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VMS System Managers Manual

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                            System Managers Manual
                            ORDER NUMBER AA-LA00A-TE
                       Typed in by: Guardian Of Time

This Manual provides the basic concepts and procedures for VMS system
management; it is especially inteded for managers of small clusters and

Chapter 1

The VMS operating system and the other software products that run on your
computer provide you and the other users on your system w/ a wide range of
computing capabilities.  In order to create and maintain a proper and
efficient computing environment, certain administrative tasks must be
undertaken.  These tasks are called SYSTEM MANAGEMENT, and they include the

: Setting up the system
: Giving individual users access to the system
: Installing software (and software updates)
: Managing acceptable performance levels
: Preventing the loss of important information that you keep on line
: Making sure that the system is secure
: Handling media (such as disks/magnetic tapes)
: setting up the software to allow for printers and for batch jobs
: Setting up a cluster
: Setting up a network

As system manager, you may need to do some of these tasks only once (for
example, setting up software to allow for printers or batch jobs, or setting
up a network); others are done on a continuing basis (for example, maintaining
system security and preventing the loss of data).  At some sites, one or more
people are designated as SYSTEM MANAGERS, and other individuals are designated
as OPERATORS.  In these cases, operators are responsible for tasks such as
physically mounting magnetic tapes and disks, monitoring printers, responding
to emergencies or security alarms, and maintaining system log files.

Not all of the tasks described in this manual may be necessary for your site.
This chapter provides an overview of the information that this manual
contains.  You should read this introductory chapter to determine which parts
of the manual may be applicable to your site.

<NOTE:  I overlooked section 1.1 because all it does is say that system      >
<       Managers should use this chapter / Operators should use this Chapter >
<       there was NO usefull information on that part...Guardian of Time     >


Some concepts and terms are used frequently in system management, and you
should become familiar w/ them.  The following terms and concepts are used
both in the context of everday general use in a VMS system and in the context
of system management; they are described in the VMS GENERAL USER'S MANUAL:

:  Accounts and directories
:  Command Procedures
:  Digital Command Language (DCL)

The following concepts and terms apply primarily to system management:

:  SYSTEM account and [SYSMGR] directory

   The SYSTEM account is reserved for use by the system manager.  When you
   are logged into the SYSTEM ACCOUNT, your default directory (Which is also
   reserved for the system manager) is SYS$SYSROOT:[SYSMGR].

   Always be carefule when you are logged into the SYSTEM account.  When you
   are logged into the SYSTEM account, all privileges are enabled, by default.
   You need these privileges to perform many system management tasks; however,
   they can also produce unwanted or even destructive results if you use them


   You can perform most system management tasks from any terminal that is
   connected to the processor (or the cluster).  However, certain tasks such
   as bootstrapping the system and communicating w/ the VAX processor's
   console subsystem must be performed at a special terminal called the

   The console terminal, which always has the designation OPA0, is also
   usually designated as the OPERATOR'S TERMINAL.  You use the operator's
   terminal to send messages to system users and respond to user requests,
   using the operator communication process (OPCOM).


The system startup procedure establishes the computing environment for your

This chapter covers three major topics:

: How to start your system for the first time
: How to create the proper computing environment whenever you restart your
: How to shut down your system

Before you can use the procedures described in this chapter, you must girst
set up the hardware for each VAX processor.  To set up the hardware and
install the VMS operating system, refer to the instructions in your VAX
processor installation and operations guide.  After you have installed the
operating system, you will be able to log into the SYSTEM account on your

After the operating system has been successfully loaded, you can set up the
proper computing environment for your system.  The site-specific system
startup file, SYSTARTUP_V5.COM, is an essential aspect of establishing an
environment specific to the needs of your site.  Section 2.4 describes how to
modify SYSTARTUP_V5.COM to meet the needs of your site.


Instufctions for installing the VMS operating system are included in the
installation and operations guide for your processor.  You must choose whether
you are installing the VMS operating systsm as a new installation or as an
upgrade.  If you are installing the VMS operating system for the first time,
you must use the new installation procedure.  If you already have a previous
version of the VMS operating system on your processor, then you should use the
upgrade prodcedure.  Instructions for a new unstallation are found in your
processor installation and operations guide; instructions for an upgrade
procedure are found in the Release Notes for the VMS operating system.

When you install the VMS operating system using the new installation
procedure, the disk on which you install the operating system is first erased,
and then a directory structuure and the operating system itself is put in
place.  When you use the upgrade procedure, the files for the VMS operating
system are replaced (w/ files for the upgraded operating system), and all
other files on your system disk (for example, data files, executable images
that are NOT part of the operating system, and so on) remain as they are.

CAUTION:  if you use the new installation procedure for a processor that
already has a previous version of the VMS operating system, you will DESTROY
the previous contents of the disk that you designate as they system disk.


Booting is the process of loading the operating system from the system disk
into processor memory.  You can perform either a nonstop boot or a
conversational boot.  A nonstop boot is the quickest and easiest method, and
the operating system will automatically set system parameters that are
appropriate for most computing activities for your system's hardware
configuration.  A conversational boot requires you to supply more information
during the boot process, but it allows you to change system parameters during
the boot procedure.  See your VAX processor installation and operations guide
for detailed booting instructions.

After a system shuts down, it must be rebooted before you can use it.  Some
processors provide the capability of an automatice reboot; when you enable
this feature, the system automatically attempts to reboot itself after it has
been shut down.  For example, if your site experiences a power failure, a
processor that has automatic reboot enabled restarts itself automatically
after the power has been restored.  See your VAX processor installation and
operations guide for information about automatic rebooting.

In unusual cases, the normal startup procedures will NOT work properly and
troubleshooting may be necessary.  Section 2.9 describes procedures that you
should follow if the normal startup procedure fails, or if you find yourself
locked out of your system.


When the boot procedure is complete, a message is displayed on the terminal
from which the system is booted (except on workstations, where the message is
displayed on the operators window).  The message is similar to the following:

VAX/VMS VERSION 5.0 08-JUN-1989 07:00:00.00

%%%%%%%%%%% OPCOM, <08-JUN-1980 07:00:01.P> %%%%%%%%%%%
Logfile has been initialized by operator _OPA0:

%SET-I-INTSET, login interactive limit = 64, Current interactive value = 0
  SYSTEM       job terminated at <08-JUN-1980 07:00:00.00

After you see this display, you can then log into the system managers account,
using the following procedure:

1.  Press the RETURN/ENTER key on the console terminal.
2.  In response to the system's request for your USERNAME, type SYSTEM.
3.  In response to the system's request for your PASSWORD, type the password
    that you chose for the sysstem account during installation.  You should
    change your system password immediatly after logging into the system for
    the first time.  To change your password, enter the DCL command SET

CAUTION: DIGITAL recommends that you change the system manager's account
password frequently to maintain system security.  The system manager's account
has full privileges by default; therefore, you should exercise caution when
using it.

After you enter your password, the system prints a welcome message on the
console terminal.  If it is not your first time loggin in, the system also
prints the time of your last login, for example:

     Welcome to VAX/VMS Version n.n

     Last interactive login at 01-Jun-1989 15:13:21.07

The command procedure SYS$EXAMPLES:MGRMENU.COM generates the system manager
menu.  This command procedure can serve as a sample for designin site-specific
system manager menus.


A command procedure that sets up a computing environment for the specific
needs of your site is executed each time that your system starts up.  This
file is located in the system manager's directory, [SYSMGR], and it is called
SYSTARTUP_V5.COM.  In order to customize SYSTARTUP_V5.COM for the needs of
your site, you must make the appropriate edits to the file.  This section
describes how to customize the SYSTARTUP_V5 command procedure.

After you install the VMS operating system, the file SYSTARTUP_V5.COM is
placed in the [SYSMGR] directory.  SYSTARTUP_V5.COM is a template file, which
means that it can be used as a basis or guide for creating a startup file that
suits your own system.  In particular, the SYSTARTUP_V5.COM template includes
sections that can perform the following tasks at startup time:

:  Mounting public disks
:  Setting the charactersistics of terminals and other devices
:  Initializing and starting queues
:  Installing known images
:  Starting up the DECnet network
:  Running the System Dump Analyzer
:  Purging the operator's log file
:  Submitting batch jobs that are run at system startup time
:  Limiting the number of interactive users
:  Starting up the LAT network
:  Site-specific LAT command procedure
:  Creating systemwide announcements
:  Defining a system login command procedure
:  Backing up the system

To modify SYSTARTUP_V5.COM, you can use any text editor.  This file is a
command procedure, so any changes that you make must conform to the rules for
command procedures, as described in the VMS GENERAL USER'S MANUAL.  In order
tobe used as a site-specific startup file, be sure to keep the file in the
[SYSMGR] directory and use the file name SYSTARTUP_V5.COM.

To allow SYSTARTUP_V5.COM to continue in the event of an error, include the
DCL command SET NOON at the beginning of the file, as follows:

                  $ SET NOON

This command disables error checking after the execution of each command in

The following sections describe many of the elements of your userr environment
that you can establish w/ SYSTARTUP_V5.COM.


A public disk is a disk that can be accessed by any system process.  In order
to make a public disk available for use, the disk must be physically mounted
and you must then use the MOUNT command.  You do not need to use the mount
command for the system disk, because the system disk is alreadymounted when
the system starts up.

This section describes how to mount disks in the SYSTARTUP_V5.COM file.  If
your system uses any disks that should be mounted whenever the system is
running, you should read this section.

To include MOUNT commands in SYSTARTUP_V5.COM to mount your public disks for
systemwide access, use the following MOUNT command syntax:

                $ MOUNT/SYSTEM ddcu:  volume_label logical_name

You use the /SYSTEM qualifier to mount the disk for systemwide access; this is
caolled a public volume.  If you are in a VAXcluster environment, then you
should also use the /CLUSTER qualifier in order to make the volume accessible
to any user in the cluster.

The expression ddcu represents the physical device name.  You must always
include a colon after the device name.  The expression volume_label is a label
that you choose for the disk.  For example, if you mount a disk w/ the
physical device name DRA1, and you choose USERFILES as the volume label for
this disk, then you would include the following command in the

                            $ MOUNT DRA1:  USERFILES

The expression logical_name, in the context of the MOUNT command, is a logical
volume name that is associated q/ the volume that you mount.  You can use the
logical volume name (instead of the physical device name) in programs and
procedures that are used on your system, and it is not necessary to know the
physical drive on which the volume is mounted.

If you do not specify a logical volume name in the MOUNT command, then the
logical volume name is in the form DISK$volume_label.  In the previous
example, where no logical name was specified and the volume label was
USERFILES, the MOUNT cammand would automatically assign the logical name
DISK$USERFILES to the disk.

The following command produces the logical volume name USER and equates it to
DRA1, the device name.  Note that the logical volume name USER is equivalent
to DRA1 only while the disk is actually mounted; if the volume is dismounted,
then the logical volume name no longer has any systemwide meaning.

                     $ MOUNT/SYSTEM  DRA1:  USERFILES USER


On some systems, certain devices (such as terminals or printers) should have
the same characteristics whenever the system is running.  Characteristics
includ defining the device as a printer, setting the transmission speed for
terminals, and so on.  You can define these characteristics in the
SYSTARTUP_V5.COM procedure.  REad this section you want to define certain
characteristics for specific devices on your system.

To establish the characteristics of the terminals and other devices on the
system, use a series of SET commands in SYSTARTUP_V5.COM.  Use the SET
TERMINAL command for terminals; you may want to include comments to remind
yourself of the user to whom specific terminals may be assigned.

Use the SET PRINTER command for printers.  Printer characteristics must be
seet before you establish queues for the printers.

The following example shows how you could modify SYSTARTUP_V5.COM to set up
characterisitcs for terminals and a printer:

$ SET TERMINAL TTD1: /SPEED=9600 /PERMANENT                  !WRENS

For more information about the qualifiers available w/ the SET TERMINAL and
SET PRINTER commands, see the VMS General Users Manual (NOTE: I'm going to
start to type that manual up at the same time as this one starting 19-Jun-89).


If your system has a printer that you want to make available for general use
(that is, a printer that is not connected directly to an individual terminal),
youmust establish a print queue.  Similarly, if you want to allow batch
processing on your system, you must establish a batch queue.  A quese allows
users to submit requests for printing or batch processing, and the system
prints or processes the user' jobs as resources allow.

If you want to include printing or batch processing capabliities on your
system, you should include commands in SYSTARTUP_V5.COM that do the following:

1:  Start the system job queue manager
2:  Initialize and start each queue w/ a separate INITALIZ/QUEUE/START command

The following example shows how to start the system job queue manager and
initialize and start queues in SYSTARTUP_V5.COM:

$ !
$ ! Start the system job queue manager
$ !
$ !
$ ! Set printers spooled and establish printer queues
$ !
$ !
$ !
$ !
$ !Establish batch queues
$ !

NOTE:  DIGITAL recommends using the /RESTART qualifier w/ the
START/QUEUE/MANAGER command.  This qualifier causes the queue manager to
restart automatically if the job controller should abort.

A spooled device directs the output of an application to an intermediate file
until the application program finishes.  When the application completes, the
file is submitted for printing.  A spooled device can help balance the
workload deman on line printers if you are running applications on a
time-shared system.  Use the SET DEVICE/SPOOLED command to establish spooled


You can install commonly used programs as known images to reduce the I/O
overhead in activating those images and to assign attributes or privileges to
the images.  If you have programs on your system that meet any of the
following conditions, you should read this section and install such programs
as known images in the SYSTARTUP_V5.COM startup file:

:  Programs that are frequently run
:  Programs that are usually run concurrently by several processes
:  Programs that require special privileges

All known images must be reinstalled each time the system is rebooted, because
known file lists are not saved if the system is shut down or fails.  You
include INSTALL commands in SYSTARTUP_V5.COM to install programs as known
images.  Chaper 9 includes a discussion about performance characteristics and
known images.

The following example shows a command sequence that might appear in
SYSTARTUP_V5.COM for installing additional known images:




The DECnet software lets your system communicate w/ other computers.  If you
install DECnet software on your system, you must include commands in
SYSTARTUP_V5.COM that start up the DECnet network.  REad this section if you
have the DECnet software on your system.

If you have started a batch queue on your system (as described in an earlier
section), then you should start the network using the following commands in

 $ IF F$SEARCH("SYS$SYSTEM:NETACP.EXE")  .NES.  "" - ! This is faster, if you
 $ THEN SUBMIT SYS$MANAGER:STARTNET.COM              ! have batch queues setup.

These commands submit the network startup procedure (SYS$MANAGER:STARTNET.COM)
as a batch job, which reduces the amount of time it takes to boot your system.
Alternatively, if you have not started a batch queue, use the following
command in SYSTARTUP_V5.COM to start up the network:



In the event of a system failure, the System Dump Analyzer (SDA) can help you
determine why the system failed.  In order to use SDA for this purpose, you
should make sure that the system dump file is available for analysis and not
overwritten by a new crash.  REad the rest of this section if you want to
learn about using SDA w/ SYSTARTUP_V5.COM.

You can start SDA in your site-specific startup file by using the following
lines in SYSTARTUP_V5.COM:


For further information, invoke the SDA for an intereactive session upon
completion of startup, or refer to the SDA documentation in the extended VMS
documentation set.

CAUTION:  If you use the page file for the crash dump file, when the system
reboots, you MUST enter the SDA command COPY to copy the dump[ from the page
file to another file suitable for analysis.  If you fail to perorm the copy
operation, pages used to save the crash dump information are not released for
paging, and your system hangs while executing STARTUP.COM in the rebooting


Each time the system is rebooted, a new version of OPERATOR.LOG is created in
the SYS$MANAGER directory.  You should devise a plan for regular maintenance
of these files.  Adding the following command to SYSTARTUP_V5.COM purges all
but the last two (2) versions of the operator's log file:

                   $ PURGE/KEEP=2  SYS$MANAGER: OPERATOR.LOG

See Chapter 10 for additional suggestions for maintaining the operators log


Some sites may have batch jobs that are submitted at system startup time.  To
submit such batch jobs, add SUBMIT commands to your SYSTARTUP_V5 file, in the
following format:

                      $  SUBMIT [/qualifier,...] file-spec

In the following example, a batch job is submitted to run a command procedure
that rebuilds the disks each time the system is initalized.


If you submit batch processing jobs in SYSTARTUP_V5.COM, make sure that the
batch processing jobs are submitted after the batch queues have been
initialized.  See Chapter 5 for more information on submitting batch jobs.


You can set a limit for the number of interactive unsers that are allowed to
be logged into your system at one time.  To do this, include the following
command in SYSTARTUP_V5.COM:

   $  STARTUP$INTERACTIVE_LOGINS ==n <- where n is is where you would put a #

Where n is the maximum number of interactive users that are perrmitted to log
in at one time.

NOTE:  the number of interactive users mujst be set to a value no greater than
that which is authorized by your VAX processor license.


A LAT network is any local area network where terminal servers and operating
systems use the Local Area Transport (LAT) protocol.  A LAT network can
coexist on the same Ethernet w/ other protocols.  If your system uses a LAT
network, you should read this section.

To configure your system as a service node w/in a LAT network, execute the
starts up the LAT protocl.  In the LAT protocol, a VMS operating system
advertises its services over the Ethernet and responds to connection requests
from terminal servers supporting user terminals and oterh asynchronous

to start up the LAT network, add the following command line to

                             $ @SYS$MANAGER: LTLOAD

To configure a node as a service node that connects only to interactive
terminals on a terminal server, include the command line shown in the last
example in SYSTARTUP_V5.COM.

However, if you want to use remote printers on a terminal server or to create
dedicated application services on the VMS service node, you must modify


To create a VMS service node on a LAT network that supports only interactive
terminals is a one-step procedure.  You insert the command @SYS$MANAGER:LTLOAD
into SYSTEARTUP_V5.COM and append any of the following arguments:

                   $ @SYS$MANAGER:LTLOAD "P1" "P2" "P3" "P4"

The arguments P1/P4 have the following meanings:

P1..Service name..Name of the VMS service.  For clustered VMS service nodes,
use the cluster name as the service name.  For independent VMS service nodes,
use the physical node name.

P2 - P4..any of the following: /IDENTIFICATION="string"..Description of the
node and its services that are advertised over the Ehternet.  The default is
the string defined by the logical name SYS$ANNOUNCE.

/ENABLE=group-list..Terminal server groups qualified to establish connections
w/ the VMS servic node.  By defauld, Group 0 is enabled.

/DISABLE=group-list..Removes previously enabled terminal server groups.

The argument P1 assigns a service name to the node, using the LATCP command
CREATE SERVICE.  Arguments P2 through P4 can be any valid qualifier to the SET
NODE command.

For example, the following command creates the service OFFICE on the VMS node,
MOE, which is part of the OFFICE cluster.



This section describes how to define the following types of systemwide
announcements in your SYSTARTUP_V5.COM file:

: A message to users informing them that the system is available for use
  (after a system boot)

: A message to users when first accessing the system for login

: A welcoming message when a user logs in

When your system has completed the startup procedure and is up and running,
you can send a message to all connected terminals announcing the system's
availability.  To do this, include a line, w/ an appropriate message w/in the
quotation marks, before the $EXIT command in your SYSTARTUP_V5.COM file:

$ REPLY/ALL/BELL "VMS Operating System at NIGHTMARE 589-7840..READ FOR USE."

if you want to display at the beginning of each user's login procedure,
include a line, w/ an appropriate message w/in the quotation marks, in


You can also display a messge to all interactive users immediately after they
log in by including a line similar to the folling in SYSTARTUP_V5.COM:

$ DEFINE/SYSTEM SYS$WELCOME "Welcome to the VMS Operating System at Nightmare,

If you do not define SYS$WELCOME, the following standard messaged is

Welcome to VMS version n.n

The SYSTARTUP_V5 command file supplied as a template w/ DIGITAL'S distribution
kit includes additional command examples for SYS$ANNOUNCE and SYS$WELCOME.

You may also want to display various system announcements to users at the time
they log in. You do this w/ a command in the systemwide login command
procedure, SYLOGIN.COM, as explained later in this chapter.


A system login command procedure is executed for each interactive usree when
the user logs in. W/ a system login command procedure, you can establish
elements of a computing environment that are the same for all interactive
users.  To use a system login procedure, you should do as follows:

1. Define the logical name SYS$SYLOGIN, usually in your site-specific startup

2. Create a system login command procedure.

To define the logical name SYS$SYLOGIN and point to a system login command
file name SYS$MANAGER:SYLOGIN.COM, include the following line in


A template for a system login command procedure is found in
SYS$MANAGER:SYLOGIN.COM.  This file includes commands that you can modify and
add to according to the needs of your site.

You can use the system login command procedure to display announcements for
your site.  Todo this, you would do the following:

1.  Create a text file that has current announcements, for example w/ the
filename SYS$MANAGER:ANNOUNCEMENTS.TXT.  You could then update this file
(adding/deleting announcements) as needed.

2.  Include a line at the end of your system login command procedure that
displays the announcements file, such as the following:


In addition to a system login command procedure, users can also have their own
login command procedures.  User login command procedures are executed
immediately after the system login command procedure.


To limit the risk of losing your operating system environment, you should
perform the following sequential operations after installing and customizing
your system:

1.  Back up the console volume

2.  Build a standalone backup kit

3.  Back up the system disk

If your processor has a console storage device, DIGITAL recommends that you
make a backup copy of your console volume, it is useful to have a backup copy
in case your original becomes corrupted.  The VMS operating system provides a
command procedure called CONSCOPY.COM in the SYS$UPDATE directory that copies
your console volume to a blank one.

To back up your system disk, DIGITAL recommends that you use standalone
BACKUP, which uses a subset of Backup Utility qualifiers.  If your system was
not distributed on magnetic tape, youmust build a standalone BACKUP kit either
on console media or on disk.  You can then boot standalone directory root SYSE
on a Files-11 disk.

Installing and using standalone BACKUP in an alternate root on your system
disk saves time when you are backing up your system disk,  because you do not
have to boot standalone BACKUP from your console volume.

NOTE:  The procedures for backing up the console volume and backing up the
system disk vary for different VAX processors.  See your VAX processor
installation and operations guide for the setp-by-step procedures that apply
to your processor.


The command procedure SYS$UPDATE:VMSSKITBLD is used for building and copying a
VMS system disk.  The procedure provides you w/ the following options:

:  BUILD -- Destroys all previous information on the target disk and then
            builds the new system disk.

:  ADD   -- Adds another copy of the operating system to an alternate system
            root directory on the same system disk.

:  COPY  -- Copies the operating system files to a target disk w/out
            destroying the files that are currently on the target disk.

:  COMMON - Initializes the target disk and builds it as a cluster-common
            system disk.

CAUTION:  The VMSKITBLD BUILD and COMMON options initialize the target disk,
deleting, all of its previous contents.

In some cases, you may want the operating system to exist on another disk.
The following paragraphs describe two such cases and the procedures that you
would use.

You may want to move your operating system files to another disk.  for
example, assume that your operating system is initally stored on a disk
together w/ some ofyour user files.  Suppose that you want to move only the
operating system files from original disk to a smaller disk.  You can build
the operating system on the smaller disk (called the target/destination disk)
w/out affecting the user files on the original disk (the source disk) by using
the BUILD option of the VMSKITBLD command procedure.

You may want to create a separate test envionment where you can modify the
operating system w/out affecting current operations.  You could use the ADD
option to copy the operating system to an alternate system root directory and
create a boot command procedure to select that version for testing sessions.
In addition, you may want to preserve the current version of the operating
system before upgrading your system to the next major version.  To do so, use
the ADD option to make a copy of the current operating system in an alternate
system root directory (SYSA) and then upgrade and run the new version of the
operating system in SYSO.

CAUTION:  When you copy the system disk using VMSKITBLD.COM, SYSUAF.DAT and
all user-modified command files are NOT copied onto the target disk.
VMSKITBLD.COM uses the site-specific template files w/ the TEMPLATE file type
in building the new system disk.


This section describes the process that the VMS operating system follows when
you boot your system.  This section is mostly informational -- that is, you
usually do NOT have todo anything during the booting process, but you may want
to know how the operating system is set up.

Each time that your systesm is booted, the VMS operating system initiates a
startup procedure.  The startup procedure includes the execution of the
following series of command procedures:

:  SYS$SYSTEM:STARTUP.COM -- A file containing a series of procedures that
                             must execute at system startup time in order for
                             the system to run properly.  STARTUP.COM is the
                             site-independent startup command procedure
                             supplied by DIGITAL.  Do not modify this command
                             procedure.  The STARTUP.COM procedure invokes
                             the site-specific procedures that are described
                             in this section.

:  SYS$MANAGER:SYCONFIG.COM -- A template file suplied by DIGITAL to which you
                               can add site-specific configuration commands.

:  SYS$MANAGER:SYLOGICALS.COM -- A termplate file supplied by DIGITAL for
                                 defining logical names.  This file contains
                                 a command procedure for adding system logical
                                 names for a MicroVAX that is not in a cluster
                                 If your processor is not a standalone Micro
                                 Vax, you can ignore that section of the
                                 procedure that pertains only to MicroVax
                                 systems and add any systemwide logical name
                                 assignments for your own system to the end
                                 of this file.

:  SYS$MANAGER:SYLOGIN.COM -- A template file supplied by DIGITAL to which you
                              can add commands that are executed whenever a
                              user logs in.

:  SYS$MANAGER:SYSTARTUP_V5.COM -- A template file supplied by DIGITAL to
                                   which you can add various commands for
                                   setting up site-specific operations that
                                   are executed at startup time.  The template
                                   contains commands that you can modify to
                                   meet the needs of your processing

:  SYS$MANAGER:SYPAGSWPFILES.COM -- A file supplied by DIGITAL to which you
                                    can add commands to install page and swap
                                    files on any disk.

Two versions of the template files are included in your VMS distribution kit:
an executable version w/ the file name extension COM, and a nonexecutable
version w/ the file exetension TEMPLATE (for example, SYS$MANAGER:SYCONFIG.COM
and SYS$MANAGER:SYCONFIG.TEMPLATE).  The files w/ the COM filetype are
executed at startup time, and those are the files that you should modify to
meet the needs of your site.  The files w/ the TEMPLATE filetype should NOT be

CAUTION:  Do NOT delete the DIGITAL-supplied template command files w/ the
TEMPLATE file type.  The VMSKITBLD.COM procedure uses the TEMPLATE versions to
create a new system disk.

More information on STARTUP.COM and the site-specific command procedures is
provided in the sections that follow.


This section describes the system startup file (STARTUP.COM).  STARTUP.COM is
executed whenever the system is booted, and it creates the basic environment
for the operating system and some software products.  It is not a startup file
that is customized for your site.  You should not modify the STARTUP.COM file.
Read this section if you are interested in learnig about the startup porcess.

The file SYSTARTUP_V5.COM, which is also executed each time the system is
booted, is the startup file where you include features specific to your site.
To learn how to customize the startup process for your site by modifying
STARTUP_V5.COM, see section 2.4.

The file SYS$SYSTEM:STARTUP.COM executes immediately after the operating
system is booted.  It is a driver that uses a series of component files to
perform the following startup tasks:

:  Defines systemwide logical names required for the symbolic debugger,
language processors, linker, image activator, and help processor.

:  Start processes that control error logging, SMISERVER (the system
management server), the job controller, and the operator's log.  (on a
standalone workstation the operator's log is not automatically started.)

:  Connects and configures devices that are physically attached to the system
and loads their I/O drivers by invoking the SYCONFIG.COM procedure.

: Installs known images to reduce I/O overhead in activating the most commonly
fun images or to identify images that must have special privileges.

CAUTION:  Do not modify SYS$SYSTEM:STARTUP.COM. This file is deleted and
replaced each time you upgrade your system w/ the next version of the VMS
operqating system.  Leaving STARTUP.COM intact prevents you from inadvertently
altering any commands in the file, which in turn could cause the startup
procedure to fail.

All of the component files used by STARTUP.COM are in the directories w/ the
logical name SYS$STARTUP.  SYS$STARTUP is actually a searchlist that includes
both SYS$SYSROOT:[SYSMGR] (the SYS$MANAGER directory) and

In VMS Version 5.0, the following three data files are involved in startup
process and located in SYS$STARTUP:

1.  VMS$PHASES.DAT--This file determines the order of the phases of the
startup procedure.  It is a sequential list of phases that will be started by
STARTUP.COM.  It includes a series of four (4) basic phases ( INITIAL,
CONFIGURE, SYSFILES, & BASEENVIRON)  needed to bring the VMS operating system
up to a basic working evironment, followed by a series of phases for optional
software products.  This fule must not be modified.

2.  VMS$VMS.DAT--This is a component data file for starting the vase VMS
operating system environment.  You should NOT modify this file.

3.  VMS$LAYERED.DAT--This is a component file for optional software products
that are installed using the callback procedure of VMSINSTAL.  It is an
indexedsequential file, containing the following fields for each file:

   1.  Name of the component file(either .EXE or .COM) to be run.

   2.  Phase in which the comonent file is to be run.  The valid phases are
       LPBEGIN, LPMAIN (default), LPBETA, & END.

   3.  Method (or mode) by which the component file is to run.  The valid
       choices are DIRECT(the default, where the command procedure or image
       is executed immediately), BATCH(valid only for command procedures,
       or SPAWN.

   4.  Node restrictions for the component.  This is either the node or nodes
       on which the component file should ONLY be run, or the node or nodes on
       which the component file should NOT be run.

   5.  Node restriction byte field.  This field determines whether the nodes
       listed in the previous field are allowed or disallowed (for running
       the component).

   6.  Parameters passes to the component file for execution.  You can pass up
       to eight parameters, using the following format:

       (P1:args, P2: args,...)
       (The paretheses can be omitted if you pass only a single parameter.)

An important function of each phase is to meet the prerequisites of the
following phase; therefore, the ordering of the phases is extrememly
important.  Components that occur in a phase cannot have dependencies on
components that are in the smae phase or in subsequent phases.  When
installing optional software products as known images using the STARTUP.COM
procedure, be sure that all requisite components occur in a previous phase.

If an optional software product can use the callback procedure included in
VMSINSTALL, then you can install it as a known image at system startup using
the method described earlier in this section, and you do not have to include
the product in the site-specific startup file(SYSTARTUP_V5.COM).  In these
cases, the component files must be in the SYS$STARTUP directory.  Software
products that do not use the callback procedure should be installed as known
images at system startup using SYSTARTUP_V5.COM.

You can also use the System Management Utility (SYMAN) to manage the new
startup process.  W/ the STARTUP command of SYSMAN, you can add, modify,
display, or remove elements of existing component files, create a new startup
file and perform other startup functions.  A description of SYSMAN commands is
found in the Reference section.

Several site-specific command procedures are executed from w/in STARTUP.COM.
You can add commands to these files or modify the template files supplied in
your VMS distribution kit.  Remember, however, to modify only the executable
version of the file(w/ the file extension .COM)and not the template version
(w/ the file extension TEMPLATE).  If you have an existing .COM file and you
want to modify a version of the original TEMPLATE  file, then you should first
make a copy of the TEMPLATE file(giving the copy a filetype of .COM).

STARTUP.COM executes the site-specific command procedures in the following



A logical name is a name that is equivalent to a file specification, a
directory, a device name, another logical name, or some other equivalence
string.  For example, when you have a logical name associated w/ a device
name, you can use the logical name instead of the formal device name.

You can assign logical names that apply for the entire system; these are
called systemwide logical names, and they can be used by any process on the
system.  For example, if a systemwide logical name equated the logical name
FINANCE_DISK to the device DRA2, any user on the system (and any program
running on the system) could use the name FINANCE_DISK in place of DRA2.

The file SYS$MANAGER:SYLOGICALS.COM can be used for assigning systemwide
logical names.  SYLOGICALS.COM is executed as part of the STARTUP.COM
procedure whenever your system is booted.  The logical names defined in
SYLOGICALS.COM (as well as the logical names assigned automatically in
STARTUP.COM) are always included in the system logical name table.

If your system is a MicroVAX that is NOT in a cluster, you should use the file
SYLOGICALS.COM as a template for assigning systemwide logical names.  If you
have a MicroVAX that is not in a VAXcluster environment and you want to have
systemwide logical names, you should read this section.

Unless your processor ia a MicroVAX that is NOT in a VAXcluster environment,
the template procedure that is found in SYLOGICALS.COM has NO effect.
However, if your processor is on where the template procedure does not apply,
you can still use SYLOGICALS.COM to assign systemwide logical names by adding
them to SYLOGICALS.COM before the EXIT command, as indicated in the

During VMS system operations when the integrity of the system could be
compromised by incorrect logical names, such as the activation of priviledged
images (LOGINOUT,MAIL, etc...) only executive-mode and kernel-mode logical
names are used; supervisor-mode and user-mode names are ignored.  DIGITAL
therefore recommends that logical names for system components (for example,
public disks/directories) be defined in executive mode, for example:


See the VMS General Users Manual for information about logical name
assignments and the privilege modes.


The startup and login procedures provided by DIGITAL should always work;
however, certian user interventions may cause them to fail.  For example, if
you modify the startup of login procedures, or modify the login accounts, you
may accidentally lock yourself out of the system.  A very simple way to lock
yourself out of the system is to set passwords and forget them.  Another way
to lock yourself out of the system is to introduce an error condition or an
infinite loop into a startup or login procedure.  Under such circumstances,
use the emergency startup procedure described in this section.


The preferred method of breaking into a locked system isto set the alternate
user authorization file.  This method requires setting the system parameter
UAFALTERNATE, which defines the logical name SYSUAF to refer to the file
SYS$SYSTEM:SYSUAFALT.DAT.  If this file is found during a normal login, the
system uses it to validate the account and prompts you for the user

If this file is not located, the system assumes that the UAF is corrup and
accepts any user name/password to log you into the system from the system
console.  Logins are prohibited from all other locations.

NOTE:  You can use this method only to log into the system from the console
terminal; you cannot use other terminal lines.

To set the alternate user authorization file, use the following procedure:

1.  Perform a conversational boot by following the instructions in your VAX
    processor installation/operations guide.

2.  When the SYSBOOT> prompt appears, enter the following command:



4.  When the startup procedure completes, log in on the console terminal by
    entering any user name/password in sresponse to the USERNAME: and then the
    PASSWORD: prompts.

    The system assigns the following values to your user account:
    : NAME -User Name
    : UIC  -[001,004]
    : command Interpreter -DCL (Digital Command Language)
    : Login Flags -None
    : Priority -Value of the system parameter DEFPRI
    : Resources -Values of the PQL system parameters
    : Privileges -All
    The process name is usually the name of the device on which you logged in
    (for example, _OPA0:).

5.  Fix the problem that caused you to be locked out of the system.  That is,
    make the necessary repairs to the UAF or to the startup or login
    procedures.  (If you modify a login or startup procedure and the problem is
    still not solved, you should restore the procedure to its previous state.)
    If the problem is a forgotten password, reset the UAFALTERNATE system
    parameter to 0, as explained in the next step.  Then invoke the Authorize
    Utility and type HELP MODIFY for information on modifying passwords.

6.  Clear the UAFALTERNATE parameter by running SYSGEN and giving appropriate
    SYSGEN commands.  To run SYSGEN, enter the following command at the DCL

    The SYSGEN> prompt is displayed, and you should enter the following

7.  Shut down and reboot the system.


In some cases, modifying system parameters may cause the system to become
unbootable.  If this occurs, use the following emergency startup procedure to
restore to normal operation:

1.  Perform a conversational boot by following the instructions in your VAX
    processor installation/operations guide.

2.  When the SYSBOOT> prompt appears, enter the following commands:

3.  When the system finishes booting, review any changes you made to SYSGEN
parameters, modify MODPARAMS.DAT as necessary, and reexecute AUTOGEN.


If the system does not complete the startup procedures or does not allow you
to log in, bypass the startup/login procedures by following these steps:

1.  Perform a conversational boot by following the isntructions in your VAX
    processor installation/operations guide.

2.  Define the console tobe the startup procecdure by entering the following
    command at the SYSBOOT> promt:


    type CONTINUE and press Return/Enter in response to the next SYSBOOT>
    prompt.  Wait for the DCL prompt to return.

3.  Correct the error condition that caused the login failure.  That is, make
    the necessary repairs to the startup/login procedures, or to the UAF.  You
    may want to enter the following DCL commands because bypassing the startup
    procedures leaves the system in a partially initalized state:

    $ SET NOON

   Invoke a text editor to correct the startup/login procedure file.  Note
   that some system consoles may NOT supply a screen/mode editor.  You can
   also copy a corrected file and delete the incorrect version by using
   the RENAME/DELETE commands.

4.  Reset the startup procedure by invoking SYSGEN and entering the following


5. Perform a normal startup by entering the following command:



Sometimes the operating system does not boot after you enter the BOOT command.
This can be caused by either a hardware/software malfunction.

A read error on a disk drive or console medium, or a machine check error, may
indicate a hardware malfunction.  When a hardware problem occurs, a question
mark (?) usually precedes the error message that is displayed on the system
console terminal.  You should then do the following:

1.  Consult the hardware manual for your VAX processor.

2.  If you still cannot correct the problem, contact your DIDGITAL FIELD

When the operating system is loaded into memory but the STARTUP.COM command
procedure does not execute, a softsare malfunction has probably occured.  You
should suspect this condition if the usual message specifying the number of
interactive users does not appear.

Perform one or both of the following actions to correct the situation:

1.  Try again, by repeating the boot procedure to restart the system.

2.  Leave the system disk in the original drive.  Restore a backup copy of the
    system disk using Standalong Backup.


The VMS operating system provides the folowing types of shutdown procedures:

:  An orderly shutdown w/ SYS$SYSTEM:SHUTDOWN.COM.  This procedure shuts down
   the system while performing housekeeping functions such as disabling
   future logins, stopping the batch and output queues, dismounting mounted
   volumes, and stopping user processes.

   SHUTDOWN.COM optionally invokes a site-specific command procedure named
   SYS$MANAGER:SYSHUTDWN.COM, which you can modify to meed the needs of your
   basic installation.  An empty SYSHUTDWN.COM file is included in your VMS
   distribution kit.

:  An emergency shutdown w/ OPCCRASH.  If you are unable to perform an orderly
   shutdown w/ SHUTDOWN.COM, run the OPCCRASH emergency shutdown program.

:  An emergency shutdown w/ CRASH.  Use this emergency shutdown procedure if
   OPCCRASH fails.  Note that not all VAX processors have the CRASH program.
   If your VAX processor has the CRASH procedure, it is located on the console
   media, and it can only be executed from the console terminal.  See your
   VAX processor installation/operations guide for a description of the CRASH
   procedure or for the equivalent commands to use to force an abrupt
   emergency shutdown.


Use SHUTDOWN.COM to shut down the system in an orderly fashion.  Do not
mnodify SHUTDOWN.COM.  Add commands to the SYS$MANAGER:SYSHUTDWN.COM command
procedure to perform site-specific functions.

To execute SHUTDOWN.COM, you must have either the SETPRV privilege or all the
and WORLD.  Usually, you shut down the system from the SYSTEM account, which
includes these privileges by default.  SHUTDOWN.COM SEQUENCE OF PROMPTS AND MESSAGES

To perform an orderly shutdown of the system, invoke SHUTDOWN.COM from any
terminal and any privileged account w/ the following DCL command:


The procedure then prompts you w/ a series of questions and messages.  The
default response appear in brackets at the end of each question.  Press the
RETURN key to select the default response.  A summary of the questions

:  Minutes until shutdown:
   How many minutes until final shutdown [0]?

   Enter an integer.  If the system logical name SHUTDOWN$MINIMUM_MINUTES is
   defined, its integer value is the minimum value that you can enter.
   Therefore, if the logical name is defined as 10, you must specify at least
   10 minutes to final shutdown or an error message is returned.  If you do
   not enter a value, the logical name value is used.  If the logical name is
   not defined, and you do not enter a value, 0 minutes is the default.

:  Reson for shutdown:
   Reason for shutdown [standalone]:

   Enter a one-line reason for shutting down the system.

:  Decide if you want to spin down the disk volumes:
   Do you want to spin down the disk volumes [No]?

   Enter Yes or No (Y or N).  Note, however,  that the system disk cannot
   be spun down.

:  Decide if you want to invoke a site-specific shutdown procedure:
   Do you want to invoke the site-specific shutdown procedure [Yes]?

   Enter Yes or No.  This refers to SYS$MANAGER:SYSHUTDWN.COM.

:  Decide if you want an automatic system reboot:
   Should an automatic system reboot be performed [No]?

   By default, the system does not automatically reboot.  However, if you
   respond w/ YES, the system attempts to reboot automatically when the
   shutdown is complete.

:  Message broadcast to users about rebooting the system:
   When will the system be rebooted [later]?

   Enter the expected reboot time in the format you want printed in the
   message that will be broadcast to users.  For example, you could specify
   IMMEDIATELY, or IN 10 MINUTES, or a time such as 2 PM, or 14:00.  If you
   do not know when the system will be abailable again, press RETURN to
   specify 'later' as the time when the system will reboot.

:  Shutdown options:
   Shutdown options (enter as a comma--separated list):
   SAVE_FEEDBACK      : Saves feedback data for AUTOGEN calculations
   REMOVE_NODE        : Remaining nodes in the cluster should be adjust quorum
   CLUSTER_SHUTDOWN   : Entire cluster is shutting down
   REBOOT_CHECK       : Check exestence of basic system files
   Shutdown options [NONE]

   The procedure prompts you to specify one or more shutdown options.

Entering the SAVE_FEEDBACK option records feedback data collected from the
system since it was last booted.  This option creates a new version of the
AUTOGEN feedback data file, which can be used when you next run AUTOGEN.

If your system is a cluster member, all options are listed.  When the
REMOVE_NODE option is specified on one cluster member system, users on all
member systems are notified.  Clusterwide notification is required, because
users logged in to any member system may be affected by the shutdown of another
system, for example:

:  Users may have batch jobs running on other systems.
:  If therminal servers are in operation, users may have alternate terminal
   sessions in progress on the system being shut down.

Otherwise, only the REBOOT_CHECK and SAVE_FEEDBACK options are listed.  Enter
REBOOT_CHECK to verifty the presence of a subset of files necessary to reboot
the system after shutdown completes.  (if you are certain that the files exist,
press RETURN.)

If you select the REBOOT_CHECK option, the procedure checks for the necessary
files and notifies you if any are missing.  Replace missing files before
proceeding.  If all files are present, the following success message appears:

%SHUTDOWN-I-CHECKOK, Basic reboot consistency check completed.

The following events occur as the shutdown procedure continues, and the
corresponding messages are printed on the terminal:

1.  A message requesting users to log out is broadcast at decreasing time
    intervals to all users on the system.

2.  The system logical name SHUTDOWN$TIME is defined as the absolute time of
    shutdown.  For example, if the value 10 is specified at 12:00 in response
    to the first question, the logical name is assigned the absolute time value
    12:10 along w/ the date.  By requesting the logical name definition
    SHUTDOWN$TIME (w/ the SHOW LOGICAL command), you can see if a shutdown is
    in progress or determine the actual time of shutdown.  This feature is
    useful if a user missed the shutdown broadcast message.

3.  At six minutes or less until system shutdown, the terminal from which
    shutdown was invoked is made an operator's console and all future
    nonoperator logins are disabled.  If the DECnet network is running, it
    is shuto down.

4.  When there is one minute left until system shutdown, batch and device
    queues and the system job queue manager are stopped.

5.  At zero minutes before system shutdown the site-specific command procedure

6.  All user processes are stopped; however, system processes continue.
    Ancillary Control Processes (ACP's) may delete themselves when their
    mounted volumes are finally dismounted.

7.  For dual-processor systems, the secondary processor is stoped.

8.  All installed images are removed.

9.  All mounted volumes are dismounted and, if you request it, the disks are
    spun down.  Note, however, that the system disk cannot be spun down.  Also,
    the quorum disk (if present on your system) is not dismounted or spun down.

10.  The operator's log file is closed.

11.  The program SYS$SYSTEM:OPCCRASH is invoked to shut down the system.

12.  If you did not request an automatic reboot, the following message appears
     on the system console:


     iF you requested an automatic reboot, the system reboots, provided the
     necessary controls are set.

13.  If you are not automatically rebooting, halt the system after the
     previous message is printed at the console terminal.

Example 2-1 demonstrates an orderly system shutdown on standalone node AVALON.



         SHUTDOWN -- Perform an Orderly System Shutdown

How many minutes until final shutdown [0]:  10
Reason for shutdown:  [Standalone]  MONTHLY PREVENTIVE MAINTENACNE.
Do you want to spin down the disk volumes [NO]? RETURN
Do you want to invoke the site-specific shutdown procedure [Yes]?  RETURN
Should an automatic system reboot be performed [NO]? RETURN
When will the system be rebooted [Later]? 12:30
Shutdown options:
REBOOT_CHECK     :  Check existence of basic system files

shutdown options [NONE]:  RETURN

SHUTDOWN message on AVALON, from user SYSTEM at _AVALON$OPA0:  12:00:00.20
AVALON will shut down in 10 minutes; back up 12:30. Please log off node AVALON.

%SHUTDOWN-I-OPERATOR, This terminal is now an operator's console.
%%%%%%%%%%% OPCOM, 16JUL1988 12:01:00.15 (NOTE THE TIME WILL BE ACUTAL TIME)
Operator status for operator _AVALON$OPA0:

%SHUTDOWN-I-DISLOGINS, Interactive logins will now be disabled.
%SET-I-INTSET, login interactive limit = 0 current interactive value = 17
%SHUTDOWN-I-SHUTNET, the DECnet network will now be shut down.
%SHUTDOWN-I-STOPQUEMAN, The queue manager will now be stopped.

SHUTDOWN message on AVALON, from user SYSTEM at _AVALON$OPA0: 12:05:00.20
AVALON will shut down in 5 minutes; back up 12:30.  Please log off node AVALON.

17 terminals have been notified on AVALON.

SHUTDOWN message on AVALON from user SYSTEM at _AVALON$OPA0:  12:06:55.28.
AVALON will shut down in 4 minutes; back up 12:30.  Please log off node AVALON.

%%%%%%%% OPCOM, 16-Jul-1988 12:07:12:30  %%%%%%%%

Message from user DECnet on AVALON
DECnevt even 2.0, local node state change
From node 2.161 (AVALON), 16-Jul-1988 12:07:22.26
Operator command, old state = on, New state = Shut

SHUTDOWN message on AVALON from user SYSTEM at _AVALON$OPA0: 12:07:12:56
AVALON will shut down in 3 minutes; back up 12:30.  Please log off node AVALON.

%SHUTDOWN-I-STOPQUEMAN, The queue manager will now be stopped.
SHUTDOWN message on AVALON user SYSTEM at _AVALON$OPA0: 12:08:12.56
AVALON will shut down in 2 minutes; back up 12:30.  Please log off node AVALON.

%%%%%%%%% OPCOM, 16-JUL-1988 12:08:12:30 %%%%%%%%%%
Message from user JOB_CONTROL on AVALON
-SYSTEM-S-NORMAL, normal successful completion

%%%%%%%%% OPCOM, 16-JUL-1988 12:08:42:30
Message from user DECNET on AVALON
DECnet shutting down

SHUTDOWN message on AVALON from user SYSTEM at _AVALON$OPA0:  12:09:12.56
AVALON will shut down in 1 minute; back up 12:30.  Please log off node AVALON.

17 terminals have been notified on AVALON
%SHUTDOWN-I-SITESHUT,  The site-specific shutdown procedure will now be
%SHUTDOWN-I-STOPUSER, All user processes will now be stopped.
%SHUTDOWN-I-REMOVE, All installed images will now be removed.
%SHUTDOWN-I-DISMOUNT, All volumes will now be dismounted.
%%%%%%%%%% OPCOM, 16-JUL-1988 12:09:42.30
Message from user System on AVALON
_AVALON$OPA0:, AVALON shutdown requested by the operator.

%%%%%%%%%% OPCOM, 16-JUL-1988 12:10:02.44 %%%%%%%%%%%%%
Logfile was closed by operator _AVALON$OPA0:

%%%%%%%%%% OPCOM, 16-JUL-1988 12:10:32.20
Operator _AVALON$OPA0: has been disabled, username SYSTEM


------------------------------------------------------------------ DEFINING SHUTDOWN$INFORM_NODES

Before you execute SYS$SYSTEM:SHUTDOWN.COM, you can define the logical name
SHUTDOWN$INFORM_NODES to be a list of cluster member nodes.  The nodes listed
in SHUTDOWN$INFORM_NODES will be notified when the system is shutdown, as shown
in the following example:


all cluster member nodes included in the list are notified of the shutodwn.
Users on the node that is being shut down are always notified regardless of
whether you define SHUTDOWN$INFORM_NODES.  If you omit the name of the node
that is being shut down from the list specified in the DEFINE command, the name
is automatically added to the list by the SHUTDOWN.COM procedure.