frames received.
               DD is the number of frames sent.

 Part XII: Misc Network Notes
    Just a few things one might want to know when using PSNs:

    1) When using/abusing a private PAD, try to use it after business
       hours, as the operators will not tend to discover your presence
       as quickly.

    2) When hacking or abusing ANY system on ANY PSN, if anything seems
       different or suspicious, logoff, disconnect, or HANG-UP
       IMMEDIATELY! Much better SAFE than SORRY!

    3) For a complete and updated list of POTS dialin/ports, dial the
       IN-WATS number at 1-800-546-1000 or 1-800-546-2000, type "MAIL,"
       and for user name and password, enter "PHONES." You will be
       diverted to the SprintNet dialing directory & a menu. From then on
       you will have plenty of info about POTS dialins and port numbers.

    4) For international information concerning SprintNet and other PSNs,
       get to a SprintNet "@" prompt and type "MAIL." Then, for the user
       name, enter "INTL/ASSOCIATES." For the password, type "INTL," and
       you will be diverted to the international information menu.

    5) For even more info on SprintNet and PCP, the NUA for the PCP
       support BBS is 311090900631 (909631 domestic).

    6) Some 2400 bps and 2400+ bps PADs have problems recognizing 8,N,1
       connections. Sometimes they only allow E,7,1 transmissions.
       Experimentation or inquiry may yeild results. SprintNet's customer
       information line is at 1-800-336-0437, overseas is 1-703-689-6400.

    7) PCP outdials and other outdial systems are abundant on the PSNs
       throughout the world. If you have any NUAs to these or find any,
       they utilize the typical Hayes AT command set, so they should be
       easy to figure out. MOST of the time, they ONLY allow dialing of
       local (to the oudial's area code) numbers, but some have been known
       to allow interstate and even international calls. Experimentation,
       again, is always necessary.

    8) Domestically, the "AAA" (Area Code) portion of the NUA is usually
       the same as the area code (NPA) of the same calling area. However,
       some area codes are shared on the network and some non-existant
       area codes such as 909, 223, 224 and others contain hosts.

    9) On any PAD, the data transmission rates may be slowed, due to the
       assembley/disassembley time, called packet delay. Depending on which
       system, baud, and transfer protocol used, pad delay can differ from
       almost none to noticable fractions of seconds. PCP oudials are
       notorious for LLOONNGG pad delays....

 Part XIII: Appendix
 Appendix A: Hunt/Confirm Sequence Codes
         Bits  Stop  Parity  Modem Baud  Duplex  Sequence
         ----  ----  ------  ----------  ------  --------
          7     1     EVEN    300-1200    FULL   <CR><CR>
          7     1     EVEN    300-1200    HALF   <CR>;<CR>
          7     1     EVEN      2400      FULL     @<CR>
          7     1     EVEN      2400      HALF     @;<CR>
          8     1     NONE    300-1200    FULL   <CR>D<CR>
          8     1     NONE    300-1200    HALF   <CR>H<CR>
          8     1     NONE      2400      FULL     @D<CR>
          8     1     NONE      2400      HALF     @H<CR>

         At BPS speeds 2400+, wait 1/2 a second BEFORE and AFTER the
         "@" sign in the sequence above.

 Appendix B: PAD Command Summary
    The following is a list of commands usable from the "@" prompt on the
 SprintNet PSN.

 Command      Description
 -----------  -------------------------------------------------------------
 <NUA>        Connects to the host specified by that NUA.
 C <NUA>      Connects to the host specified by that NUA.
 STAT         Displays the network port address (NUA of the port).
 FULL         Sets duplex to full.
 HALF         Sets duplex to half.
 DTAPE        Prepares the PSN for bulk file transfers.
 CONT         Continues the current connected session/connect attempt.
 BYE          Aborts connect attempt/disconnects from current session.
 D            Aborts connect attempt/disconnects from current session.
 HANGUP       Logs you off from the SprintNet PAD.
 TERM <TERM>  Changes the terminal specification to that of <TERM>.
 MAIL         Request connection to SprintNet Telemail.
 TELEMAIL     Request connection to SprintNet Telemail.
 ID ;<ID>     Enter NUI, <ID> is your ID. This is followed by a PASSWORD
              prompt. Password will not be echoed.
 TEST CHAR    Test if you are receiving garbled output. If so, adjust
              parity or data bits, and then try again. If errors persist,
              be sure to complain to SprintNet customer service!
 TEST ECHO    Test if your input is being garbled by Telenet. Similar
              otherwise as TEST CHAR.

 Appendix C: ITI/X.3 Parameter Summaries
 Para-                               Para-
 meter  Description (Default Value)  meter  Description (Default Value)
 -----  ---------------------------  -----  ---------------------------
   1    Line feed Insertion (0)       31+   Interrupt Character (0)
   2    Network Message Display (0)   32    Automatic Hang-up (0)
   3    Echo (1)                      33+   Flush Output (0)
   4    Echo Mask (163)               34    Transmit on Timers (1)
   5    Transmit Mask (2)             35    Idle Timer (80)
   6*   Buffer Size (0)               36    Interval Timer (0)
   7*   Command Mask (127)            37    Network Usage Display (0)
   8*   Command Mask (3)              38    Carriage Return PAD (Variable)
   9    Carriage Return PAD (Fixed)   39    Padding Options (1)
  10    Linefeed Padding              40    Insert on Break (0)

  11    Tab Padding                   41    PAD-Terminal Flow Control (0)
  12    Line Width                    42    PAD-Terminal XON Character (17)
  13    Page Length (0)               43    PAD-Terminal XOFF Character (19)
  14    Line Folding (1)              44*   Generate Break (INV)
  15    Page Wait (0)                 45*   APP on Break (0)
  16    Interrupt on Break (0)        46    Input Unlock Option (0)
  17    Break Code (0)                47    Input Unlock Timer (0)
  18    NVT Options (0)               48    Input Unlock Character (0)
  19    Initial Keyboard State (0)    49    Output Lock Option (2)
  20    Half/Full Duplex              50    Output Lock Timer (10)

  21    Real Character Code           51    Output Lock Option (0)
  22    Printer Style                 53*   Break Options (0)
  23    Terminal Type                 54    Terminal-PAD Flow Control (0)
  24    Permanent Terminal (0)        55    Terminal-PAD XON Character (17)
  25    Manual or Auto Connect (0)    56    Terminal-PAD XOFF Character (19)
  26    Rate                          57    Connection Mode (2)
  27    Delete Character (127)        58    Escape to Command Mode (1)
  28    Cancel Character (24)         59*   Flush Output on Break (0)
  29    Display Character (18)        60    Delayed Echo
  30+   Abort Output Character (0)    63    Eight-bit Transparency (1)
                                      64+   Early ACK (0)
                                      65    More-Data Bit Generation (3)
                                      66    Defer Processing of User (0)
                                      67    ESP Packetizing Option (0)
                                      68    Escape Sequence Timer (0)
                                      69    Escape Sequence Maximum Length (0)
                                      70    Escape Sequence Initiator (0)
                                      71    Parameter Reset on Disconnect (0)

  Note: - All Telenet Parameters must follow the National Option Marker
          (Parameter 0, value '21' Hex) in PAD Messages.
        - Parameters marked with "*" should not be used.
        - Parameters marked with "+" should be used with caution.

 Appendix D: International DNIC/PSN List
    Note: This is not a complete list!

 COUNTRY                     NETWORK                             DNIC
 -------                     -------                             ----
 ALASKA                      ALASCOM                             3135
 ANTIGUA                     ANTIGUA                             3443
 ARGENTINA                   ARPAC                               7220
 ARGENTINA                   ARPAC                               7222
 AUSTRIA                     DATEX-P                             2322
 AUSTRIA                     RA                                  2329
 AUSTRALIA                   AUSPAC                              5052
 AUSTRALIA                   MIDAS                               5053
 BAHAMAS                     BATELCO                             3640
 BAHRAIN                     IDAS                                4263
 BARBADOS                    IDAS                                3423
 BELGIUM                     DCS                                 2062
 BELGIUM                     DCS-TELEX                           2068
 BELGIUM                     DCS-PSTN                            2069
 BERMUDA                     IPSD                                3503
 BRAZIL                      INTERDATA                           7240
 BRAZIL                      RENPAC                              7241
 BRAZIL                      RENPAC                              7249
 BRAZIL                      RENPAC                              7248
 CAMEROON                    CAMPAC                              6242
 CANADA                      DATAPAC                             3020
 CANADA                      GLOBEDAT                            3025
 CANADA                      CNCP                                3028
 CANADA                      TYMNET CANADA                       3106
 CAYMAN ISLANDS              IDAS                                3463
 CHILE                       ENTEL                               7302
 CHILE                       ENTEL                               3104
 CHINA                       PTELCOM                             4600
 COLUMBIA                    DAPAQ                               3107
 COSTA RICA                  RACSADATOS                          7120
 COSTA RICA                  RACSAPAC                            7122
 COSTA RICA                  RACSAPAC                            7128
 COSTA RICA                  RACSAPAC                            7129
 COTE D'IVOIRE               SYTRANPAC                           6122
 DENMARK                     DATAPAK                             2382
 DEMMARK                     DATAPAK                             2383
 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC          UDTS                                3700
 EGYPT                       ARENTO                              6020
 FINLAND                     FINNPAK                             2442
 FRANCE                      TRANSPAC                            2080
 FRANCE                      N.T.I.                              2081
 FRANCE                      TRANSPAC                            9330
 FRANCE                      TRANSPAC                            9331
 FRANCE                      TRANSPAC                            9332
 FRANCE                      TRANSPAC                            9333
 FRANCE                      TRANSPAC                            9334
 FRANCE                      TRANSPAC                            9335
 FRANCE                      TRANSPAC                            9336
 FRANCE                      TRANSPAC                            9337
 FRANCE                      TRANSPAC                            9338
 FRANCE                      TRANSPAC                            9339
 FRENCH ANTILLES             DOMPAC                              3400
 FRENCH GUYANA               DOMPAC                              7420
 GABON                       GABONPAC                            6282
 GERMANY                     DATEX-P                             2624
 GREECE                      HELPAK                              2022
 GREENLAND                   DATAPAK                             2901
 GUAM                        LSDS-RCA                            5350
 GUATEMALA                   GUATEL                              7040
 HONDURAS                    HONDUTEL                            7080
 HONG KONG                   IDAS                                4542
 HONG KONG                   DATAPAK                             4545
 HUNGARY                     DATEXL                              2160
 HUNGARY                     DATEXL                              2161
 ICELAND                     ICEPAC                              2740
 INDONESIA                   SKDP                                5101
 IRELAND                     IPSS (EIRE)                         2721
 IRELAND                     EIREPAC                             2724
 ISRAEL                      ISRANET                             4251
 ITALY                       DARDO                               2222
 ITALY                       ITAPAC                              2227
 IVORY COAST                 SYTRANPAC                           6122
 JAMAICA                     JAMINTEL                            3380
 JAPAN                       DDX-P                               4401
 JAPAN                       VENUS-P                             4408
 JAPAN                       NISNET                              4406
 JAPAN                       NI+CI                               4410
 KUWAIT                                                          4263
 LEBANON                     SODETEL                             4155
 LUXEMBOURG                  LUXPAC                              2704
 LUXEMBOURG                  PSTN                                2709
 MALAYSIA                    MAYPAC                              5021
 MAURITIUS                   MAURIDATA                           6170
 MEXICO                      TELEPAC                             3340
 NETHERLANDS                 DATANET-1                           2040
 NETHERLANDS                 DATANET-1                           2041
 NETHERLANDS                 DABAS                               2044
 NETHERLANDS                 DATANET                             2049
 NETHERLANDS/ANTILLES        UDTS ITT                            3620
 NETHERLANDS/MARIANAS        PCINET                              5351
 NEW CALEDONIA               TOMPAC NC                           5460
 NEW ZEALAND                 PACNET                              5301
 NORWAY                      DATAPAK                             2422
 PANAMA                      INTELPAQ                            7141
 PANAMA                      INTELPAQ                            7142
 PHILIPPINES                 CAPWIRE                             5151
 PHILIPPINES                 PHILCOM RCA                         5152
 PHILIPPINES                 GMCR                                5154
 PHILIPPINES                 ETPI-2                              5156
 POLYNESIA                   TOMPAC                              5470
 PORTUGAL                    TELEPAC                             2680
 PORTUGAL                    SABD                                2682
 PUERTO RICO                 UDTS- PDIA                          3301
 PUERTO RICO                 UDTS- I                             3300
 QATAR                       DOHPAC                              4271
 REUNION ISLAND              DOMPAC                              6470
 SAN MARINO                  X-NET                               2922
 SAUDI ARABIA                BAHNET                              4263
 SINGAPORE                   TELEPAC                             5252
 SINGAPORE                   TELEPAC                             5258
 SOUTH AFRICA                SAPONET                             6550
 SOUTH AFRICA                SAPONET                             6559
 SOUTH KOREA                 DACOM-NET                           4501
 SOUTH KOREA                 DNS                                 4503
 SPAIN                       TIDA                                2141
 SPAIN                       IBERPAK                             2145
 SWEDEN                      TELEPAK                             2405
 SWEDEN                      DATAPAK                             2402
 SWITZERLAND                 TELEPAC                             2284
 SWITZERLAND                 DATALINK                            2289
 TAHITI                      TOMPAC                              5470
 TAIWAN                      UDAS                                4877
 TAIWAN                      PACNET                              4872
 THAILAND                    IDAR                                5200
 TORTOLA                                                         3483
 TRINIDAD                    TEXTET                              3740
 TRINIDAD                    DATANETT                            3745
 TUNISIA                     RED25                               6050
 TURKEY                      TURPAC                              2862
 TURKS BWI                                                       3763
 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES        EMDAN                               4241
 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES        TELEX                               4243
 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES        TEDAS                               4310
 UNITED KINGDOM              IPSS                                2341
 UNITED KINGDOM              PSS                                 2342
 UNITED KINGDOM              MPDS MERCURY                        2350
 UNITED KINGDOM              PSS MERCURY                         2352
 U.S.S.R.                    IASNET                              2502
 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA    TELENET                             3110
 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA    TYMNET                              3106
 U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS         UDTS-PDIA                           3300
 URUGUAY                                                         7482
 ZIMBABWE                    ZIMNET                              6482

 Appendix E: Overseas PSNs Which Accept Collect Calls
      COUNTRY                     NETWORK
      -------                     -------
      ALASKA                      ALASCOM
      CANADA                      DATAPAC
      CHILE                       ECOM
      COSTA RICA                  RACSA
      HAWAII                      TELENET
      ISRAEL                      ISRANET
      MEXICO                      TELEPAC-SCT
      PANAMA                      INTEL
      PHILIPPINES                 ETPI
      PUERTO RICO                 PRTC

 Appendix F: Network Protocol List
   Protocol      Speed/bps       Type
   --------      ---------    ------------
   V.21          300          Asynchronous
   V.22          1200         Asynchronous
   V.23          1200/75      Asynchronous
   V.xx          2400         Asynchronous
   X.25          300-48000    Synchronous
   X.28          300-19200    Asynchronous
   X.29          300-19200    Synchronous
   X.3           300-19200    Synchronous
   X.32          24000        Synchronous
   X.75          300-19200    Synchronous
   Telex         50           Asynchronous

 Appendix G: Glossary
    The following is a list of acronyms and terms which are often refered
 to in this document and others dealing with this subject.

 ACP - Adapter/Concentrator of Packets.
 Area Code - The first three digits following the DNIC of any given NUA.
    For example, the NUA 311031200324 has an area code of 312. Domestically,
    the area code of the NUA may or may not correspond to the same NPA of
    the area code, but this is not always the case.
 Close User Group - A type of high security NUI in use on several PSNs
    throughout the world. CUG users can access optional parameters
    and NUAs blocked out by security.
 CUG - Close User Group.
 Data Country Code - The first three digits in the four digits of any
    given DNIC.
 Data Network Identifier Code - The four digits which come before the
    area code/address/port address of any given NUA. The DNIC shows
    which PSN any given host is based upon. The DNIC can also be broken
    down into two parts, the DCC and the NC. For more information, see
    part VIII.
 DCC - Data Country Code.
 Destination Paid Call - A collect call to a NUA which accepts collect charges.
 DNIC - Data Network Identifier Code.
 DTE - Data Terminal Equipment.
 DTE Address - The five digits following the area code of the host on any
    given NUA. For example, the NUA 234112345678 has a DTE address of
 Gateway - A host on a given PSN which is connecte both the the originating
    PSN and one or more different or same PSNs. Gateways also allow one user
    on one PSN the ability to move to another PSN and operate on the second
    as if the first was not interfering.
 Host - Any system accessible by NUA on the PSN.
 Hunt/Confirm Sequence - String of charachters sent to the SprintNet POTS
    dialin/port which allows SprintNet to determine the speed and data type
    to translate to on its PAD.
 ITI Parameters - Online PAD parameters (X.3 or ITI) which allow the user
    to modify existing physical measurements of packet length and otherwise.
 LAN - Local Area Network.
 Local Area Network - A data network which operates within the confines
    of an office building or other physical structure where several
    computers are linked together into a network in order to share data,
    hardware, resources, etc. These may or may not own a host address on
    any data network, and if so, may be accessed via NUA; otherwise
    direct dialin is the only alternative.
 NC - Network Code.
 NCP - Nodes of Communication of Packets.
 Network Code - The fourth digit of any given PSN's DNIC.
 Network Protcol - The hardware protocol which allows the host systems to
    communicate efficiently with the PSN it is connected to. Generally,
    synchronous protcols (X.??) are used within the network and
    asynchronous protcols (V.??) are used to access the network, but
    asynchronous protcools within the network and/or synchronous dialin
    points are not unheard of. The standard protocol for packet transfer
    today is the X.25 synchronous data protcol. For detailed information,
    please see part V and appendix F.
 Network User Address - The address of any given host system on any
    PSN. This address is thought of as a "phone number" which is dialed
    to access the desired host. For detailed information on the X.121
    format for the NUA, see part VIII.
 Network User Identifier - The ID and password which allow the user
    which has logged onto the PSN's PAD to originate calls to host systems
    which do not accept collect calls. it is often thought of as a "k0de"
    or a calling card which will be billed for at the end of every month.
 NUA - Network User Address.
 NUI - Network User Identifier.
 Outdial - Any system which allows local, national, or international
    dialing from the host system. PC-Pursuit can be defined as a local
    outdial system. Most outdials operate using the Hayes AT command set
    and others may be menu oriented.
 Packet Assembler/Disassembler - The device/host which translates the
    actual input/output between the host and the user. The PAD often
    translates between baud rates, parities, data bits, stop bits,
    hardware protocols, and other hardware dependant data which reduces
    the hassle of continual modification of terminal and hardware
    parameters local to the originating terminal.
 Packet Switched Network - A network based upon the principle of packet
    switching, which is the input/output of packets to and from the PAD
    which translates input and output between the user and the host.
    For detailed information, please see part IV.
 Packet Switched System - Another name for the PSN.
 Packet SwitchStream - The PSN used by British Telecom.
 PAD Delay - The extra time that is used to translate incomming and
    outgoing packets of data which is composed of a continous stream of
    clear-to-send and ready-to-send signals. PAD delay can vary depending
    on the type of network protocol and network/port speed is being
 PAD - Packet Assembler/Disassembler (technical), Public Access Device
    (customer service description).
 PDN - Public Data Network or Private Data Network.
 Port Address - The two optional digits at the end of any given NUA which
    allow the PAD/PSN to access a given port. For example, 031102129922255
    would reach the nua 311021299222.55, .55 being the port address.
 Private Data Network - Any network (LAN/WAN/PSN) which is owned and
    operated by a private company. Private networks are usually smaller
    than public networks and may host a myriad of features such as
    gateways to other public/private networks, servers, or outdials.
 PSN - Packet Switched Network.
 PSS - Packet SwitchStream or Packet Switched System.
 Public Data Network - Another name for the PSN.
 Server - A type of network which is connected to a host system which can
    be reached either via NUA or direct dial which provides the "brain"
    for a LAN or WAN.
 SprintNet - The new name for Telenet. A PSN which is based in the United
    States and allows destination paid calls to originate from an un-
    identified customer. The DNIC for SprintNet is 3110.
 Telenet - The old name for SprintNet. This name change occured in 1990.
 V.?? - Asynchronous network protocol.
 WAN - Wide Area Network.
 Wide Area Network - A data network which operates on a continuous link
    basis as opposed to the packet switched basis. These do not operate
    on the X.25 protocol and may only be accessed via direct-dial or
    a host on a PSN which is linked with the WAN.
 X.?? - Generally symbolizes some type of synchronous network protocol.
 X.121 - International Host Address Format for PSNs. See Part VIII for
    detailed information.
 X.25 - By far the most widely used and standardized network/data protcol
    used within the PSN system to connect hosts to the PSN.
 Zero Handler - The preceding zero before any given international NUA
    when "dialed" from within SprintNet. For example, the NUA 262412345678
    would be typed as "0262412345678" from the SprintNet PAD. Most PAD
    systems around the world do not require this handler.

 Part XIV: Conclusion And Closing Comments
    Well, enough typing at last. I hope you enjoyed the file, since it
 appears to cover most areas of the PSN domain sans private networks
 to a full extent. Hopefully, this file has opened or helped you understand
 the packet switched networks in today's telecommunication world and
 will aid you in your quest for knowledge etc etc....

                                                 Doctor Dissector - PHA

 % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X %
 %!! (c)Copyright 1990, By Doctor Dissector & Phreakers/Hackers/Anarchists !!%
 % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X % X %


=-GRAHAM-JOHN [email protected]=-=ALT.2600.MODERATED-=
Lord grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change.The courage
to change the things I can.And the wisdom to hide the bodies of the people
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=I had to kill because they pissed me off=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=