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PowerPC FAQ

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From: [email protected] (Derek B. Noonburg)
Newsgroups: comp.sys.powerpc.misc,comp.sys.powerpc.tech,comp.sys.amiga.hardware,comp.answers,news.answers
Subject: PowerPC Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Supersedes: <[email protected]>
Followup-To: comp.sys.powerpc.misc
Date: 27 Feb 1997 20:28:49 GMT
Organization: Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon
Lines: 2007
Approved: [email protected]
Expires: 12 Apr 1997 20:28:44 GMT
Message-ID: <PowerPC_[email protected]>
NNTP-Posting-Host: vw.ece.cmu.edu
Summary: This posting contains a list of frequently asked questions
	about the PowerPC architecture and PowerPC-based computers.
Originator: [email protected]
Xref: univ-lyon1.fr comp.sys.powerpc.misc:2666 comp.sys.powerpc.tech:4428 comp.sys.amiga.hardware:150264 comp.answers:24511 news.answers:95689

Archive-name: powerpc-faq
Last-modified: 27-February-97

========================================================================
                              PowerPC FAQ
                                    
                            27 February 1997
========================================================================

The PowerPC FAQ is maintained by Derek Noonburg ([email protected]).
Please send me any and all additions, corrections, clarfications, and
suggestions.

# An HTML version of this FAQ is now available on the World Wide Web
# <URL:http://www.mot.com/SPS/PowerPC/library/ppc_faq/ppc_faq.html>.

Changes since last version (16 January 1997):

  * added: 3-3, 3-6, 4-7

  * changed:

  * moved:

This document uses uniform resource locators (URLs) to refer to net
resources. For more information, see the World Wide Web (WWW) FAQ. In
general, for a URL of the form:
    <URL:ftp://foo.bar.com/someDirectory/someFile>
you should anonymous ftp to foo.bar.com, cd into someDirectory, and get
someFile. For a URL of the form:
    <URL:gopher://foo.bar.com/path>
you should gopher to foo.bar.com, and follow the path. URLs of the form:
    <URL:http://foo.bar.com/path>
indicate a hypertext document, which require a WWW viewer (such as
Mosaic) to read.

========================================================================
                                 Index
========================================================================

[1] Introduction
    [1-1] Where can a current copy of this FAQ be obtained?
    [1-2] Can I convert this FAQ to a different format and/or
          redistribute it?
    [1-3] What newsgroups are appropriate for PowerPC discussions?
    [1-4] What other FAQs contain PowerPC information?
    [1-5] What other net sources (ftp, gopher, etc.) contain PowerPC
          information?
    [1-6] Bibliography: where can I get more information on the PowerPC?
    [1-7] Contributors.

[2] Processor
    [2-1] What is a PowerPC?
    [2-2] How does PowerPC relate to POWER and POWER2?
    [2-3] What processors have been announced? What are their specs?
          When will they be available?
    [2-4] What processors have been announced by companies other than
          IBM and Motorola?
    [2-5] What embedded controllers will be available?
    [2-6] How fast is a PowerPC?
    [2-7] Is there special hardware for emulating 68k or x86 processors?
    [2-8] What is the PowerPC 615?
    [2-9] Does PowerPC have anything like Intel's MMX instructions or
          the SPARC VIS instructions?

[3] Hardware
    [3-1]  What PowerPC-based workstations are/will be available? When
           will they be available? How much will they cost?
    [3-2]  What PowerPC-based PReP-compliant (IBM-compatible) personal
           computers are/will be available? When will they be available?
           How much will they cost?
    [3-3]  What PowerPC-based Apple (and compatible) personal computers
           are/will be available? When will they be available? How much
           will they cost?
    [3-4]  What PowerPC-based controllers are/will be available? When
           will they be available? How much will they cost?
    [3-5]  What PowerPC-based supercomputers and parallel processors
           are/will be available? When will they be available? How much
           will they cost?
    [3-6]  What other PowerPC-based systems are/will be available? When
           will they be available? How much will they cost?
    [3-7]  What is PReP and how can I get a copy?
    [3-8]  What is the Common Hardware Reference Platform (CHRP)?
    [3-9]  Can PowerPC 601-based computers be upgraded to, e.g., a 604
           when they become available?
    [3-10] Where can I get the specifications for the PCI bus?
    [3-11] Can I used any PCI card in my PowerMac/PReP/etc.?
    [3-12] What is FireWire?

[4] Software
    [4-1] What operating systems will run on PowerPC-based computers?
          When will they be available?
    [4-2] What is PowerOpen?
    [4-3] What is Taligent / Pink?
    [4-4] Will NeXTStep be ported to the PowerPC?
    [4-5] What is WorkplaceOS? Will OS/2 be available on PowerPC-based
          computers?
    [4-6] Can IBM-PC / Macintosh software be run on PowerPC-based
          computers?
    [4-7] What PowerPC development tools are available?

[5] Comparisons
    [5-1] Should I buy a PowerPC system rather than a Pentium or 68k
          system?
    [5-2] What will be the differences between the various PowerPC-based
          personal computers?

[6] Miscellaneous
    [6-1] What's the deal with Ford and the PowerPC?
    [6-2] What's the deal with 3DO and the PowerPC?

========================================================================
                            [1] Introduction
========================================================================

[1-1] Where can a current copy of this FAQ be obtained?

This FAQ is posted monthly on comp.sys.powerpc, comp.answers, and
news.answers. The hypertext (HTML) version is available on the Motorola
World Wide Web server
<URL:http://www.mot.com/SPS/PowerPC/library/ppc_faq/ppc_faq.html>. The
text version is available from the news.answers archives via anonymous
ftp <URL:ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/powerpc-faq>. This
can also be obtained by sending email to
[email protected] with the body
    send usenet/news.answers/powerpc-faq
For other archive sites, see the "news.answers Introduction" post.

[1-2] Can I convert this FAQ to a different format and/or redistribute
it?

This FAQ may be redistributed as long as the following guidelines are
met:

  * You notify me by email that you are redistributing the FAQ.

  * The attribution notice ("The PowerPC FAQ is maintained by ...") is
    left intact.

  * The instructions for obtaining current copies of the FAQ (Question
    1-1) are left intact.

  * You use the latest version of the FAQ you can get.

  * Any modifications (other than formatting) that you make are clearly
    marked as such.

If you convert the FAQ to a different format, please email me a copy. If
it is impossible to email it, contact me for other arrangements.

If you are redistributing the FAQ and would like to get an up-to-date
copy each month via email, let me know, and I will add you to my mailing
list. Please specify text, HTML, or both.

[1-3] What newsgroups are appropriate for PowerPC discussions?

comp.sys.powerpc

    The primary newsgroup for PowerPC discussion. "Comp.sys.powerpc
    (unmoderated) will be a newsgroup which will provide a common forum
    to users and developers of products based on the PowerPC
    architecture."

comp.sys.powerpc.advocacy

    "To discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the PowerPC architecture
    and specific processors implementating that architecture."

comp.sys.powerpc.tech

    "To discuss the technical issues surrounding the PowerPC
    architecture, the features of specific processors implementing that
    architecture, and efficient programming techniques for PowerPC-based
    systems (i.e. code optimisation)."

comp.sys.powerpc.misc

    "To discuss matters related to the PowerPC processor family that
    otherwise do not belong in a specific group."

comp.sys.mac.*

    Discussions which are specifically related to PowerMac hardware or
    the MacOS should be taken to one of these newsgroup.

comp.sys.be

    For discussion related to the Be operating system and computers.

(Text in quotes is taken from the official newsgroup charter.)

[1-4] What other FAQs contain PowerPC information?

The Macintosh PowerPC FAQ has been discontinued.

Robert Boys maintains two FAQs of interest to comp.sys.powerpc readers.
The comp.sys.m68k FAQ contains some information on the PowerPC,
including the PowerPC embedded controllers. It is posted to
comp.sys.m68k, comp.answers, and news.answers, and is available via ftp
<URL:ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/motorola/68k-chips-faq>
and on the WWW
<URL:http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu:/text/faq/usenet/motorola/68k-chips-faq/faq.html>.
The comp.arch.bus.vmebus FAQ, posted to comp.arch.bus.vmebus, contains
information on PowerPC-based VME cards.

The Linux for PowerPC FAQ is available via ftp
<URL:ftp://ftp.linuxppc.org/linuxppc/linux_ppc_faq.txt> and on the WWW
<URL:http://www.linuxppc.org/linuxppc/linux_ppc_faq.html>.

[1-5] What other net sources (ftp, gopher, etc.) contain PowerPC
information?

Apple/IBM/Motorola:

  * Apple Computer home page <URL:http://www.apple.com/>.

  * IBM home page <URL:http://www.ibm.com/>.

  * IBM's PowerPC page <URL:http://www.chips.ibm.com:80/products/ppc/>.

  * Motorola home page <URL:http://www.mot.com/>.

  * Motorola's PowerPC page <URL:http://www.mot.com/SPS/PowerPC/>.

Miscellaneous:

  * The PowerPC News
    <URL:http://apt.usa.globalnews.com/powerpc/ppchome.htm> was an
    Internet-based free magazine, publishing news for both users and
    developers of PowerPC systems. The last issue was published on 9
    July 1996. Back issues are still available at the web site.

  * The Embedded PowerPC Internet Resources
    <URL:http://www.cera2.com/gatoxppc.htm> list.

Online services:

  * America Online has a Power Macintosh Forum (as part of the Mac
    Hardware Forum).

  * CompuServe has PowerPC and Macintosh Hardware forums.

  * Delphi has a Macintosh SIG.

  * Fidonet has a PowerPC echo (Area: POWERPC) for discussions about
    "PowerPC hardware, software issues, availablity, RISC technology,
    developers, and more. Covers both PC and Mac versions."

  * GEnie has two PowerPC roundtables: PowerPC (PPC) on page 1435 and
    PowerPC programmers' on page 1440.

[1-6] Bibliography: where can I get more information on the PowerPC?

Manuals and databooks:

  * Motorola publishes several brochures and manuals. See their PowerPC
    Technical Library
    <URL:http://www.mot.com/SPS/PowerPC/library/library.html> page for a
    list (including online copies).

    You can also contact Motorola's Literature Distribution Centers:

    USA

        Motorola Literature Distribution
        P.O. Box 20912
        Phoenix, AZ, 85036
        1-800-441-2447

    Europe

        Motorola Ltd.
        European Literature Center
        88 Tanners Drive
        Blakelands, Milton Keynes, MK14 5BP, England

    Japan

        Nippon Motorola Ltd.
        4-32-1, Nishi-Gotanda, Shinagawa-ku
        Tokyo 141 Japan

    Asia-Pacific

        Motorola Semiconductors H.K. Ltd.
        Silicon Harbour Center
        No. 2 Dai King Street
        Tai Po Industrial Estate
        Tai Po, N.T., Hong Kong

  * IBM manuals and databooks are available from IBM Publications
    <URL:http://www.elink.ibmlink.ibm.com/pbl/pbl>. In the USA:
    IBM Corporation
    P.O.Box 29570
    Raleigh NC 27626-0570
    phone: 1-800-879-2755
    fax: 1-800-445-9269
    email: [email protected]

  * A PowerMac-specific manual is available from APDA:

      * Programmer's Introduction to RISC and PowerPC (R0172LL/A) --
        $150

Books:

# Most of this info has been culled from the net. I haven't actually
# read all of these books. If you've read one of them and are willing to
# write a very short review (5-6 lines), let me know. - Derek
# ([email protected])

  * Apple, IBM, and Motorola, _PowerPC Microprocessor Common Hardware
    Reference Platform: A System Architecture_; 1995; ISBN
    1-55860-394-8. [Also available on the WWW from IBM
    <URL:http://www.austin.ibm.com/tech/chrp/index.html> and Apple
    <URL:http://chrp.apple.com/>.]

  * Jeff Duntemann and Ron Pronk, _Inside the PowerPC Revolution_;
    Coriolis Group Books; April 30, 1994; ISBN 1-883577-04-7; $24.95.
    [Not a technical book for programmers. (Surprisingly, it has some
    detailed info about microprocessor fabrication and the PowerPC cache
    architecture, but doesn't discuss the instruction set or bus). Lots
    of interesting stuff about the major industry companies, strategies,
    alliances, and gossip. With the benefit of hindsight, we can laugh
    at the authors enthusiastic predictions for the IBM PowerPC products
    available Real Soon Now. [email protected]]

  * Steve Heath, _NEWNES Power PC Programming Pocket Book_;
    Butterworth-Heinemann; Nov. 1994; ISBN 0-7506-2111-7; $22.95.
    [Similar information to the 601 user's manual.]

  * Jim Hoskins, _The Power PC Revolution!_; MaxFacts Special Report
    (Maximum Press); Aug., 1994; ISBN 0-9633214-9-8; $26.95.
    [Concentrates on the effects the PowerPC will have on business.]

  * Steve Hoxey, Faraydon Karim, Bill Hay, and Hank Warren, _The PowerPC
    Compiler Writer's Guide_; IBM Microelectronics Division; Jan., 1996;
    ISBN 0-9649654-0-2. [Also available on the WWW
    <URL:http://www.chips.ibm.com/products/ppc/Developers/Compiler/cover.htm>.]

  * IBM, _IBM RISC System/6000 Technology_. [Describes the POWER
    architecture and the POWER-based RS/6000 workstations.]

  * IBM, _PowerPC and POWER2: Technical Aspects of the New IBM Risc
    System/6000_; Apr., 1994; IBM book number SA23-2737-00. [Describes
    the PowerPC and POWER2 architectures and the workstations based on
    these processors, including I/O, graphics, and system software.
    (This was _RS/6000 Tech Vol. II_.) Available for around $40 from
    IBM: 1-800-879-2755. Selected papers from this book are available
    via the WWW <URL:http://www.austin.ibm.com/tech>.]

  * IBM, _PowerPC Architecture_; Oct., 1993; IBM book number
    SR28-5124-00. [The official manual for the PowerPC architecture.
    Three parts: instruction set architecture, virtual environment
    architecture, and operating environment architecture.]

  * IBM, _The PowerPC Architecture -- A Specification for a New Family
    of RISC Processors_; Morgan Kaufmann Publishers; Aug. 1994; ISBN
    1-55860-316-6; $54.95. ["This is the official technical description
    of the PowerPC architecture and its hardware conventions." Errata
    are available via ftp
    <URL:ftp://ftp.austin.ibm.com/pub/technology/errata.ps.Z>.]

  * Gary Kacmarcik, _Optimizing PowerPC Code: Programming the PowerPC
    Chip in Assembly Language_; Addison-Wesley; ISBN 0-201-40839-2. [Not
    PowerMac or IBM-specific.]

  * Ron Rahmel and Dan Rahmel, _Interfacing to the PowerPC
    Microprocessor_; SAMS Publishing; 1995. [Includes info on FireWire,
    along with several other buses and interfaces.]

  * Stephan Somogyi, _The PowerPC Macintosh Book_; Addison-Wesley;
    August 1994; ISBN 0-201-62650-0; $19.95. ["could equally be called
    'The story of the Macintoshes RISCy new Insides' ... It manages to
    cover the history of the PowerPC alliance, looking at Power Mac
    hardware and software, and includes sections on the internals of the
    chip itself." -PowerPC News]

  * Dan Sydow, _Programming the Power PC_; M&T Books; Aug. 1994; ISBN
    1-55851-400-7; $34.94. [Covers 601, 603, 604, as well as x86-to-PPC
    migration.]

  * Shlomo Weiss and James E Smith, _IBM Power and PowerPC: Architecture
    and Implementation_; Morgan Kaufmann Publishers; May 1994; ISBN
    1-55860-279-8; $54.95. ["Writtten from the perspective of developers
    and teachers of high performance computing, this book provides a
    wealth of information about IBM's important contributions to the
    development and evolution of RISC technology."]

  * Jerry Young, _Insider's Guide to PowerPC Computing_; QUE
    Corporation; May 1994; ISBN 1-56529-625-7; $29.99. [Provides
    detailed information on the new architecture and its history, from
    the early IBM RISC designs. Describes the relationship between the
    PowerPC architecture and IBM's POWER architecture, from which it was
    developed. Provides description of the characteristics and
    advantages of RISC architecture and the special features of the
    PowerPC architecture. Includes in-depth descriptions of the 601 and
    603 microprocessors and offers an overview of early PowerPC-based
    systems.]

  * Joe Zobkiw, _A Fragment of Your Imagination_; Addison-Wesley; Aug.,
    1995; ISBN 0-201-48358-0; $39.95. [Code Fragments and Code Resources
    for Power Macintosh and Macintosh Programmers. WWW
    <URL:http://www.triplesoft.com/fragment/>; [email protected]]

  * ???, _PowerPC Concepts, Architecture, and Design_; McGraw-Hill;
    1994; ISBN 0-07-011192-8; $34.95.

Papers, articles, etc.:

  * Michael S. Allen, Michael C. Becker, "Multiprocessing Aspects of the
    PowerPC 601 Microprocessor", Proc. COMPCON 1993, 117-126. [A good
    introduction to the PowerPC instruction set for the curious or
    beginners. ("Reduced" it ain't!) The Motorola manual is a mass of
    fine detail to get lost in, but this article gives a nice overview
    of how the instructions are organised and formatted.
    [email protected]]

  * J. Alvarez, et al., "A wide-bandwidth low-voltage PLL for PowerPC
    microprocessors", Proc. 1994 IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits, 37-38.

  * William Anderson, "An overview of Motorola's PowerPC simulator
    family", Communications of the ACM, v37 n6, 64-69.

  * Michael C. Becker et al., "The PowerPC 601 Microprocessor", IEEE
    Micro, Oct. 1993, 54-68.

  * J. Bertsch, et al., "Experimental 2.0 V power/performance
    optimization of a 3.6 V-design CMOS microprocessor-PowerPC 601",
    Proc. 1994 VLSI Technology Symposium, 83-84.

  * David Biedny, "PowerPC: the era of RISC begins", Windows Sources, v2
    n6 p140(7). [includes related articles on the PowerPC family,
    glossary, pros and cons of PowerPC architecture, benchmark tests]

  * Brad Burgess, et al., "The PowerPC 603 microprocessor",
    Communications of the ACM, v37 n6, June, 1994, 34-42.

  * Brad Burgess et al., "The PowerPC 603 Micrporocessor: A High
    Performance, Low Power, Superscalar RISC Microprocessor", Proc.
    COMPCON 1994, 300-306.

  * Dave Bursky, "RISC microcontrollers start with PowerPC roots but
    grow in different directions", Electronic Design, v42 n10, 38-39.
    [IBM's PowerPC 403GA embedded processor and Motorola's RMCU505
    microcontroller.]

  * B. Dawson, "PowerPC hits the road", Byte v19 n7, 141-142.

  * K. Diefendorff, R. Oehler, R. Hochsprung, "Evolution of the PowerPC
    Architecture", IEEE Micro, Apr. 93, 34-49. [Although the authors
    intend this to be a guide to the changes from the earlier POWER to
    the PowerPC, they end up giving an introduction to the internal
    architecture of the PowerPC and instructions, plus the reasons why
    many things are as they are-for instance, why the PowerPC has some
    user mode cache instructions. [email protected]]

  * Keith Diefendorff, "History of the PowerPC architecture",
    Communications of the ACM, v37 n6, June, 1994, 28-33.

  * Mary Jo Foley, "IBM to push OS/2 for PowerPC over Windows NT, AIX
    ports", PC Week, v11 n24, 23.

  * Ric Ford, "Hacking PPC Enabler plus other updates", MacWEEK v8 n27,
    July 4, 1994, 28.

  * S. Glenn, et al., "Functional design verification for the PowerPC
    601 microprocessor", Proc. of IEEE VLSI Test Symposium.

  * Linley Gwennap, "Prep Standardizes PowerPC Systems", Microprocessor
    Report, Dec. 27, 1993.

  * Ean Houts, "Lower priced Power Macs offer different strengths",
    InfoWorld, v16 n18, May 2, 1994, 128.

  * Wayne Huang, et al., "CBGA package design for C4 powerPC
    microprocessor chips: trade-off between substrate routability and
    performance", Proc. 1994 IEEE 44th Electronic Components &
    Technology Conference, 88-93.

  * Sara Humphrey, "Inside the PowerPC Revolution", PC Week, v11 n26,
    July 4, 1994. [book reviews]

  * E. M. Kass, "PowerPC Surprise", InformationWEEK, n474, 12-14.

  * Andrew Lawrence, "PowerPC - a new desktop standard?", IBM System
    User, v15 n5, May, 1994, 43-44.

  * J. Marris, "PowerPC - an analysis", Desktop Publishing Commentary v9
    n9, 6-9.

  * Charles R. Moore, "The PowerPC 601 Microprocessor", Proc. COMPCON
    1993, 109-116.

  * Charles R. Moore, et al., "The PowerPC Alliance", Communications of
    the ACM, v37 n6, June, 1994, 25-27.

  * Richard Nass, "VME boards combine PCI bus and PowerPC CPUs",
    Electronic Design, v42 n14, July 11, 1994, 129-131.

  * Ali Poursepanj, "The PowerPC; performance modeling methodology",
    Communications of the ACM, v37 n6, June, 1994, 47-55.

  * Chris Rose, "Abstracting the meat of the PowerPC Reference Platform
    beta version - part one", Computergram International, May 27, 1994.

  * Chris Rose, "Abstracting the meat of the PowerPC Reference Platform
    beta version - part two", Computergram International, June 6, 1994.

  * Ryan, Thompson, "PowerPC 604 Weighs In", Byte, June, 1994.

  * Larry J. Seltzer, "OS/2 for PowerPC: microkernel for the masses?",
    PC Week, v11 n22, June 6, 1994, 81-82.

  * Julie Shipnes, et al., "A modular approach to Motorola PowerPC
    compilers", Communications of the ACM, v37 n6, June, 1994, 56-63.

  * E. Silha, G. Paap, "PowerPC: A Performance Architecture", Proc.
    COMPCON 1993, 104-108.

  * Michael Slater, "Motorola and IBM Unveil PowerPC 603",
    Microprocessor Report, Oct. 25, 1993.

  * J. E. Smith, et al., "PowerPC 601 and Alpha 21064: a tale of two
    RISCs", Computer, v27 n6, 46-58.

  * Brad W. Suessmith, et al., "PowerPC 603 microprocessor; power
    management", Communications of the ACM, v37 n6, June, 1994, 43-36.

  * Nasr Ullah, et al., "The making of the PowerPC", Communications of
    the ACM, v37 n6, June, 1994, 22-23.

  * Michael Vizard, "The Tower of PowerPC; Untapped potential in search
    of a killer application", PC Week, v11 n24, 22-23.

  * "Apple and IBM demonstrate 120-MHz 601" Microprocessor Report, v8
    n8, June 20, 1994, 4-5.

  * "Floating-point bottleneck", MacWEEK, v8 n21, 44. [comparing
    performance of Motorola PowerPC and Intel CPUs]

  * "The Making of the PowerPC" (special issue), Communications of the
    ACM, June, 1994.

  * "Parsytec produces TRAM module that combines PowerPC with T425
    transputer for industrial applications", Computergram International,
    June 20, 1994.

  * PowerPC special issue, IEEE Micro, Oct., 1994.

[1-7] Contributors.

The following people have contributed to this FAQ. (Please do not
contact them with questions about the FAQ.)

  * Alan Coopersmith ([email protected])

  * Hugh Fisher ([email protected])

  * Chris Pepper ([email protected])

  * Stuart Schechter ([email protected])

  * Robert Sprick ([email protected])

  * Yoshio Turner ([email protected])

========================================================================
                             [2] Processor
========================================================================

[2-1] What is a PowerPC?

A PowerPC is a microprocessor designed to meet a standard which was
jointly designed by Motorola, IBM, and Apple. The PowerPC standard
specifies a common instruction set architecture (ISA), allowing anyone
to design and fabricate PowerPC processors, which will run the same
code. The PowerPC architecture is based on the IBM POWER architecture,
used in IBM's RS/6000 workstations. Currently IBM and Motorola are
working on PowerPC chips.

The PowerPC architecture specifies both 32-bit and 64-bit data paths.
Early implementations will be 32-bit; future higher-performance
implementations will be 64-bit. A PowerPC has 32 general purpose
(integer) registers (32- or 64-bit) and 32 floating point (IEEE standard
64-bit) registers.

NB: A PowerPC is *not* a computer, any more than an 80486 is a computer.

[2-2] How does PowerPC relate to POWER and POWER2?

As mentioned above, PowerPC is a direct descendant of POWER. POWER2 is
also a descendant of POWER, developed by IBM for use in their
workstations and other systems. POWER2 is an eight-chip multi-chip
module, and was released at approximately the same time as the first
PowerPC chip. While it is faster than the early PowerPC processors, it
is not as fast as the 620 is projected to be. It is likely that IBM will
combine the POWER family into the PowerPC family.

[2-3] What processors have been announced? What are their specs? When
will they be available?

PowerPC 601

    The very first PowerPC. It was designed as a bridge between the
    POWER architecture and the PowerPC architecture. For this reason, it
    incorporates the user-level POWER instructions which were eliminated
    from the PowerPC specification.

PowerPC 601v

    This is a 601, implemented in a 0.5u CMOS 2.5V process. This
    effectively means that it runs faster and draws less power.
    (Originally called the "601+".)

PowerPC 602

    A processor aimed at consumer electronics (set-top boxes, game
    consoles, etc.), PDAs, and embedded controller applications.

PowerPC 603

    A low-power processor, intended for portable applications, e.g.,
    notebook computers. Performance is roughly comparable to the 601
    (see below for benchmarks).

PowerPC 603e

    A higher-performance 603 with a faster clock and bigger caches.
    (Originally called the "603+".)

PowerPC 603ev

    A lower-voltage, faster-clock version of the 603e.

PowerPC 604

    A higher-performance processor, intended for high-end desktop
    systems.

PowerPC 604e

    A 604 with larger caches.

PowerPC 620

    An even higher-performance processor, aimed at high-end systems and
    multiprocessors. The 620 is the first 64-bit PowerPC implementation.

G3 Series

    The "next generation" of PowerPC processors, expected to ship in
    1997.

G4 Series

    Expected in 1999.

The 601 is manufactured by IBM and sold by both IBM and Motorola. The
603 and 603e are manufactured by both IBM and Motorola.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Processor  Clk(MHz)  Voltage(V)  Power(W)  Bus clock multipliers
---------  --------  ----------  --------  ---------------------
MPC601        50                    5.6    ?
              66                    7
              80                    8
MPC601+      100                    4      ?
             110                    ?
MPC602        66                    1.2    ?
MPC603        66                    2.2    1-4 (+1)
              80                    2.5
MPC603e      100        3.3         3.2    1-4 (+0.5)
             120                    3.9
             133                    4.2
             150                    ?
             160                    ?
             166                    ?
             180                    ?
             200                    3.3    2-6 (+0.5)
MPC603ev     160        2.5         2.9    2-6 (+0.5)
             166                    3.0
             180                    3.5
             200                    4.0
             225                    4.4
             240                    4.8
MPC604       100                   14      1-2 (+0.5), 3
             120                   16.5
             133                    ?
             150                   20.5
             166                   23.0
             180                   26.5
MPC604e      166                   14      1-3 (+0.5), 4
             180                    ?
             200                    ?
             225                    ?
MPC620       133                   30      ?

         Data  Bus    Func units                            Si      Ship
Proc     width width  (I/FP/BP/LS) Cache  Trans Process     date    date
-------- ----- -----  ------------ ------ ----- ----------- ------- ------
MPC601     32  64     1/1/1/0      32       2.8 0.6u CMOS   Oct 92  Apr 93
MPC601+    32  64     1/1/1/0      32       2.8 0.5u CMOS   2Q  94  Nov 94
MPC602     32  64     1/1/0/1      4/4      1.0 0.5u CMOS   Feb 95  2H  95
MPC603     32  32/64  1/1/1/1      8/8      1.6 0.5u CMOS   Oct 93  Nov 94
MPC603e    32  32/64  1/1/1/1      16/16    2.6 0.5u CMOS   Feb 95  2H  95
MPC603ev   32  32/64  1/1/1/1      16/16    2.6 0.35u CMOS  ?       ?
MPC604     32  64     3/1/1/1      16/16    3.6 0.5u CMOS   Apr 94  Dec 94
MPC604e    32  64     3/1/1/1      32/32    5.1 0.5u CMOS   ?       ?
MPC620     64  64/128 3/1/1/1      32/32    7   0.5u CMOS   Apr 96  ?

Notes:
* Bus clock multipliers: the internal CPU clock runs at a multiple of
  the external bus clock; "1-4 (+0.5)" means the possible multipliers
  are 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, and 4.
* Data width: width of the general purpose (integer/address)
  registers and integer ALU(s), in bits
* Bus width: external memory data bus width, in bits -- the memory
  bus can be, and often is, wider than the internal data path
* Functional units: I  = integer unit
                    FP = floating point unit
                    BP = branch processing unit
                    LS = load/store unit
* Cache: On-chip cache in kilobytes - two numbers means
  instruction/data; one number means unified
* Price: in US dollars, for large quantities
* Trans: number of transistors, in millions
* Si date: first silicon date
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[2-4] What processors have been announced by companies other than IBM
and Motorola?

Exponential Technology, Inc. <URL:http://www.exp.com/> has announced a
new line of PowerPC processors. They will be fabricated in BiCMOS
technology -- the logic is bipolar, and the memory (registers, cache,
etc.) is CMOS. Their first processor, the X704, will run at 466, 500,
and 533 MHz, and is expected to ship in volume in mid-1997.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Processor  Clk(MHz)  Voltage(V)  Power(W)  Bus clock multipliers
---------  --------  ----------  --------  ---------------------
X704         466        3.6       <85      4-17 (+1)
             500
             533

         Data  Bus    Func units                            Si      Ship
Proc     width width  (I/FP/BP/LS) Cache  Trans Process     date    date
-------- ----- -----  ------------ ------ ----- ----------- ------- ------
X704       32  64     1/1/1/1      2/2+32   2.7 0.5u BiCMOS Oct  96 2Q 97?

Notes:
* Cache: on-chip L1 (instruction/data) + on-chip L2 (unified)
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Quantum Effect Designs <URL:http://www.qedinc.com/> has announced the
603q low-power PowerPC processor.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Processor  Clk(MHz)  Voltage(V)  Power(W)  Bus clock multipliers
---------  --------  ----------  --------  ---------------------
603q         120        3.3         1.2    ?
             166        3.3         ?      ?

         Data  Bus    Func units                            Si      Ship
Proc     width width  (I/FP/BP/LS) Cache  Trans Process     date    date
-------- ----- -----  ------------ ------ ----- ----------- ------- ------
603q       32  ?      I+FP         16/8     ?   0.5u CMOS   Oct  96 ?
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[2-5] What embedded controllers will be available?

IBM has announced the PowerPC 4xx embedded controller family. These will
be available as general purpose microcontrollers, application-specific
processors, and ASIC cores. The 4xx family will integrate caches and
other system-level logic to facilitate simpler and cheaper designs. The
available chips are the 403GA and 403GB, and the newer 401GF. The 401GF
be available at speeds from 25 to 100 MHz.

Motorola has announced the MPC500 family of microcontrollers. These
microprocessors will be "100% compatible" with the MPC600 series. The
first chip in this family, the MPC505, will run at 25 MHz. Samples of
the 25 MHz chip are expected in 4Q 1994, with 40 MHz parts expected by
4Q 1995. The MPC505 consists of a PowerPC core, a 4 kB SRAM module, and
a multi-functional system integration unit (SIU) (similar to the 68300
family).

Motorola's PowerQUICC (Quad Integrated Communications Controller) family
integrates a PowerPC core with a communications processor. These chips
are aimed at telecommunications and networking applications. The first
PowerQUICC chip, the MPC860, will come in 25 MHz and 40 MHz versions,
and is expected to sample in 4Q1995 with volume shipping in 2Q1996.

The Motorola MPC821 is similar to the MPC860, but is targeted at PDAs
and other portable devices. The MPC821 incorporates a PowerPC core, a
communications processor module (CPM) for signal processing, a PCMCIA
controller, and an LCD controller. It will be available in 25 MHz and 40
MHz versions, with sampling in October 1995 and production quantities in
January 1996.

The list of Embedded PowerPC Internet Resources
<URL:http://www.cera2.com/gatoxppc.htm>, has pointers to lots of useful
information.

[2-6] How fast is a PowerPC?

This tables lists SPEC92 and SPEC95 results for PowerPC machines, as
well as a few others, for comparison purposes. (SPEC is a benchmark
suite designed to test system performance. The SPECint portion uses
integer-only code, e.g., compilers; the SPECfp program uses floating
point code, e.g., circuit simulation.)

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                     -- SPEC92 --  
Processor      Clock   Cache         int    fp     System
------------  -------  ------------  -----  -----  ---------------------
MPC601         50 MHz  0/32k          41.7   51.0  IBM RS/6000 N40
               66 MHz  0/32k          62.6   72.2  IBM RS/6000 250
               66 MHz  0/32k          63.7   67.8  IBM RS/6000 40P
               66 MHz  256k/32k       75.1   77.0  IBM RS/6000 40P
               80 MHz  0/32k          78.8   90.4  IBM RS/6000 250
               80 Mhz  0.5M/32k       88.1   98.7  IBM RS/6000 41T & 41W
               80 Mhz  1M/32k         90.5  100.8  IBM RS/6000 C10
MPC601+       100 MHz  ?/32k         105    125    ? estimate
MPC602         66 MHz  ?/4k/4k        40      ?    Motorola/IBM estimate
MPC603         66 MHz  1M/8k/8k       60     70    Motorola estimate
               80 MHz  1M/8k/8k       75     85    Motorola estimate
MPC603e       100 MHz  ?/16k/16k     120    105    Motorola/IBM estimate
MPC604        100 MHz  256k/16k/16k  128.1  120.2  IBM RS/6000 43P
              100 MHz  512k/16k/16k  140.8  129.1  IBM RS/6000 43P
              120 MHz  512k/16k/16k  157.9  139.2  IBM RS/6000 43P
              133 MHz  512k/16k/16k  176.4  156.5  IBM RS/6000 43P
MPC620        133 MHz  ?/32k/32k     225    300    estimate
i486DX2        66 MHz  256k/8k        32.2   16.0  Compaq Deskpro
i486DX4       100 MHz  256k/16k       51.4   26.6  Micronics M4P PCI
Pentium        66 MHz  256k/8k/8k     78.0   63.6  Intel Xpress
Pentium       100 MHz  1M/8k/8k      121.9   93.2  Intel Xpress
Pentium       120 MHz  1M/8k/8k      140.0  103.9  Intel Xpress
68040          33 MHz  ?              18     13    Mac Q950
68040          33 MHz  ?              20.3    ?    Mac Q800

                                     -- SPEC95 --  
Processor      Clock   Cache         int    fp     System
------------  -------  ------------  -----  -----  ---------------------
MPC603e       150 MHz  1M/16k/16k     4.1    3.0   ?
              160 MHz  1M/16k/16k     4.3    3.2   ?
              166 MHz  1M/16k/16k     4.5    3.3   ?
              180 MHz  1M/16k/16k     4.6    3.3   ?
              200 MHz  1M/16k/16k     5.1    3.7   ?
MPC604        120 MHz  1M/16k/16k     4.7    4.4   estimate
              133 MHz  1M/16k/16k     5.2    4.8   estimate
              150 MHz  1M/16k/16k     5.2    4.4   estimate
              166 MHz  1M/16k/16k     5.7    4.9   estimate
              180 MHz  1M/16k/16k     6.2    5.3   estimate
MPC604e       166 MHz  1M/32k/32k     6.5    6.1   ?
              180 MHz  1M/32k/32k     6.9    6.1   ?
              200 MHz  1M/32k/32k     7.8    6.5   ?
              225 MHz  1M/32k/32k     9.0    7.5   ?
Pentium       133 MHz  1M/8k/8k       4.20   3.08  Intel XXpress
              200 MHz  1M/8k/8k       5.47   3.68  Intel XXpress
PentiumPro    166 MHz  1M/8k/8k       7.11   6.21  Intel Alder
              200 MHz  256k/8k/8k     8.09   6.75  Intel Alder

Notes:
* SPEC does not allow estimated figures.  The lines which are marked
  "estimate" are not officially SPEC numbers, and are likely to be
  proven inaccurate when real machines are released.
* Cache numbers are in kB or MB: format is external/instruction/data or
  external/unified.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

# I'd like to list one or two more 040-based Macs in this table -- If
# anyone has Mac SPEC data, please let me know.

More information on the SPEC benchmarks, including numbers for other
systems, is available in the newsgroup comp.benchmarks.

[2-7] Is there special hardware for emulating 68k or x86 processors?

All currently announced emulators are purely software. The PowerPC
architecture has a group of byte-reversing load and store instructions
which might be useful for emulating little-endian x86 processors on a
big-endian PowerPC system (such as an RS/6000 or a Power Macintosh).
There are no PowerPC processors with additional special hardware for
translating instructions from other processor families (but see the next
question). In addition, because software emulation has been reasonably
successful, it seems very unlikely that there will ever be hardware of
this type.

There are several x86 boards available for the PowerMacs. These are
effectively PC clones on a card, and allow you to run PC software
(though not directly on the PowerPC processor, of course).

[2-8] What is the PowerPC 615?

There were a couple of conflicting rumors regarding the 615. The primary
one suggested that the 615 was a PowerPC processor, being designed by
IBM, which would have special x86 emulation hardware. Another rumor
suggested that it would be pin-compatible with Intel OverDrive sockets.

IBM has denied that the project even exists. This is substantiated by
the lack of any mention of the 615 recently.

[2-9] Does PowerPC have anything like Intel's MMX instructions or the
SPARC VIS instructions?

Motorola and IBM have not announced any multimedia instruction set
extensions for the PowerPC.

========================================================================
                              [3] Hardware
========================================================================

[3-1] What PowerPC-based workstations are/will be available? When will
they be available? How much will they cost?

IBM offers a line of RS/6000 workstations and servers, based on PowerPC
processors. These all run AIX (IBM's UNIX), and are binary compatible
with all other RS/6000s, including POWER-based systems. SPEC benchmark
figures for some of these are listed in the table above.

The RS/6000 40P is PReP-compliant, which means that it can run Windows
NT, as well as AIX.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
model          proc     clk  L2      RAM      price  date     notes
-------------  -------  ---  ------  -------  -----  -------  ----------
- Desktop    
250            601       80  -       16-256       ?  Aug  94
41W/T          601       80  0.5     16-256       ?  Jun  94
40P            601       66  0.25    16-192       ?  Oct  94  604 upgrd
43P-120        604      120  ?       ?            ?
43P-133        604      133  ?       ?            ?
43P-140        604      166  0.5-1   32-768       ?  Oct  96
43P-140        604      200  0.5-1   32-768       ?  Oct  96
43P-240        1-2 604  166  0.5     32-1024      ?  Oct  96
- Notebook   
860            603e     166  0.25    32-96        ?  Oct  96
- X Terminal
Xstation 160   603       66  -       8         4949  Feb  95
- Server     
C20            604       ?   ?       ?            ?  Jun  95
E20            604      100  0.5     16-512   10000  Oct  95
G30            2-4 601   75  0.5     32-512   40900  Oct  94  604 upgrd
J30            2-4 601   75  1.0     64-2048  70500  Oct  94  604/620 up
R30            2-4 601   75  1.0     64-2048  83900  Oct  94  604/620 up

Notes:
* proc: number and type of processors
* clk: clock speed (MHz)
* L2: standard and optional second-level cache (MB)
* RAM: memory configuration (MB)
* price: base price in US dollars
* date: initial ship date
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Groupe Bull <URL:http://www.bull.com/> offers 601-based workstations and
the ESCALA line of multiprocessors, all running AIX. The multiprocessors
are also sold by IBM (as the G30, J30, and R30) and by Motorola (as the
MP601-75). Groupe Bull also sells a number of the Motorola systems.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
model          proc     clk  L2      RAM      price  date     notes
-------------  -------  ---  ------  -------  -----  -------  ----------
- Workstation
?              601       66  ?       ?         5445  ?
- Multiprocessor
Minitower      2-4 601   75  0.5     32-512       ?  ?        604 upgrd
Deskside       2-8 601   75  1.0     64-2048      ?  ?        604/620 up
Rack           2-8 601   75  1.0     64-2048      ?  ?        604/620 up
------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Motorola Computer Group <URL:http://www.mot.com/GSS/MCG/> produces
several lines of PowerPC-based workstations, servers, and motherboards.
Most models provide PCI and ISA slots; the Series I and Series MP
servers have MCA slots. Windows NT and AIX are available. Motorola will
sell only to VARs, distributors, and system integrators -- individuals
can buy systems from them. Contact the Motorola Computer Group at
1-800-759-1107 for brochures or more info on these systems.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
model          proc     clk  L2      RAM      price  date     notes
-------------  -------  ---  ------  -------  -----  -------  ----------
- RISC PC Plus desktop computers
DTP603e-100    603e     100  0.25    16-256       ?  Dec  94
DTP604-100     604      100  0.5     16-256       ?  Dec  94
DTP604-133     604      133  0.5     16-256       ?  Dec  94
(available in DTPxx desktop or MTPxx minitower versions)
- PowerStackII Pro 2000/3000 desktop computers
DT31200        603ev    200  0.25-1  32-256       ?  Oct  96
DT41200        604e     200  0.25-1  32-256       ?  Oct  96
- PowerStackII Pro 4000/6000 workstations
MT41166        604e     166  0.25-1  32-512       ?  Oct  96
MT41200        604e     200  0.5-1   32-512       ?  Oct  96
MT60166        604e     166  0.5     32-512       ?  Oct  96
MT62166        2 604e   166  0.5     32-512       ?  Oct  96
MT60200        604e     200  0.5     32-512       ?  Oct  96
MT62200        2 604e   200  0.5     32-512       ?  Oct  96
- PowerStackII Net 4000/6000 servers
MT41166        604e     166  0.25-1  32-256       ?  Oct  96
MT41200        604e     200  0.5-1   32-256       ?  Oct  96
PRO60166       604e     166  0.5     32-512       ?  Oct  96
PRO62166       2 604e   166  0.5     32-512       ?  Oct  96
PRO60200       604e     200  0.5     32-512       ?  Oct  96
PRO62200       2 604e   200  0.5     32-512       ?  Oct  96
- Series EX servers
?              604      133  ?-1     32-512       ?  ?
?              604e     166  ?-1     32-512       ?  ? 
- Series I servers
MB601-75       1-4 601   75  0.5     32-512       ?  ?        604/620
SI604-112      1-4 604  112  1       32-512       ?  ?          upgrades
- Series MP servers
MP601-75       2-8 601   75  1       64-2048      ?  Dec  94  604/620
MP604-112      2-8 604  112  1       64-2048      ?  ?          upgrades
- Atlas embedded motherboards
AB603-66       603       66  0-0.5   8-128        ?  Dec  94  baby AT
AB603E-100     603e     100  0-0.5   8-128        ?  ?        baby AT
AB604-100      604      100  0-0.5   8-128        ?  Dec  94  baby AT
AB604-133      604      133  0-0.5   8-128        ?  ?        baby AT
- MacOS motherboards
MOR-3160MO     603e     160  0.25-   16-?         ?  Oct  96
MOR-3200MO     603e     200   0.5    16-?         ?  Oct  96
MOR-4160MO     604e     160  0.25-   16-?         ?  Oct  96
MOR-4200MO     604e     200   0.5    16-?         ?  Oct  96
- Ultra LPX motherboards
UB603-66       603       66  0-0.5   8-256        ?  Dec  94
UB603E-100     603e     100  0-0.5   8-256        ?  ?
UB604-100      604      100  0-0.5   8-256        ?  Dec  94
UB604-133      604      133  0-0.5   8-256        ?  ?
- Ultra Plus LPX motherboards
UBP603E-100    603e     100  0-0.5   8-256        ?  ?
UBP604-100     604      100  0-0.5   8-256        ?  ?
UBP604-133     604      133  0-0.5   8-256        ?  ?
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Micro Technology Services, Inc. <URL:http://mtsi.ncc.com/mtsi> (MTSI)
sells the entire PowerStack line.

Peacock, in Germany, will sell a Motorola-built PowerStack server with
an 80 MHz 601, running AIX. Contact Peacock AG at ++49-295779-0 (tel) or
++49-295779-9067 (FAX).

Zenith Data Systems <URL:http://www.zds.com/> sells the Z-POWER line of
servers. These are available with AIX or Windows NT.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
model          proc     clk  L2      RAM      price  date     notes
-------------  -------  ---  ------  -------  -----  -------  ----------
Z-POWER        604      100  0.25    16-256       ?  ?
Z-POWER        604      133  0.5     16-256       ?  ?
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[3-2] What PowerPC-based PReP-compliant (IBM-compatible) personal
computers are/will be available? When will they be available? How much
will they cost?

See also Question 3-7.

IBM announced a line of PowerPC-based personal computers in June, 1995.
The PC Power Series consists of two desktop models, both based on the
604. The ThinkPad Power Series consists of two notebook computers, based
on the 603E. Windows NT and AIX are currently available for these
systems. OS/2 for PowerPC is available by special order for the 830 and
850. Solaris will be available, but no date has been announced. More
information on these systems is available on the WWW
<URL:http://www.austin.ibm.com/powrinfo.html>.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
model          proc     clk  L2      RAM      price  date     notes
-------------  -------  ---  ------  -------  -----  -------  ----------
- PC Power Series (desktop)
830            604      100  0.25    16-192    2795  Jun  95  PCI+ISA
850            604      100  0.25    16-192       ?  Jun  95  PCI+ISA
               604      120  0.25    16-192       ?  Jul  95  PCI+ISA
               604      133  0.5     16-192       ?  Jul  95  PCI+ISA
- ThinkPad Power Series (notebook)
820            603E     100  0.25    16-48        ?  Jun  95  PCMCIA+ISA
850            603E     100  0.25    16-96        ?  Jun  95  PCMCIA+ISA
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Firepower Systems, Inc. <URL:http://www.firepower.com/> (formed as a
partnership with Canon) offers the Powerized family of PReP 1.0
compliant systems. Currently available are 603, and 604-based
uniprocessor sytems (the Powerized ES line) and a 604-based
multiprocessor (the Powerized MX line). A 603e-based system (also in the
ES line) is expected in 2Q95. Also available are designs and
motherboards. All systems run Windows NT. FirePower sells only to OEMs.
The systems were announced in November 1994. Contact: 415-462-3025.

IPC Technologies Inc. is reselling FirePower machines through their
Austin <URL:http://www.ipctechinc.com/Austin/home.html> subsidiary.
Contact: 1-800-752-1577.

Canon is also reselling FirePower machines.

Japan Computer Corporation (JCC) is reselling FirePower machines as the
JP4 (604) and JP3e (603e) systems. These run a version of BSD 4.4 Lite.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
model          proc     clk  L2      RAM      price  date     notes
-------------  -------  ---  ------  -------  -----  -------  ----------
- FirePower OEM systems
ES380          603       80  0.25    16-128       ?  ?        2PCI/2ISA
ES3100         603e     100  0.25    16-128       ?  ?        2PCI/2ISA
ES4100         604      100  0.25    16-128       ?  ?        2PCI/2ISA
MX4100/1       604      100  0.5     16-256       ?  ?        2PCI/2ISA
MX4120/1       604      120  0.5     16-256       ?  ?        2PCI/2ISA
MX4133/1       604      133  0.5     16-256       ?  ?        2PCI/2ISA
MX4100/2       2 604    100  0.5     16-256       ?  ?        2PCI/2ISA
MX4120/2       2 604    120  0.5     16-256       ?  ?        2PCI/2ISA
MX4133/2       2 604    133  0.5     16-256       ?  ?        2PCI/2ISA
- Austin
PowerPLAY      604      100  0.25    16-128       ?  ?        PCI
------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Taiwan New PC Consortium (TNPC) demonstrated a 601-based
PReP-compliant personal computer, running OS/2 and Windows NT, at CeBIT
in Germany (March 1994). Planned models will feature 50-80 MHz 601's and
75 MHz 603's. The expected release date for the first models was 3Q
1994, but this seems to have slipped.

Canon has announced that it will work with IBM on the PReP
specification. In particular, they plan to work on extensions to PReP
for PDA's and office products.

Tatung sells several PReP-compliant systems. 601-based systems were
available in October 1994. 604-based systems are expected in 1Q95.

DTK Computers (a Taiwanese company) sells an 80 MHz 601 system, which
runs Windows NT, and will run OS/2 when available.

[3-3] What PowerPC-based Apple (and compatible) personal computers
are/will be available? When will they be available? How much will they
cost?

The first Apple Power Macintosh models were released on March 14, 1994.
All PowerMacs run System 7, just like the 68k Macs. They come with an
emulator which will allow them to run 68k Mac applications. Critical
parts of the Toolbox ROM code have been ported and run natively; the
remainder is emulated.

Workgroup servers, the 6150, 8150, and 9150, are also available. These
currently run AppleShare 4.2 (which is partially native for the
PowerMacs). Novell's Processor Independent NetWare (PIN) 4, when
available, may or may not run on these systems (according to rumors, PIN
will only be available on CHRP systems).

The first PowerPC-based PowerBooks were announced in August 1995.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
model          proc     clk  L2      RAM      price  date     notes
-------------  -------  ---  ------  -------  -----  -------  ----------
- desktop
Performa 52xx  603       75  0.25    8-64      1700  Apr  95  PDS
Performa 61xx  601       60  0-0.25  8-72         ?  ?        PDS
Performa 62xx  603       75  0.25    8-72         ?  ?        PDS
Performa 63xx  603e     100  0.25    16-64        ?  ?        PDS
Perf 6400/180  603e     180  ?       16-136       ?  Aug  96  2 PCI
Perf 6400/200  603e     200  0.25    16-136       ?  Aug  96  2 PCI
4400/200       603e     200  0.25    16-160    1700  Feb  97  2 PCI
5200/75        603       75  0.25    8-64      1700  Apr  95  PDS
6100/66        601       66  0.25    8-72         ?  Jan  95  PDS
6200/75        603       75  0.25    8-64         ?  ?        PDS
7100/80        601       80  0.25    8-136        ?  Jan  95  3 NuBus
7200/75        601       75  0-?     8-256     1700  Aug  95  3 PCI
7200/90        601       90  0-?     8-256     1900  Aug  95  3 PCI
7200/120       601      120  0.25    16-256    2299  Aug  96  3 PCI
7300/180       604e     180  0.25    16-512    2300  Feb  97  3 PCI
7300/200       604e     180  0.25    16-512    2700  Feb  97  3 PCI
7500/100       601      100  0-?     16        2700  Aug  95  3 PCI
7600/132       604      132  0.25    16-512    2999  Aug  96  3 PCI
8100/100       601+     100  0.25    8-264        ?  Jan  95  3 NuBus
8100/110       601+     110  0.25    16-264    6400  Nov  94  3 NuBus
8500/120       604      120  0.25    16-512    4000  Aug  95  3 PCI
8500/150       604      150  0.25    16-512    3599  Aug  96  3 PCI
8500/180       604e     180  0.25    16-512    4499  Aug  96  3 PCI
8600/200       604e     200  0.25    32-512    3200  Feb  97  3 PCI
9500/133       604      133  0.5     16-768       ?  Jun  94  6 PCI
9500/180MP     2 604e   180  0.5     32-768    5699  Aug  96  6 PCI
9500/200       604e     200  0.5     16-768    4899  Aug  96  6 PCI
9600/200       604e     200  0.5     32-768    3700  Feb  97  6 PCI
9600/200MP     2 604e   200  0.5     32-768    4700  Feb  97  6 PCI
9600/233       604e     240  0.5     32-768    4200  Feb  97  6 PCI

- server
AWS 6150/66    601       66  0.25    16-72        ?  Apr  95  PDS
AWS 8150/110   601+     110  0.25-1  16-264       ?  Apr  95  3 NuBus
AWS 9150/120   601+     120  1       16-264       ?  ?        4 NuBus
- notebook
PB Duo 2300    603e     100  0       8-56      3500  Aug  95  PDS
   dock                                           ?  Jan  96
PB 5300/100    603e     100  0       8-64      2200  Aug  95  2 PC Card
PB 5300c/100   603e     100  0       8-64         ?  Aug  95  2 PC Card
PB 5300cs/100  603e     100  0       8-64         ?  Aug  95  2 PC Card
PB 5300ce/117  603e     117  0       32-64     6500  Aug  95  2 PC Card
PB 1400cs/117  603e     117  128k    12-64        ?  Nov  96  2 PC Card
PB 1400c/117   603e     117  128k    16-64        ?  Nov  96  2 PC Card
PB 1400c/133   603e     133  128k    16-64        ?  Nov  96  2 PC Card
PB 3400c/180   603e     180  0.25    16-144    4500  Feb  97  2 PC Card
PB 3400c/200   603e     200  0.25    16-144    5500  Feb  97  2 PC Card
PB 3400c/240   603e     240  0.25    16-144    6500  Apr  97  2 PC Card
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Configurations are available with different RAM and hard disk sizes. All
configurations are bundled with a CD ROM drive and some include
SoftWindows and/or various other software.

Apple no longer sells PowerPC upgrades for desktop systems. This
includes motherboards, PDS boards, and the 68040 replacement
daughterboard. These products are now being sold by DayStar (see below),
who co-developed them with Apple.

Apple is currently selling PowerPC upgrades for the 8150 and 9150
workgroup servers (replacement logic boards) and the PowerBook 500
series (daughterboards), and has announced upgrades for PowerBook Duo
200 series (replacement logic boards).

PowerComputing <URL:http://www.powercc.com/> is the first company to get
a license from Apple to produce Macintosh clones. PowerComputing started
shipping systems on May 1, 1995.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
model          proc     clk  L2      RAM      price  date     notes
-------------  -------  ---  ------  -------  -----  -------  ----------
PowerWave 120  604      120  0.25-1  16-512       ?  Oct  95  3 PCI/2 NB
PowerWave 132  604      132  0.25-1  16-512    3200  Oct  95  3 PCI/2 NB
PowerWave 150  604      150  0.5-1   16-512    4500  Oct  95  3 PCI/2 NB
PowerBase 180  603e     180  0.25    16-160       ?  ?        3 PCI
PowerBase 200  603e     200  0.25    16-160       ?  ?        3 PCI
PowerBase 240  603e     240  0.25    16-160       ?  ?        3 PCI
PwrCenter 132  604      132  0.5     16-256    2500  Apr  96  3 PCI
PwrCenter 150  604      150  0.5     16-256    3000  Apr  96  3 PCI
PwrTower  166  604      166  0.5     16-256    3800  Apr  96  3 PCI
PwrTower  180e 604e     180  1       16-256       ?  ?        3 PCI
PwrTower  200e 604e     200  1       16-256       ?  ?        3 PCI
PwrTwrPro 180  604e     180  1       16-1024      ?  ?        6 PCI
PwrTwrPro 200  604e     200  1       16-1024      ?  ?        6 PCI
PwrTwrPro 225  604e     225  1       16-1024      ?  ?        6 PCI
------------------------------------------------------------------------

UMAX Computer Corporation <URL:http://www.umax.com/> sells the SuperMac
line of Macintosh systems. (UMAX bought Radius's
<URL:http://www.radius.com/> Mac clone business in January 1996.) Their
ASPD (Advanced Scalable Processor Design) allows a second processor to
be added to the system.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
model          proc     clk  L2      RAM      price  date     notes
-------------  -------  ---  ------  -------  -----  -------  ----------
C500/160       603e     160  0.25-1  16-144    1199  ?        2 PCI
C500/180       603e     180  0.25-1  16-144    1349  ?        2 PCI
C600/180       603e     180  0.25-1  16-144    1499  ?        3 PCI
C600/200       603e     200  0.25-1  16-144    1799  ?        3 PCI
C600/240       603e     240  0.25-1  16-144    2099  ?        3 PCI
J700/150       604      150  0.5     16-1024   2195  ?        4 PCI
J700/180       604      150  0.5     24-1024   2499  ?        4 PCI
S900/150       604      150  0.5     16-1024   2699  ?        6 PCI
S900/180       604e     180  0.5     32-1024   3199  ?        6 PCI
S900/200       604e     200  0.5     32-1024   3399  ?        6 PCI
S900/225       604e     225  0.5     32-1024   3899  ?        6 PCI
S900/233       604e     233  0.5     32-1024   4199  ?        6 PCI
S900/250       604e     250  0.5     32-1024   4899  ?        6 PCI
S900DP/180     2 604e   180  0.5     32-1024   3899  ?        6 PCI
S900DP/200     2 604e   200  0.5     32-1024   4499  ?        6 PCI
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Pioneer has licensed the MacOS and has announced a line of low-end
systems aimed at the home entertainment market. The 66 MHz 601-based
MPC-GX1 is expected to be demonstrated at the end of February 1995. The
availability date is unknown.

Daystar Digital <URL:http://www.daystar.com/> sells the Genesis line of
PCI bus PowerMac clones, which will support up to four processors.
Daystar also sells various Macintosh upgrade options.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
model          proc     clk  L2      RAM      price  date     notes
-------------  -------  ---  ------  -------  -----  -------  ----------
Genesis 300    2 604    150  0.5     16-1.5G      ?  ?        6 PCI
Genesis 528    4 604    132  0.5     16-1.5G      ?  Oct  95  6 PCI
Genesis 600    4 604    150  0.5     16-1.5G      ?  ?        6 PCI
------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Motorola Computer Group <URL:http://www.mot.com/GSS/MCG/> produces
the StarMax line of MacOS personal computers. All models have PCI slots.
Motorola and Be have signed an agreement where Motorola will distribute
a BeOS CD-ROM with its Starmax systems.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
model          proc     clk  L2      RAM      price  date     notes
-------------  -------  ---  ------  -------  -----  -------  ----------
3000/160       603e     160  0.25    16-160   ?      Oct  96
3000/180       603e     180  0.25    16-160   ?      Oct  96
3000/200       603e     200  0.25    16-160   ?      Oct  96
3000/240       603e     240  0.5     16-160   ?      Oct  96
4000/160       604e     160  0.5     16-160   ?      Oct  96
4000/200       604e     200  0.5     16-160   ?      Oct  96
------------------------------------------------------------------------

German prices for PowerMacs and clones are available on the WWW
<URL:http://www.informatik.uni-siegen.de/~thmartin/preise-mac.html>.

[3-4] What PowerPC-based controllers are/will be available? When will
they be available? How much will they cost?

CETIA (a subsidiary of Thomson-CSF) is selling PowerPC-based VME
single-board computers, based on the 100 Mhz PowerPC 601, the 100/150Mhz
PowerPC 604 and the 66Mhz PowerPC603. Two architectures are available:
  * The PowerEngine VMTR2x series (based on the 601 and 604) offers VME
    and VSB interfaces as well as SCSI, Ethernet, Serial and Parallel
    ports and can support up to 256MB DRAM.

  * The PowerEngine CVME60x series (based on the 603 and 604) offers VME
    and PCI/PMC interfaces as well as SCSI, Ethernet, Serial Audio, and
    Parallel ports and can support up to 128MB DRAM. This board offers
    the support of up to 4 PCI Mezzanine Cards (PMC format).

The operating systems available are: AIX, LynxOS, VxWorks, Chorus, OSE,
WindowsNT, Vads and Adaworld. Contact: 617-494-0987 (North America
Sales) for more information. The Motorola Computer Group has announced a
family of VME boards. The MVME1600/PM603 uses a 66 MHz 603; the
MVME1600/PM604 uses a 100 MHz 604.

Force Computers offers two families of PowerPC boards based on VME. The
CPU-60xRT is a single board computer board optimized for real-time
applications. The board is available with a 66MHz 603 or a 100MHz 604
with 512KByte L2 Cache. The IBC-60x is a dual PMC board equipped with a
66MHZ 603 or 100MHz 604. Both boards have a dedicated SIC (System
Interrupt Controller) to provide real-time response to interrupts,
linked-list DMA controller, FLASH memory and 8 - 128 MByte DRAM.
Available operating system support includes VxWorks, pSOS+, LynxOS,
Chorus and OSE Delta. For further information send email to
[email protected]

[3-5] What PowerPC-based supercomputers and parallel processors are/will
be available? When will they be available? How much will they cost?

Parsytec <URL:http://www.parsytec.de/> has announced that it will be
combining PowerPC processors and Transputer communication processors in
its multiprocessor systems. These include:

  * the CC ("Cognitive Computer") System (100/120/133 MHz 604's, 160
    SPECint92, 165 SPECfp92 per node)

  * the MPP supercomputer series GC/PowerPlus (32-1024 601's, 2.5-80
    GFLOPS)

  * the desktop MPP series PowerXplorer (4-64 601's, 5 GFLOPS peak,
    under $70,000 per GFLOPS)

  * the modular real-time product series MC-3

For more information, contact:
    Carsten Rietbrock
    Parsytec GmbH
    Product Marketing
    Juelicherstrasse 338
    52070 Aachen GERMANY
    Tel.: +49-241-166000; Fax: +49-241-16600-50

ISG Technologies has announced a line of parallel processor-based
accelerators. The entry-level Pulsus uses 8 601's (clock speed
unspecified). The expected ship date is 4Q 1994.

Mercury Computer Systems has announced that is is developing 603e-based
systems. Mercury sells high-performance computers targeted for embedded
applications such as defense signal processing and medical imaging.

Harris announced its Night Hawk line of PowerPC-based multprocessors in
May 1995. Systems with up to 8 100 MHz 604s are expected to ship in
September 1995.

[3-6] What other PowerPC-based systems are/will be available? When will
they be available? How much will they cost?

3DO has announced that its second generation game machine will use a
PowerPC processor. See Question 6-2.

Apple has demonstrated an "internet appliance" (originally described as
a "multimedia platform") called Pippin. It is based on a PowerPC 603 and
runs a version of MacOS. The first Pippin system will be manufactured by
Bandai, and will come with 8 MB of memory and a CD-ROM drive. It uses a
telvision as its display. It is expected to be available in the U.S. in
September 1996, with a suggested price of $600.

Be, Inc. <URL:http://www.be.com/> has announced a new operating system
called BeOS. This OS initially on Be's own multiprocessor system. Be
announced that they were leaving the hardware business in February,
1997. BeOS currently runs on PowerComputing, Apple, UMAX, Motorola, and
DayStar systems -- see Be's web page for complete details. Motorola and
Be have signed a deal where Motorola will distribute a BeOS CD-ROM with
its StarMax systems. Contact [email protected]

ESCOM AG and Amiga Technologies GmbH <URL:http://www.amiga.de/> are
currently in bankruptcy. VIScorp <URL:http://www.vistv.com/> originally
offered to buy Amiga Technologies, but this deal has been put on hold
for financial and legal reasons (as of late 1996). VIScorp is
"developing a family of TV-based products that utilize the Amiga's
unique functionalities".

PIOS Computer AG <URL:http://www.pios.de/> is working on a PowerPC-based
system called the PIOS ONE. They have teamed up with ProDAD
<URL:http://www.prodad.de> who has developed an "AmigaOS-like OS" called
pOS. pOS runs on 68k-based Amigas as well as the new PowerPC-based
systems, and is "2/3 compatible" with AmigaOS. The PIOS ONE will also
ship with BeOS and Linux. Systems are expected to be available in
May/June 1997, with the entry model priced around $1000. There is a PIOS
ONE mailing list called TeamONE; to subscribe send email to
[email protected] with the body "add [email protected]".

Phase 5 Digital Products <URL:http://www.phase5.de/> has announced that
their PowerPC-based Amiga system, called the A\BOX will be available in
the first half of 1997. They have also announced a line of PowerPC-based
accelerators for current Amigas.

IBM uses a custom 64-bit PowerPC processor -- the PowerPC AS -- in their
AS/400 <URL:http://as400.rochester.ibm.com/> business computing systems.

[3-7] What is PReP and how can I get a copy?

The PowerPC Reference Platform (PReP) is a system standard, designed by
IBM, intended to ensure compatibility among PowerPC-based systems built
by different companies. The PReP standard specifies the PCI bus, but
will also support ISA, MicroChannel, and PCMCIA.

According to IBM, PReP-compliant systems will be able to run OS/2, AIX,
Solaris, Taligent, and Windows NT. IBM systems will (of course) be
PReP-compliant. Apple's first PowerPC Macs are not compliant; future
Macs will probably be CHRP-compliant (see below).

The current version of the PReP spec is 1.1.

Here are the instructions for obtaining a copy of the PReP specification
(freely available to all requesters).

For hardcopy:

  * In USA:
        1-800-POWERPC (1-800-769-3772)
        1-708-296-6767 if the above number cannot be reached or
        multilingual operator is needed

  * In Europe:
        (39)-39-600-4295

  * Hardware system vendors may obtain IBM design kits which give
    further information on the reference implementation by contacting
    IBM at the numbers listed above or at one of the following numbers:

      * In Europe:
            (33)-6713-5757 (in French)
            (33)-6713-5756 (in Italian)
            (49)-511-516-3444 (in English)
            (49)-511-516-3555 (in German)

      * In Asia:
            (81)-755-87-4745 (in Japanese)

For softcopy (PostScript files):

  * CompuServe PowerPC Forum, PowerPC Ref Platform library section

  * IBM Information Network/IIN IBMLink, PowerPC Bulletin Board Services

  * Internet anonymous ftp
    <URL:ftp://ftp.austin.ibm.com/pub/technology/spec>

[3-8] What is the Common Hardware Reference Platform (CHRP)?

The CHRP is an open platform agreed on by Apple, IBM, and Motorola. All
CHRP systems will be able to run MacOS, OS/2-PPC, Windows NT, AIX,
Solaris, Novell Netware, and possibly other operating systems. CHRP is a
superset of PReP and the PowerMac platforms; thus you'll be able to run
applications written for the PReP operating systems (OS/2-PPC, Windows
NT, AIX) and the PowerMac (MacOS) on the new CHRP systems (under the
same OS they're written for, of course). In addition, any CHRP software
which doesn't require the Mac ROM, serial ports, or ADB ports should run
on PReP machines.

There is some confusion as to whether or not the CHRP standard will
require a ROM socket (for MacOS ROMs). Apple has said that a future
release of MacOS will not require the ROMs.

The CHRP standard was finalized in November, 1995. The specifications
are being published by Morgan Kaufmann Publishers as _PowerPC
Microprocessor Common Hardware Reference Platform: A System
Architecture_, ISBN 1-55860-394-8. It is also available on the WWW
<URL:http://www.austin.ibm.com/tech/chrp/index.html>.

Apple is referring to CHRP as the PowerPC Platform (PPCP). Apple has
more information, including the above book in PDF format, on the WWW
<URL:http://chrp.apple.com/>.

In February 1996, the MacOS was demonstrated on an IBM prototype CHRP
system.

Motorola announced the Yellowknife PowerPC Reference Platform
<URL:http://www.mot.com/SPS/PowerPC/solutions/yellowknife.html> in
November 1996. IBM also announced a reference design called Long Trail
<URL:http://www.chips.ibm.com/products/ppc/Developers/longtrl/longtrail.html>.
These systems can run both MacOS and Windows NT. Full design
documentation for both systems is available to developers.

[3-9] Can PowerPC 601-based computers be upgraded to, e.g., a 604 when
they become available?

This depends on exactly which computer you have. Some of Apple's
PowerMacs have their processors on replacable daughterboards. See also
Question 3-3.

IBM Power Personal Systems will have a 200-pin slot on the motherboard,
apparently intended for a level-2 cache or processor upgrade.

Motorola PowerStack systems provide a L2 cache socket which can also be
used for PowerPC processor upgrades simply by plugging in a
daughterboard.

[3-10] Where can I get the specifications for the PCI bus?

The following documents:

  * PCI Spec Rev 2.0

  * PCI BIOS Spec Rev 2.0

  * PCI Sys Design Guide 1.0

  * PCI Local Bus Product Guide

are available for $25 each or $50 for the first three from:
    PCI Special Interest Group
    M/S HF3-15A
    5200 N.E. Elam Young Parkway
    Hillsboro, Oregon 97124-6497
    Phone: 800-433-5177
    FAX: 503-693-0920

[3-11] Can I used any PCI card in my PowerMac/PReP/etc.?

In general, a driver for the particular computer is required to use a
PCI card, i.e., to use a PCI video card in a PowerMac, that card would
have to come with a PowerMac driver.

A list of PCI cards which have PowerMac support is available on the WWW
<URL:http://www.njin.net/~msproul/macintosh/PCIcards.html>.

[3-12] What is FireWire?

FireWire is a joint Apple and TI implementation of the IEEE P1394
SerialBus standard. It is a high-speed (100 Mb/s) serial bus for
peripheral devices; it is intended to replace Apple Desktop Bus (ADB)
and SCSI, for example. FireWire supports automatic configuration
("plug-and-play") and hot-plugging. It is also isochronous, meaning that
a fixed slice of bandwidth can be dedicated to a particular peripheral,
e.g., for video. The draft standard can be obtained from IEEE Customer
Service: 800-678-IEEE, 908-981-0060, fax: 908-981-9667.

========================================================================
                              [4] Software
========================================================================

[4-1] What operating systems will run on PowerPC-based computers? When
will they be available?

UNIX

    Several flavors of UNIX have been (or will be) ported to the
    PowerPC.

    IBM's AIX has been available since October 1993. AIX 4.1, available
    in August, 1994 is PowerOpen-compliant. There will also be a version
    called Personal AIX, which will come without certain utilities and
    development tools, for IBM's PC's.

    Apple will not ship A/UX for the PowerPC.

    Tenon Intersystems <URL:http://www.tenon.com/>' MachTen is a
    Mach-based UNIX for the Macintosh. Version 4.0, which shipped in
    August 1995, runs natively on PowerMacs.

    A PowerPC port of Linux is in progress. The currently targeted
    platforms are Motorola's 603 & 604-based PowerStack series, IBM's
    604-based 8xx series, Be, Inc.'s BeBox, FirePower Systems ES
    Hardware, and Apple's NuBus and PCI PowerMacs and clones. For more
    information, see the Linux for PowerPC home page
    <URL:http://www.linuxppc.org/>. There is another group
    <URL:http://www.cs.nmt.edu/~linuxppc/> also working on this project.

    The Linux-PMac project is porting Linux PPC to the PCI-based
    PowerMacs (Apple models 7200, 7500, 7600, 8500, and 9500, and also
    clones with a 601 or 604 processor). See their FAQ
    <URL:ftp://cap.anu.edu.au/pub/linux-pmac/FAQ.html>.

    The OSF Grenoble Research Institute <URL:http://www.gr.osf.org/> and
    Apple <URL:http://www.mklinux.apple.com/> have announced that they
    have ported OSF MK (a microkernel based on Mach 3.0) to the
    PowerMac. A Linux server runs on top of this microkernel. The
    package, called MkLinux (Microkernel Linux), is available for free.
    The second developer release (DR2) is now available (as of December,
    1996) on CD-ROM and by ftp -- details are on the Apple web site.
    This version supports PCI-based as well as NuBus-based systems.

    BSDI <URL:http://www.bsdi.com> has a port of their operating system
    (BSD/OS) available for the PowerPC. Contact Randy Brem
    ([email protected]) for information on this port and its availability.

    SunSoft has ported Solaris to the PowerPC, and a beta version was
    demonstrated in August 1994. However, it looks like there are no
    plans to release it commercially, as of January 1997.

    Harris Computer Systems Corporation currently offers PowerSX (was
    Secure/PowerUNIX), a multi-level secure PowerOpen-compliant
    operating system for IBM RS/6000 workstations and Harris Night Hawk
    multiprocessors. PowerSX is the first standards-based B2-level
    environment available for the RS/6000. PowerUX (was PowerUnix) is
    also available. PowerUX and PowerSX are available through Harris
    Computer Systems Corp. and IBM Federal. Contact: Lisa Thornhill at
    305-977-5615.

MacOS

    Power Macintoshes ship with System 7, just like 68k Macs. Critical
    parts of the Toolbox (system code in ROM) have been ported to the
    PowerPC; the remainder is emulated. Apple analyzed existing code to
    determine the most frequently used Toolbox routines, and ported
    those first.

    Apple has ported the MacOS to other platforms. See the description
    of MAS and MAE in Question 4-6.

    With the CHRP announcement (see Question 3-8), Apple announced that
    it would start selling the MacOS independently of Apple hardware.
    This means that a user will be able to buy MacOS in a store, and
    install it on any CHRP system. Whether MacOS for CHRP systems will
    be entirely on disk or on ROMs is still up in the air.

    Apple has announced a new OS, codenamed Rhapsody, based on the
    OPENSTEP API. See Question 4-4.

Windows NT

    Windows NT has been ported to the PowerPC. Version 3.5 has been
    shipping to developers since October 1994. Systems shipped with NT
    have been available since early 1995. The current version is 4.0,
    released in August 1996.

    IBM and Motorola announced in December 1996 that they will no longer
    sell systems with Windows NT. The current release of NT will be
    supported, but Microsoft will not release any future versions for
    the PowerPC.

OS/2 (was WorkplaceOS)

    OS/2-PPC will be source code compatible with OS/2-x86 for 32-bit
    applications, i.e., 32-bit OS/2 applications will run natively after
    recompiling. 16-bit OS/2 applications will have to be ported to
    32-bit before reompilation. OS/2-PPC will provide an emulator for
    MS-DOS and Windows code (see below), however it will not support
    OS/2-x86 code. The first alpha release of OS/2-PPC was sent to
    developers in Nov., 1994. A final version was released in January
    1996, but is only available for IBM's desktop systems (the 830 and
    850), and must be special ordered from IBM. (See also Question 4-5.)

Others

    Taligent (see Question 4-3 below).

    LynxOS is a real-time UNIX-like operating system, which has been
    ported to the 601, 603, and 604. It is currently available for
    Cetia's VME boards (see above). It is expected to be available for
    IBM's PReP systems in 2Q95. Contact Lynx Real Time Systems at
    408-354-7770 or [email protected]

    OS-9, a real-time UNIX-like operating system for embedded systems,
    is available for PowerPC-based systems. Contact Microware Systems
    Corporation <URL:http://www.microware.com/>.

    pSOS+ is a real time operating system for the PowerPC with
    networking support. It currently runs on the Motorola MVME1603
    boards and on 403GA boards. Contact Integrated Systems, Inc.

    The Tao Operating System (Taos) is a multiprocessor operating
    system, aimed at embedded consumer electronics, which uses load-time
    translation to achieve binary compatibility across a range of
    processors, including the PowerPC, x86, and several others. Contact
    Tao Systems Ltd <URL:http://www.tao.co.uk/>.

    OSE Delta <URL:http://www.enea.se/ose/index.html>, a real-time
    operating system intended for distributed and fault tolerant
    applications, will be available for the Power PC in 1Q96. The MPC
    versions for embedded and real-time applications will be supported.
    OSE Delta includes advanced capabilities such as run time
    configuration, debugging and program loading (hot updates). Contact
    [email protected]

    CHORUS, a real time, componentized distributed microkernel, is
    available since 2Q96 on a wide variety of 601/603/604-based boards
    from CES, FORCE, Motorola and Thomson-Cetia. Contact Chorus Systems
    <URL:http://www.chorus.com/>.

    Be, Inc. <URL:http://www.be.com/> has announced a new operating
    system called BeOS. It runs on their own systems (see Question 3-6),
    and has also been demonstrated running on a PowerPC Mac.

    Amiga Technologies <URL:http://www.amiga.de/> is porting AmigaOS to
    the PowerPC. See Question 3-6.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
name               company      base OS          GUI      endian  avail 
-----------------  -----------  ---------------  -------  ------  ------
- UNIX
AIX 4.1            IBM          SysVR3           X+Motif  big     Oct 93
Solaris 2.x        SunSoft      SysVR4           X+Motif  little  mid 95
PowerSX            Harris       SysVR4           X+Motif  ?       Jun 94
UnixWare           Novell       SysVR4           X+Motif  ?       ?
MachTen            Tenon        Mach2 + BSD4.3   X+Motif  big     1Q  95
Linux              Gnu Pub Lic  Linux            X        big     ?
Linux              OSF/Apple    Mach3 + Linux    X        ?       mid 96
- Mac
MacOS 7            Apple        custom           custom   big     Mar 94
Rhapsody           Apple        Next + custom    custom   ?       ?
- PC
Windows NT         Microsoft    custom           custom   little  1Q  95
OS/2 - PPC         IBM          Mach3 + custom   custom   little      95
PIN                Novell       Netware          ?        ?       ?
- other
Taligent           Taligent     custom           custom?  ?           95
LynxOS             Lynx         AT&T RTK         X+Motif  ?       Jul 94
OS-9               Microware    custom           X, cust  ?       Dec 94
pSOS+              ISI          custom           X        big     Dec 93
Taos               Tao Systems  custom           ?        ?       Mar 95
OSE Delta          Enea Data    custom           ?        ?       1Q  96
BeOS               Be           custom           custom   ?       1Q  96
AmigaOS            Amiga Tech   custom           custom   ?       4Q  96
------------------------------------------------------------------------

[4-2] What is PowerOpen?

The PowerOpen Association defines and promotes the PowerOpen Environment
(POE). The POE is a PowerPC-based standard for operating systems and
applications. Most work so far has been with UNIX-like systems. The POE
is not an operating system; it is a definition containing an application
program interface (API) specification as well as an application binary
interface (ABI) specification. The presence of the ABI specification in
the POE is a factor distinguishing PowerOpen from other open systems
(POSIX, XPG4, etc.) since it allows achievement of platform independent
binary compatibility. Any POE-compliant operating system will be able to
run all POE software. Other non-POE standards cannot provide binary
compatibility over several hardware platforms, and usually limit a
software version to a specific platform.

The POE is an open standard, derived from AIX and conforming to industry
open standards including POSIX, XPG4, Motif, etc. The POE specification
is publicly available to anyone, and is especially of interest to those
producing either applications or hardware platforms. The PowerOpen
Association provides the necessary conformance testing and POE branding.

The key features of the POE are:

  * Based on the PowerPC architecture

  * Hardware bus independence

  * System implementations can range from laptops to supercomputers

  * Requires a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system

  * Networking support

  * X windows extension

  * Macintosh Application Services extension

  * Motif

  * Conformance tested and certified by an independent party (PowerOpen
    Association)

The PowerOpen Association has a WWW page
<URL:http://www.poweropen.org/>. More information, including key white
papers, resides there. Topics include:

  * PowerOpen Association Fact Sheet: about the organization and
    membership

  * PowerOpen Certification of Compliance: about POE compliance

  * PowerOpen Association Q & A

(The above text was provided by the PowerOpen Association.)

NB: PowerOpen is not itself an operating system -- it is only a
*standard* for operating systems.

The PowerOpen Association consists of IBM, Motorola, Apple, Bull,
Thomson-CSF, Harris, Tadpole Technology, and others.

The PowerOpen specification applies to UNIX-like operating systems. AIX
4.1, available in August, 1994 is PowerOpen-compliant. Apple's System 7
will not be PowerOpen-compliant.

For more information contact Gordon Kass ([email protected]) or Chris
Adams ([email protected]).

[4-3] What is Taligent / Pink?

Taligent <URL:http://www.taligent.com/> was founded jointly by Apple and
IBM in March 1992. It is now a subsidiary of IBM. They are working on
object-oriented "framework technologies and products".

Taligent was originally supposed to release their own OS. Pink is an
older name for Taligent, dating back to work that Apple did before the
formation of Taligent.

[4-4] Will NeXTStep be ported to the PowerPC?

In December 1996, Apple <URL:http://www.apple.com/> acquired NeXT
Software, Inc. <URL:http://www.next.com/> Steve Jobs will be responsible
for a new OS for the Mac, codenamed Rhapsody, which will incorporate an
OPENSTEP-based API, as well as a MacOS compatibility module. Apple plans
to supply two operating systems -- MacOS and Rhapsody -- for the next
few years. The first developers release of Rhapsody is planned for late
1997; the general customer release is expected in 1998.

[4-5] What is WorkplaceOS? Will OS/2 be available on PowerPC-based
computers?

Workplace is a microkernel-based architecture (based on Mach 3)
developed by IBM. According to the initial hype, Workplace was supposed
to be used as the foundation for several different operating systems.
OS/2 for PowerPC is currently available (see Question 4-1). Note that
some confusion has been caused by the fact that the development name for
OS/2-PPC was WorkplaceOS (WPOS) -- this name is no longer used.

[4-6] Can IBM-PC / Macintosh software be run on PowerPC-based computers?

Several emulators have been announced. Generally, these are intended to
run Macintosh or MS-DOS/Windows applications under the various native
operating systems.

Macintosh

    Macintosh Application Services (MAS), supported by Apple, allows
    PowerOpen-compliant OS's to run Mac applications. MAS includes a
    68040 emulator and a PowerPC port of the Mac toolbox, so it will run
    both 68k and PowerPC Mac binaries. It is unknown when (or if) MAS
    will be available.

    Apple, in cooperation with Sun and HP, has released the Macintosh
    Application Environment (MAE). MAE allows Mac applications to run
    under X Windows on Sun SPARCstations and HP 9000 series 700
    workstations. MAE emulates a 68LC040, but critical parts of the
    Toolbox run natively. MAE is similar to MAS, but only runs 68k
    binaries. For more information, see the MAE WWW site
    <URL:http://www.mae.apple.com/>. A demo version is available by ftp
    <URL:ftp://ftp.support.apple.com/pub/mae/product-trial/>.

    Executor, produced by ARDI <URL:http://www.ardi.com/>, is currently
    available for MS-DOS (including Windows and OS/2), Linux, and
    NEXTSTEP (Intel and 68k). Executor emulates a 68LC040 Macintosh
    running System 6.0.7, with most System 7 features available.
    Executor 2 should be ready for release in May 1996. ARDI uses
    reverse-engineered Toolbox code, i.e., it was written from scratch
    from the interface specs without using any code from Apple. A demo
    version is available from ARDI's WWW site.

    Power Macintoshes have the built-in capability to run 68k Mac
    software. The 68k application code will be emulated, but critical
    parts of the system code have been ported. The emulator emulates a
    68LC040 (i.e., a 68040 without the FPU).

    Speed Doubler from Connectix <URL:http://www.connectix.com/>
    includes a faster 68k emulator, among other things.

    Be, Inc. <URL:http://www.be.com/> and fredlabs, inc.
    <URL:http://www.fredlabs.com/> demoed VirtualMac, a Macintosh
    emulator for BeOS in January 1997. No release date has been
    announced yet.

MS-DOS/Windows

    Wabi, produced by Sun, runs under UNIX/X. It emulates x86 code, and
    translates Windows calls to X calls. IBM is working on an 80386
    translator. Support has been announced for Solaris and AIX. Wabi is
    based on the public specs for the Windows ABI. (Wabi originally
    stood for "Windows Application Binary Interface" -- it's written
    "Wabi", not "WABI", for trademark reasons.) This has been
    demonstrated on IBM's PowerPC personal systems.

    SoftPC and SoftWindows, produced by Insignia Solutions
    <URL:http://www.insignia.com/>, run under several OS's: Mac OS,
    Windows NT, NeXTStep, and various other UNIX flavors. Version 2.0,
    released in August, 1995, emulates a 486DX and Windows calls.
    Insignia has licensed the Windows source code from Microsoft.

    OS/2 for the PowerPC (which was also known as WorkplaceOS) will run
    MS-DOS and Windows code via the Instruction Set Translator (IST), an
    instruction-caching x86 emulator. OS/2-PPC will not directly run
    OS/2-x86 code.

[4-7] What PowerPC development tools are available?

# This is a new question -- I'll be happy to take suggestions for things
# to list here.

PSIM <URL:ftp://ftp.ci.com.au/pub/psim/README> is a free
instruction-level simulator for the PowerPC.

The GNU toolchain (GCC, GAS, GLD, GDB) supports the PowerPC. It's
available from the main GNU ftp site <URL:ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/> and
its mirrors. There is also a supported version from Cygnus Support
<URL:http://www.cygnus.com/>.

========================================================================
                            [5] Comparisons
========================================================================

[5-1] Should I buy a PowerPC system rather than a Pentium or 68k system?

Apple is committed to making their Power Macintoshes feel just like the
68k Macs, but faster. It looks like they will eventually switch the
entire Mac line over to the PowerPC. If you plan to buy a new Mac, this
is probably the way to go.

Current Pentium systems run existing x86 code faster than current
PowerPC systems can emulate it. This is not likely to change in the
immediate future. If you need to run x86 code as fast as possible, buy a
Pentium box.

On the other hand, many x86 applications will probably be ported to the
PowerPC. The extent of this porting will likely determine the success of
the PowerPC in the personal computer market.

In terms of pure performance (whatever that is), it looks like there
will be a fairly close race between the PowerPC family and the Intel x86
family (among others). The Intel-HP agreement promises to make things
even more interesting. Only the future will tell whose chips and whose
systems will be the fastest.

[5-2] What will be the differences between the various PowerPC-based
personal computers?

There are currently two major classes of PowerPC-based personal
computers (not counting workstations): the Apple Macintosh line and the
PReP-compliant machines. It now appears that these two groups are
converging on the CHRP standard. In theory, any CHRP-compliant system
will be able to run any CHRP operating system (MacOS, OS/2, Windows NT,
etc.). Whether this will actually materialize remains to be seen.

========================================================================
                           [6] Miscellaneous
========================================================================

[6-1] What's the deal with Ford and the PowerPC?

Ford and Motorola have signed an agreement resulting in a custom PowerPC
to be used by Ford as a powertrain controller. Details on this chip are
not available.

[6-2] What's the deal with 3DO and the PowerPC?

3DO <URL:http://www.3do.com/> has developed M2, a 64-bit video game
technology which uses the PowerPC 602. The M2 technology has been
licensed Matsushita for use in game consoles. However, 3DO is moving
away from game console hardware to focus on software.