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NEXTSTEP In Focus - Winter 1994

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NEXTSTEP In Focus, Winter 1994 (Volume 4, Issue 1). 
Copyright  ̄1994 by NeXT Computer, Inc.  All Rights Reserved.


Measuring Local Disk Space

System administrators often want to find how much space is available on just the local disks, without also checking imported file systems.  

There's an infrequently used argument to the UNIX df command that helps with this: the -t flag with an argument specifying the type of the file system to check. Values of the argument to -t can be of any valid file system type, like those used in /etc/fstab or as arguments to or output from the UNIX mount command.

Figure 1 shows three examples of how to use this option. 

Figure 1:  Examples of running df with the -t flag

	sabre [~]-412% 	df -t 4.3 
	Filesystem            kbytes    used   avail capacity  Mounted on
	/dev/sd0b             498935  405012   44029    90%    /NeXT-3.0
	/dev/sd0a             500015  372758   77255    83%    /
	/dev/fd0a               1231     905     326    74%    /SneakerNet
	sabre [~]-413% 	df -i -t 4.3
	Filesystem             iused   ifree  %iused  Mounted on
	/dev/sd0b              23102   83394    22%   /NeXT-3.0
	/dev/sd0a              17075   89421    16%   /
	/dev/fd0a                 16     368     4%   /SneakerNet
	rhino [~]-414% 	df -t dos
	Filesystem            kbytes    used   avail capacity  Mounted on
	/dev/rfd0b              1424    1320    104    93%    /stuff

The first example shows how to examine the free space on the local 4.3BSD-type file systemsÐthese are the normal UNIX file systems on NEXTSTEP computers.  Note that this includes a locally mounted floppy disk, /dev/fd0a, mounted on /SneakerNet.  

The second example shows the same file systems, but instead of checking the free space available, it examines the number of inodes (files) stored on the file systems. The third example shows a floppy disk with a DOS-format file system. 

Thanks to Alan M. Marcum for this useful tip.

sendmail Security Patch

Two versions of sendmail are provided with NEXTSTEP Release 3.1 and 3.2: sendmail (version 5.67) and sendmail.old (version 5.52). Late last year, the Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) identified a handful of security problems with NeXT's versions of sendmail. These problems are described in CERT Advisories CA-93: 16 and CA-93: 16A.  In response, NeXT has modified sendmail and sendmail.old to close these security holes. The new versions are now available as a patch on NeXTanswers. To get them, use e-mail or ftp to retrieve documents 1513 and 1514. 

Mending the Error of Our Ways

We'd like to correct a few inaccuracies in the NEXTSTEP In Focus Fall issue.

In ªAdvanced Networking Tools,º we describe several programs that can help you manage a NEXTSTEP network. These programs are part of UNIX. None of the programs was written by NeXT.

Also, in ªUsing SCSI in a PC World,º a diagram depicts a fax modem card on a SCSI chain. However, we're not aware that any such device is really available. 

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NEXTSTEP In Focus, Winter 1994 (Volume 4, Issue 1). 
Copyright  ̄1994 by NeXT Computer, Inc.  All Rights Reserved.


This regular department features some of the questions asked most often of NeXT Support.  For a more current list, see NeXTanswers document 1470, ªTech Support Frequently Asked Questions.º 

Broken Mouse After Install

When I reboot my computer and the login window is displayed, everything appears fine except that I can't use the mouseÐthe cursor seems to be frozen or not responding.  I can still type, though.

When you install NEXTSTEP, you tell the operating system about your system's specific hardware, like its mouse, graphics adapters, and SCSI adapters. This tells the system which drivers to use. For example, if you have a serial mouse, you should select and install the serial mouse driver.  If you forget to do this during the installation, when you restart NEXTSTEP after the installation the mouse won't work.  

To fix this problem, you first need to restart the computer using the default configuration.  At the boot: prompt, type this command:

boot: config=Default

This starts up NEXTSTEP with all of the mouse drivers loaded.  Log in as root and start up Configure, which is in /NextAdmin.  Select the mouse and configure it according to your hardware setup.

Note: You can use the boot command config=Default whenever you have a specific hardware-related failure. It causes the computer to start up with a basic default configuration, so that you can modify the hardware configuration with Configure.

See also: NeXTanswers document 1360, ªMouse Support.º

Removing NEXTSTEP Boot Sector

How can I remove the NEXTSTEP boot sector?  I installed NEXTSTEP on my hard drive and removed it, but I still get ªBoot Next: v1.17º when starting up.

NEXTSTEP provides two boot sectors: boot0, which boots a DOS-partitioned disk that might have NEXTSTEP or another operating system on it, and boot1, which boots a virtual NEXTSTEP disk.  If you install a disk that has only NEXTSTEP on it, NEXTSTEP writes only the boot1 sector at the beginning of the disk.  If you then go back and reinstall DOS, DOS finds executable code in the boot sector and doesn't replace it, even though the code it found can't boot DOS.  

The solution is either to remove the boot sector before installing DOS or to rewrite the boot sector from DOS after installing DOS.

To remove the boot sector before installing DOS, in NEXTSTEP type the command 
fdisk /dev/rsd0h -removePartitioning.

To rewrite the boot sector, type fdisk /mbr.

Note: These techniques are useful only if you're adding a DOS partition to a NEXTSTEP-only disk. The NEXTSTEP installation software always writes the boot sectors required for NEXTSTEP, so if you created partitions for other operating systems when you first installed NEXTSTEP, 
you don't need to follow this procedure.  NEXTSTEP's boot0 sector is fully compatible with DOS's and can boot any operating system it finds on a partition.

See also: The fdisk UNIX manual page in NEXTSTEP, and ªSurviving DOS,º NEXTSTEP In Focus 3 (Spring 1993), also available as NeXTanswers document 1130.

Installing DOS 6 with NEXTSTEP

I'm having problems installing DOS 6.x on a disk that has the NEXTSTEP boot sector already installed.

DOS 6.x apparently has a version of fdisk that's incompatible with the fdisks in both DOS 5.0 and NEXTSTEP. If you run into this problem while running DOS 6.x, use fdisk to change the active partition.  Or, reformat the drive with DOS 6.x's fdisk and then reinstall NEXTSTEP. You can then use the boot sector as usual.

See also: The fdisk UNIX manual page in NEXTSTEP, and ªSurviving DOS,º 
NEXTSTEP In Focus 3 (Spring 1993), also available as NeXTanswers document 1130.

Can't Connect to Network

When I start up NEXTSTEP, I get a message indicating ªcannot connect to network, press Control-C to continue.º  I believe this is because NetInfo is improperly configured or corrupted.  

This problem can have a variety of causes.  Two possibilities are that the NetInfo database has been corrupted or the network interface controller has been removed.

If the network interface controller has been removed, you can fix the problem by replacing the controller. If the controller is in place, you'll have to take more steps.

One solution is to rebuild the NetInfo database to a default configuration. However, creating a new NetInfo database is generally a drastic measure. If you've invested a lot of time configuring a NetInfo database, you probably would rebuild it from scratch only as a last resort. If this is your situation, ask NeXT's Support group for help before replacing the NetInfo database.  

A better option is to restore the /etc/hostconfig file and the contents of /etc/netinfo from backups made when the network was functioning properly. (You did make backups, didn't you?)

See also: NEXTSTEP Network and System Administration, page 89, and NeXTanswers document 1295, ªRestoring to Default NetInfo Configuration.º

CD-ROM Drives and CD Player

How do I get the CD Player application to work with my CD-ROM Drive?

CD Player is a demo application, so it isn't officially supported by NeXT.  

To allow CD Player to launch automatically when you insert a music CD in the CD-ROM drive, you need to turn on the Public Window Server in the Preferences application. 

Note:  Not all CD-ROM drives work with the CD Player application. NeXT doesn't maintain a list of compatable players.  However, we do know that CD Player is incompatable with the Toshiba 3401 CD-ROM Drive.

Installing the Developer CD-ROM

I've installed the User Version of NEXTSTEP.  When I try to install the Developer disk, I get 
a ªpermission deniedº error.  

You need to be logged in as the user root to install the Developer disk.  If you're logged in as the user me, set a password for me and log back in as root to continue the installation.

See also: The Here's How book.

PCI Bus Compatibility

Is the PCI bus architecture supported by NEXTSTEP?  If so, which peripherals are supported?

PCI is supported by NEXTSTEP.  Currently, however, there are no supported PCI peripherals, because specific drivers need to be written for each peripheral.

See also: NEXTSTEP Hardware Compatibility Guide, NeXTanswers documents 1002 
and 1157.

Cleanly Rebooting

When something goes wrong with my computerÐfor example, when the cursor is frozen on screen or Workspace Manager doesn't start upÐhow can I restart my computer without performing a hard reset and potentially damaging the disk's file system?  

Hold down the right Alternate key and press Num Lock. NEXTSTEP then asks whether you want to halt the computer or restart it. 

This is an easy way to bypass the normal shutdown and logout procedures and ensure that the disk's file system isn't damaged.  

Faxing in NEXTSTEP

What do I need to fax from NEXTSTEP?  I've installed a modem and tried to fax, but it's 
not faxing.

NEXTSTEP requires an additional fax driver specifically written for your fax modem.  NeXT knows of two products that support a variety of common fax modems, including ZyXEL, SupraFAXmodem, Telebit, and Prometheus. The products are these:

Supplier: Black & White Software, Inc.
Phone: (802) 496-8500 
Fax: (802) 496-5112 
E-mail: [email protected]

Supplier: Alembic Systems, Inc.
Phone: 1-800-452-7608 (within the U.S. only)
Fax: (303) 799-1435 
E-mail: [email protected]

See also: Third-Party Products Guide.

Macintosh Networking and NEXTSTEP

I want to connect a computer running NEXTSTEP with a Macintosh or Macintosh network. What tools are available to help me do this?

Several third-party products are available for doing NEXTSTEP to AppleTalk or Mac to TCP/IP networking, including printer sharing.  Here are two companies that provide such products:

Information PresentationTechnologies, Inc.
Products: Partner, uShare
Phone: 1-800-233-9993 (within the U.S.) 
or (805) 541-3000
Fax: (805) 541-3037
Address: 555 Chorro Street, Suite A, 
San Luis Obispo, CA 93405

InterCon Systems Corporation
Products: NFS/Share, InterPrint, Planet X
Phone: (703) 709-5500 or (703) 709-5555
E-mail: [email protected]
Address: 950 Herndon Parkway, Suite 420, Herndon, VA 22070

See also: Third-Party Products Guide.  

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NEXTSTEP In Focus, Winter 1994 (Volume 4, Issue 1). 
Copyright  ̄1994 by NeXT Computer, Inc.  All Rights Reserved.


Upcoming NeXT Training

Need to learn more about NEXTSTEP system administration or development? NeXT is offering several courses the first quarter of 1994 that might help you.

System administration courses

Configuring NEXTSTEP

A two-day class that presents the fundamentals of navigating NEXTSTEP and discusses installation and configuration issues.

Classes in Redwood City

n	February 7 ± 8
n	April 4 ± 5
n	June 13 ± 14

NEXTSTEP System Administration

A four and a half day class that shows you how to administer a NEXTSTEP network. Familiarity with UNIX is highly recommended.

Classes in Redwood City

n	February 21 ± 25
n	March 7 ± 11
n	April 11 ± 15
n	May 30 ± June 1
n	June 27 ± July 1

Classes in Chicago

n	March 28 ± April 1
n	May 23 ± 27

NEXTSTEP Fast-Track System Administration 

A three-day class that shows you how to administer a NEXTSTEP network. Especially for experienced UNIX system administrators.

Classes in Redwood City

n	February 14 ± 16
n	April 25 ± 27

Classes in Chicago

n	May 9 ± 11

Developer courses 

Introducing NEXTSTEP

A five-day course that serves as an entry point for programmers who have no NEXTSTEP experience; it's also useful for technical evaluators of NEXTSTEP. Three days of classroom lecture focus on working with the environment, understanding NEXTSTEP features, and experimenting with the development tools. Two days of exercise and lab allow students to apply the classroom instruction.

Classes in Redwood City

n	March 21 ± 25
n	May 2 ± 6

Programming NEXTSTEP

A five-day course enabling programmers to learn about the NEXTSTEP development environment and programming tools and techniques. Prior C programming experience is required. Familiarity with the Objective C language is valuable, as is knowledge of object-oriented programming, PostScript, and the UNIX operating system. Experience with event-driven windowing systems and graphical user interfaces is also helpful.

Classes in Redwood City

n	February 7 ± 11
n	March 28 ± April 1
n	April 18 ± 22
n	May 30 ± June 3
n	June 20 ± 24

Classes in Chicago

n	February 21 ± 25
n	April 25 ± 29
n	June 6 ± 10

Programming with Database Kit

A two-day course covering the Database Kit  object library and tools for writing database access applications for NEXTSTEP.  Previous NEXTSTEP programming experience and a strong understanding of relational database theory are expected.

Classes in Redwood City

n	March 14 ± 15
n	May 23 ± 24

Classes in Chicago

n	April 11 ± 12
n	June 13 ± 14


A five-day course for experienced 
NEXTSTEP programmers, focusing on advanced features and issues such as performance, portability, and building better 
objects. Three days of classroom lecture focus on NEXTSTEP techniques; two days of exercise and lab allow students to apply the classroom instruction.

Classes in Redwood City

n	February 28 ± March 4
n	May 16 ± 20

To register or get more information

Please call 1-800-848-NeXT. (Outside the U.S. call +1-415-424-8500.) 

Where Did the Disk Go?

In previous issues of NEXTSTEP In Focus, subscribers received a floppy disk inside the back cover that contained on-line versions of the articles.  Beginning with this issue, we are discontinuing the disk. 

On-line versions of NEXTSTEP In Focus can be obtained through NeXT's document retrieval system, NeXTanswers. You can access NeXTanswers by e-mail, anonymous ftp, or faxÐsee ªHow to Talk to NeXTº to find out how. NEXTSTEP In Focus articles can also be obtained on NeXTanswers Quarterly, a quarterly CD-ROM that contains the current contents of NeXTanswers.  

For more information about NEXTSTEP In Focus, NXAppÐNEXTSTEP Developer Journal, or the NeXTanswers Quarterly CD-ROM, call NeXT at 1-800-848-NeXT.  (From outside the U.S., please call +1-415-424-8500.) 

How to Talk to NeXT

You can reach NeXT several different ways. We look forward to hearing from you!

To reach NeXT in North America

Information, product registration, and order status

n	To get NeXT literature or find the location of your nearest NeXT sales office or reseller, call 	1-800-TRY-NeXT.

n	To order or find out about support products, or to register new NeXT products and warranties, call 	1-800-848-NeXT, fax (415) 363-5188, or write to us at:

	Customer Support 
	NeXT Computer, Inc.
	900 Chesapeake Drive
	Redwood City, CA 94063 

n	For order status, call 1-800-848-NeXT or fax 1-800-228-NeXT.

Technical support

n	For information on many technical topics, use NeXTanswers, a free automated information retrieval 	system. To use it by e-mail, send mail with the subject ªHELPº to  [email protected] To 	use it by anonymous ftp, connect to To use it by fax with a touch-tone phone, call 	(415) 780-3990 (in the United States only). 

n	For technical support through the Hotline, call 1-800-848-NeXT, or send e-mail to 	[email protected] (There's a charge for this support.)

n	To comment on quality of support, e-mail Sysadmin_�[email protected] or 
	[email protected] You can also fax comments to (415) 363-5188.


n	Send comments about this journal by e-mail to [email protected], or by U.S. mail:

	NeXT Computer, Inc.
	900 Chesapeake Drive
	Redwood City, CA 94063

n	To subscribe to NEXTSTEP In Focus, use the order form in this issue.


n	To register for or to inquire about training in North America, call 1-800-848-NeXT. If you're calling from outside North America, call +1-510-732-5069.

Reporting bugs

n	To report NEXTSTEP software problems and suspected bugs, send e-mail to 
	[email protected] (Use BugNeXT in /NextDeveloper/Demos.)

To reach NeXT in Europe

Contact NeXT's European Headquarters by calling or faxing:

	NeXT Computer Germany GmbH
	Oskar-Messter-Strasse 24
	85737 Ismaning
	Phone: +49/89.996.5310
	Fax: +49/89.961.2392

To reach NeXT in the United Kingdom

Contact NeXT in the United Kingdom by sending e-mail to [email protected], or by calling or faxing:

	NeXT Computer U.K. Limited
	Somerville House
	50a Bath Road
	Hounslow, Middlesex TW3 3EE
	United Kingdom
	Phone: +44 81 565 0005
	Fax: +44 81 565 0016

To reach NeXT in Asia

Contact NeXT in the the Asia/Pacific region by calling or faxing:

	NeXT Computer K.K.
	Shin-Kawasaki Mitsui Bldg. 16F
	890-12 Kashimada
	Saiwai-ku, Kasawasaki-shi
	Kanagawa 211
	Phone: +81-44-549-5550
	Fax: +81-44-549-5497  

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