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The Radio Spectrum - UK Allocations, Feb1999

The Radio Spectrum - UK Allocations   (version 24feb99)
-----------------------------------

(based on the HTML version at:
 http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Launchpad/8243/spectrum.html )


A guide from 1 Hz to 30 EHz (DC to Gamma rays). The main bands, all frequencies
in MHz unless otherwise stated. With grateful thanks to the UK Radiocomms Agency
for so openly publishling all you need to know... even if actually tuning in to
anything other than Broadcasting/CB/Ham is not allowed, that's the rules, folks.
Which is why there are no details of Private systems here...

 DISCLAIMER: This page is provided for interest/curiosity only. Private services
 should remain that way, if you listen without a licence (you can't get them) to
 anything other than licenced Broadcasting or Amateur Radio (& CB) you are
 breaking the law. Even having a private frequency stored in a receiver's memory
 channel is considered to be proof of intercepting messages that are not
 intended for you. Penalties include heavy fines and/or imprisonment.
 You have been warned.

 PLEASE COPY THIS FILE FOR YOUR OWN PERSONAL USE, SO THAT IT MAY LIVE FOREVER!

So what's the point of this page? Personally, I've been fascinated by the magic
of radio all of my life, fiddling around with radios since primary school, and
over the years having read a fair bit about communication systems and the radio
spectrum, I've now got a lot of radio information rattling around in my head.
I thought it would be nice to share it with the world, via the web, to show
what a crowded resource the RF spectrum is; how every nook and cranny is
allocated to some service or other; how the RA has to balance the needs of
various services when they are asked for more spectrum. Also, with all that RF
energy passing through your body, don't you think you have a right to know
exactly what sort of emissions are zapping through you? (I'm not saying you
have a right to know the content of the messages, only the nature of the
delivery). Also, Amateurs should be aware of the services that could be
affected should their equipment not be up to the required standard. Likewise
to anyone foolish enough to consider operating an unlicenced pirate station
- just don't - there really isn't any point is there? And lastly, because
published books are often out of date or plainly wrong in these matters.

So if you've ever wondered what's beyond the dial on your ordinary radio, this
is the page for you. Just be aware that you shouldn't tune in to anything
private - if someone is talking loudly in the street and you can easily
overhear, you still don't morally have the right to listen do you? If the vast
amount of broadcasts and ham radio conversations aren't enough to amuse you
(and the rest of what life in general has to offer) then that's quite sad. If I
ever have time to switch on my receiver (to see what the propagation's like)
the only bands I need to go to are amateur ones. And good music is much more
satisfying. If you can find it.

In a decade or so there may not be all that much else to listen to anyway on
current scanners, with FM broadcasters moving to DAB, analogue TV making way to
digital, PMR and emergency services changing to TETRA, and both Marine and Aero
traffic increasingly using digital modes and satellites for routine traffic,
cellphones all digital. Maybe the spectrum will one day consist of just one
system for mobile access to THE NET which provides for all possible
communication needs - a load of buzzing noises wherever you tune, except for
the long-established amateur bands! Then you scanner owners can relax, you
won't be able to do anything illegal with them if you try - unless you decide
to throw them through someone's window...

I would say that if you have an interest in these matters, devote your
energies to Amateur Radio PLEASE! We need more activity in the bands. Amateur
radio covers bands from Low Frequencies (with 2km wavelengths) to ultra-high
micro-wave bands (wavelengths in millimeters) with modes ranging from good
old-fashioned morse code (CW) to AM/FM speech (communications bandwidths) to
advanced narrowband speech (Single Side Band) to Television (slow scan like
FAX through to full motion/definition FMW broadcast quality) to digital/data
modes like RTTY and Packet. Transmissions can be direct, fixed and mobile (and
Maritime Mobile), via satellite, bent through the troposphere, bounced off
various layer of charged particles in the upper atmosphere, or even bounced off
the moon (EME), or shooting stars (MS)! And all for just 15 quid per year -
bargain. Go on - prove you know what you're talking about - take the RAE
examination soon. Even if you don't ever use it...       See the RA web-page,
or the Radio Society of Groovy Britain site for more details, or the "UK Ham
Radio FAQ". And the G7KPF Quick Links page too. Join and support the RSGB also,
it's a good idea as they do tend to negotiate new bands for us.

Of course, I might just be saying all this to divert attention from my 
naughty scanning obsession - and Ham Radio is a boring waste of time! Hehe,
you decide!

Here then, is my quick tour of the spectrum of 1999, with links to other sites
where appropriate.

All information sourced from freely published books, magazines and web-sites
(RA,ERO), without the need for a scanner, as part of an ongoing quest to figure
out what lies beyond the broadcasting bands...


NOTE 1: SAB (Services Ancillary to Broadcasting), SAP (..to Program making),
PMSE (Program Making & Special Events) - when TV/radio/film/programme makers
use radio (managed by JFMG) - like the military and many low-power devices,
they seem to crop up all over the spectrum! However, some of the allocations
in shared bands (mainly BBC) are to cease in 2000, leaving mostly primary
bands.
As Bands I, III, IV and V are designated BROADCASTING it seems logical that
broadcasters may also use these bands for Outside Broadcasts, microphones,
talkback, comm.s and links etc., either in the VHF bands that are no longer
used for broadcasting, or at UHF on locally unused channels. 
Mics at near 174 are very popular, as well as other parts of Band III that
coincide with French TV carriers and so are not used for PBR.

NOTE 2: Home Office for the Emergency Services - previous versions of this
document did not mention these allocations, but as the bands are shown on RA
pages, and in various books, some are now included for the sake of clarity.
Only the BANDS are shown, not actual frequencies in use. Do NOT listen in!

NOTE 3: Military - various web pages will show that there is a world market
for equipment operating in the bands such as HF, 30-87.5 (25kHz FM),
116-155 & 225-400 (25kHz AM), 470-512 etc.  Note that whilst the odd Combat
Net here and there may be "in the clear" any serious tactical use would be
very hard to find. Frequency hopping and scrambling are used - after all,
would you want your country defended by forces that could be easily
monitored?
Operational use (like PMR) for base security, training, Mil. Police, MOULD
etc. involves fixed frequencies, and various books show that Low VHF, Low
Band, Mid Band, 406.1-420 and UHF1 are heavily used for these purposes.
There is currently a general move from VHF to UHF, and the use of a TETRA
system is being considered. This type of radio traffic is still not to be
listened to!

Here is... the Electromagnetic spectrum...


  MHz

            lower than 1Hz? Slowly-changing DC more like.

--0.000001--(1Hz, 1 per sec.)---
             Natural "Earth waves"

  Hz         Brainwaves... (Electrical activity in your thinking-gear)
   0.1...    Delta - Sleep
   3...      Theta - Sluggish, day-dreaming
   7...      Alpha - Relaxed and receptive
  13...      Beta  - Very alert
  30...      High Beta - Paranormal powers!



--0.00002---(20Hz)--------------
             Audible if converted to soundwaves (like with, er, speakers)

  0.000050     UK mains AC electricity (50Hz, 240V) - 6000 km wavelength

  0.000067     CTCSS (Tone squelch) tones
               67 69.3 71.9 74.4 77 79.7 82.5 85.4 88.5 91.5 94.8 97.4 100
               103.5 107.2 110.9 114.8 118.8 123 127.3 131.8 136.5 141.3
               146.2 151.4 156.7 162.2 167.9 173.8 179.9 186.2 192.8 203.5
               206.5 210.7 218.1 225.7 229.1 233.6 241.8 250.3 254.1Hz
               (150 Hz is a military standard)

  ---music---
  0.000016,35  C-1 nice and bass-y (16Hz)
  0.000261,63  C3  note "middle C"
       277.18  C# (these in Hz)
       293.66  D
       311.13  D#    To double a frequency in 12 equal steps (semi-tones)
       329.63  E     to complete one octave, multiply a note by 2 to the power
       349.23  F     of 1/12th to obtain the next note.
       369.99  F#    440 (A) x 1.059463094 = 466.16 (A#)
       392.0   G
       415.3   G#
       440.0   A   used for main reference
       466.16  A#
       493.88  B
  0.000523,25  C4  the note C again. Only an octave higher. (x2, yeah?)
      4186.00  C7  a really annoying 4kHz note C
      7902.13  B7
  0.012543,85  G8  highest midi note

  0.002700..   above 2.7 kHz not neccessary for comms speech, phones etc, and so
               for telephones it's filtered out. Hence too the 3kHz channel
               spacings on HF.
  0.015...     FM broadcast audio is filtered out above 15kHz
  0.019        FM stereo "pilot tone"
  0.020        approx. limit of human hearing. Bats, on the other hand...


--0.003------(3kHz)-------------
          VLF,LF: Mobile, Fixed, Navigation, DGPS, 
          Time Signals (20,25,50,60,66.6,75kHz)
          Enormous wavelengths are very useful for penetrating rock, cave to 
          surface - molephones) and the oceans (for submarines) but the antennas
          need to be rather large, or magnetic loops.

  0.0102  Omega hyperbolic fix Nav. (& 11.05 & 11.33 & 13.6 kHz) **until sep97**
  0.060   MSF   British Time signal 
  0.070...Decca Nav. purple slaves, to 72kHz   Llancarfan
  0.073   Ham 4km band ( 71.6- 74.4 kHz)       ** UK only, until 30.June.2000 **
  0.084...Decca Nav. masters, to 86kHz         Bolberry Down
  0.100   NELS Loran-C Navigation.  pulsed.    Loophead,Lessay,Sylt,Soustons
  0.112...Decca Nav. red slaves, to 117.6kHz   Jersey
  0.126...Decca Nav. green slaves, to 129kHz   St.Marys
  0.13675 Ham 2km band (135.7-137.8 kHz)       ** new Euro band, 1998 **
       

--0.1485------------------------          
  0.153.. LW AM Broadcasting, to 0.279 - 9kHz channels (ITU Region1) 
          + some Nav. (NDB)

    153   Germany, Romania, Algeria
    162   France, Turkey
    171   Russia, Morocco,  
    177   Germany
    183   Germany
    189   Italy
    198   UK BBC Radio 4
    207   Germany, Morocco
    216   France,  Norway
    225   Poland,  spare UK allocation
    234   Luxembourg, Russia
    243   Denmark
    252   EIRE Atlantic 252, Algeria
    261   Moscow
    270   Czech
    279   Belarus, Isle of Man (soon)



--0.2835------------------------ 
          Marine/Aero Navigation (NDB beacons) + Maritime Mobile (CW)

  0.500   Calling, Distress (CW)
  0.518   Navtex, (& 490 & 4209.5 kHz)


--0.5265--MF--------------------
  0.531.. MW AM Broadcasting, to 1.602 - 9 kHz channels (10kHz to 1.700 in USA)

  0.648   BBC World Service
  0.693   BBC Radio 5 
  0.909   BBC Radio 5
  1.053   INR3 - Talk Radio UK
  1.089   INR3 - Talk Radio UK
  1.197   INR2 - Virgin Radio
  1.215   INR2 - Virgin Radio



--1.6065-------------------------
          MF mobile, Maritime and Aero. (OR)

  1.642...Cordless phones (base), to 1782 (8x 20kHz FM), 
          handsets at 47.443-47.543 MHz (12.5kHz spacing, 6.25 offsets)
          (to be eventually withdrawn)

          Amateur Radio 160m "Top Band" (1.81-2.0) (SSB used is mainly LSB)

  2.182   Calling, Distress


--2.85----HF--------------------    the "real shortwave bands"!
          mobile, fixed, military, ISM, SRD, and...       "numbers stations"
 
          AM Broadcasting
          (around 2.4, 3.3, 3.975, 5, 6, 7.2, 9.7, 11.8, 13.7, 15.3, 17.8, 
           21.6, 25.8)

          Amateur Radio
          80m   ( 3.5 - 3.8)   (SSB mainly LSB)
          40m   ( 7.0 - 7.1)   (SSB mainly LSB)
          30m   (10.1 - 10.15) (SSB not recommended) (WARC)
          20m   (14.0 - 14.35)
          16.5m (18.068-18.168) (WARC)
          15m   (21.0 - 21.45)
          12m   (24.89- 24.99)  (WARC)

          Standard Frequency references, and Time signals
          (at 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0)



          Maritime (3kHz SSB channels)

   2046+ 2049  intership (kHz)
   2053+ 2056  intership
   2241        British intership
   2246        British intership
   2301        British intership                                   --Calling--
   4146+ 4149  intership
   4357- 4435  shore chs  401- 427 ( -292kHz split:  4065- 4143)    4417/ 4125
   6224- 6230  intership
   6501- 6522  shore chs  601- 608 ( -301kHz split:  6200- 6221)    6516/ 6215
   8291        ch 833 GMDSS
   8294+ 8297  intership
   8707- 8716  chs 834-837
   8719- 8812  shore chs  801- 832 ( -524kHz split:  8195- 8288)    8779/ 8255
  12353-12365  intership
  13077-13197  shore chs 1201-1241 ( -847kHz split: 12230-12350)   13137/12290
  16528-16546  intership
  17242-17410  shore chs 1601-1656 ( -882kHz split: 16360-16525)   17302/16420
  18825-18843  intership
  19755-19797  shore chs 1801-1815 ( -975kHz split: 18780-18822)   19770/18795
  22159-22177  intership
  22696-22852  shore chs 2201-2253 ( -696kHz split: 22000-22156)   22756/22060
  25100-25118  intership
  26145-26172  shore chs 2501-2510 (-1075kHz split: 25070-25097)   26172/25097



          Aeronautical R or ER (Routed or En-Route on fixed airways; so mainly
          civil)  (3kHz SSB channels)

   2851- 3019 kHz
   3401- 3497
   4651- 4696
   5481- 5676
   6526- 6682
   8816- 8960
  10006-10096
  11276-11396
  13261-13357
  17901-17967
  21925-21997



          Aeronautical OR (Off-Route; so mainly military)  (3kHz SSB channels)
          GHFS

   3023- 3152 kHz
   4700- 4995
   5680-      GMDSS SAR
   5684- 5726
   6685- 6763
   8965- 9037
  11175-11271
  13200-13257
  15010-15097
  17970-18027
  23200-23350


  In the remaining parts of HF, you'd be forgiven for thinking anything goes!

--26.175--------------------------
          Fixed & Mobile (not aero)

  26.243..Paging, to 26.8625
  26.25   JFMG talkback (simp) 12.5kHz 20W, and 26.35, 26.45
  26.87 ..future SSB CB, to 26.96 (provisional plans)

          SRD, models, ISM
  26.995  "Brown" (AM) 1mW
  27.045  "Red"
  27.095  "Orange"
  27.120  Test/Dev., ISM
  27.145  "Yellow"
  27.195  "Green"
  27.245  "Blue"


  26.965..CB, to 27.405 - 40 CEPT "EURO" FM channels : 10kHz spacings (PR27)
  26.965  ch 1
    to      gaps where the model channels fit in (except "blue")
  27.405  ch 40

          27.41... Alarms
          27.41... future Digital CB, to 27.51 (provisional plans)
          27.5 ... Mobile, to 28    Weather balloons (sondes)
  27.601..CB, to 27.991 - 40 UK FM 10 kHz channels (27/81)
  27.601  ch 1
    to
  27.731  UK calling: Channel 14
            CB can be fairly useful (when you want to speak to normal people,
            not just radio nutters), but what a pity we're stuck with an HF
            allocation clogged up with foreign SSB rather too often...
    to      We need a system that allows silent monitoring, like CTCSS, or 
            (even better) a 460 MHz system as they do in the USA, Australia etc.
            NOTE: (oct98) it looks like PMR 446 will do nicely, apart from the
            low power.
  27.991  ch 40

  28...   Amateur 10m band, to 29.7   CW,USB,Satellite,FM
  29.6    FM calling
  29.55...overseas FM repeaters, to 29.7
          The use of HF spectrum as we know it changes near 26.1MHz, where usage
          becomes more like VHF/6 meters. You'd think that if any Tom, Dick or
          Harriet can use 4W on 26 MHz, that a licenced Class B amateur would be
          able to use at least 3W (novice level) somewhere in this band,
          wouldn't you? But no, 30MHz is the cut off point (despite not
          corresponding to the edge of any practical band usage) where you need
          to pass a Morse test just to be able to use SSB! And who do they
          survey, to see if things should change? The very people who have
          already suffered the ordeal! SELFISH B*****DS. Don't get caught up in
          the way things happened in the past, riding waves of nostalgia, but
          concentrate on the present, the future, what today's very different
          generations could enjoy - share your precious bands with those who can
          already do the same thing at 50MHz when the conditions are right. When
          ever we're at work, that is. Or make the Morse test need to be
          re-taken every five years, we'll see how quickly it gets dropped then!

          Suppose there was no Amateur Radio, but such a service was being
          planned, to start next year, with the rules and regulation we
          currently endure. There would be an uproar, wouldn't there? Nobody
          would seriously suggest a morse requirement. I rest my case.
          We do not NEED different licence classes apart from Novice and Full.
          And don't use that tired old "wally filter" argument, I've already
          gone to the trouble of passing the RA Exam. Don't interfere with MY
          life, go and live your OWN.

          I do acknowledge the "true spirit of amateur radio" (homebrew and
          experimentation) IS different from the fanatical pursuit of "radio
          DXing". I'd settle then for a two class system where existing Novices
          and Class B licencees could use HF SSB on restricted parts of the
          bands using type-approved equipment. With DXing available to the
          public with properly regulated callsigns maybe 27MHz would become a
          peaceful haven for local FM comms, and the Aero (R) 6.6MHz channels
          could be clear at last.

          And I DO realise that CW can get through when all else fails, and
          that if I ever reached 12 words per minutes I might get to enjoy it.
          Maybe. But I object strongly to HAVING to. Similar argument - you've
          no right to force someone to drink something that you're sure they'll
          like. And if you disagree with that, change the subject to sex then
          try again. Again, the Golden Rule in life -
          don't live someone else's life for them - live your own!

          Glad I've got that off my chest...


--29.7----VHF-------------------
          Mobile
          military  (30.3-30.5 and 32.15-32.45 EU1 harmonised)
          + SRD Short Range Devices, R/C Models, Cordless Phones, Alarms,
            Hospital Paging

          On rare occasions ion layer conditions allow the reception of FM
          business/police signals here from the USA.

  35.0... Model aircraft,  to 35.25   (25x 10kHz)  100mW
  39.9375.Cordless phones, to 40.1125 (split -8.9: 31.0375-31.2125)
  40.500  Distress, Rescue (often wrongly listed as 40.050)   40.5 x 3 = 121.5
  40.66...ISM, to 40.7   ** proposed new Euro amateur beacons band **
          (40.68 +/- 20kHz) 
  40.665..Surface models,  to 40.955  (33x 10kHz)  100mW cars and boats

  41 ...  Harmonised Military Band (EU1)


--47---------------------------
          Band I - TV Broadcasting (not in UK since 1984 - 
            so, great for TV DXing!)
          UK: Mobile - SRD, Radio Mics, Alarms

          Euro TV 7MHz ch.: E2 47-54, E3 54-61, E4 61-68
          Old UK  5MHz ch.: B1 41.25-46.25, B2 48-53, B3 53-58, 
                            B4 58-63, B5 63-68 (snd. @ +0.25, vis. @ +3.75)

  47.3... Cordless phones & alarms, to 47.55
  47.550..JFMG, to 48.880 - talkback (base - split to 52MHz) + links
  48.975..Paging, to 49.4875
  49.82...SRD, to 49.98  baby alarms etc.


  50...   Amateur Radio 6m band, to 52 (varies in other countries). Primary.
          Beacons...
  50.09...CW/SSB...
  50.11   Inter-continental SSB DX
  50.15   SSB centre-of-activity
  50.72.. UK Repeaters, to 50.88    (split +0.5)
  51...   secondary...
  51.21.. repeater inputs, to 51.39 (both UK and Euro systems)
  51.41.. FM simplex, to 51.59      (20 kHz channels)
  51.51   FM calling channel
  51.81.. Euro. repeaters, to 51.99 (split -0.6)

  52.0... JFMG, to 52.95 - talkback (mobile - split to 48Hz) + links
          52.95...
  53.75.. JFMG, to 55.75 - links (5W)
          55.75 ... PBR, see 62.75
  57.5... CBS (planned), to 60.75 (split +7: 64.5 -67.75)
  60.75.. JFMG links (5W)
  62.75.. PBR (planned), to 64.5  (split -7: 55.75-57.50)
          64.5 ... CBS, see 57.5
          67.7625...

          There is a Euro plan (25-08) to re-organise 54-68:
          61.0125 ... Base, to 67.9875 (split -7: 54.0125-60.9875)

--68------Low Band-------------
          Mobile, military, emergency services    (French splits -4.05, -5, -3)
          Military PTARMIGAN access links

          There is a Euro plan (25-08) to re-organise this band:
          77.8125 ...  Base, to 87.4875 (split -9.8: 68.0125-77.6875)   
          single: 77.7-77.8 and 74.8-75.2 & 84.6-85

          Various countries overseas allow FM radio broadcasting from 65-74
          and 76-87.5 (eg OIRT), this often reaches us.

  68.0875.PBR, to 69.9875  single, dual: see 81.5875

          (68.816... JFMG, to 69.904 - Talkback base (12.5kHz - split to 75MHz)
           to cease in 2000)


  70...   Amateur 4m band, to 70.5  (since 1956; mainly UK only)    Secondary
          Beacons...
  70.03.. CW/SSB
  70.15   Meteor Scatter calling
  70.185  Cross-band centre-of-activity
  70.2    SSB calling
  70.25.. FM simplex, to 70.4875 (12.5 kHz channels)
  70.26   old AM frequency still in use
  70.3    RTTY/FAX
  70.3125 Packet, to 70.3375
  70.45   FM Calling channel
  70.4875 Packet


  70.5... Home Office - Fire Service mainscheme, to 71.5  (with 80-81.5)
 
  71.5125.PBR, to 72.7875  single, dual: see 85.0125
          72.8 ... MoD  (73.3-74.1 EU1 harmonised)

          (74.6875... JFMG, to 74.7125 - Talkback)

  75.0    CAA ILS  runway marker beacons (Guard band 74.8-75.2) 
                   200ft, 1 & 3.5 miles from touchdown
          75.2 ... MoD

          (75.2625... JFMG, to 75.3 - Talkback mobile (split to 69MHz)
           (+airborne) to cease in 2000)

  76.7125.PBR, to 77.4875  single, dual: see 86.7125 ...
  77.5... PBR, to 77.9875 (used to be paired with 87.5 to 88), 
          CT0 Cordless phones

          78... MoD  (79-79.7 EU1 harmonised)
          (78.183... JFMG, to 78.259 - wide area or location talkback - 12.5kHz)
          80... H.O.

  81.5125.PBR, to 81.575
  81.5875.PBR, to 83.4875 (split -13.5: 68.0875-69.9875)  new for the 1990s
 
          83.5 ... H.O.
          84   ... MoD   (ISM at 84.0 +/- 4kHz)

          PBR listed so that you can avoid tuning in by accident.
          (same info can be found on Radiocomms Agency site anyway)  
          12.5kHz channels. (Started in 1947 with 100 kHz channels, 
                                                   25 kHz from 1960)
  85.0125.PBR, to 86.2875 (split -13.5: 71.5125-72.7875) 
  86.3....PBR, to 86.7
          86.3125 Land SAR search and rescue
          86.325  Land SAR some areas
          86.675  JFMG Talkback (12.5kHz) Wales and west.
  86.7125.PBR, to 87.4875 (split -10:   76.7125-77.4875)
          86.8125 JFMG, to 86.8375 - wide area duplex T/back 12.5kHz (+airborne)

  87.34.. Eurosignal paging, to 87.415 (4 x 25kHz channels A-D) 
          heard in UK from Europe


--87.5-------------------------
          Band II - FM Broadcasting (100 kHz channels) 87.6-107.9   RDS
          Independent Radio managed by the Radio Authority.
          
          Latest news : http://www.newstide.com/radio/ - Newstide

  87.6... RSLs (Restricted Service Licences)
  88.0... BBC Radio 2
  90.2... BBC Radio 3
  92.4... BBC Radio 4, BBC Wales/Scotland
  94.6... BBC Local Radio, Radio 4, ILR
  96.1... Independent Local Radio
  97.6... BBC Radio 1
  99.8... Independent National Radio INR1: Classic FM (+RDS DGPS Focus FM), ILR
 102.0... Independent Local Radio
 103.5... BBC Local Radio, Radio 4, ILR
 105.0... Independent Local Radio, regional, RSLs
 107.0... RSLs, Small-scale and other low power broadcasting, to 107.9

          87.5 to 88 MHz was once used for base PMR (split -10: 77.5-77.9875).
          97.6 to 102.1 MHz was used by the Home Office for Emergency Services
          AMRT base, until the late 1980s (split to 82.5-84).
          105 to 108 MHz used from 1969 until the early 1990s for mobile JRC
          PBR (split to 138-141), and became available to Broadcasting in 1995.

          Long distance reception is more common via the troposphere here,#
          rather than the ionosphere... i.e  a "lift" rather than "sporadic-E".
          "Tropo" tends to improve the higher the frequency, and lower
          frequencies are not affected; whereas ionospheric "skip" builds up
          from HF, maybe reaching as high as 150 MHz rarely - but leaves higher
          bands unaffected.

          DSI2 recommends that by 2020 when DAB is established, the band may
          be reduced to 97.5-108 for local and community broadcasting only.


-108---------------------------
          Aero. Navigation

 108.05.. ILS/VOR/ATIS, to 117.95 (50 kHz channels)    ILS 108-112



-117.975-----------------------
          Aero. Mobile "Civil Air Band" - NATS National Air Traffic Services,
          "Volmet" weather broadcasts.   RTCA   ICAO
          See http://www.javiation.co.uk/vu.html - Javiation's list.

 118.0... AM comms, to 136.975  (25 kHz channels)  
          The use of 136 - 137 dates from 1990, and it's still shared with
          satellite services until 1/1/2002.

          Until the 1970s 50kHz channel spacing was used, and soon some channels
          will be three times closer with 8.33kHz spacings; in Europe in 1999,
          in the UK in 2000.
          So if the scheme is ever extended to the full band, will the first
          channel be 117.983 or 118.0? (Given the 117.975 boundary due to 25kHz
          use of 118.0)

          Channel Names will be used, such as :
          132.000, 132.005 (same but 8.33 bandwidth), 132.010 (132.0083),
          132.015 (132.0166)
          However, don't panic about needing new equipment, 8.33 will only be
          used in a small segment of the band, and not for local traffic. You'll
          be able to enter frequencies using 5 or 10kHz steps and not be more
          than 1.66 kHz out, and likewise you'll still be able to search in
          10kHz steps and that will be faster then 8.33!
          It's no more likely than now that two adjacent channels will be
          strongly in use at any one location.
          In any case, the great thing about airband as far as searching goes,
          is that the controllers TELL the pilots what frequency to go to next -
          so finding any new channels isn't really that hard!

          The USA NexCom solution, though, is for digital TDMA on existing 25kHz
          channels (& also retaining AM capability) using 8-phase shift keying,
          giving 4 time slots within 120ms frames, providing for a mix of voice
          and data. Coverage of 112-117.975 is included in the spec.s - and
          they haven't decided about the UHF band yet.

 121.5    Distress, EPIRBs
 121.6    airport Fire Services
 121.9    common Ground frequency
 122.475  Balloons and Hangliders
 123.1    SAR Search and Rescue
 129.7... many private airline channels, to 132
 130.1    Gliders, +130.125 +130.4
 131.725  ACARS  Packet data (Europe & USA)
                 Air Comms Addressing/Reporting System
 132.0... 8.33 sub-band, to 134.8 - for over FL245 (FL195 France)
 135.375  London VOLMET (main)
 136.9... Data ONLY, to 136.975


-137------Mid Band-------------
          Mobile, military, Aero OR, emergency services   (French splits +/-4.6)
          Military PTARMIGAN access links

 137...   Weather Satellites, to 138
 137...   LEO MSS Sat. downlinks, to 138 (up at 148-149.9) Orbcomm 4800 bps FSK
 137.975..Paging, to 138.2
          Police: 4 air-ground-air ch.s around 138.1 & 138.3
 138.2... future Euro. SRD band, to 138.45
 
          138... MoD

 139.5... JRC (Joint Radio Co.) PBR, to 140.5 (split +8.5: 148-149)  Trunked.
          139.51875-140.48125 J22-J99, main channels 12.5kHz spaced (no J01-J21)
          139.525  -140.475   K22-K98, interleaved (J+6.25kHz)
 140.375  JRC paging (simplex use of J90 below & J91 above)
          Electricity (mainly below 140) and Gas (mainly above 140) industries.
          From 1969 until the early 1990s AM was used in the band 
            138-141 (split -33: 105-108).
 
          (Some JFMG in the Channel Islands at 139.55 & 139.575 (base),
           and simplex at 139.65)

          140.5... MoD

 141...   JFMG, wide area Talkback (75kHz max), to 141.5 (previously 141.9)
                6.25 kHz offsets                Not in Channel Islands.
          Simplex and duplex (split - mobiles at 212MHz). +airborne.
 140.993  London only
 141.006..ILR, to 141.193
 141.206..BBC radio, to 141.256
 141.268  not available to BBC - & 141.281
 141.293..BBC radio, to 141.318  (.318 BBC News)
 141.375  BBC 75kHz wideband
 141.418  BBC
 141.4625 BBC 75kHz wideband 

          141.5 ... MoD
          143.0 ... H.O., to 144 - see 152
 143.625  Space - MIR station  (also 121.75 & 130.165 FM)


 144...   Amateur 2m band, to 146   Primary - IARU Bandplan:
          EME (Moonbounce)...
 144.035..CW
 144.150..SSB - calling 144.3
 144.4... Beacons, to 144.49
 144.5... All modes
 144.725  in the south - you'll appear on F5ZBF when there's a lift...
 144.8... Digital, to 144.99
 145.0... Repeater inputs, to 145.1875
 145.2... FM Simplex, to 145.5875 (12.5 kHz chans) older 25kHz chans listed:

 145.2    S8,  V16   Raynet priority, MIR (with 145.8)
 145.225  S9,  V18   Raynet priority
 145.25   S10, V20   Slow Morse
 145.275  S11, V22
 145.3    S12, V24
 145.325  S13, V26   + French R8b/RV26   F5ZBF repeater Caen (split normal -0.6)
 145.35   S14, V28   + French R9b/RV28
 145.375  S15, V30   + French R10b/RV30
 145.4    S16, V32   + French R11b/RV32
 145.425  S17, V34   + French R12b/RV34
 145.45   S18, V36
 145.475  S19, V38
 145.5    S20, V40   FM calling channel
 145.525  S21, V42   GB2RS news, Sundays
 145.55   S22, V44
 145.575  S23, V46
 145.5875      V47
          (Repeaters 145.6 - 145.7875, split -0.6)
 145.600  R0,  RV48  FZ3VHF St.Brieuc
 145.6125 R0x, RV49  F5ZBL  Evreux
 145.625  R1,  RV50  FZ3VHD Quimper
 145.6375 R1x, RV51  F5ZDE  Chateauroux
 145.650  R2,  RV52  
 145.6625 R2x, RV53  F5ZCR  Vernon
 145.675  R3,  RV54  F1ZBX  Rennes
 145.6875 R3x, RV55  FZ2VHF Lille
 145.700  R4,  RV56  F6ZCE  Alencon
 145.7125 R4x, RV57
 145.725  R5,  RV58  FZ2VHC Le Havre
 145.7375 R5x, RV59
 145.750  R6,  RV60
 145.7625 R6x, RV61
 145.775  R7,  RV62  FZ3VHB Les Herbiers
 145.7875 R7x, RV63 
 145.8... Satellite Service, to 146


          146... H.O., see 154
          148... JRC,LEO, see 139.5 and 137
          (Some JFMG in the Channel Islands at 148.575 & 148.725 - mobile)
          149... MoD
 149.9... Satellite Navigation, to 150.05
 150.05.. Radio Astronomy, to 152    + Oil-slick markers (150.5 - 150.55)
 152...   Home Office - Emergency Services, to 153  (with 143-144)
 153.025..Paging, to 153.475  (25kHz channels)  POCSAG (bursts)
 153.025  FLEX paging (continuous) + 153.325
          153.5... MoD
 154...   Home Office - Emergency Services, to 155.975 (with 146-148)

          There is a Euro plan (25-08) to re-organise 146-156:  (boundaries)
          151.4 ... Base, to 156 (split -7: 146.8-151.4)   single: 146-146.8
          and 149.9-150.05 & 154.5-154.65


-156---------------------------
          Mobile,  Marine VHF (SAR, MBR/CSR)
          PMR/PBR + CBS + STH, Ambulances, Paging (ERMES), SRD,
          Packnet data, Civil Defence


 156...   Marine, to 163 - International and private 25kHz channels, single and
          dual (split -4.6). Was 50 kHz spacing until SOLAS 1972, new channels
          were fitted in between old...
          Some sets may be set from "international" to "USA" mode, and then some
          of the dual frequency channels can be used as single (ship channel)
          frequencies; which could be handy for a "private" channel, no-one else
          would hear you! (apart from coast stations that use that channel. So
          you'd want to pick a clear one - and bear in mind that if you don't
          you won't be able to hear them telling you to move!)
          Maybe it's best not to, then. Interesting thought though, isn't it?

          There are Euro plans to use the paired freq.s for channels 87 and 88
          separately, to accommodate VTS at 162 MHz, and allow simplex at 157
          MHz. Also plans to allow use of channels 75 and 76 for voice.
          Earlier plans had included simplex use of channels 18 and 82-86.


 156.0-158.4 lines up with 160.6-163.0 at 4.6MHz higher, the lower section being
 the ship/mobile side of dual-freq. channels, the higher side being for
 shore/base.  156.375-156.875 and 160.975-161.475 are not joined, and have
 single-freq usage with international channels at 156 and private at 161.
 The international channels finish at 157.425/162.025 and the rest are private
 channels, which may be dual or single.

 Between 158.4 and 160.6 the mobile channels of a PBR band can be found. As this
 163.0375-165.0375 band utilises a 4.5 MHz split, the mobile side covers
 158.5365-160.5375 - the gap at the bottom is used for a few more single-freq.
 private marine channels, and at the top there are three local authority alarm
 channels.


 Let's track this in two columns 4.6 MHz apart...

 ** First, two single freq.s...
 ---------------------------    -------
 160.600 99 Coastguards         156.000   0 Coastguards
        (99 was 00 but they couldn't dial that - 00 cleared their console!)

 ** Now dual freq. pairs, 
 ** Port Ops & Public Correspondence (phone - link calls)
 Shore/Base                     Ship/mobile  4.6 MHz lower
 --------------------------------------
                      160.625---156.025  60
                      160.650---156.050   1
                      160.675---156.075  61
                      160.700---156.100   2
                      160.725---156.125  62
                      160.750---156.150   3
                      160.775---156.175  63
                      160.800---156.200   4
                      160.825---156.225  64
                      160.850---156.250   5
                      160.875---156.275  65
 160.900  ?reserved?            156.300   6 SAR/intership1
                      160.925---156.325  66
                      160.950---156.350   7

 ** Now single freq.s 
 ----------------------------   -------
 160.975 - 161.475              156.375  67 Safety/SAR/intership9
 MBR, CSR, Paging returns       156.400   8 intership2
                                156.425  68 ports
                                156.450   9 intership5/ports/Pilots
                                156.475  69 intership8/ports/Customs
                                156.500  10 intership3/ports/SAR/pollution
                                156.525  70 DSC Digital SelCall ONLY, fGMDSS
                                156.550  11 ports/SAR
                                156.575  71 ports
                                156.600  12 ports
                                156.625  72 intership6
                                156.650  13 intership4/ports
 161.275  Marine 10mW Alarms    156.675  73 intership7/ports/SAR
 161.300  On-board handhelds    156.700  14 Ports
                                156.725  74 Ports
 161.350  On-board handhelds    156.750  15 intership11/ports/on-board
                                --16 only--
                                156.775  75 not yet used (guardband)
 161.400  Radio Nav.            156.800  16 Calling, Distress
 161.425  M2 (marinas)          156.825  76 not yet used (guardband)
                                -----------
                                156.850  17 intership12/ports
 161.475  CSR                   156.875  77 intership10

 ** Now dual freq. pairs again
 ** Port ops up to 161.725 and Pub.Corresp. from 161.750 (both: 78,81,84)
 --------------------------------------
                      161.500---156.900  18
                      161.525---156.925  78
                      161.550---156.950  19
                      161.575---156.975  79
                      161.600---157.000  20
                      161.625---157.025  80 Marinas primary
                      161.650---157.050  21
                      161.675---157.075  81
                      161.700---157.100  22
                      161.725---157.125  82
                      161.750---157.150  23
                      161.775---157.175  83
                      161.800---157.200  24
                      161.825---157.225  84
                      161.850---157.250  25
                      161.875---157.275  85
                      161.900---157.300  26
                      161.925---157.325  86
                      161.950---157.350  27
                      161.975---157.375  87
                      162.000---157.400  28
                      162.025---157.425  88 No more "Radio Lighthouses"

 ** Private channels, single or dual Marine Business Radio
 ** and some land-based PMR, same split -4.6
 ----------------------------   -------
 162.050  MBR single...         157.450  29 MBR single
                  OR  162.050---157.450  29 MBR dual
   to
 162.450  Diff. GPS             157.850  35/M marinas secondary
   to
 162.825  104A Telex            158.225  104B Fax.
   to
 163.000  MBR single            158.400  48 MBR single
                  OR  163.000---158.400  48 MBR dual

 ** Now private single freq.s
 ----------------------------   -------
 163.025 Diff. GPS              158.425 108 MBR
                                158.450  49 MBR
   0.1 MHz gap where            158.475 109 MBR
  "4.6 split" and               158.500  50 MBR
  "4.5 split" systems meet



 ** We'll change now to a 4.5 MHz difference for the land mobile band,
    and 12.5 kHz spacings
 ---------------------------------------
                     163.0375---158.5375    PBR/CBS (split -4.5)
                              to...
 The first 70 per cent used to be used for the old BT RadioTelephones :
 163.0375... BT System 4, to 164.425 (split -4.5: 158.5375-159.925)
             channels U001-U111 and before that :
 163.050 ... BT System 3, to 164.400 (split -4.5, 25kHz channels 55-1 in
             reverse!) ch17 was control
             (until the 1980's saw the arrival of TACS at 935-950 MHz) 
 164.4375... the top section, to 165.0375, was mainly Private Message Handling -
             operators speaking to mobile doctors etc, and is now seeing more
             Common Base Stations (PBR via a dealer who supplies equipment and
             airtime) including some multi-channel trunked CBS.
             PAMR Public Access Mobile Radio is mainly confined to Band III,
             and as with other trunked systems the control channels are
             continuous).
 163.900...  now PMR dual and single, to 164.2 (159.4-159.7) with many
             Short Term Hire channels.
 164.225...  now used by the Paknet system, to 164.3875 (base continuous)
             The lowest portions are filling up with CBS and PBR.
 Despite this section only being allocated to LAND MOBILE, (12.5 kHz PMR) in
 some books and magazines you may find extra marine channels given (channel
 number greater than 50), either single or -4.6 dual, in the first 150kHz or
 so. Seems a bit odd, that. Marine channels are 25kHz bandwidth too, so that
 ruins half of the 12.5kHz channel above and below. How wasteful.
 And was 160.9 just forgotten about? How sad that it would make my day to find
 out. Another mystery is the continued appearance in lists of the top channels
 165 to 165.0375 being paired with 4.8 higher, rather than 4.5 lower. An RA
 document clearly shows 165.050 as channel 1 in the high band. And 169.8375 is
 a simplex channel, etc.  Makes you wonder...
                              to
                     165.0375---160.5375
 ----------------------------   --------
 165.050 start of high band     160.550 - 160.575 Alarms (3x 12.5kHz)
                             ** the end of this 2nd column now joins the start
                                of the 1st., now we've covered 4.6MHz **



 ** We'll change now to a new 4.8 MHz difference UPWARDS
 ---------------------------------------
 165.0375 end of mid band       169.8375   end of single freq simplex section
                     165.0500---169.8500   ch 001 PBR    High Band
                              to...
 Private Mobile Radio channels are allocated in all bands to different
 categories such as :
  National exclusive (53 dual, 12 single here in high band), 
  CBS (8 dual here),
  On-site shared (5 dual, 31 single here - 3km range),
  Wide Area Shared (189 dual - 30kms, taxis etc),
  Short Term Hire (4 - 169.0125, 169.1375, 169.1625, 169.1875),
  STH/demo/"parking"/Test&Dev (1 - 167.2000---172.000),
  Road Construction (1 - 165.075---169.875),
  UK General (5 single - mobile only, anywhere in UK, 5W ERP max,
              for not more than 12 months in one place).
 Which explains why that "spare channel" can't be used for anything
 else in your area!
                              to...
                     168.2375---173.0375   ch 256 PBR

 ** single freq.s
 ----------------------------   --------
 168.2500  PBR                  173.050    PBR
    to                             to
 168.2875  Alarms               173.0875   PBR
 168.3000  PBR                  173.100... H.O. + low power/short range devices
-168.3125--boundary----------
 168.325   Home Office
    to
 168.825
-168.8375--------------------
 168.8500  PBR
    to
 168.9375  Alarms
    to
 169.0500  JRC
    to
 169.3875  PBR
-169.39375-------------------
 169.4250  ERMES Paging (25kHz, continuous) - PBR being cleared?
    to
 169.8000
-169.81875-------------------
 169.825   PBR
 169.8375  PBR   which is where we started the second column this time



          or in my usual format...

 156.0... Marine, to 158.525    single OR dual: see 160.625
 158.5375.PBR,    to 160.5375   single OR dual: see 163.0375
          ... alarms
 160.6... Marine, to 163.025    single OR dual (split -4.6: 156.025-158.4)
 163.0375.PBR,    to 165.0375  (split -4.5: 158.5375-160.5375)  Mid Band
 165.05...PBR,    to 168.2375  (split +4.8: 169.850 -173.0375)  High Band
                               (French splits -4.6)    (ISM 168 +/- 8kHz)
 168.25...PBR,    to 168.3      single
          168.3125... H.O.
 168.85...PBR,    to 169.8375   single - with:
                                ERMES paging 169.425 to 169.8 (25kHz channels)
 169.85...PBR,    to 173.0375   single OR dual: see 165.05
 173.05...PBR,    to 173.0875   single  
      12.5kHz channels.  
      **  These are your main business radio bands, mate. So I'm told.
      **  Don't ever listen here. It's not nice to eavesdrop.
      **  The technology might be fascinating, but there's no point listening, 
      **  is there?

 173.1... SRD, to 177.2   Mics, JFMG, Theatres, Telemetry, Alarms,
                          Telecommand, Deaf-aids
          New band for narrowband speech opened in 1997 somewhere in 173.1-174


          There is a Euro plan (25-08) to re-organise 157.45-174:  
          (boundaries - last pair likely: 173.9875-169.3875)
          162.05  ... Base, to 165.2 (split -4.6: 157.45 -160.6)
          169.825 ... Base, to 174   (split -4.6: 165.225-169.4)
          and some single around 165.2125


-174---------------------------
          Band III - TV Broadcasting (Not UK since 1984), DAB Digital Audio
          UK: Mobile - PAMR/PBR/JFMG/PMSE (mics) + AMR

          French TV: 8MHz ch. F5-F10  vision at 176, 184, 192, 200, 208, 216
                     sound at +6.5
          Euro TV (7MHz)  E5 174-181, E6 181-188, ... E11 216-223, E12 223-230
          Old UK  (5MHz)  B6 176-181, B7 181-186, ... B13 211-216

          174.0 ... mics
 177.2125.PAMR/PBR, to 183.4875  (split +8: 185.2-191.5)
                    except 181.7-181.8 (JFMG 12.5kHz 25W simplex talkback)
          183.5 ... AMR Auto. Meter Reading - plan:
                    183.5125.. 25kHz channels (8), to 183.6875
                    184.0      wideband channel
          184.5 ... SAB?
          185.2 ... PBR, see -8  (189.7-189.8 JFMG 12.5kHz 25W simplex talkback)
          191.5 ... JFMG
                    191.7  links 200kHz
                    191.9  links 200kHz
                    192... mics  200kHz max, 10mW
          193.2 ... PBR, see +8
          199.5 ... JFMG links and mics, SRD
                    199.7  temp. links
          200.5 ... mics
 201.2125.PAMR/PBR, to 207.4875  (split -8: 193.2-199.5)
          207.5 ... JFMG, mics


          209.206 - 215.269 PAMR/PBR Frequency plan developed using 6.25 and
                            12.5kHz channels. No use as yet.

          209.26... PBR, see +3.3
          210.26... SRD
          210.97... PBR, see +3.3
          211.97... JFMG, to 212.18 - mobile talkback (to 141 MHz) wide area
          212.2 ... SRD
 212.5625.PAMR/PBR, to 213.55        (split -3.3: 209.26-210.25)
          213.56... ?SRD?
 214.275..PAMR/PBR, to 215.2625      (split -3.3: 210.97-211.96)   Narrowband
 215.275..JFMG,     to 215.4875  (not split -3.3: 211.97-212.18!!) temp. links
          215.5 ... SRD
                    216.1 JFMG mics, to 217.1


 217.5... DAB, to 230 (1.536 MHz bandwidth)  Vertical Pol.
          Eureka 147 - COFDM - Umpteen hundred narrowband carriers all
                       sharing the bits...
  
 218.640  (E11-B)  LOCAL      n/a
 220.352  (E11-C)  LOCAL/INR  Isle of Man + Channel Islands
 222.064  (E11-D)  LOCAL/INR  England + Wales
 223.936  (E12-A)  LOCAL/INR  Scotland
 225.648  (E12-B)  BBC        UK + Gibraltar  (224.88-226.416)
 227.360  (E12-C)  LOCAL      n/a
 229.072  (E12-D)  LOCAL/INR  Northern Ireland

   A whopping 6 programmes carried on each transmission. That's 12 in any one
   location then. And that's supposed to be more efficient than the current FM
   system? But I can get two or three times that many stations already, check
   the FM band in London or Paris for example. Progress.
   Ah, they'll say, but we can also use BandII when the analogue signals are
   phased out, and there's L-band too (1.5 GHz).
   Yee-ess, I'll say but try fitting the processing power needed into a walkman,
   and make the batteries last more than half an hour. Ha.
   Oh, silly me, I nearly forgot. We don't really need more than ONE music
   station anyway, as they all play the same 500 tired worn out "hits" over and
   over again.
   And there's never enough advertising revenue to support TWO stations in the
   same area, is there?
   Am I the only person in the UK who wants to listen to good new music, rather
   than the same old Simply Red/Phil Collins/Toto/60's/kiddie pop/REM/Peter
   Gabriel etc? Most people I mention this to usually agree (willingly, too)
   and would rather feel more "up to date" than all this living in the past.
   It is after all a great pleasure to hear a fresh bit of pop and find you
   really like it - that is what makes us go out and buy the stuff isn't it?
   Trouble is, when they do play the latest releases, they play them every hour
   until you're sick if them - if you have the radio on all day at work it'll
   drive you nuts.
   So, from my experience most people are fed up with it, but as there's no
   alternative the audience figures will remain high, that pleases the
   advertisers, nothing needs to change, keep it bland, and the vicious circle
   continues...   How DO they manage to make even music I LIKE sound so awful?


 224.0125.... JFMG, to 224.4875  portable links


-230---------------------------
          NATO military band (Equipment). ARFA/DRFB/FMSC/NJFA/CEAC
          Air-Ground-Air, Air-Air AM comms  (25kHz channels) 
          Radio Relay, Satellite, PTARMIGAN multi-channel trunk links

 243.0    Distress, EPIRBs    121.5 x 2 = 243
 259.7    Space shuttle

 326.5... Astronomy,  to 328.5  - deuterium spectral line
 328.6... Aero. Nav., to 335.4  - ILS, glideslopes
    
 390.0125.PSRCP H.O. TETRA, to 392.9875 (digital 25 kHz channels)
          (split -10: 380-383)    Base continuous.
          may eventually extend to 395 & 385.
          

-399.9----UHF------------------
          Mobile         (French splits +/-10)

 400.15.. Meteo sondes, Satellite, EPIRBS, to 406.1

          406.1 ... MoD (replacements for VHF local net alloc.s being cleared)
          418   ... UK SRDs (centre of 200kHz alloc.)



    UHF1: 420 to 450 - military (shares with PBR), SRD, SAB
          RadioLocation is primary at 420-430 and 440-450

          There is a Euro plan (25-08) to re-organise 410-430: (boundaries)
          420 ... Base, to 430 (split -10: 410-420)

 420...   PBR: civil TETRA, to 425 (split -10: 410-415)  
          Dolphin - on 25kHz channels (i.e. xxx.x00 xxx.x25 xxx.x50 etc)

          425... PBR, see 440
                 (425.3125 JFMG, to 425.5626  temp links, S.West big towns only)
                 (427.7625 JFMG, to 428.0125  talkback   - various areas)
          429... MoD


 430...   Amateur 70cm band, to 440   Secondary
 430.025. RU1   French/Neth. repeaters, to 430.375 (RU15)
                (split +1.6: 431.625-431.975)
 432.0... Narrow band CW/SSB
 433.0... RB0   UK repeaters, to 433.375 (RB15) (split +1.6: 434.6-434.975)
          433.05... ISM, to 434.79 (centre 433.92)  remote control
 433.475  SU19
 433.5    SU20  FM calling channel
 433.525  SU21
 433.92   center of problematic SRD band
 434.6... Euro. repeaters, to 434.975  (split -1.6: reverse of UK)
 438.2... Euro. repeaters, to 439.475  (split -7.6: 430.6-431.875) 
                                        Germany/Swiss/Austria


          UHF1 PBR limited mainly to large cities - London, Birmingham, Leeds, 
          Liverpool, Glasgow, Edinb., Manchester, Coventry, Bristol, Cardiff,
          Swansea, Newport.   12.5kHz channels.
 440.0125.PBR, to 442.2625 (split -14.5: 425.5125-427.7625) 
          442.275 ... JFMG talkback - various areas
 442.525..PBR, to 443.4875 (split -14.5: 428.025 -428.9875)      13 JRC ch.s
          443.5 ... MoD
 445.5125.PBR, to 445.9875 (split -20.5: 425.0125-425.4875)
 446.0... PBR, to 446.4  on-site
 446.006..PMR 446 (Euro SRBR), to 446.093 (8x 12.5kHz - 
                   within 446-446.1, 6.25kHz offsets)   licence exempt
          446.425 ... JFMG, to 446.5125, all areas
          446.525 ... JFMG various areas, links, comms,
                           talkback simp. and duplex (base)
 447.525..PBR, to 449.4875
 448...   PBR, to 449      (split -17: shared with amateur 431-432) London. 
                            6.25kHz offsets
          449.106   Traffic info
 449.5... Prefered band for use by visiting foreigners for temporary PMR use,
          typically SAB, to 450 (12.5kHz channels)
          449.5 ... MoD
          449.75... Space ops/research, to 450.25   Earth-to-Space

    UHF2: 450 to 470 - emergency services, PBR, Paging, Telemetry, SRD, SAB
          PBR mobile segments may contain single frequency simplex use.
          12.5kHz channels.

          There is a Euro plan (25-08) to re-organise 450-470: (boundaries)
          460 ... Base, to 470 (split -10: 450-460)

 450...   Home Office - Emergency Services, to 453 (with 464-467.25)
 453.0125 PBR
 453.025..PBR, to 453.9875 (split +6.5: 459.525-460.4875)
          453.0375    PBR single? 459.5375 = H.O.
          454.025 ... Paging
 454.85...PBR, to 454.975  (some Railways split -6.5)
          454.993 ... JFMG, to 455.456 - links and location talkback base
                      (with 468.018-468.506) (+airborne)
 455.475..PBR, to 455.85   (split +5.3: 460.775-461.25)  airports only
          ... H.O.
 456.0... PBR, to 456.9875 (split +5.5: 461.500-462.4875)   
          456.0625... 21 JRC ch.s, to 456.3125
          457.0   ... H.O. (+5.5?)
          457.256 ... JFMG location talkback base, to 457.468
                           (with 467.293-467.531) 6.25 kHz offsets
          457.475 ... H.O.
 457.5... Scanning Telemetry, to 458.5 (split +5.5: 463-464)
          457.525 ... Marine on-board comms, to 457.575 (may be split +10)
 458.5... Telemetry, SRD, to 459.1
 458.85.. On-site paging / local comms, to 459.475
          459.475 ... H.O. (.4875 .5125 .5375)
          459.525 ... PBR, see 453.025
          460.500 ... SAB?, H.O.
          460.775 ... PBR, see 455.475, 
          461.2375... JFMG, & 461.25 (split +7.2875: 468.525 & 468.5375)
 461.2625.PBR and SRBR, to 461.4875 (SRBR until 31-12-2003)
          461.500 ... PBR, see 456
          462.500 ... H.O. 
          462.756 ... JFMG fixed sites talkback
                      (split +6.7375/+6.875: 469.493-469.868) 6.25kHz offsets
          463.000 ... ST, see 457.5
          464.000 ... H.O., see 450

 467.2625.JFMG        links and talkback (+airborne)
          467.275 ... see 457.25
          467.525 ..  Marine on-board, to 467.575  single, or dual: see -10
                      (future use of the 2 12.5kHz channels)
          468.018 ... JFMG, to 468.5375, see 455 and 461.237
          469.493 ... fixed sites, see 462.756

 469.875..H.O.


-470---------------------------
          Band IV - TV Broadcasting in 8MHz channels (21 to 35)
          + land mobile (secondary - JFMG)

          UK System I (PAL) : Offsets of +/- 25 kHz may be used to alleviate
             co-channel interference
          AM  Vision carrier  at +1.25 (Lower Sideband vestigial)
          FMW Sound  carrier  at +7.25 (sound 6 higher than video)
          Nicam digital sound at +7.802

          French System L (Secam) : Offsets of +/- 37.5 kHz may be used.
          AM  Vision carrier  at +1.25 (inverted video)
          AM  Sound  carrier  at +7.75 (sound 6.5 higher than video)
          Nicam digital sound at +7.55

          JFMG - ch 21 to 34 - mics and talkback (split +80MHz)

 470-478  21  477.25 sound
 478-486  22  485.25
 486-494  23  493.25
 494-502  24  501.25
 502-510  25  509.25
 510-518  26  517.25
 518-526  27  525.25
 526-534  28  533.25
 534-542  29  541.25
 542-550  30  549.25
 550-558  31  557.25
 558-566  32  565.25
 566-574  33  573.25
 574-582  34  581.25
 582-590  35  589.25   + JFMG links and mics



-590---------------------------
          UK Aero. Navigation + JFMG mics

 594          Radar 50cm
 590-598 (36) VCRs / Computers etc



-598---------------------------
          Band V - TV Broadcasting in 8MHz channels (37 to 68)  
          + land mobile (secondary - JFMG mics)

 598-606  37  605.25   + JFMG links
 606-614  38  613.25
 610          Radio Astronomy
 614-622  39  621.25   + JFMG talkback (split -80Mhz), to 662
 622-630  40  629.25
 630-638  41  637.25
 638-646  42  645.25
 646-654  43  653.25
 654-662  44  661.25
 662-670  45  669.25
 670-678  46  677.25
 678-686  47  685.25
 686-694  48  693.25
 694-702  49  701.25
 702-710  50  709.25
 710-718  51  717.25
 718-726  52  725.25
 726-734  53  733.25
 734-742  54  741.25
 742-750  55  749.25
 750-758  56  757.25
 758-766  57  765.25
 766-774  58  773.25
 774-782  59  781.25
 782-790  60  789.25

-790---------------------------
          TV, Land Mobile (secondary - JFMG mics)    Military Radio Relay
       
 790-798  61  797.25
 798-806  62  805.25
 806-814  63  813.25
 814-822  64  821.25
 822-830  65  829.25
 830-838  66  837.25
 838-846  67  845.25
 846-854  68  853.25
 854-862      (often refered to as channel 69, a proposed extension) - JFMG SAB


-854---------------------------
          Mobile, military

 854...   SAB, mics, SRD, CT2 cordless phones, to 870
          854...    JFMG, to 862 - mics, links
          856...    MoD, to 859.75   Tactical training
          863...    SRD, to 865
          864.1 ..  CT2, to 868.1    to be reviewed 2002

 915...   Base section, to 960 (split -45: 870-915)  Cellphones - GSM
             Global System for Mobility
 917.0125.ETACS/TACS, to 949.9875 (25 kHz channels, 12.5kHz offsets)
                                   to be phased out by 2005
          917 - 925 Vodafone
          925 - 933 Cellnet
          919.5 ... future Amateur, to 920  - recommended by DSI2 for 2008
 921...   UIC, to 925 (by 2005) Euro. Railways GSM system
 925.2... EGSM - Extended GSM, to 935
 935.2... GSM, to 959.8 (124x TDMA 200kHz channels)
          Digital. Scrambled. Base continuous.
          933   - 939.6 Vodafone
          939.8 - 947   Cellnet
          947   - 955   Vodafone
          955   - 960   Cellnet

 933...   DSRR, to 935 (Digital Short Range Radio), 
          will NOT happen, Euro plans withdrawn
 934.0125.UK CB, to 934.9625 (934/81)  (20 channels, 50kHz spacing)   
          ended 31/12/98



-960---------------------------
          Aero. Navigation (DME/IFF), military  JTIDS

 966      Astronomy +/-4 MHz
 
 978....  DME Ground reply X channels, to 1087
          (paired with 1xx.x0 MHz) (to +63)
 1025...  DME Air mobile channels, to 1150
          (1-126 x 1 MHz channels; 1-16 and 60-69 not used)
          Selected in aircraft by tuning to a paired channel between
          108 and 118 MHz.  Pulses are transmitted by the aircraft,
          returned by the ground station, and the time difference measured.
 1104...  DME Ground reply Y channels, to 1213  
          (paired with 1xx.x5 MHz) (to -63)

 1030     SSR/IFF (Squalk) Ground (secondary radar - rotating),
          air reply on 1090


-1,215----microwaves-----------
          Mobile, military, radar 
 
 1246...  Russian GPS GLONASS (GLObal NAv. Sat. Sys.) L2,
          0-12: 1246+n(0.4375)  see 1602


 1240...  Amateur 23cm band, to 1325   CW,SSB/FM/TV
 1296...  narrowband modes, beacons, to 1297
 1297...  FM repeaters RM0 to RM19 (split -6: 1291..)
 1297.0   RM0
 1297.05  RM2
 1297.075 RM3
 1297.125 RM5
 1297.15  RM6
 1297.225 RM9
 1297.375 RM15
 1297.475 RM19 (not in use)
 1297.5.. FM simplex, to 1298
 1297.50  FM calling
 1298.275.German repeaters, to 1298.65 (split -28: 1270..)


-1,325----(1.325 GHz)-----------
          Mobile, Satellite, Fixed, Navigation etc...

          Rather specialist, wavelengths of less than 30cm really do allow
          for high gain antennas, with very narrow beamwidths. Cable losses 
          become very noticeable and/or untenable. Mobile "flutter" quite
          severe, mobile systems need many more base stations to cover a given
          area. Most useful uses are direct fixed links, point to point,
          satellite (line of sight), low range etc.
          So - mostly un-interceptable and/or digital.

 1,400... Transmission Prohibited, to 1427
          Astronomy, Space Research, SETI, Hydrogen Line. Certain frequencies
          around here propagate very well through the universe, so the boffins
          listen here for extra-terrestial transmissions. But surely the little
          grey men are doing the same thing?
 1,452... L-Band DAB, to 1492
          1488.25 JFMG links, to 1490.75
 1,525... Satellite comms downlinks, to 1559   Inmarsat GMDSS etc
          (uplinks 1626.5-1660.5) (+101.5?)
 1,575.42 Navstar GPS Nav L1 C/A (military accuracy with 1227.6 L2)  Spread.
          (L3 1381.05 used) 
 1,602... Russian GLONASS L1,  0-12: 1602+n(0.5625)   spread spectrum
 1,610... LEO MSS, to 1626.5 (up&down) CDMA  i.e. Globalstar,
          Iridium (TDMA, 780km up)
 1,800.30.TFTS in-flight digital phones (air-ground), to 1804.969
          (164 x 30.303 kHz channels : ground at -130)
 1,690... Weather Satellite HRPT (Hi-res pics), to 1710  NOAA, GOES, MeteoSat
 1,805... PCN mobile phones, to 1876.5 (split -95: 1710..)
          1805   - 1816.5  soon to be shared by Cellnet & Vodaphone
          1816.5 - 1846.5  One 2 One
          1846.5 - 1876.5  Orange

 1,880... DECT Digital Euro. Cordless Telephones, to 1900
 1,900... future UMTS, to 2025 (with 2110-2200)
          IMT-2000, FPLMTS 3rd generation mobile (-190?)

 2,310... Ham 13cm band, to  2,450
 2.4  ... JFMG video links & cameras, to 2.68
 2,402... Bluetooth digital SRD, to 2.480 (79 x 1MHz channels)
          1600 hops per sec over 32 channels
 2,450    ISM Industrial/Scientific/Medical, your microwave oven. Really.
 3,000    Radar 10cm
 3,400... Ham  9cm band, to  3,475
 3,675... C-Band satellite TV, to 4,200
 5,650... Ham  6cm band, to  5,850
 9,400    Radar 3cm
10,000... Ham  3cm band, to 10,150 - and 10,300 to 10,500


-10,700---(10.7 GHz)-----------
          Satellite TV, Ku band - Astra,Eutelsat,Intelsat etc. (35,800km up)

 10,700...FSS
 11,700...BSS DBS (Band VI)
 12,500...Telecom


-12,750------------------------
          These are really small radio wavelengths...

 24,000...Ham  12mm band, to  24,250
 40,500...future ITC 7mm MVDS Multipoint Video Distribution, to 42.5 GHz
 47,000...Ham   6mm band, to  47,200
 75,500...Ham   4mm band, to  76,000
 142,000..Ham   2mm band, to 144,000
 248,000  Ham 1.2mm band, to 250,000  - 248 GHz, hmmmm.

          Radio or Far Infra-Red?
          There's a bit of overlap near 1mm wavelengths...


-275,000------(275 GHz)--------
          Far Infra-Red, to 25,000 GHz  (over 1mm to 12痠)


-25,000,000---(25 THz)---------
          Infra-red


-441 THz-----------------------
          Visible wavelengths. Otherwise known as "Light".
          Red to Violet (680-420nm).
          Some of my favourite frequencies. Green is rather nice.


-714 THz-----------------------  
          Near Ultraviolet. 300nm-180nm


-1,666 THz---------------------
          Far Ultraviolet 180nm-91nm


-3,289 THz---------------------
          Extreme Ultraviolet 91nm-10nm
          912-100 Angstroms


-30,000,000,000---(30 PHz)-----
          X-rays 10nm-10pm
          100-0.1 Angstroms 


-30,000,000,000,000--(30 EHz)--
          Gamma rays 10pm-100fm and beyond

That's enough. Obsessive? Me?




---------

Frequency  multiplied by wavelength
gives 300,000,000 m/s - the speed of light...
   or 299,792,458 to be more exact.

300 mHz > 3000 mHz       1Gm > 100Mm    easier to count s/cycle than c/s !
  3 Hz  >   30 Hz        100Mm > 10Mm   VERY long waves! Natural 'Earth' waves
 30 Hz  >  300 Hz   ELF  10Mm > 1Mm     Bass!
300 Hz  > 3000 Hz   ILF  1000km > 100km Voice frequencies (sound)
  3 kHz >   30 kHz  VLF  100km > 10km
 30 kHz >  300 kHz   LF  10km > 1km
300 kHz > 3000 kHz   MF  1km > 100m
  3 MHz >   30 MHz   HF  100m > 10m
 30 MHz >  300 MHz  VHF  10m > 1m
300 MHz > 3000 MHz  UHF  1m > 10cm
  3 GHz >   30 GHz  SHF  10cm > 1cm
 30 GHz >  300 GHz  EHF  1cm > 1mm      mainly experimental
300 GHz >   30 THz  THF  1mm > 10um     limits of radio / far infra-red
 30 THz >  300 THz       10um > 1um     infra-red light
300 THz > 3000 THz       1um > 100nm    infra red > visible > ultra violet
  3 PHz >   30 PHz       100nm > 10nm   extreme ultra violet
 30 PHz >   30 EHz       10nm > 10pm    x-rays
 30 EHz >                10pm >         Gamma rays 


1 micron   = 1 micrometer = 1um = 1000nm = one thousandth of a mm

10 Angstrom = 1 nanometer  i.e.  5000A=500nm   1A=0.1nm=100pm

X unit (Xu) = approx. 0.001002 angstrom, or 100.2 femtometers, defined by
M. Siegbahn in 1925. Formerly used for measuring the wavelength of X rays
and gamma rays now measured in picometers (pm) or femtometers (fm).

1 Fermi = 1fm = about the size of an atom's nucleus



---------------

Metric prefixes

Ten to the power of
-27               vimto  v
-24               yocto  y
-21               zepto  z
-18               atto   a   Greek: atten = eighteen
-15               femto  f   Greek: fempten = fifteen
-12 (trillionth)  pico   p   'little bit'
 -9 (billionth)   nano   n   nanos = dwarf
 -6 (millionth)   micro  u   mikros = small
 -3 (thousandth)  milli  m   mille = thousand
 -2 (hundredth)   centi  c   centum = hundred
 -1 (tenth)       deci   d   decimus = tenth
  1 (ten)         deca   da  deka = ten
  2 (hundred)     hecto  h   hekaton = hundred
  3 (thousand)    kilo   k   Greek: Khilioi
  6 (million)     mega   M   megas = great
  9 (billion)     giga   G   gigas = giant
 12 (trillion)    tera   T   teras = monster
 15 (quadrillion) peta   P
 18 (quintillion) exa    E
 21 (sextillion)  zetta  Z
 24 (septillion)  yotta  Y
 27 (octillion)
 30 (nonillion)
 33 (decillion
 36 (undecillion)
 39 (dodecillion)        These American terms obviously increment by one per
 42 (tredecillion)       thousand. In Europe however, we prefer to do it by
 45 (quattuordecillion)  millions. Thus a Euro billion is a million millions
 48 (quindecillion)      and not a thousand millions.
 51 (sexdecillion)
 99 (dotrigintillion)
100 (googol)            
120 (novemtrigintillion)
303 (centillion)
googol (googolplex)

-------

Sharing knowledge with the world....   :)


"nicely annotated..." ... 
"You did a grand job enhancing the info available" - A.T., Surrey.
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"Excellent!" "...much better than my own" - S.C., Glouc.
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"superb" - C.G., London.
"This really is a masterpiece, I just love charts like
this. I highly recommend everyone to visit this site, and to appreciate
just how much work and compilation has gone into making it. Go on, get lost
in it FOR HOURS. Thanks for sharing." - Nigel, East Anglia.
"...listing is very useful" - T, Warrington.

Thankfully copied at :
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Support at the University of Surrey
  http://www.cpe.surrey.ac.uk/support/spectrum.htm
Cheers Bigears!
  http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hangar/4783/

*** Edited for Text format by Meg Hertz *** 73 ***